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Homework

The initial post must include responses to all the questions in this discussion. 

Ms. A, age 35, was given a Pap test during a routine medical checkup. The test showed marked dysplasia of cervical cells but no sign of infection.

1. Discuss the purposes and uses of diagnostic testing and how it applies in this scenario. 

2. Discuss how the following terms might apply to this scenario: prognosis, latent stage, remission, exacerbations, predisposing factors

3. Compare and contrast the various types of common cellular adaptations, focusing on dysplasia and the testing for this condition. 

Mrs. A’s baby girl, Baby C, who is 3 months old, has had severe watery diarrhea accompanied by fever for 24 hours. She is apathetic and responds weakly to stimulation. The condition has been diagnosed as viral gastroenteritis.

1. List the major losses resulting from diarrhea and fever. 

2. List other signs or data that would provide helpful information. 

3. Explain several reasons why infants become dehydrated very quickly. 

Baby C was tested for PKU shortly after birth (as required by law), the results indicated toxic levels of phenylalanine breakdown products in the blood.

1. Explain how dietary changes can affect the expression of PKU. 

2. Discuss the cause of the disease and the probable percentages of inheritance of the disease in children the couple might have in the future. 

homework

C A S E M A N A G E M E N T A N D T R E A T M E N T O F P H Y S I C A L
A B U S E A N D N E G L E C T

CHAPTER 13

CASE MANAGEMENT

• Case management: the ongoing work with families

to

• set & review goals/outcomes

• make plans to achieve those goals

• identify & select needed services

• collaborate with servicer providers

• monitor progress

• provide emotional support

• maintain records

• prepare documentation and reports

CAUTIONS FOR CASE WORKERS

• counter-transference: the worker’s reaction to the

client (feelings, attitudes, thoughts and behaviors),

which is brought about by the helper’s own past life

experiences

• must become aware of it so that helper’s own actions do

not negatively influence the service being provided.

• Confidentiality may need to be broken if the client

threatens or attempt suicide, threatens to kill

another, of abuse/neglect a child: must be

reported.

POTENTIAL TREATMENT SERVICES

• Therapy: art; cognitive processing; trauma-focused

play, integrative-eclectic, cognitive-behavioral;

parent-child interaction, & intensive family

preservation.

• Education: early childhood program, resilient peer

training intervention, parent-child education for

physically abusive parents

• Care: eye movement desensitization and

reprocessing (EMDR); therapeutic foster care;

parents anonymous, Inc.; family preservation

services

PROVIDING TREATMENT: CLIENT
RESPONSE

• Engaging families in treatment can be difficult:

• showing difficulty in trusting others

• exhibit personality disorder, intolerant of a lengthy treatment

process

• have communication/cultural misunderstandings

• Treatment can provoke loyalty conflicts in children.

• Families are not always eligible for treatment by

appropriate agencies.

• Resources to treat may be limited.

WHO PROVIDES TREATMENT & HOW
LONG?

• Family preservation agencies, often with the aid of

grans and independent of child protective services,

provide a full range of treatment services.

• The duration of treatment: specific guidelines

measure when families are ready for termination:

parents must demonstrate the following:

• be more aware of their own needs and how to get them

met

• be able to reach out for help in the future

• be able to communicate more effectively

• feel more positively toward their children

TREATMENT OF NEGLECTFUL FAMILIES

• Neglectful families may be especially resistant to
treatment and necessitate family-centered
services.
• In-Home Family-Centered Services: intensive, short-term,

family-based services; voluntary, crisis prevention services to
promote healthy functioning

• Shared Family Care: out-of-home care in which host
caregivers and the parent(s) care for the children
simultaneously; skills building model promotes parental
responsibility and resource development

• The goal to help the family to function & improve
their parenting skills so that the family can remain
together.

TREATMENT OF PHYSICALLY ABUSIVE
FAMILIES

• The primary goal of treatment with physically

abusive family is for the battering to cease and the

parents to develop coping skills for the future.

• Treatment for the child

• attending to the medical problem resulting from the abuse

• providing a safer environment

• attending to the psychological scars from the abuse.

• TF-CBT: trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy

TREATMENT FOR THE PHYSICALLY
ABUSED CHILD

• Psychological Services:

• Trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT)

• Therapies to help with self-concept & affect

• Remedial Services:

• Motor skills, cognitive development, & individualized

education plan (IEP)

• Socialization Services:

• Aggressiveness leads to cycle of poor peer relations

TREATMENT OF THE PARENTS &
SIBLINGS

• Abusive parents also need to be treated for their

own traumatic pasts, in developing better

relationships with their children and in learning more

effective parenting skills, including appropriate

disciplinary techniques.

• Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT)

• parent–child relationships

• parenting skills

• Alternatives for families cognitive-behavioral

therapy (AF-CBT)

• targets violent/abusive behaviors

homework

Chapter 1

The Maltreatment of

Children Then and Now

Early Views of Children
 Initially children were the property of their parents who

could decide their life, death, or discipline.
 Infanticides in ancient world was not an uncommon practice.

Infanticide is a term referring to the killing an infant within a year
of birth, typically carried out by the parents of the child.

 Children were placed in Farm labor in feudal societies

 Matters of Discipline
 Corporal punishment

 Sexual exploitation of children
 Female children were often bartered and abused in convents,

while pederasty for boys were a common practice.

 Pederasty in ancient Greece was a socially acknowledged
romantic relationship between an adult male and a younger
male usually in his teens.

 Awareness, not until 1500’s

Early Views of Children
 Contradictions in Victorian era

 Strict moral code

 Yet rampant pornography and child prostitution

 Child Labor
 During Industrial Revolution
 Slavery in the southern state
 Child Labor during industrial revolution and slavery in the

southern states. Indenture was a popular form of child
labor in the early United States. Indenture also provided
an opportunity for children to be abused. Indenture was
a term used to refer to a to a person being bonded as
an apprentice or laborer.

 Child Labor in America: Industrial Revolution:
https://youtu.be/j-fbnS6sSZA

Growing Concerns &

Awareness

 Settlement Houses (late 1880’s) – provided

refuge from child labor, mostly for white

children

 African American children were

neglected by child welfare system

 Native American children were removed

from home and sent to boarding schools

to assimilate them into the White culture

Early Attempts
 1838. Dickens wrote Oliver Twist & campaigned for child

protection. Dickens was a British writer who wrote an
autobiographical book Oliver Twist and brought the issue of
child abuse to public attention.

 1875. Mary Ellen Wilson: first child removed from her home
due to abuse. The case of Mary Ellen, the first child
removed from her home due to abuse, gave rise to a
myriad of reforms, such formation of Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Children (SPCC) in 1875 and The
Child Welfare League of American in 1920.
 The Stranger who Cared: The Story of Etta Wheeler & Mary Ellen

Wilson: https://youtu.be/GG3OI2JwaYY

 1875. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (SPC
C) was founded

 1920. Child Welfare League of America

Early Attempts
 1935. Social Security Act: established Aid for

Dependent Children (ADC)

 1962. Dr. C. Henry Kempe published “The Battered-
Child Syndrome” in the Journal of the American
Medical Association. The coining of the term “the
battered Child Syndrome” by C. Henry Kempe
was a result of the discoveries of abuse made by
Caffey and his colleagues when they noticed
unexplained breaks on x-rays. The use of this term
furthered both research and treatment efforts.

 1972. The National Center for the Prevention of
Child Abuse and Neglect was established.

Further Efforts on Behalf of

Children
 1974. The Child Abuse Prevention Act

 Mandated reporting

 Funds for research

 1978. The Indian Child Welfare Act
 Terminated the practice of removing children from their

parents and tribes

 1993. Family Preservation and Support Services Act

 Several pieces of federal legislation have had an
impact on intervention with abused and neglected
children. The Child Abuse Prevention Act (1974), The
Indian Child Welfare Act (1978) and Family
Preservation and Support Services Act (1993).

Emerging Influences
 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study

 Significant correlation between child abuse and household
dysfunction
 Ted Talk on How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime

| Dr. Nadine Burke Harris: https://youtu.be/95ovIJ3dsNk

 Psychological Trauma Theory
 Neurological findings: insight into the causes of behavioral

and psychological problems correlated with childhood
maltreatment

 Emerging theoretical influences include Adverse Childhood
Experiences Study (ACE) and Psychological Trauma Theory.
Studies have found significant correlation between child
abuse and household dysfunctions.

Child Protection Services Now
 From ‘taking kids away’ to Family Rehabilitation

 Trauma-informed intervention & treatment

 The search for risk assessment tools

 The development of child abuse registers

 The formation of multidisciplinary child protection teams

 Child Protection Services (CPS) has become more involved in
solidifying risk assessment criteria, advocating for child protection
teams, and offering more family centered services, following the
model of Family Rehabilitation.

 In 2012, New Jersey’s Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS)
was officially renamed the Division of Child Protection and
Permanency (DCP&P) as way to more precisely define the agency’s
core mission of providing safety, permanency, and well-being for
New Jersey’s most vulnerable children and families.

Homework

The initial post must include responses to all the questions in this discussion. 

Ms. A, age 35, was given a Pap test during a routine medical checkup. The test showed marked dysplasia of cervical cells but no sign of infection.

1. Discuss the purposes and uses of diagnostic testing and how it applies in this scenario. 

2. Discuss how the following terms might apply to this scenario: prognosis, latent stage, remission, exacerbations, predisposing factors

3. Compare and contrast the various types of common cellular adaptations, focusing on dysplasia and the testing for this condition. 

Mrs. A’s baby girl, Baby C, who is 3 months old, has had severe watery diarrhea accompanied by fever for 24 hours. She is apathetic and responds weakly to stimulation. The condition has been diagnosed as viral gastroenteritis.

1. List the major losses resulting from diarrhea and fever. 

2. List other signs or data that would provide helpful information. 

3. Explain several reasons why infants become dehydrated very quickly. 

Baby C was tested for PKU shortly after birth (as required by law), the results indicated toxic levels of phenylalanine breakdown products in the blood.

1. Explain how dietary changes can affect the expression of PKU. 

2. Discuss the cause of the disease and the probable percentages of inheritance of the disease in children the couple might have in the future. 

homework

Example: Raymond Chandler’s “The Simple Art of Murder” and “Trouble Is My Business”

Arguments against classic detective story 

· Main point 1: The classic detective story is not realistic, it rarely is. “… Jane Austen’s chronicles of highly inhibited people against a background of rural gentility seem real enough psychologically. There is plenty of that kind of social and emotional hypocrisy around today” (Chandler 208).  

· Main point 2: The classic detective story is too detached. “The murder novel has also a depressing way of minding its own business, solving its own problems and answering questions” (Chandler 208). 

· Main point 3: The motives for the murders in these stories are implausible, the plots are completely made-up, and the characters are pitifully two-dimensional, “puppets and cardboard lovers and papier mâché villains and detectives of exquisite and impossible gentility” (Chandler 215). 

· Main point 4: The authors of this fiction are ignorant of the realities of life. “They are too contrived, and too little aware of what goes on in the world” (Chandler 214). 

· Main point 5: Authors have fallen short of being true to reality. “If the writers of this fiction wrote about the kind of murders that happen, they would also have to write about the authentic flavor of life as it is lived. And since they cannot do that, they pretend that what they do is what should be done” (Chandler 214). 

Connections to Louise Penny’s A Rule Against Murder: 
Penny’s A Rule of Murder certainly lacks realism. Unlike in the novel where the crime could be solved in a relatively short amount of time, crime investigation in real life takes a lot of time. It could take months and years, and some are even left unsolved. Gathering enough concrete evidence is not only hard but also most of the time, close to impossible as most of the evidence are tampered, lost and just doesn’t make sense. Furthermore, the novel was solely focused on the crime, it gave a sense of detachment as it didn’t really say much about whatever’s happening outside the Manoir Bellechasse.  

 

Arguments for Chandlers ideal detective and detective story 

· Main point 1: Chandler’s ideal detective story is one that is realistic. “How original a writer Hammett really was, … He made some of it up; all writers do; but it had a basis in fact; it was made up out of real things” (Chandler 216). 

· Main point 2: His ideal detective story takes place in a rather dark but realistic world. “The realist in murder writes of a world in which gangsters can rule nations and almost rule cities, … a world where a judge with a cellar full of bootleg liquor can send a man to jail for having a pint in his pocket, … no man can walk down a dark street in safety because law and order are things we talk about but refrain from practising, …  a world where you may witness a hold-up in broad daylight and see who did it, but you will fade quickly back into the crowd rather than tell anyone, … the shyster for the defense will be allowed to abuse and vilify you in open court, before a jury of selected morons” (Chandler 218).  

· Main point 3: Chandler’s ideal detective must be “a hero. He must be a complete man and a common man and yet an unusual man. He must be the best man in his world and a good enough man for any world” (Chandler 219). 

