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Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

Oues 1
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
A 29-year-old female presents to the clinic with a complaint of hirsutism and irregular menses. She describes irregular and infrequent menses (five or six per year) since menarche at 11 years of age. She began to develop dark, coarse facial hair when she was 13 years of age, but her parents did not seek treatment or medical opinion at that time. The symptoms worsened after she gained weight in college. She got married 3 years ago and has been trying to get pregnant for the last 2 years without success. Height 66 inches and weight 198. BMI 32 kg.m2. Moderate hirsutism without virilization noted. Laboratory data reveal CMP within normal limits (WNL), CBC with manual differential (WNL), TSH 0.9 IU/L SI units (normal 0.4-4.0 IU/L SI units), a total testosterone of 65 ng/dl (normal 2.4-47 ng/dl), and glycated hemoglobin level of 6.1% (normal value ≤5.6%). Based on this information, the APRN diagnoses the patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and refers her to the Women’s Health APRN for further workup and management.
Question
1. What is the pathogenesis of PCOS?

QUESTION 2
1. Scenario 1: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
A 29-year-old female presents to the clinic with a complaint of hirsutism and irregular menses. She describes irregular and infrequent menses (five or six per year) since menarche at 11 years of age. She began to develop dark, coarse facial hair when she was 13 years of age, but her parents did not seek treatment or medical opinion at that time. The symptoms worsened after she gained weight in college. She got married 3 years ago and has been trying to get pregnant for the last 2 years without success. Height 66 inches and weight 198. BMI 32 kg.m2. Moderate hirsutism without virilization noted. Laboratory data reveal CMP within normal limits (WNL), CBC with manual differential (WNL), TSH 0.9 IU/L SI units (normal 0.4-4.0 IU/L SI units), a total testosterone of 65 ng/dl (normal 2.4-47 ng/dl), and glycated hemoglobin level of 6.1% (normal value ≤5.6%). Based on this information, the APRN diagnoses the patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and refers her to the Women’s Health APRN for further workup and management.
Question
How does PCOS affect a woman’s fertility or infertility?

QUESTION 3
1. Scenario 2: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
A 30-year-old female comes to the clinic with a complaint of abdominal pain, foul smelling vaginal discharge, and fever and chills for the past 5 days. She denies nausea, vomiting, or difficulties with bowels. Last bowel movement this morning and was normal for her. Nothing has helped with the pain despite taking ibuprofen 200 mg orally several times a day. She describes the pain as sharp and localizes the pain to her lower abdomen. Past medical history noncontributory. GYN/Social history + for having had unprotected sex while at a fraternity party. Physical exam: thin, Ill appearing anxious looking white female who is moving around on the exam table and unable to find a comfortable position. Temperature 101.6F orally, pulse 120, respirations 22 and regular. Review of systems negative except for chief complaint. Focused assessment of abdomen demonstrated moderate pain to palpation left and right lower quadrants. Upper quadrants soft and non-tender. Bowel sounds diminished in bilateral lower quadrants. Pelvic exam demonstrated + adnexal tenderness, + cervical motion tenderness and copious amounts of greenish thick secretions. The APRN diagnoses the patient as having pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Question:
1. What is the pathophysiology of PID?

QUESTION 4
1. Scenario 3: Syphilis
A 37-year-old male comes to the clinic with a complaint of a “sore on my penis” that has been there for 5 days. He says it burns and leaked a little fluid. He denies any other symptoms. Past medical history noncontributory.
SH: Bartender and he states he often “hooks up” with some of the patrons, both male and female after work. He does not always use condoms.
PE: WNL except for a lesion on the lateral side of the penis adjacent to the glans. The area is indurated with a small round raised lesion. The APRN orders laboratory tests, but feels the patient has syphilis.
Question:
1. What are the 4 stages of syphilis