1. When conducting research on medical non-compliance, it is important to understand the different variables that can impact the results of the study. The independent variables are those that the researcher can control, such as the type of treatment being studied, while the dependent variables are those that may be affected by the independent variables, such as the compliance rate of patients. In order to accurately evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment, it is necessary to collect data on both types of variables. For example, if a researcher is interested in studying the compliance rate of patients taking a new medication, they would need to collect data on how many patients actually took the medication as prescribed, as well as other factors that could influence compliance, such as age, gender, and health status. Without this information, it would be difficult to draw any meaningful conclusions about the efficacy of the new medication.

It is recommended that the following criteria be used to assess the EBP project; however, it is crucial to note that the variables utilized should depend on the researcher’s particular healthcare research needs. Participants’ age, gender, and current health status, among other factors, will determine the range of possible variables. Location of the study and the kind of variables employed are two more important factors that need to be established (Gerald, 2018). Whether nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio variables are used, the meanings of some of the variables will change depending on the context of the study. To further clarify on the numerous aspects that might be used in the research study, I have added a citation at the beginning of the text.

The researcher needs to think about the study’s participants, its goals, what it set out to define or test, etc., to determine which variables to utilize in order to collect reliable, valid data for evidence-based research (Janson, 2021). Finally, the study needs to make sure it has gathered all the data it needs to recommend the best values and preferences for translating research into practice inside the healthcare organization.

2. The evidence-based project I am conducting will focus on the effect of adhering to antihypertensive medications on the attendees of the presentation. This will be evaluated based on data collected from the patients involved. Thus, one independent variable will be collected, and this variable will be the medication adherence. Each individual will be asked prior to the presentation whether or not they stick to their medication plans, and once again six months after the presentation. This is the independent variable, which will influence the dependent variable (Andrade, 2021). The dependent variable will be the average blood pressure readings of all patients. This will be collected before the presentation and once again six months after. If the project works as intended, the measure of both the independent variable should increase and that of the dependent variable should decrease over the six-month period, ultimately reflected in the final collection. This will make sense; if more people are sticking to their medication plans, then the rate of hypertension should be more controlled.

3. Understanding dependent and independent variables in research are essential to establishing the cause-and-effect relationship of the study, as one cannot happen without the other (Flannelly, Flannelly, & Jankowski, 2014). The independent variable is the intervention to create a change to the dependent variable. In my change project, the independent variable is the teach-back method of patient education and improves nursing education of surgical site care prior to discharge. The dependent variable is the effect on the patient, improved education, and comprehension of how to care for their surgical incision after discharge; resulting in decreased surgical site infection, and decreased readmission in the postpartum period by 10 percent for six months.

Prior to enacting my process change, I will need to assess data regarding the current number of patients with surgical site infections, and the current number of hospital readmissions due to SSI. I will speak with case management to explore if there are any discrepancies or difficulties that patients are describing post discharge, when interviewed via telephone conference, two weeks after discharge. Having this information will allow a better understanding if the process change has been effective.

It will also be beneficial to meet with the staff nurses. To gain knowledge of how they feel regarding the education they are providing and what barriers exist. I can collaborate with my leaders to support our staff nurses by having the resources available, care kits, and booklets, to better educate their patients and promote beneficial education throughout the patient teaching experience. This will ease the time required to educate patients prior to discharge and improve nurse satisfaction.

4. Interpretation and understanding of research is essential in the implementation of evidence-based practice. Therefore, the researcher and healthcare professionals must understand clinical and statistical significance differences. Clinical significance is the ability displayed by a treatment that enables patients to return to their body functioning and healthy state (Choy, 2019). Statistical significance, however, is objective and determines whether the prescribed treatment can achieve the intended purposes (Amrhein et al., 2019). It is a variable, meaning that it mostly is not viewed as exact whether the recommended treatment will restore the normal condition of the patients. According to Amrhein et al., (2019), the statistical significance operates on the basis and principle of probability.

Clinical significance helps interpret research findings for patients under the care and therefore influences the behaviors of the healthcare professionals. Clinically, results mainly occur when nurses believe that findings are considerable enough and crucial and may be effective in providing patient care (Amrhein et al., 2019). In reducing inpatient falls through purposeful hourly rounding, as a healthcare professional, I can use clinical significance to support positive outcomes by medically and clinically interoperating the treatment process to ensure patient safety and efficacy in making decisions.

Clinical significance enhances positive results, mainly when nurses use critical evaluation to identify internal and external validity in triggering clinical outcomes (Choy, 2019). The essential components of clinical significance in the evidence-based practice project will make it meaningful as it would enable nurses to seek effective solutions to the patient’s unhealthy conditions. Also, it will ensure that the clinical results are statistically significant because most of the statistically significant findings have clinical significance.

5. Statistical and clinical significance is one such difficulty that clinicians and researchers face across many instances. In simpler terms, the P value tests all hypotheses about how the data were produced model as whole, and not just the targeted hypothesis that it is intended to test such as a null hypothesis keeping in mind how reliable the research results are (Sharma, 2021). The term clinically significant can be used for research in which clinically relevant results or outcomes are used to assess the effectiveness or efficacy of a treatment modality (Sharma, 2021). Clinically significant findings are those which improve medical care resulting in the improvement of individual’s physical function, his/her mental status, and ability to engage in social life (Sharma, 2021).

The term improvement of quality of life in medical care deals with both subjective and objective terms. Since statistical significance results do not necessarily mean that the results are clinically relevant and lead to improvement in the quality of life of the individuals. Many outcomes can be statistically significant but not clinically relevant from a clinical point of view. The best research on topics is usually indicated in outcomes and then part of the ability to implement change to support the nursing evidence-based practice (Araujo et al., 2020). In order to support positive outcomes of my evidence-based practice project, I would employ features of clinical significance as the establishment of whether the statistically essential changes are large enough to have a positive impact on the patient care process of pressure ulcer prevention.

6. It is extremely important to understand clinical and statistical significance when making health care decisions regarding the care of patients. While statistical significance measures the probability of an event being significant, based on mathematics and data. It measures how confident we should be that the event will happen, identifies that it did not occur due to chance, but it does not measure how clinically effective it will be on the patient’s health. Clinical significance does measure the effect that the intervention, or physical data, will have on the intended patient. Polit (2017), explains that regarding clinical significance, the clinician decides the course of action for the research as it relates to the individual patient and this allows the clinicians to implement the “best evidence”, therefore implementing evidence-based practices that are directly linked to improve patient outcomes. In a recent study of adult lower amputees, Loker (2021), states that their study did not show statistically significant results due to the limitations of a small sample size and short timeframe of study, but the project showed great clinical significance for decreased SSI rates and 30-day readmission rates in each division, demonstrating utility of the studied device across the population to improve patient outcomes.

As it relates to my change project, clinical significance would be applied in support of improving patient knowledge of how to care for their surgical site after discharge. This knowledge will effectively decrease the patient’s risk of having a surgical site infection and decrease their risk of hospital readmission. Which are the desired positive outcomes that will not only benefit the patient but has benefits for the hospital and nursing staff as well.

* I only need quick 2-3 sentence responses for each of the 6 discussion posts. Citation should go under the response, not on a separate page as I won’t know which response it belongs to.