· Main point 4: His ideal detective must be a “man of honor” (Chandler 219). However, Chandler does not care much about his private life, “he is neither a eunuch nor a satyr; I think he might seduce a duchess and I am quite sure he would not spoil a virgin; if he is a man of honor in one thing, he is that in all things” (Chandler 219). 

· Main point 5: His ideal detective is a “relatively poor man, or he would not be a detective at all. He is a common man, or he could not go among common people” (Chandler 219). 

· Main point 6: His ideal detective “has a sense of character, or he would not know his job. He will take no man’s money dishonestly and no man’s insolence without a due and dispassionate revenge” (Chandler 219). 

· Main point 7: His ideal detective is “a lonely man and his pride is that you will treat him as a proud man or be very sorry you ever saw him. He talks as the man of his age talks, that is, with rude wit, a lively sense of the grotesque, a disgust for sham, and a contempt for pettiness” (Chandler 219). 

· Main point 8: His ideal detective “has a range of awareness that startles you, but it belongs to him by right, because it belongs to the world he lives in” (Chandler 219). 

Connections to Chandler’s “Trouble Is My Business”: A millionaire hires Marlowe to warn a fortune-hunter away from the old man’s reckless adopted son in “Trouble Is My Business.” All evidence points to the fortune-hunter and her gambler boyfriend after the boy is shot. However, Marlowe soon discovers that the millionaire’s insatiable greed drove him to murder his own stepson in order to inherit the boy’s inheritance. Chandler has really stuck to his ideals in this story. The world he created is dark and full of swearing and violence, however, it does not stray past realism. Philip Marlowe, the detective in the story, also meets his ideals. Philip Marlowe is a decent man who follows a fair and mostly honest code of conduct. He’s tough and capable, as well as smart and resourceful. He’s also a man of honor as he is the type of private detective who will go out on a limb or put himself in danger to help almost any woman who asks for help. He isn’t afraid to charge for his services, but he does find himself working for free on occasion due to unforeseen circumstances. 

homework

C A S E M A N A G E M E N T A N D T R E A T M E N T O F P H Y S I C A L
A B U S E A N D N E G L E C T

CHAPTER 13

CASE MANAGEMENT

• Case management: the ongoing work with families

to

• set & review goals/outcomes

• make plans to achieve those goals

• identify & select needed services

• collaborate with servicer providers

• monitor progress

• provide emotional support

• maintain records

• prepare documentation and reports

CAUTIONS FOR CASE WORKERS

• counter-transference: the worker’s reaction to the

client (feelings, attitudes, thoughts and behaviors),

which is brought about by the helper’s own past life

experiences

• must become aware of it so that helper’s own actions do

not negatively influence the service being provided.

• Confidentiality may need to be broken if the client

threatens or attempt suicide, threatens to kill

another, of abuse/neglect a child: must be

reported.

POTENTIAL TREATMENT SERVICES

• Therapy: art; cognitive processing; trauma-focused

play, integrative-eclectic, cognitive-behavioral;

parent-child interaction, & intensive family

preservation.

• Education: early childhood program, resilient peer

training intervention, parent-child education for

physically abusive parents

• Care: eye movement desensitization and

reprocessing (EMDR); therapeutic foster care;

parents anonymous, Inc.; family preservation

services

PROVIDING TREATMENT: CLIENT
RESPONSE

• Engaging families in treatment can be difficult:

• showing difficulty in trusting others

• exhibit personality disorder, intolerant of a lengthy treatment

process

• have communication/cultural misunderstandings

• Treatment can provoke loyalty conflicts in children.

• Families are not always eligible for treatment by

appropriate agencies.

• Resources to treat may be limited.

WHO PROVIDES TREATMENT & HOW
LONG?

• Family preservation agencies, often with the aid of

grans and independent of child protective services,

provide a full range of treatment services.

• The duration of treatment: specific guidelines

measure when families are ready for termination:

parents must demonstrate the following:

• be more aware of their own needs and how to get them

met

• be able to reach out for help in the future

• be able to communicate more effectively

• feel more positively toward their children

TREATMENT OF NEGLECTFUL FAMILIES

• Neglectful families may be especially resistant to
treatment and necessitate family-centered
services.
• In-Home Family-Centered Services: intensive, short-term,

family-based services; voluntary, crisis prevention services to
promote healthy functioning

• Shared Family Care: out-of-home care in which host
caregivers and the parent(s) care for the children
simultaneously; skills building model promotes parental
responsibility and resource development

• The goal to help the family to function & improve
their parenting skills so that the family can remain
together.

TREATMENT OF PHYSICALLY ABUSIVE
FAMILIES

• The primary goal of treatment with physically

abusive family is for the battering to cease and the

parents to develop coping skills for the future.

• Treatment for the child

• attending to the medical problem resulting from the abuse

• providing a safer environment

• attending to the psychological scars from the abuse.

• TF-CBT: trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy

TREATMENT FOR THE PHYSICALLY
ABUSED CHILD

• Psychological Services:

• Trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT)

• Therapies to help with self-concept & affect

• Remedial Services:

• Motor skills, cognitive development, & individualized

education plan (IEP)

• Socialization Services:

• Aggressiveness leads to cycle of poor peer relations

TREATMENT OF THE PARENTS &
SIBLINGS

• Abusive parents also need to be treated for their

own traumatic pasts, in developing better

relationships with their children and in learning more

effective parenting skills, including appropriate

disciplinary techniques.

• Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT)

• parent–child relationships

• parenting skills

• Alternatives for families cognitive-behavioral

therapy (AF-CBT)

• targets violent/abusive behaviors

homework

Chapter 10

Intervention: Reporting, Investigation, and Assessment

Culturally Sensitive Intervention:
Cultural Competence Defined
• Culture: goes beyond race and ethnicity, including religious

identification, gender identity/expression, & sexual
orientation.

• Cultural Competence: “a heightened consciousness of how
culturally diverse populations experience their uniqueness
and deal with their differences and similarities within a larger
social context” (NASW, 2015, p.10)

Culturally Sensitive Intervention: Putting
Cultural Competence into Practice

• Determine family’s level of acculturation and the reason for
their immigration

• Assess how the family views a social worker’s power

• Understand how the family views itself, and their sense of
family cohesion

• Acknowledge varying communication styles

• Learn about culture, but do not over-generalize

• Consult with bilingual and bicultural staff

• Know how one’s (helping professional’s) own values interface
with the client’s

Understanding the Intervention
Process: Reporting
• Mandated reporters: individuals who, in their professional

relationship with the child and family, may encounter child
maltreatment.

• State laws specify repointing agency, reportable conditions,
responsibility of mandated reporters, and the investigation
process

• Although anonymous reports may be accepted, they are not
preferred since they do not allow for follow-up questions

Understanding the Intervention
Process: Child Protection Teams
• Child Protection Teams (CPT): comprised of staff from

different disciplines

• Ex) School-based CPT include an administrator, a guidance
counselor, school nurse, and one or two teachers.

• Suspicions of child maltreatment are brought to CPT.

• If CPT agrees with the report, then the child protection
agency is notified.

• CPTs are effective in medical facilities & churches.

Understanding the Intervention Process:
Investigation & Assessment

• Intake worker meets with the child & his/her family to assess
risk, protective factors, and impact of disclosure on stability of
the family

• If the report is substantiated, the worker identifies goals and
strategies for the family

• If unsubstantiated, the case is referred or closed

• Treatment planning and services begins

• Must evaluate the family’s progress and revise service plan as
necessary

Understanding the Intervention Process:
Family Reactions & Home Visiting

• The family is in a state of crisis, disequilibrium, when
disclosure takes place, experiencing fear: fear of authority,
fear of having the child removed, the fear of helplessness.

• Responses (defense mechanisms) to fear: denial, projection,
blaming the system, antagonism towards social services, or
withdrawal.

• Workers must evaluate the family’s strengths too.

• Home visitation allows assessment, but also requires
additional sensitivity and interviewing skills.

Assessing Risk and Protective
Factors
• Is the child at risk from abuse or neglect, and to what degree?

• What is causing the problem?

• What are the strengths or protective factors that could be
built on with services to alleviate the problem?

• Is the home a safe environment or must the child be placed?

• Essential information: parental history and family functioning,
parent’s view of child, & environmental factors and supports

Interviewing for Assessment

• Ask questions designed to assess the potential risk of the
home situation and the capacity of the parents to cope with
child rearing.

• Use non-leading questions; avoid blaming; recognize the
client’s feelings

• Interview the child in a nonthreatening setting; adjust to
child’s developmental level and language preferences,
including names of body parts; allow for stories, metaphors,
and drawings

Handling Emergencies

• Emergencies: imminent danger to the child, child
abandonment, or if the parents are not cooperating.

• Require an immediate decision on whether to involve the
court system, remove the child from home, or both; need
assessment to determine who should have custody of the
children and the impact that this will have on the children.

homework

Summary:

Assignment 1: Transformational Leadership

For this assignment, you will write a reflection paper on Northouse’s Chapter 8, Transformational Leadership.

1) Define Transformational Leadership in your own words.

2) Reflect on a personal experience with transformational leadership, either when you were leading or following. It can be an example from work or school or any personal experience that you find relevant to the topic of transformational leadership.

3) Reflect on a personal experience where transformational leadership principles would have made poor experiences great experiences. Give an example of a time where the leadership failed or was authoritarian (with little care for the follower’s motivations and needs). Explain how implementing transformational leadership principles would have changed that situation.

 

Requirements:

FILE NAME: YourNames_Assignment#.docx

600 Words, double-spaced.

Please include a Title Page and References page.

Must be APA 7.

Make sure to use correct APA in-text citations for paraphrased ideas and quoted text.

homework

The Big Sleep and “Trouble is my Business” Raymond Chandler

Analysis and comparison

Plot

The plots in Chandler’s stories are very convoluted. The main mystery of the story is not revealed from the start. It stays ambiguous throughout the story until the end when the detective gives the big reveal. It starts with a simple case given to the private detective which seems to be straightforward but becomes more complex as the story is unveiled. These cases were finding who is blackmailing the Sternwoods in The Big Sleep and making sure that Jeeter’s son does not marry Huntress in “Trouble is my Business.” As the detective tries to solve the case and uncovers more details, the plot thickens. Comparing this style of writing to “The Puzzle Game,” it seems like the story is going backwards. Christie and Penny’s stories start with introducing the characters, a defined puzzle that has to be solved, with victim(s) and a concise list of suspects. Chandler starts off simple and increases in complexity as the victim counter increases and the suspect list just gets longer and longer.

· There are many characters and the relationships and conflicts between them can cause some difficulty in following the plot. In fact, the story is built more on characters and rich language than plot. In “Trouble Is My Business,” Philip Marlowe is hired by another private detective, Anna Halsey, who was hired by a rich man, Gerald Jeeter Sr. to “discourage” the relationship between his adopted son Gerald Jeeter Jr and Harriett Huntress, a woman with connections to Marty Estel, a gambler who is owed money by Gerald Jeeter Jr. As his investigation unfolds, Marlowe meets with characters from the high and low social classes from around LA, and seems equally at ease interacting with them all. He gets knocked around many times but perseveres, wisecracking all the way, until some form of justice has been served.

· Christie focuses on whodunit while Chandler doesn’t really care about the plot, it’s more about creating an intricate environment. He believes that life is messy, and we don’t always understand a motive or why somethings happened.

· Chandler’s stories are more about cause and effect and play with the reader’s understanding of human nature. Instead of resolving the murder, it’s about how the characters react to their own misfortunes. (Marlowe: could have brought in Carmen and Vivian but he didn’t because of his weakness for women and how he doesn’t believe in the justice system) (Vivian: goes to extreme lengths to protect her sister from the shame of her pornographic images) (thug wanting to kill Marlowe because he believes Marlowe killed his brother Frisky (285).)

· Both of Chandler’s stories start with an old rich guy who needs a problem solved and when Marlowe starts to investigate, the crimes get complicated, bodies begin to drop, and Marlowe is driven to run after these criminals and figure out what’s happened.

· Christie is known to avoid blood, gruesome details, and violence. However, Marlowe is often beaten up (violence) and the deaths are either shown to us or described. (description of Arbogast’s body stiff and dead on his office floor (259), Frisky’s murder in the road.)

· Chandler has no use for fair play because he doesn’t care about solving the crime into a nice little gift box. He doesn’t use clues (physical or psychological) as the story is more about following the exciting adventures of the daring detective as he shoots, threatens, and fights his way through the messy crimes. At the end of the stories, we are still confused about the whodunit, and eventhe why-dunit

Setting

Chandler’s stories starring Philip Marlowe are set all over the Greater Los Angeles Area. The common places were his office, his own apartment, his client’s house, and the crime scenes. The author constantly refers to Los Angeles, describing its streets and facades while driving. Marlowe knows all parts of the city well, es evident in his vivid descriptions, and that he found his way home even after consuming almost a full bottle of Harriett Huntress’ fine Scotch! It is also the perfect setting since this city historically contained many mobsters and gambling dens. Louise Penny’s use of the setting, “puzzle-game” style, is quite dissimilar to that of Chandler’s. She makes it an essential part of the story where it would not be the same if it happened anywhere else. It is also limited to a single closed place and time where the crime scenes are all in the same general area with a limited number of suspects. Marlowe has to run around the city all the time as the action occurs all over and new characters/suspects keep appearing.

