module 7

Questions –
Each student will contribute questions, issues, or comments pertaining to the readings each week. These questions will be used to aid in your engagement with your fellow students and instructor during the weekly synchronous sessions. You are required to submit one question, issue, or comment derived from the readings to the appropriate dropbox

Reaction Notes –
Your reaction notes should be 2 pages and will be submitted to the corresponding dropbox in Canvas. All submissions must be received before we discuss the readings in the synchronous session.
The reaction notes must be in paragraph form and complete sentences with proper capitalization and punctuation. The reaction notes are not a summary of the readings, but novel thoughts and questions on the readings. You need to include some aspect of each of the week’s readings in each reaction note. You must complete both the questions and reaction note to get credit for this assignment.
Some of the questions you should be asking yourself as you read the articles throughout the course:
• Did the authors find a relationship, show a trend, or demonstrate a new method?
• Did they synthesize literature around a topic in a review?
• Did they put forward a new conceptual framework?
• Did they make any unsubstantial claims or conclusions?
• Were the methods appropriate, or did they use flawed assumptions about data or approaches?
• Did the authors convince you of their interpretation of the results? Or do you disagree with their interpretation?
• Were the figures and tables easily understandable, or were they confusing or inappropriate for what they were trying to visualize?
• Do you agree with their implications, applications, and/or conclusions?
• What would you have done differently, if you were conducting the experiment?
• How do the week’s readings relate to each other? Do they differ on terminology, methodological approaches, or conclusions? Do they offer complimentary knowledge?
• Can you apply this to your prior education or career experiences (and vice versa)?
• Who are the authors, and what are their backgrounds? Are they well known in the field, do they work at an established and well-regarded institution (e.g., university), do they have many related publications?

Wildfire
Keller and DeVecchio will walk you through wildfire dynamics, including its history, notable wildfires, and the geographic regions at risk in the Middle East. Pay attention to their discussion on how and why wildfire is an important environmental process and how it links to other hazards such as flooding.

Chapter 13, Keller, E. A., & DeVecchio, D. E. (2014). Natural hazards: Earth’s processes as hazards, disasters, and catastrophes, (4th ed.). Routledge.
The articles below discuss Middle East specific wildfires, from early warning, drought management, and managing risk.

Barlow, Mathew ; Zaitchik, Benjamin ; Paz, Shlomit ; Black, Emily ; Evans, Jason ; Hoell, Andrew. A Review of Drought in the Middle East and Southwest AsiaLinks to an external site.. Journal of climate, 2016-12-01, Vol.29 (23), p.8547-8574
Karakani, Elaheh Ghasemi ; Malekian, Arash ; Gholami, Soroush ; Liu, Junguo. Spatiotemporal monitoring and change detection of vegetation cover for drought management in the Middle EastLinks to an external site.. Theoretical and applied climatology, 2021-04-01, Vol.144 (1-2), p.299-315
Jedd, Theresa ; Fragaszy, Stephen Russell ; Knutson, Cody ; Hayes, Michael J ; Fraj, Makram Belhaj ; Wall, Nicole ; Svoboda, Mark ; McDonnell, Rachael. Drought Management Norms: Is the Middle East and North Africa Region Managing Risks or Crises?Links to an external site. Journal of Environment & Development, 2021-03, Vol.30 (1), p.3-40
Fragaszy, Stephen Russell ; Jedd, Theresa ; Wall, Nicole ; Knutson, Cody ; Fraj, Makram Belhaj ; Bergaoui, Karim ; Svoboda, Mark ; Hayes, Michael ; McDonnell, Rachael. Drought monitoring in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Participatory engagement to inform early warning systemsLinks to an external site.. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2020-07-31, Vol.101 (7), p.E1148-E1173

Useful

https://apnews.com/article/wildfires-middle-east-lebanon-israel-west-bank-5a02c71978966f9cb8db176a599ccd5bLinks to an external site.
https://menadrought.iwmi.orgLinks to an external site.
https://www.preventionweb.net/news/view/76743Links to an external site.
https://www.drought.gov/internationalLinks to an external site.
https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/saudi-arabia/climate-sector-waterLinks to an external site.
https://www.nwc.com.sa/English/Pages/default.aspx