Characterization

The Big Sleep and “Trouble is my Business” have an extensive list of characters and most of them are secondary characters that are used to progress the story. The main characters, being Philip Marlowe, Viviane Sternwood, and Harriet Huntress, are still the focus. Many secondary characters come and go, either killed off or become irrelevant to the case. Philip Marlowe is portrayed as a tough private detective who does not care about his client’s immediate demands but has a personal code of honour which keeps the client’s anonymity, and he does not stop until he feels justice is served. He often gets beaten up because he does not let cases go. Marlowe is described as hard boiled: he is cool, smart and world weary. The world he lives in is mean, filled with dangerous individuals. He often uses humor to either lighten a mood or insult someone, and this becomes evident when describing members of the upper class that are involved in the murder since they frequently get away with it. He comes off as tough and is not afraid to get physical when he has to, but seems to prefer if he could just use his brains rather than violence. Marlowe knows his way around the upper classes of society, the police force, and also the criminal world. Through the attitudes of Philip Marlowe, Chandler presents his disdain for the greed and callousness of the upper class.

· Chandler’s detective gets entangled with the personal lives of the suspects so that the reader may understand the nature of the characters. We learn about grieving men, protective women, greedy gamblers and everyone in between. He follows the case by interacting with characters personally and often getting caught in the drama of everyday life. However, Christie and Penny’s detectives seem to take a step back from the messiness of a person’s individual story. They seem to follow the case calmly and learn clues through hints left behind and interactions observed by the detective rather than interactions the detective has been involved with.

· Christie and Penny have a strong sense of justice and order. Their detectives are professionals who act respectfully and with a sense of dignity. Chandler’s detective Marlowe has a twisted moral compass but one that he believes in firmly. Although he fights and murders, he has this sense of honour. (He wants to save Vivian and Carmen from prosecution, he usually tells the truth)

· Marlowe gets involved in things that are not his problem. (Vivian pays him off but he continues detecting) while Gamache and Poirot are on vacation trying to get away from their detective jobs but end up caught in the middle of a murder.

The author uses elements of imagery, metaphoric connections and descriptive narration to give the readers further insight on each character (which helps the reader keep track of them all). For example, Anna is described as a 240 lb middle aged woman in a suit. As well, John D. Arbogast’s character is described enormously fat with his face the size of a basketball.

In “The Puzzle Game” style of detective stories, all of the characters are already presented from the very start, meaning that the list of suspects are set as soon as the murder occurs. However, a murder in Chandler’s stories is just more confusing as no one knows who did it, it might be a character who was not yet presented. Other than the police coming after the crime occurs in A Rule against Murder, all of the important characters were already present and the suspect list is set in stone, allowing Penny to further develop each character.

Narrative Point of View

Chandler’s use of first-person point of view allows the readers to connect closely to the narrator’s thoughts, feelings, and knowledge. The point of view furnishes clues as to what the purpose of the story is. It hints to the readers that the first-person narrator, Philip Marlowe, is the one who will figure out the mystery. However, in contrast to Penny’s use of a third-person narrator that allows the readers to hear many characters’ private thoughts and learn motives that the detective is unaware of, with Chandler the reader knows only as much as Marlowe knows but puts the case together with him as he goes.

Theme

The greed and callousness of the upper classes as well as the corruption of society are evident in Chandler’s stories. The power of money and pure greed removes one’s sense of humanity.

In Penny’s mystery the murder is for revenge. However, even though the maître d’ committed murder to take revenge on Martin for ruining his father, he still saves Gamache and Bean from certain death, showing that there is still some hope somewhere. This hope is also present in Chandler’s works: there is hope that Carmen will get the help she needs, and that Harriet Huntress finds solace in justice being served with Jeeter unable to enjoy his riches.

homework

Summary:

Assignment 1: Transformational Leadership

For this assignment, you will write a reflection paper on Northouse’s Chapter 8, Transformational Leadership.

1) Define Transformational Leadership in your own words.

2) Reflect on a personal experience with transformational leadership, either when you were leading or following. It can be an example from work or school or any personal experience that you find relevant to the topic of transformational leadership.

3) Reflect on a personal experience where transformational leadership principles would have made poor experiences great experiences. Give an example of a time where the leadership failed or was authoritarian (with little care for the follower’s motivations and needs). Explain how implementing transformational leadership principles would have changed that situation.

 

Requirements:

FILE NAME: YourNames_Assignment#.docx

600 Words, double-spaced.

Please include a Title Page and References page.

Must be APA 7.

Make sure to use correct APA in-text citations for paraphrased ideas and quoted text.

homework

Write a self-coaching reflection paper, exploring your own personal mastery in leadership. You will reflect on past experiences of leadership development, clarify the future leader you aspire to become, analyze the present the gap between your current reality and your possible emerging futures, and prototype the intentions you need to enact to realize your vision of the leader you want to be.

Use the documents below to assist you in the writing of this paper.

Format: Informal APA Style;

Length: 6-8 pages;

Summary:

What are the grading expectations?

A paper meeting all the expectations below demonstrates “very good work with less than 10 grammatical flaws”, which according to the grading scale used in this course is a B+ grade. Work that does not meet all these expectations will receive a grade below B+.

Demonstrates a careful understanding of the personal mastery paper’s scholarly context, audience, purpose, and all the prescribed elements.

Follows a logical four-part reflective inquiry structure, including past, future, analysis and synthesis sections, as well as an introduction and conclusion.

Uses straightforward language that communicates meaning to readers with clarity and fluency and is generally error-free.

States ideas clearly, elaborate with explanations and exemplifies using good, credible, relevant examples and other evidence, such as expert sources. This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced.

Correct use of APA conventions, including 8 citations, references documentation, document formatting, and stylistic writing elements.

To receive a grade above B+ the work must exceed all the expectations below. *

* To exceed expectations, you must demonstrate a thorough understanding of the assignment, your argumentation must be carefully constructed with insightful linkages and well-written transitions, you must have a higher density of ideas, substantial explanations, use compelling examples (personal or from expert sources), your language must be graceful, your grammar virtually error-free, and you make elegant use of APA conventions.

homework

The Method of Currere

LDRS 310 Personal Mastery Paper

Assignment Criteria

Write a self-coaching reflection paper, exploring your own personal mastery in leadership. You will reflect on past experiences of leadership development, clarify the future leader you aspire to become, analyze the present the gap between your current reality and your possible emerging futures, and prototype the intentions you need to enact to realize your vision of the leader you want to be.

Use the template to assist you in the writing of this paper.

Format: Informal APA Style;

Length: 6-8 pages;

The Past:

The Past. Remember past leadership experiences and leadership role models you’ve had; consider how these experiences influenced the formation of your own personal leadership attitudes, ideas, capabilities, and behaviours.

Guiding Questions:

How has your past shaped who you are today?

How has your past shaped your work or what you are presently doing?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Past: Suggestions

The Past. This is a historical journey. Recount major events, thoughts, habits, etc that have shaped you.

What did you read? What did you watch? What did you value? What did you think about?

“Bringing the past to the present by printing it. The words coalesce to form a photograph. Holding the photograph in front of oneself, one studies the detail, the literal holding of the picture and one’s response to it, suggestive of the relation of past to present.”

-Pinar, 1975

The Future:

The Future. Imagine your highest future possible in terms of the authentic leader you aspire to be, the life of intention you aspire to live, talents you aspire to develop, experiences you intend to live, communities where you aspire to connect, and the contribution that you aspire to make in the world.

Guiding Questions:

Who is your highest self you aspire to be? Describe what you envision yourself to be like in the future.

What is the work you aspire to do in the future?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Future: Suggestions

The Future: this is a realistic reflection of personal potential. This is not a hope for the future, or a study of one’s dreams. This is an honest evaluation of where you believe you will be based on one’s self-awareness and understanding.

“Sit alone, perhaps in a slightly darkened room, in a comfort- able chair with a writing table and a pen. Close the eyes, place the attention on the breathing. Take a few slow deep breaths as these are comfortable. The point of these minutes is relaxation. After one is relaxed, one thinks of the future, of tomorrow, of next week, of the new few months, of the next academic year, of the next three years and so on. Since our interest is educational experience, gently bring the attention back to matters associated with your intellectual interests, and allow your mind to work free associatively. Record what comes. Try to discern where your intellectual interests are going, the relation between these evolving interests and your private life, between these two and evolving historical conditions”

– Pinar, 1975

The Future: Suggestions

The Future: Where will you be in a week, in a month, in a year? What interests will drive you? What passions will guide your progress? What might you attain, strive for, etc?

“Return to the chair and this dwelling in imagined future states several times on different days over a period of several days or weeks or months. Such elongation of the experiment reduces the possibility of distortion of temporary preoccupations. Increased is the likelihood that the photographs taken are reflective of more lasting anticipations.”

– Pinar, 1975

The Analysis:

The Analysis. Analyze your present state of growth in life and as a leader. What are the elements and structures that define the “present” moment in your lifelong learning journey? Connect your past and future with your current life situation. Consider the consequences of how you are presently generating creative tension (or not), are you releasing your aspirations, releasing the truth of reality, or growing?

Guiding Questions:

What are the current challenges and the emerging areas of possibility that your life and/or work asks you to address?

What about your current life/work frustrates you the most?

What would you have to let go of to bring your vision into reality?

Specifically, identify 2-3 places of internal resistance.

Where in your current life do you experience the beginnings (or seeds) of the future you want to create?

Who makes up your support community, and what do you believe are their highest hopes regarding your future journey?

 

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Analysis:

The Analysis: Put aside the past and future and reflect on the present. Who are you know? What are your challenges and goals? What passions drive you and what obstacles stand in your way? Who are you right now? What is it that you value?

“Describe the biographic present, exclusive of the past and future, but inclusive of responses to them. For many the present is woven into the fabric of institutional life. Within that historical form, embodied concretely in the building which houses your office and those who are your col- leagues and students, what is your present? What are one’s intellectual interests? What is one’s emotional condition? To what ideas, what areas of study, which discipline, is one drawn? From what is one repelled? List these. Describe, not interpret these attractions. Photograph the present as if one were a camera, including oneself in the present taking the photograph, and your response to this process”

Pinar, 1975

The Synthesis:

The Synthesis. Define how you intend to bring the future you most desire into reality. Specifically, outline your way forward—that is, your plan—to achieving your highest future in life and as a Leader.

Guiding Questions:

Over the next three months, if you could prototype a microcosm of your future in which you could explore by doing, what would it look like?

Who is the community to help bring your future into reality and who can support you in your highest future intention?

If you committed to bringing your future into reality, what practical steps would you take over the next 3-7 days?

 

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Synthesis:

The Synthesis. How do the past, present, and future connect? What aspects of your life need to change in order to reach the future you hope for not the future you expect? When your experiences, hopes, and current reality come together, who are you?

“The physical body may be a concrete manifestation of all that occurs in and through it. The Self is available to itself in physical form. The intellect, residing in physical form, is part of the Self. The Self is not a concept the intellect has of itself. The intellectual is an appendage of the Self, a medium, like the body, through which the Self and the world are accessible to themselves. Mind in its place, I conceptualize the present situation. I am placed together.”

Other Criteria:

Demonstrates a careful understanding of the personal mastery paper’s scholarly context, audience, purpose, and all the prescribed elements.

Follows a logical four-part reflective inquiry structure, including past, future, analysis and synthesis sections, as well as an introduction and conclusion.

Uses straightforward language that communicates meaning to readers with clarity and fluency and is generally error-free.

States ideas clearly, elaborates with explanations, and exemplifies using good, credible, relevant examples and other evidence, such as, expert sources. This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced.

Correct use of APA conventions, including 8 citations, references documentation, document formatting, and stylistic writing elements.

Homework

 

Select an ethnic minority group that is represented in the United States (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander). Using health information available from Healthy People, the CDC, and other relevant government websites, analyze the health status for this group.

In 1,000-1,250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected minority group to the national average. Include the following:

  1. Describe the ethnic minority group selected. Describe the current health status of this group. How do race and ethnicity influence health for this group?
  2. What are the health disparities that exist for this group? What are the nutritional challenges for this group?
  3. Discuss the barriers to health for this group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors.
  4. What health promotion activities are often practiced by this group?
  5. Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice.
  6. What cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for this population? Why?

Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

Prepare this according to the guidelines found in the APA Style.

This assignment uses a rubric. 

homework

The Method of Currere

LDRS 310 Personal Mastery Paper

Assignment Criteria

Write a self-coaching reflection paper, exploring your own personal mastery in leadership. You will reflect on past experiences of leadership development, clarify the future leader you aspire to become, analyze the present the gap between your current reality and your possible emerging futures, and prototype the intentions you need to enact to realize your vision of the leader you want to be.

Use the template to assist you in the writing of this paper.

Format: Informal APA Style;

Length: 6-8 pages;

The Past:

The Past. Remember past leadership experiences and leadership role models you’ve had; consider how these experiences influenced the formation of your own personal leadership attitudes, ideas, capabilities, and behaviours.

Guiding Questions:

How has your past shaped who you are today?

How has your past shaped your work or what you are presently doing?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Past: Suggestions

The Past. This is a historical journey. Recount major events, thoughts, habits, etc that have shaped you.

What did you read? What did you watch? What did you value? What did you think about?

“Bringing the past to the present by printing it. The words coalesce to form a photograph. Holding the photograph in front of oneself, one studies the detail, the literal holding of the picture and one’s response to it, suggestive of the relation of past to present.”

-Pinar, 1975

The Future:

The Future. Imagine your highest future possible in terms of the authentic leader you aspire to be, the life of intention you aspire to live, talents you aspire to develop, experiences you intend to live, communities where you aspire to connect, and the contribution that you aspire to make in the world.

Guiding Questions:

Who is your highest self you aspire to be? Describe what you envision yourself to be like in the future.

What is the work you aspire to do in the future?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Future: Suggestions

The Future: this is a realistic reflection of personal potential. This is not a hope for the future, or a study of one’s dreams. This is an honest evaluation of where you believe you will be based on one’s self-awareness and understanding.

“Sit alone, perhaps in a slightly darkened room, in a comfort- able chair with a writing table and a pen. Close the eyes, place the attention on the breathing. Take a few slow deep breaths as these are comfortable. The point of these minutes is relaxation. After one is relaxed, one thinks of the future, of tomorrow, of next week, of the new few months, of the next academic year, of the next three years and so on. Since our interest is educational experience, gently bring the attention back to matters associated with your intellectual interests, and allow your mind to work free associatively. Record what comes. Try to discern where your intellectual interests are going, the relation between these evolving interests and your private life, between these two and evolving historical conditions”

– Pinar, 1975

The Future: Suggestions

The Future: Where will you be in a week, in a month, in a year? What interests will drive you? What passions will guide your progress? What might you attain, strive for, etc?

“Return to the chair and this dwelling in imagined future states several times on different days over a period of several days or weeks or months. Such elongation of the experiment reduces the possibility of distortion of temporary preoccupations. Increased is the likelihood that the photographs taken are reflective of more lasting anticipations.”

– Pinar, 1975

The Analysis:

The Analysis. Analyze your present state of growth in life and as a leader. What are the elements and structures that define the “present” moment in your lifelong learning journey? Connect your past and future with your current life situation. Consider the consequences of how you are presently generating creative tension (or not), are you releasing your aspirations, releasing the truth of reality, or growing?

Guiding Questions:

What are the current challenges and the emerging areas of possibility that your life and/or work asks you to address?

What about your current life/work frustrates you the most?

What would you have to let go of to bring your vision into reality?

Specifically, identify 2-3 places of internal resistance.

Where in your current life do you experience the beginnings (or seeds) of the future you want to create?

Who makes up your support community, and what do you believe are their highest hopes regarding your future journey?

 

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Analysis:

The Analysis: Put aside the past and future and reflect on the present. Who are you know? What are your challenges and goals? What passions drive you and what obstacles stand in your way? Who are you right now? What is it that you value?

“Describe the biographic present, exclusive of the past and future, but inclusive of responses to them. For many the present is woven into the fabric of institutional life. Within that historical form, embodied concretely in the building which houses your office and those who are your col- leagues and students, what is your present? What are one’s intellectual interests? What is one’s emotional condition? To what ideas, what areas of study, which discipline, is one drawn? From what is one repelled? List these. Describe, not interpret these attractions. Photograph the present as if one were a camera, including oneself in the present taking the photograph, and your response to this process”

Pinar, 1975

The Synthesis:

The Synthesis. Define how you intend to bring the future you most desire into reality. Specifically, outline your way forward—that is, your plan—to achieving your highest future in life and as a Leader.

Guiding Questions:

Over the next three months, if you could prototype a microcosm of your future in which you could explore by doing, what would it look like?

Who is the community to help bring your future into reality and who can support you in your highest future intention?

If you committed to bringing your future into reality, what practical steps would you take over the next 3-7 days?

 

1 to 2 pages double spaced

The Synthesis:

The Synthesis. How do the past, present, and future connect? What aspects of your life need to change in order to reach the future you hope for not the future you expect? When your experiences, hopes, and current reality come together, who are you?

“The physical body may be a concrete manifestation of all that occurs in and through it. The Self is available to itself in physical form. The intellect, residing in physical form, is part of the Self. The Self is not a concept the intellect has of itself. The intellectual is an appendage of the Self, a medium, like the body, through which the Self and the world are accessible to themselves. Mind in its place, I conceptualize the present situation. I am placed together.”

Other Criteria:

Demonstrates a careful understanding of the personal mastery paper’s scholarly context, audience, purpose, and all the prescribed elements.

Follows a logical four-part reflective inquiry structure, including past, future, analysis and synthesis sections, as well as an introduction and conclusion.

Uses straightforward language that communicates meaning to readers with clarity and fluency and is generally error-free.

States ideas clearly, elaborates with explanations, and exemplifies using good, credible, relevant examples and other evidence, such as, expert sources. This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced.

Correct use of APA conventions, including 8 citations, references documentation, document formatting, and stylistic writing elements.

homework

Write a self-coaching reflection paper, exploring your own personal mastery in leadership. You will reflect on past experiences of leadership development, clarify the future leader you aspire to become, analyze the present the gap between your current reality and your possible emerging futures, and prototype the intentions you need to enact to realize your vision of the leader you want to be.

Use the documents below to assist you in the writing of this paper.

Format: Informal APA Style;

Length: 6-8 pages;

Summary:

What are the grading expectations?

A paper meeting all the expectations below demonstrates “very good work with less than 10 grammatical flaws”, which according to the grading scale used in this course is a B+ grade. Work that does not meet all these expectations will receive a grade below B+.

Demonstrates a careful understanding of the personal mastery paper’s scholarly context, audience, purpose, and all the prescribed elements.

Follows a logical four-part reflective inquiry structure, including past, future, analysis and synthesis sections, as well as an introduction and conclusion.

Uses straightforward language that communicates meaning to readers with clarity and fluency and is generally error-free.

States ideas clearly, elaborate with explanations and exemplifies using good, credible, relevant examples and other evidence, such as expert sources. This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced.

Correct use of APA conventions, including 8 citations, references documentation, document formatting, and stylistic writing elements.

To receive a grade above B+ the work must exceed all the expectations below. *

* To exceed expectations, you must demonstrate a thorough understanding of the assignment, your argumentation must be carefully constructed with insightful linkages and well-written transitions, you must have a higher density of ideas, substantial explanations, use compelling examples (personal or from expert sources), your language must be graceful, your grammar virtually error-free, and you make elegant use of APA conventions.

homework

Is based on the 6-episode Netflix documentary series of The Trial of Gabriel Fernandez. APA Manual of Style. 5–6 pages in length. You are required to watch the 6 episodes of this documentary on Netflix, please plan accordingly so that you are able to watch the entire series. You should apply knowledge from the class readings within and include citations from assigned class readings and text. This is an assessment of your ability to apply course materials and any additional child maltreatment related research and theories to this case. Please include citations and references from the readings. You are required to use the terms learned in class to describe any instances of child maltreatment. Academic statements will be reviewed and I will be looking for factual research and academic material to be referenced in an accurate manner. Your critical analysis of the case should be more than a summary but rather a well thought out and organized analysis of child maltreatment (including Risk & protective factors, abuse types, parental factors, child welfare response, etc.). Please do not write in a conversational, opinionated tone. Should be professionally and factually as possible with proper grammar. headings, citations and references are ALL correctly in APA style.

Homework

 Explain how the Pequot War and especially the massacre at Mystic exemplified the way Europeans and later EuroAmericans would deal with American Indians who were in the way of white man’s expansion.
Indian view   https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/archive/native-history-it-s-memorial-day-in-1637-the-pequot-massacre-happened-CPEC3BR9hkm5SoXp3X9uFg/
Massacre at Mystic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHpkTboaDco
Pequot War http://pequotwar.org/about/ 

Example  (below)

 

(I have an introduction with a thesis, a body with paragraphs supporting the thesis, and a conclusion.

My post is longer than yours needs to be, but it has the format you need. Remember, your post for this assignment must be at least 250 words long and have an introduction, middle and conclusion.

I have presented three ways Native Americans experienced or reacted to the Dutch and Portuguese. Diseases, increased warfare, dependence on European trade goods. You should always think of answering the question in concrete terms.  “What three or four things can I include to answer this question?”)

Dutch & Portuguese First Cultural Contact

Native Americans received the Dutch and Portuguese with curiosity and, according to author Colin Calloway, if not open arms, at least they welcomed them somewhat.1  This was the case until the Dutch and Portuguese proved that they had come to the Western Hemisphere not to befriend the Amerindians but to control them. Though the experiences of the widely separated colonies of the Dutch and the Portuguese were drastically different, still, Native Americans had no reason to react positively to the outcomes of their first contacts with these two European countries.

The Dutch did not survive long as colonizers of the New World that was Amerindians’ old home. Yet in the short forty years of Dutch imperial intrusions in North America Hudson River Valley Amerindians would demonstrate a combination of “typical” Native American reactions to, and unique experiences with, Dutch mercantile culture.

According to Jack Campisi at State University College in New Platz, New York, the Indigenous Peoples who first encountered Hudson in 1609 greeted him amiably. These Amerindians, probably of the Lenape (Delaware) tribe, wished to trade with the newcomers, and had a veritable grocery list of items to ask for in trade. The Delaware had not encountered the Dutch before the arrival of Hudson but they had carried on a lively trade with the French and therefore knew what to ask for in exchange for furs.2 For these Indians the Dutch were merely a continuation of a profitable relationship with Europeans.

Though it is true that tribes on the coast had had intermittent contact with Europeans long before Dutch attempts at colonization – contact that was limited to short stays off-shore while trading with the local tribes – and this contact was welcomed by coastal tribes, the same was not true for the tribes living inland along the Hudson River — the Mahicanituck River to the Indigenous Peoples of the area. It is unclear who initiated the first fight, but soon after Hudson began his exploration up the river, hostilities commenced between Wappinger (an affiliation of tribes living along the Mahicanituck) warriors and the Dutch sailors.3 It might have been simple misunderstandings flaring into something bigger and darker, or it might have been born of racial distrust, as was so commonly the case in encounters between Europeans and Indians.

The experiences of Hudson River Amerindians with the Dutch were a reflection of the same kind of experiences and reactions other tribes were undergoing in their encounters with other Europeans. Lenape and Wappinger quickly developed a hunger for European trade goods which meant the tribes had to craft methods of dealing with the European propensity to lie and even commit violence to obtain what they (the Europeans) wanted (as the furs in the immediate vicinity were depleted due to over-trapping, the Dutch looked at Wappinger land as the next item to obtain. The resulting “war” almost annihilated the tribe).4 Therefore, like the situation with the Hurons and the French to the north, the Hudson River Valley became a cauldron of seething rivalries as various tribes vied with each other to obtain the furs that would then allow them to trade for such valued manufactured goods as firearms, which the Dutch were willing to trade for furs. War among the many Hudson River Valley Amerindians intensified due to Dutch contact.5 The Wappinger and the Lenape were not unusual in their interactions with Europeans, they were just the first in their locales to experience those common occurrences.

A unique feature of Amerindian encounters with the Dutch was the Dutch discovery of wampum. Author Ted Morgan, in his account of the Dutch colony, describes how “having access to wampum was like owning a bank.”6 Wampum are shell beads strung together that originally were a memory aid that recorded special events in Eastern Woodland Indian history. When the Dutch discovered that the Amerindians used them as a kind of currency, they adopted the wampum as a medium of exchange for furs among the Hudson River valley tribes. At that point the tribes were not even getting manufactured goods from the Dutch any longer, but rather, they were trading for wampum.

And, of course, the Dutch brought diseases. As unintentional as it might have been, European diseases, such as smallpox – especially smallpox – devastated the Hudson River valley tribes. According to R. G. Robertson in his study of the impact of smallpox on Native Americans, the fur trade was the avenue used by the disease to travel throughout the Amerindian world, destroying that world as it went.7 Approximately 90% of the Hudson River valley tribes were wiped out by disease during the short life of the Dutch colony.8 This devastation, like the fur trade itself, was not confined to the Hudson River Valley, but rather, was merely a harbinger of what other tribes would endure when white men invaded their respective territories.

Portuguese arriving in their corner of the New World, that South American geographic bulge known now as Brazil, encountered a semi-sedentary people who (unlike the Lenape of the Hudson River Valley thousands of miles north) sustained themselves on what they grew more than what they killed in the hunt. These people were the Tupi and despite being a warlike people who engaged in intertribal fighting to acquire captives for sacrifice and ritualistic cannibalism,9 they initially accepted the Portuguese because the Tupi believed that the Europeans had arrived in the land magically — which meant the tribes had to be generous to these powerful new men.10 The same type of cultural misunderstandings that had resulted in the Wappinger attacking the Dutch along the steep banks of the river that bears Hudson’s name now benefited the Portuguese who the Tupi identified as magical.

The magic faded for the Tupi as the Portuguese began to enslave them to work plantations while diseases brought from the European mainland began to decimate them.  The Tupi reacted by turning their already endemic warfare toward the newcomers.11According to Kicza, in his book Resilient Cultures: America’s Native Peoples Confront European Colonization, 1500-1800, “a religiously inspired insurgency called santidade combined elements of Christianity and…indigenous beliefs” attracted runaway black slaves who fought alongside the Tupi against their Portuguese masters.12  The Portuguese were ruthless in striking back and by 1700 there were no more Tupi on the coast of Brazil.

The Dutch were not successful in their imperial designs on the New World. Their stay was relatively short, but in that time Native Americans reacted to, adjusted, and ultimately collapsed under the weight of the Dutch invasion of the Mahicanituck River valley. The Portuguese stayed longer and had a more lasting impact, destroying the coastal peoples and putting their own roots down in the jungles of Brazil.  In both cases, failure and success, the Indigenous Peoples who initially greeted these Europeans were the great losers.

1 Colin G. Calloway, First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History. (Boston, Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008), 79.

2 Jack Campisi, “The Hudson River Valley Indians through Dutch Eyes” accessed 12/13/09 http://www.hrmm.org/halfmoon/campisi.htm#voyage

3 Robert W. Venables, American Indian History: Five Centuries of Conflict & Coexistence, Volume I: Conquest of a Continent, 1492-1783 (Santa Fe, Clear Light Publishers, 2004), 99.

4 “Native American Tribes of the Hudson River” accessed 12/13/09 http://www.hhr.highlands.com/native.htm

5 R.G. Robertson, Rotting Face; Smallpox and the American Indian, (Caldwell, Idaho, 2001) 108-109.

6 Ted Morgan. Wilderness At Dawn: The Settling of the North American Continent, (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1993) 154.

7 Robertson, XI.

8 “The Lenapes: A study of Hudson Valley Indians,” accessed 12/13/09 http://www.ulster.net/~hrmm/halfmoon/lenape/contact.htm

9Julie Buettner, “The Tupi” http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/southamerica/tupi.html

10“Portugal in America, to 1600” Macrohistory and World Report, accessed 12/13/09 http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h17brz.html

11 John E. Kicza, Resilient Cultures: America’s Native Peoples Confront European Colonization, 1500-1800 (Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2003) 158-159.

12 Ibid.

homework

(Student Address and contact information)

(Address for Employer)

(Date letter is written)

Dear (title, first name, and last name),

First Paragraph: State your purpose. Why are you writing the letter? Where did you see the
job application? Establish your desire to fill the position.

Second Paragraph: State your worth. What experience is required for the job and how does
your past experience fit what is required? For this assignment, reflect back on the essays and
research you did during this course. This is a time for you to breakdown what your experience is,
why it is relevant, and how it makes you a great candidate for the position. Remember, make your
claim you are the best candidate and then use evidence from your writing courses to support your
claim.

Third Paragraph: State a desire for an interview. After you’ve listed all of your experience, you
still need to show great interest in the position. Reiterate why you are a great candidate and that
you would like an interview.

Sincerely (or another closer),

First Name and Last Name
Email
Other Contact info (if desired)

homework

Essay Instructions

The Crime on Cote des Neiges, by David Montrose

The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of a literary text through literary analysis and how it fits into the conventions of the genre.

Instructions: Write a minimum 1000-word essay including an introduction, body paragraphs to support your thesis, and a conclusion, in MLA format. the text, and other online sources to aid you, such as a dictionary and thesaurus.

Due: Base your thesis on the following guidelines:

Raymond Chandler’s tough detective, Philip Marlowe, is widely considered a fictional hero of 1930s Los Angeles and became the quintessential “hard-boiled detective” that many other writers were inspired to imitate, including David Montrose with his 1950s Montreal detective, Russell Teed, in The Crime on Cote des Neiges. Discuss how Montrose’s “hard-boiled” detective story fulfills the criteria of the genre. Consider how Chandler and Montrose use similar techniques and devices to demonstrate their themes. Base your analysis on literary techniques or devices used by Montrose and Chandler, such as characterization, setting, plot, style (language, description, imagery, etc.). Be sure to support your analysis with examples from the texts either using paraphrase or direct quotes. Refer to Chandler’s critical essay “The Simple Art of Murder,” Chandler’s short story “Trouble Is My Business,” and/or the film The Big Sleep in your comparison.



You will be evaluated on:

· Comprehension and insight (How well did you analyze the story? How well did you relate the text to the genre?)

· Structure and development (How well did you prove your position? Do all of your points tie back to your central thesis? Have you used topic sentences and concluding sentences effectively? How well have you supported your ideas with examples from the texts? Have you integrated quotes properly?)

· Expression (How well have you articulated your ideas with clear writing? Have you used proper vocabulary, diction, transitional words, sentence structure and syntax? Is your writing free of grammatical and spelling errors?)

· Formatting (Have you written in MLA style? Double-spaced? Provided a Works Cited page with proper citations?)


https://www.kobo.com/ca/en/ebook/the-crime-on-cote-des-neiges


Account email:

bappibarua@gmail.com password: barua4578

homework

(Student Address and contact information)

(Address for Employer)

(Date letter is written)

Dear (title, first name, and last name),

First Paragraph: State your purpose. Why are you writing the letter? Where did you see the
job application? Establish your desire to fill the position.

Second Paragraph: State your worth. What experience is required for the job and how does
your past experience fit what is required? For this assignment, reflect back on the essays and
research you did during this course. This is a time for you to breakdown what your experience is,
why it is relevant, and how it makes you a great candidate for the position. Remember, make your
claim you are the best candidate and then use evidence from your writing courses to support your
claim.

Third Paragraph: State a desire for an interview. After you’ve listed all of your experience, you
still need to show great interest in the position. Reiterate why you are a great candidate and that
you would like an interview.

Sincerely (or another closer),

First Name and Last Name
Email
Other Contact info (if desired)

Homework

 

Part 6: Team Development Plan

For the project selected in Unit I, create a simple project team development plan. Your plan should follow the process for developing and managing a team, as referred to in Figures 6.1 and 6.2 in the textbook. Your plan should include an introduction and should answer the following questions:

  1. What human resource tools will you draw upon in the overall development and management of the project team?
  2. What approach will you take to kick off the project team?
  3. What ground rules will you establish for team meetings and interaction?
  4. What specific ways will you demonstrate emotional intelligence in the development of the project team?
  5. What methods will you employ to resolve conflict throughout the stages of team development?
  6. What will be the conflict sources within the team development process?
  7. How will you set and measure goals and reward achievement?

Compile the team development plan that addresses the questions above. Feel free to use a table to summarize your policy and approach. (As one example, refer to Table 6.2 in the textbook).Submit your team development plan in the form of a minimum two-page document. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed. 

Homework

 

Understanding family structure and style is essential to patient and family care. Conducting a family interview and needs assessment gathers information to identify strengths, as well as potential barriers to health. This information ultimately helps develop family-centered strategies for support and guidance.

This family health assessment is a two-part assignment. The information you gather in this initial assignment will be utilized for the second assignment in Topic 3.

Develop an interview questionnaire to be used in a family-focused functional assessment. The questionnaire must include three open-ended, family-focused questions to assess functional health patterns for each of the following:

  1. Values/Health Perception
  2. Nutrition
  3. Sleep/Rest
  4. Elimination
  5. Activity/Exercise
  6. Cognitive
  7. Sensory-Perception
  8. Self-Perception
  9. Role Relationship
  10. Sexuality
  11. Coping

Select a family, other than your own, and seek permission from the family to conduct an interview. Utilize the interview questions complied in your interview questionnaire to conduct a family-focused functional assessment. Document the responses as you conduct the interview.

Upon completion of the interview, write a 750-1,000-word. Analyze your assessment findings. Submit your questionnaire as an appendix with your assignment.

Include the following :

  1. Describe the family structure. Include individuals and any relevant attributes defining the family composition, race/ethnicity, social class, spirituality, and environment.
  2. Summarize the overall health behaviors of the family. Describe the current health of the family.
  3. Based on your findings, describe at least two of the functional health pattern strengths noted in the findings. Discuss three areas in which health problems or barriers to health were identified.
  4. Describe how family systems theory can be applied to solicit changes in family members that, in turn, initiate positive changes to the overall family functions over time.

Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide,  

homework

Assignment 1: Transformational Leadership Rubrics

Excellent (4) Good (3) Minimal (2) Unacceptable (1)
Definition (40%)
Define
Transformational
Leadership

Response to
assigned topic
thorough and well
written, with varied
sentence structure
and vocabulary;
opinions always
supported by facts.

Response is
thoughtful and
fairly well written;
most opinion
supported by facts.

Response
adequately
addresses some
aspects of the
assigned topic;
opinions sometimes
based on incorrect
information.

Response consisted
of unsupported
opinions only
marginally related to
topic,

Reflection 1 (40%)
Reflect on personal
experience with
transformational
leadership either when
you were leading or
following. It can be an
example from work or
school or any personal
experience that you
find relevant to the
topic of
transformational
leadership

Excellent
connection
between personal
examples and
concepts covered
in the course and
text. Connects
leadership theory
and personal
experience to
further growth,

Good reliance
upon examples and
details to illustrate
and develop ideas
and opinions.

Incomplete
development of
ideas; details and
examples not
always evident.

Ideas not clearly
stated or developed.
No personal
connection between
personal example
and leadership
theory.

Reflection 2 (10%)
Reflect on a personal
experience where
transformational
leadership would have
made poor experience
great experiences.
Give an example of a
time when the
leadership failed and
was authoritarian
(with little care of
followers’ motivations
and needs). Explain
how implementing
transformational
leadership principles
would have changed
that situation

Excellent
connection
between personal
examples and
concepts covered
in the course and
text. Connects
leadership theory
and personal
experience to
further growth.

Good reliance
upon examples and
details to illustrate
and develop ideas
and opinions.

Incomplete
development of
ideas; details and
examples not
always evident.

Ideas not clearly
stated or developed.
No personal
connection between
personal example
and leadership
theory.

APA/Grammar
(10%)
Grammar, Spelling,
APA Referencing

Flawless spelling,
punctuation, and
APA referencing.

Few or no spelling
errors, some minor
punctuation
mistakes. Most
citations are
correct.

Several spelling
and punctuation
errors. Missing
several citations.

Many instances of
incorrect spelling
and punctuation. No
citations or
references page.

homework

Essay Instructions

The Crime on Cote des Neiges, by David Montrose

The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of a literary text through literary analysis and how it fits into the conventions of the genre.

Instructions: Write a minimum 1000-word essay including an introduction, body paragraphs to support your thesis, and a conclusion, in MLA format. the text, and other online sources to aid you, such as a dictionary and thesaurus.

Due: Base your thesis on the following guidelines:

Raymond Chandler’s tough detective, Philip Marlowe, is widely considered a fictional hero of 1930s Los Angeles and became the quintessential “hard-boiled detective” that many other writers were inspired to imitate, including David Montrose with his 1950s Montreal detective, Russell Teed, in The Crime on Cote des Neiges. Discuss how Montrose’s “hard-boiled” detective story fulfills the criteria of the genre. Consider how Chandler and Montrose use similar techniques and devices to demonstrate their themes. Base your analysis on literary techniques or devices used by Montrose and Chandler, such as characterization, setting, plot, style (language, description, imagery, etc.). Be sure to support your analysis with examples from the texts either using paraphrase or direct quotes. Refer to Chandler’s critical essay “The Simple Art of Murder,” Chandler’s short story “Trouble Is My Business,” and/or the film The Big Sleep in your comparison.



You will be evaluated on:

· Comprehension and insight (How well did you analyze the story? How well did you relate the text to the genre?)

· Structure and development (How well did you prove your position? Do all of your points tie back to your central thesis? Have you used topic sentences and concluding sentences effectively? How well have you supported your ideas with examples from the texts? Have you integrated quotes properly?)

· Expression (How well have you articulated your ideas with clear writing? Have you used proper vocabulary, diction, transitional words, sentence structure and syntax? Is your writing free of grammatical and spelling errors?)

· Formatting (Have you written in MLA style? Double-spaced? Provided a Works Cited page with proper citations?)


https://www.kobo.com/ca/en/ebook/the-crime-on-cote-des-neiges


Account email:

bappibarua@gmail.com password: barua4578

homework

Total Points Possible:  150 

Requirements

1. The Roles in Advanced Nursing Practice paper is worth 150 points and will be graded on the quality of the content, use of citations, use of Standard English grammar, sentence structure, and overall organization based on the required components as summarized in the directions and grading criteria/rubric. 

2. Submit the paper as a Microsoft Word Document, which is the required format at Chamberlain University. You are encouraged to use the APA Academic Writer and Grammarly tools when creating your assignment. 

3. Follow the directions below and the grading criteria located in the rubric closely. Any questions about this paper may be posted under the Q & A Forum or emailed to your faculty. 

4. The length of the paper should be 3-6 pages, excluding title page and reference page(s). 

5. Support ideas with a minimum of 2 scholarly resources. Scholarly resources do not include your textbook. You may need to use more than 2 scholarly resources to fully support your ideas. 

6. You may use first person voice when describing your rationale for choosing the CNP role and your plans for clinical practice.  

7. Current APA format is required with both a title page and reference page(s). Use the following as Level 1 headings to denote the sections of your paper (Level 1 headings use upper- and lower-case letters and are bold and centered): 

·

· Roles in Advanced Practice Nursing (This is the paper introduction. In APA format, a restatement of the paper title, centered and bolded serves as the heading of the introduction section) 

· Four APN Roles 

· Rationale for Choosing CNP Role 

· Plans for Clinical Practice 

· Role Transition 

· Conclusion 

Directions

1. Introduction: Provide an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include general statements on advanced practice nursing roles, general statements on the role transition from RN to APN, and identification of the purpose of the paper. 

2. Four APN Roles: Describe the role, educational preparation, and work environment for the four APN roles (CNP, CNS, CRNA & CNM). Provide support from at least one scholarly source. 

3. Rationale for Choosing CNP Role: Describe your rationale for choosing the CNP advanced practice role versus one of the other roles. 

4. Plans for Clinical Practice: Discuss your plans for clinical practice after graduation. Explain how your understanding of NP practice has changed after researching the four ANP roles. 

5. Role Transition: Discuss your transition from the RN role to the NP role. Describe two factors that may impact your transition. Discuss two strategies you will use to support a successful transition from the RN to your NP role. Provide reference support from at least one scholarly source. The textbook is not a scholarly source. 

6. Conclusion: Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what you discussed in the paper. 

ASSIGNMENT CONTENT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

Introduction 

12 

8% 

Provides an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include:  

1. general statements on advanced practice nursing roles 

2. general statements on the role transition from RN to APN 

3. identification of the purpose of the paper. 

Four APN Roles 

40 

27% 

Describes the role, educational preparation, and work environment for the four APN roles  

1. CNP 

2. CNS 

3. CRNA 

4. CNM 

Provides support from at least one scholarly source. 

Rationale for Choosing CNP Role 

15 

10% 

Describes the student’s rationale for choosing the CNP advanced practice role versus one of the other roles. 

Plans for Clinical Practice 

15 

10% 

Discusses the student’s plans for clinical practice after graduation. Explains how student’s understanding of NP practice has changed after researching ANP roles. 

 

Role Transition 

40 

27% 

Discusses the student’s transition from the RN role to the NP role.  

1. Describes two factors that may impact the transition.  

2. Discusses two strategies student will use to support a successful transition from the RN to your NP role.  

Provides reference support from at least one scholarly source. The textbook is not a scholarly source. 

Conclusion 

12 

8% 

Provides a conclusion, including a brief summary of what was discussed in the paper. 

 

134 

90% 

Total CONTENT Points= 134 points 

ASSIGNMENT FORMAT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

APA Formatting 

5% 

Formatting follows APA Manual (current edition) guidelines for  

1. title page 

2. body of paper (including citations and headings) 

3. reference page 

Writing Mechanics 

5% 

Writing mechanics Follow the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation, and other aspects of formal written work as found in the current edition of the APA manual. The length of the paper is at least 3 pages but no more than 6 pages. 

 

16 

10% 

Total FORMAT Points= 16 points 

 

150 

90% 

ASSIGNMENT TOTAL=150 points 

 

Homework

 

Understanding family structure and style is essential to patient and family care. Conducting a family interview and needs assessment gathers information to identify strengths, as well as potential barriers to health. This information ultimately helps develop family-centered strategies for support and guidance.

This family health assessment is a two-part assignment. The information you gather in this initial assignment will be utilized for the second assignment in Topic 3.

Develop an interview questionnaire to be used in a family-focused functional assessment. The questionnaire must include three open-ended, family-focused questions to assess functional health patterns for each of the following:

  1. Values/Health Perception
  2. Nutrition
  3. Sleep/Rest
  4. Elimination
  5. Activity/Exercise
  6. Cognitive
  7. Sensory-Perception
  8. Self-Perception
  9. Role Relationship
  10. Sexuality
  11. Coping

Select a family, other than your own, and seek permission from the family to conduct an interview. Utilize the interview questions complied in your interview questionnaire to conduct a family-focused functional assessment. Document the responses as you conduct the interview.

Upon completion of the interview, write a 750-1,000-word. Analyze your assessment findings. Submit your questionnaire as an appendix with your assignment.

Include the following :

  1. Describe the family structure. Include individuals and any relevant attributes defining the family composition, race/ethnicity, social class, spirituality, and environment.
  2. Summarize the overall health behaviors of the family. Describe the current health of the family.
  3. Based on your findings, describe at least two of the functional health pattern strengths noted in the findings. Discuss three areas in which health problems or barriers to health were identified.
  4. Describe how family systems theory can be applied to solicit changes in family members that, in turn, initiate positive changes to the overall family functions over time.

Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide,  

homework

Assignment 1: Transformational Leadership Rubrics

Excellent (4) Good (3) Minimal (2) Unacceptable (1)
Definition (40%)
Define
Transformational
Leadership

Response to
assigned topic
thorough and well
written, with varied
sentence structure
and vocabulary;
opinions always
supported by facts.

Response is
thoughtful and
fairly well written;
most opinion
supported by facts.

Response
adequately
addresses some
aspects of the
assigned topic;
opinions sometimes
based on incorrect
information.

Response consisted
of unsupported
opinions only
marginally related to
topic,

Reflection 1 (40%)
Reflect on personal
experience with
transformational
leadership either when
you were leading or
following. It can be an
example from work or
school or any personal
experience that you
find relevant to the
topic of
transformational
leadership

Excellent
connection
between personal
examples and
concepts covered
in the course and
text. Connects
leadership theory
and personal
experience to
further growth,

Good reliance
upon examples and
details to illustrate
and develop ideas
and opinions.

Incomplete
development of
ideas; details and
examples not
always evident.

Ideas not clearly
stated or developed.
No personal
connection between
personal example
and leadership
theory.

Reflection 2 (10%)
Reflect on a personal
experience where
transformational
leadership would have
made poor experience
great experiences.
Give an example of a
time when the
leadership failed and
was authoritarian
(with little care of
followers’ motivations
and needs). Explain
how implementing
transformational
leadership principles
would have changed
that situation

Excellent
connection
between personal
examples and
concepts covered
in the course and
text. Connects
leadership theory
and personal
experience to
further growth.

Good reliance
upon examples and
details to illustrate
and develop ideas
and opinions.

Incomplete
development of
ideas; details and
examples not
always evident.

Ideas not clearly
stated or developed.
No personal
connection between
personal example
and leadership
theory.

APA/Grammar
(10%)
Grammar, Spelling,
APA Referencing

Flawless spelling,
punctuation, and
APA referencing.

Few or no spelling
errors, some minor
punctuation
mistakes. Most
citations are
correct.

Several spelling
and punctuation
errors. Missing
several citations.

Many instances of
incorrect spelling
and punctuation. No
citations or
references page.

homework

12345 Susie Student’s Address
Oklahoma City, OK 73099

Dr. Pat Simons
University of Oklahoma
Psychology Department
660 Parrington Oval, Norman, OK 73019

March 23, 2022

Dear Dr. Pat Simons,

Please take your time to consider my application as the new student research assistant for the
Psychology Department of the University of Oklahoma. As an inspiring student interested in
learning in-depth knowledge and the approaches in Psychology, I bring the confidence and the
desire to write lengthy details of the research topic assignment given and conduct well-rounded
research using the gained insight from my previous composition classes.

In receiving my required formal education and experiences at OCCC, I studied English
Composition I and II, including different forms of composition writing along with the access to
research library databases and tools. For the course, I selected a research problem and developed
an annotated bibliography that I updated as I continued to write other compositions. To
accomplish the research I worked with multiple databases and learned to read for claims and
evidence. In this course, I presented my research and argument in three different composition
forms: Classical Argument, Rogerian Argument, and Toulmin Argument.
The three argument compositions provided me with opportunities to present my argument to
different audiences, which required me to think critically about my work. With the Rogerian
Argument, I learned to argue for a common goal and develop solutions for two opposing sides
of the argument. This composition also allowed me to look at both sides of the research
question I selected for my Research Proposal. In the end, I changed my position on the
question based on the research for the Rogerian Argument.

I am confident I can provide support for the Psychology Department at the University of
Oklahoma. I have both the necessary levels of knowledge for an English Composition and
Psychology student. I aim to bring the desired level of research and critical thinking to the
position you have available in the Psychology Department. If I uphold the qualifications that
meet your needs, please contact me at 405-123-4567 or by e-mail at susie.student@my.occc.edu.
I look forward to hearing your response.

Sincerely,

Susie Student

homework

Chapter 4

The Neglect of Children

Definition and Impact of
Neglect
• Neglect: an act of omission related to parental deficits

• Physical neglect: non-organic failure to thrive, abandonment, failure
to meet basic physical needs

• Inadequate supervision
• Medical neglect, educational neglect, emotional neglect, mental

health neglect
• Stimulation neglect, language neglect, gross/fine motor neglect
• Environmental neglect

• Neglect is the most common form of Child abuse
• In the U.S., neglect accounts for 78% of all child maltreatment cases,

far more than physical abuse (17%), sexual abuse (9%), and
psychological abuse (8%) combined.

• Video – In Brief: The Science of Neglect –

• Video – Still Face Experiment: Dr. Edward Tronic –
https://youtu.be/apzXGEbZht0

4 Types of Unresponsive Care

Impacts of Neglect of Child
Development

The absence of responsive relationships poses a serious threat to a child’s
development and well-being.
• Sensing threat activates biological stress response systems, and excessive

activation of those systems can have a toxic effect on developing brain circuitry.
When the lack of responsiveness persists, the adverse effects of toxic stress can
compound the lost opportunities for development associated with limited or
ineffective interaction. This complex impact of neglect on the developing brain
underscores why it is so harmful in the earliest years of life. It also demonstrates
why effective early interventions are likely to pay significant dividends in better
long-term outcomes in educational achievement, lifelong health, and successful
parenting of the next generation.

Chronic neglect is associated with a wider range of damage than active abuse, but
it receives less attention in policy and practice.
• Science tells us that young children who experience significantly limited

caregiver responsiveness may sustain a range of adverse physical and mental
health consequences that actually produce more widespread developmental
impairments than overt physical abuse. These can include cognitive delays,
stunting of physical growth, impairments in executive function and self-
regulation skills, and disruptions of the body’s stress response.

Brain Scan of two Infants

• In the well-developed brain
on the left, rich areas of red
and orange depicting high
activity; on the right, a few
lobes of orange in a sea of
black empty space where
there should be active tissue.

• The deprived brain was that
of a Romanian orphan in the
1990s. Rarely held or
snuggled, much less removed
from her crib, this poor
child’s brain never had the
kind of stimulation it
required to grow
appropriately.

The Measurement of Neglect: Child
Neglect Index (CNI)
• Supervision

• Extent to which parent anticipates risky situations and
intervenes to protect child in an age-appropriate manner;
knowledge of child’s whereabouts

• Physical Care

• Adequate nutrition with regular meals; Hygiene: child is clean
and adequately clothed

• Health Care

• Provides basic medical needs, responds to child’s emotional
needs; ensures developmental and educational needs are met

Risk Factors for Neglect:

• Environmental factors:

• Poverty

• Community characteristics: lack of resources

• Access to social supports

• Ecological factors:

• run-down neighborhoods

• systemic oppression

• Parenting factors:

• Difficulties in processing information & affect

• Substance abuse

Neglect & Risk
Factors/Protective Factors

Symptoms & Effects of Neglect:
Infancy/Early Childhood
• Non-organic failure to thrive syndrome:

• Falls below the fifth percentile in weight

• Eats little, lacks interest in environment, shows developmental lag

• Psychosocial dwarfism:

• Behavioral problems around food and sleep

• Hyperactivity

• Extreme fatigue.

Symptoms & Effects of Neglect:
Young Children
• Presence of Pediculosis (lice)

• Poor motor skills

• Language delays

• Lack of medical care: routine and urgent care; immunizations

• Academic problems: difficulty with advanced
conceptualizations and complicated instructions

• Impaired socialization

• Impulsiveness

Brain Scan of two Toddlers

Studies on children in a variety of settings show
that severe deprivation or neglect:
• Disrupts the ways in which children’s brains

develop and process information, increasing
the risk for attentional, emotional, cognitive,
and behavioral disorders.

• Alters the development of biological stress-
response systems, leading to greater risk for
anxiety, depression, cardiovascular problems,
and other chronic health impairments later in
life.

• Correlates with significant risk for emotional
and interpersonal difficulties, including high
levels of negativity, poor impulse control, and
personality disorders, as well as low levels of
enthusiasm, confidence, and assertiveness.

• Is associated with significant risk for learning
difficulties and poor school achievement,
including deficits in executive function and
attention regulation, low IQ scores, poor
reading skills, and low rates of high school
graduation.

Parents Who Neglect Children

• Apathetic

• appears to have given up on life

• negative, withdrawn

• Impulsive

• low tolerance

• seeks immediate gratification

• Reactive-depressive

• unable to cope with some stressors

• (i.e. birth of a child, partner leaving)

• Parents with mental Illness

Substance-Abusing Families

• Parents under the influence of drugs or alcohol can physically,
sexually, or emotionally abuse their children.

• They are not fully available to provide adequate parenting.

• Prenatal Abuse:

• Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

• Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

• HIV infection

Plight of the Parent and the Social
Worker
• Is the neglectful parent the adversary?

• The neglectful parent is still the whole world to the child

• The child sees the condemnation of their parents as a rejection
of themselves.

• Solution is not simple: the cycle must be broken.

• Removal of the children?

• ‘Parenting’ of the parents!

homework

Total Points Possible:  150 

Requirements

1. The Roles in Advanced Nursing Practice paper is worth 150 points and will be graded on the quality of the content, use of citations, use of Standard English grammar, sentence structure, and overall organization based on the required components as summarized in the directions and grading criteria/rubric. 

2. Submit the paper as a Microsoft Word Document, which is the required format at Chamberlain University. You are encouraged to use the APA Academic Writer and Grammarly tools when creating your assignment. 

3. Follow the directions below and the grading criteria located in the rubric closely. Any questions about this paper may be posted under the Q & A Forum or emailed to your faculty. 

4. The length of the paper should be 3-6 pages, excluding title page and reference page(s). 

5. Support ideas with a minimum of 2 scholarly resources. Scholarly resources do not include your textbook. You may need to use more than 2 scholarly resources to fully support your ideas. 

6. You may use first person voice when describing your rationale for choosing the CNP role and your plans for clinical practice.  

7. Current APA format is required with both a title page and reference page(s). Use the following as Level 1 headings to denote the sections of your paper (Level 1 headings use upper- and lower-case letters and are bold and centered): 

·

· Roles in Advanced Practice Nursing (This is the paper introduction. In APA format, a restatement of the paper title, centered and bolded serves as the heading of the introduction section) 

· Four APN Roles 

· Rationale for Choosing CNP Role 

· Plans for Clinical Practice 

· Role Transition 

· Conclusion 

Directions

1. Introduction: Provide an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include general statements on advanced practice nursing roles, general statements on the role transition from RN to APN, and identification of the purpose of the paper. 

2. Four APN Roles: Describe the role, educational preparation, and work environment for the four APN roles (CNP, CNS, CRNA & CNM). Provide support from at least one scholarly source. 

3. Rationale for Choosing CNP Role: Describe your rationale for choosing the CNP advanced practice role versus one of the other roles. 

4. Plans for Clinical Practice: Discuss your plans for clinical practice after graduation. Explain how your understanding of NP practice has changed after researching the four ANP roles. 

5. Role Transition: Discuss your transition from the RN role to the NP role. Describe two factors that may impact your transition. Discuss two strategies you will use to support a successful transition from the RN to your NP role. Provide reference support from at least one scholarly source. The textbook is not a scholarly source. 

6. Conclusion: Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what you discussed in the paper. 

ASSIGNMENT CONTENT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

Introduction 

12 

8% 

Provides an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include:  

1. general statements on advanced practice nursing roles 

2. general statements on the role transition from RN to APN 

3. identification of the purpose of the paper. 

Four APN Roles 

40 

27% 

Describes the role, educational preparation, and work environment for the four APN roles  

1. CNP 

2. CNS 

3. CRNA 

4. CNM 

Provides support from at least one scholarly source. 

Rationale for Choosing CNP Role 

15 

10% 

Describes the student’s rationale for choosing the CNP advanced practice role versus one of the other roles. 

Plans for Clinical Practice 

15 

10% 

Discusses the student’s plans for clinical practice after graduation. Explains how student’s understanding of NP practice has changed after researching ANP roles. 

 

Role Transition 

40 

27% 

Discusses the student’s transition from the RN role to the NP role.  

1. Describes two factors that may impact the transition.  

2. Discusses two strategies student will use to support a successful transition from the RN to your NP role.  

Provides reference support from at least one scholarly source. The textbook is not a scholarly source. 

Conclusion 

12 

8% 

Provides a conclusion, including a brief summary of what was discussed in the paper. 

 

134 

90% 

Total CONTENT Points= 134 points 

ASSIGNMENT FORMAT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

APA Formatting 

5% 

Formatting follows APA Manual (current edition) guidelines for  

1. title page 

2. body of paper (including citations and headings) 

3. reference page 

Writing Mechanics 

5% 

Writing mechanics Follow the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation, and other aspects of formal written work as found in the current edition of the APA manual. The length of the paper is at least 3 pages but no more than 6 pages. 

 

16 

10% 

Total FORMAT Points= 16 points 

 

150 

90% 

ASSIGNMENT TOTAL=150 points 

 

homework

12345 Susie Student’s Address
Oklahoma City, OK 73099

Dr. Pat Simons
University of Oklahoma
Psychology Department
660 Parrington Oval, Norman, OK 73019

March 23, 2022

Dear Dr. Pat Simons,

Please take your time to consider my application as the new student research assistant for the
Psychology Department of the University of Oklahoma. As an inspiring student interested in
learning in-depth knowledge and the approaches in Psychology, I bring the confidence and the
desire to write lengthy details of the research topic assignment given and conduct well-rounded
research using the gained insight from my previous composition classes.

In receiving my required formal education and experiences at OCCC, I studied English
Composition I and II, including different forms of composition writing along with the access to
research library databases and tools. For the course, I selected a research problem and developed
an annotated bibliography that I updated as I continued to write other compositions. To
accomplish the research I worked with multiple databases and learned to read for claims and
evidence. In this course, I presented my research and argument in three different composition
forms: Classical Argument, Rogerian Argument, and Toulmin Argument.
The three argument compositions provided me with opportunities to present my argument to
different audiences, which required me to think critically about my work. With the Rogerian
Argument, I learned to argue for a common goal and develop solutions for two opposing sides
of the argument. This composition also allowed me to look at both sides of the research
question I selected for my Research Proposal. In the end, I changed my position on the
question based on the research for the Rogerian Argument.

I am confident I can provide support for the Psychology Department at the University of
Oklahoma. I have both the necessary levels of knowledge for an English Composition and
Psychology student. I aim to bring the desired level of research and critical thinking to the
position you have available in the Psychology Department. If I uphold the qualifications that
meet your needs, please contact me at 405-123-4567 or by e-mail at susie.student@my.occc.edu.
I look forward to hearing your response.

Sincerely,

Susie Student

Homework

Questions to be answered about the paper.

1. Why did you select your specific song/poem to
build your paper around?

2. What were your two most useful sources you found
that helped you support your thesis
statement/argument/claim?

3. What was the most difficult part of your process in
researching and writing your Literary Argument
Research paper?

4. Did you have a Counterargument? If so, what was it
and what evidence did you use to acknowledge it,
accommodate it or refute it (prove it was wrong)?

5. What is one piece of evidence/reasoning you used
that you think provides the strongest support of your
claim/argument?

Homework

SPSS/PSPP DISCUSSION UNIT 6

Answers

PART 1

Astrologers assert that our birth dates influence our success (or lack thereof) in life. Test this assumption with the GSS2008 data by analyzing the relationship between respondent’s astrological sign (ZODIAK) with respondent’s socioeconomic index (SEI). The SEI is an indicator of economic and socio-economic attainment: The higher the SEI score, the more successful the respondent.

Perform the analysis using the GSS2008 data

1. Mean SEI10 of Pisces ______________

2. Mean SEI10 of Taurus ______________

3. Mean SEI10 of your astrological sign ______________

4. ANOVA significance level ______________

5. Is the relationship statistically significant? Yes No

6. On the basis of these data, would you say that astrologers are correct in their assertion of the power of the stars? Why or why not?

PART 1: PSPP

R COMMANDER

Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)
ZODIAC 11 5082 462.0 1.225 0.265
Residuals 1844 695675 377.3
167 observations deleted due to missingness

mean sd data:n data:NA

AQUARIUS 46.32119 18.76885 151 12

ARIES 50.28312 19.38505 160 4

CANCER 49.79419 19.47903 155 12

CAPRICORN 49.38741 20.53898 143 8

GEMINI 47.74740 18.64442 154 5

LEO 47.68523 18.99053 149 8

LIBRA 49.56325 19.89840 166 9

PISCES 50.40843 20.05200 166 11

SAGITTARIUS 47.82500 18.74087 136 11

SCORPIO 46.57872 18.66035 141 6

TAURUS 51.17203 21.21138 143 9

VIRGO 46.31979 18.65409 192 9

PART 1

Astrologers assert that our birth dates influence our success (or lack thereof) in life. Test this assumption with the GSS2008 data by analyzing the relationship between respondent’s astrological sign (ZODIAK) with respondent’s socioeconomic index (SEI). The SEI is an indicator of economic and socio-economic attainment: The higher the SEI score, the more successful the respondent.

1. Mean SEI10 of Pisces 50.41

2. Mean SEI10 of Taurus 51.17

3. Mean SEI10 of your astrological sign ???

4. ANOVA significance level .265

5. Is the relationship statistically significant? No

6. On the basis of these data, would you say that astrologers are correct in their assertion of the power of the stars? Why or why not?

PART 2

Test whether there is an association between a person’s educational attainment and how much television they watch. Use the GSS2008 data set to perform an ANOVA on respondents’ highest educational degree (DEGREE) and the hours per day they watch television (TVHOURS)

1. Mean hours for people with less than a high school degree

2. Mean hours for people with a high school degree

3. Mean hours for people with a junior college degree

4. Mean hours for people with a bachelor’s degree

5. Mean hours for people with a graduate degree

6. ANOVA significance level

7. Is the relationship statistically significant

8. According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of those with a “high school degree”?

PART 2: PSPP

PART 2: R COMMANDER

Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)

DEGREE 4 813 203.33 31.4 <2e-16 ***

Residuals 1319 8542 6.48

Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ‘ 1

699 observations deleted due to missingness

mean sd data:n data:NA

BACHELOR

2.120000 1.345893 225 130

GRADUATE

1.991736 2.524863 121 73

HIGH SCHOOL

3.065574 2.356039 671 332

JUNIOR COLLEGE

2.547009 1.637364 117 56

LT HIGH SCHOOL

4.605263 4.204680 190 107

PART 2: PSPP

PART 2: R COMMANDER

Multiple Comparisons of Means: Tukey Contrasts

Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)

GRADUATE – BACHELOR == 0 -0.1283 0.2869 -0.447 0.991238

HIGH SCHOOL – BACHELOR == 0 0.9456 0.1960 4.823 < 0.0001 ***

JUNIOR COLLEGE – BACHELOR == 0 0.4270 0.2901 1.472 0.568645

LT HIGH SCHOOL – BACHELOR == 0 2.4853 0.2507 9.912 < 0.0001 ***

HIGH SCHOOL – GRADUATE == 0 1.0738 0.2513 4.272 0.000177 ***

JUNIOR COLLEGE – GRADUATE == 0 0.5553 0.3300 1.683 0.432529

LT HIGH SCHOOL – GRADUATE == 0 2.6135 0.2960 8.830 < 0.0001 ***

JUNIOR COLLEGE – HIGH SCHOOL == 0 -0.5186 0.2550 -2.034 0.240659

LT HIGH SCHOOL – HIGH SCHOOL == 0 1.5397 0.2091 7.362 < 0.0001 ***

LT HIGH SCHOOL – JUNIOR COLLEGE == 0 2.0583 0.2991 6.882 < 0.0001 ***

Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ‘ 1

(Adjusted p values reported — single-step method)

PART 2

Test whether there is an association between a person’s educational attainment and how much television they watch. Use the GSS2008 data set to perform an ANOVA on respondents’ highest educational degree (DEGREE) and the hours per day they watch television (TVHOURS)

1. Mean hours for people with less than a high school degree 4.61

2. Mean hours for people with a high school degree 3.07

3. Mean hours for people with a junior college degree 2.55

4. Mean hours for people with a bachelor’s degree 2.12

5. Mean hours for people with a graduate degree 1.99

6. ANOVA significance level .000

7. Is the relationship statistically significant YES

PART 2

Test whether there is an association between a person’s educational attainment and how much television they watch. Use the GSS2008 data set to perform an ANOVA on respondents’ highest educational degree (DEGREE) and the hours per day they watch television (TVHOURS)

8. According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the mean of those with a “high school degree”?

Except for “Junior College” all of the other categories are significantly different from the mean of those in high school (ALL at Sig. = .000). The mean for “Junior College” is not significantly different (Sig. = .250)

homework?

Week 4: APN Professional Development Plan Paper

Purpose 

The purpose of this assignment is to provide the student with an opportunity to explore the nurse practitioner (NP) practice requirements in his/her state of practice, NP competencies and leadership skills to develop a plan to support professional development. 

Activity Learning Outcomes 

Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to: 

1. Examine roles and competencies of advanced practice nurses essential to performing as leaders and advocates of holistic, safe, and quality care. (CO1)  

2. Analyze essential skills needed to lead within the context of complex systems. (CO3) 

3. Explore the process of scholarship engagement to improve health and healthcare outcomes in various settings. (CO4) 

Due Date

Assignment should be submitted to the Week 4 Roles in APN Professional Development Plan dropbox by Sunday 11:59 p.m. MST at the end of Week 4.  

When the assignment is placed in the dropbox, it will automatically be submitted to Turnitin. You may submit the assignment one additional time before the due date to lower the Turnitin score. If you choose to resubmit, the second submission will be considered final and subject to grading.  Once the due date for the assignment passes, you may not resubmit to lower a Turnitin score. 

This assignment will follow the late assignment policy specified in the course syllabus. 

Students are expected to submit assignments by the time they are due. Assignments submitted after the due date and time will receive a deduction of 10% of the total points possible for that assignment for each day the assignment is late. Assignments will be accepted, with penalty as described, up to a maximum of three days late, after which point a zero will be recorded for the assignment. 

In the event of a situation that prevents timely submission of an assignment, students may petition their instructor for a waiver of the late submission grade reduction. The instructor will review the student’s rationale for the request and make a determination based on the merits of the student’s appeal. Consideration of the student’s total course performance to date will be a contributing factor in the determination. Students should continue to attend class, actively participate, and complete other assignments while the appeal is pending. 

 Total Points Possible:  200 

Requirements


Week 4 Paper Template
 to be used for your assignment is required for this assignment.

1. The APN Professional Development Plan paper is worth 200 points and will be graded on the quality of the content, use of citations, use of Standard English grammar, sentence structure, and overall organization based on the required components as summarized in the directions and grading criteria/rubric. 

2. Submit the paper as a Microsoft Word Document, which is the required format at Chamberlain University. You are encouraged to use the APA Academic Writer and Grammarly tools when creating your assignment. 

3. Follow the directions below and the grading criteria located in the rubric closely. Any questions about this paper may be posted under the Q & A Forum or emailed to your faculty. 

4. The length of the paper should be 5-8 pages, excluding title page and reference page(s). 

5. Support ideas with a minimum of 3 scholarly resources. Scholarly resources do not include your textbook. You may need to use more than 3 scholarly resources to fully support your ideas. 

6. You may use first person voice when discussing information specific to your personal practice or skills.  

7. Current edition APA format is required with both a title page and reference page(s). Use the following as Level 1 headings to denote the sections of your paper (Level 1 headings use upper- and lower-case letters and are bold and centered): 

· APN Professional Development Plan (This is the paper introduction. In APA format, a restatement of the paper title, centered and bold serves as the heading of the introduction section) 

· APN Scope of Practice 

· Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies  

· Leadership Skills 

· Conclusion 

Directions

1. Introduction: Provide an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include general statements on scope of practice, competencies, and leadership, and identification of the purpose of the paper. 

2. APN Scope of Practice: Research the Nurse Practice Act and APN scope of practice guidelines for the state in which you intend to practice after graduation. (Example: Students who intend to practice in California must research the California Nurse Practice Act and relevant Board of Registered Nursing regulations, such as obtaining a DEA number, and prescriptive requirements).  Describe the educational, licensure, and regulatory requirements for that state in your own words. Identify whether your state allows full, limited, or restricted NP practice. Discuss NP prescriptive authority in your state. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be the regulatory body that governs nursing practice in your state. (Students who intend to practice in California, include the use of written standard procedures that guide nurse practitioner practice in the state and physician supervision ratios).

3. Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies: Review the NONPF Core Competencies. Describe two competency areas you believe to be personal strengths and two competency areas in which you have opportunities for growth. Discuss two scholarly activities you could do during the master’s program to help yourself achieve NP competencies. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be NONPF Core Competencies document provided via the link in the week 2 readings. 

4. Leadership Skills: Analyze three leadership skills required to lead as an NP within complex systems. Describe two strategies you could use to help you develop NP leadership skills. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Textbooks are not considered scholarly sources. 

5. Conclusion: Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what you discussed in the paper. 

ASSIGNMENT CONTENT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

Introduction 

16 

8% 

Provides an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include:  

1. general statements on scope of practice. 

2. general statements on NP competencies. 

3. general statements on leadership. 

4. identification of the purpose of the paper. 

APN Scope of Practice 

72 

36% 

1. Identify the intended state of practice after graduation.

2. Describe the educational, licensure, and regulatory requirements for state. 

3. Identify whether the state allows full, limited, or restricted NP practice. 

4. Discuss NP prescriptive authority in the state.   

Provides support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be the regulatory body that governs nursing practice in the state. 

 

Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies 

38 

19% 

1. Describe two competency areas believed to be student’s personal strengths.  

2. Describes two competency areas in which student has opportunities for growth. 

3. Discuss two scholarly activities to do during the master’s program to help student achieve NP competencies. 

Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be NONPF Core Competencies document provided via the link in the week 2 readings. 

Leadership Skills 

38 

19% 

1. Analyze three leadership skills required to lead as an NP within complex systems. 

2. Describe two strategies student could use to help develop NP leadership skills. 

Provide support from at least one scholarly source.  

Conclusion 

16 

8% 

Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what was discussed in the paper. 

 

180 

90% 

Total CONTENT Points= 180 points 

ASSIGNMENT FORMAT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

APA Formatting 

10 

5% 

Formatting follows current edition APA Manual guidelines for  

1. title page 

2. body of paper (including citations and headings) 

3. reference page 

Writing Mechanics 

10 

5% 

Writing mechanics follow the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation, and other aspects of formal written work as found in the current edition of the APA manual. The length of the paper is at least 5 pages but no more than 8 pages. 

 

20 

10% 

Total FORMAT Points= 20 points 

 

200 

100% 

ASSIGNMENT TOTAL=200 points 

 

homework?

Week 4: APN Professional Development Plan Paper

Purpose 

The purpose of this assignment is to provide the student with an opportunity to explore the nurse practitioner (NP) practice requirements in his/her state of practice, NP competencies and leadership skills to develop a plan to support professional development. 

Activity Learning Outcomes 

Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to: 

1. Examine roles and competencies of advanced practice nurses essential to performing as leaders and advocates of holistic, safe, and quality care. (CO1)  

2. Analyze essential skills needed to lead within the context of complex systems. (CO3) 

3. Explore the process of scholarship engagement to improve health and healthcare outcomes in various settings. (CO4) 

Due Date

Assignment should be submitted to the Week 4 Roles in APN Professional Development Plan dropbox by Sunday 11:59 p.m. MST at the end of Week 4.  

When the assignment is placed in the dropbox, it will automatically be submitted to Turnitin. You may submit the assignment one additional time before the due date to lower the Turnitin score. If you choose to resubmit, the second submission will be considered final and subject to grading.  Once the due date for the assignment passes, you may not resubmit to lower a Turnitin score. 

This assignment will follow the late assignment policy specified in the course syllabus. 

Students are expected to submit assignments by the time they are due. Assignments submitted after the due date and time will receive a deduction of 10% of the total points possible for that assignment for each day the assignment is late. Assignments will be accepted, with penalty as described, up to a maximum of three days late, after which point a zero will be recorded for the assignment. 

In the event of a situation that prevents timely submission of an assignment, students may petition their instructor for a waiver of the late submission grade reduction. The instructor will review the student’s rationale for the request and make a determination based on the merits of the student’s appeal. Consideration of the student’s total course performance to date will be a contributing factor in the determination. Students should continue to attend class, actively participate, and complete other assignments while the appeal is pending. 

 Total Points Possible:  200 

Requirements


Week 4 Paper Template
 to be used for your assignment is required for this assignment.

1. The APN Professional Development Plan paper is worth 200 points and will be graded on the quality of the content, use of citations, use of Standard English grammar, sentence structure, and overall organization based on the required components as summarized in the directions and grading criteria/rubric. 

2. Submit the paper as a Microsoft Word Document, which is the required format at Chamberlain University. You are encouraged to use the APA Academic Writer and Grammarly tools when creating your assignment. 

3. Follow the directions below and the grading criteria located in the rubric closely. Any questions about this paper may be posted under the Q & A Forum or emailed to your faculty. 

4. The length of the paper should be 5-8 pages, excluding title page and reference page(s). 

5. Support ideas with a minimum of 3 scholarly resources. Scholarly resources do not include your textbook. You may need to use more than 3 scholarly resources to fully support your ideas. 

6. You may use first person voice when discussing information specific to your personal practice or skills.  

7. Current edition APA format is required with both a title page and reference page(s). Use the following as Level 1 headings to denote the sections of your paper (Level 1 headings use upper- and lower-case letters and are bold and centered): 

· APN Professional Development Plan (This is the paper introduction. In APA format, a restatement of the paper title, centered and bold serves as the heading of the introduction section) 

· APN Scope of Practice 

· Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies  

· Leadership Skills 

· Conclusion 

Directions

1. Introduction: Provide an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include general statements on scope of practice, competencies, and leadership, and identification of the purpose of the paper. 

2. APN Scope of Practice: Research the Nurse Practice Act and APN scope of practice guidelines for the state in which you intend to practice after graduation. (Example: Students who intend to practice in California must research the California Nurse Practice Act and relevant Board of Registered Nursing regulations, such as obtaining a DEA number, and prescriptive requirements).  Describe the educational, licensure, and regulatory requirements for that state in your own words. Identify whether your state allows full, limited, or restricted NP practice. Discuss NP prescriptive authority in your state. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be the regulatory body that governs nursing practice in your state. (Students who intend to practice in California, include the use of written standard procedures that guide nurse practitioner practice in the state and physician supervision ratios).

3. Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies: Review the NONPF Core Competencies. Describe two competency areas you believe to be personal strengths and two competency areas in which you have opportunities for growth. Discuss two scholarly activities you could do during the master’s program to help yourself achieve NP competencies. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be NONPF Core Competencies document provided via the link in the week 2 readings. 

4. Leadership Skills: Analyze three leadership skills required to lead as an NP within complex systems. Describe two strategies you could use to help you develop NP leadership skills. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Textbooks are not considered scholarly sources. 

5. Conclusion: Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what you discussed in the paper. 

ASSIGNMENT CONTENT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

Introduction 

16 

8% 

Provides an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include:  

1. general statements on scope of practice. 

2. general statements on NP competencies. 

3. general statements on leadership. 

4. identification of the purpose of the paper. 

APN Scope of Practice 

72 

36% 

1. Identify the intended state of practice after graduation.

2. Describe the educational, licensure, and regulatory requirements for state. 

3. Identify whether the state allows full, limited, or restricted NP practice. 

4. Discuss NP prescriptive authority in the state.   

Provides support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be the regulatory body that governs nursing practice in the state. 

 

Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies 

38 

19% 

1. Describe two competency areas believed to be student’s personal strengths.  

2. Describes two competency areas in which student has opportunities for growth. 

3. Discuss two scholarly activities to do during the master’s program to help student achieve NP competencies. 

Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be NONPF Core Competencies document provided via the link in the week 2 readings. 

Leadership Skills 

38 

19% 

1. Analyze three leadership skills required to lead as an NP within complex systems. 

2. Describe two strategies student could use to help develop NP leadership skills. 

Provide support from at least one scholarly source.  

Conclusion 

16 

8% 

Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what was discussed in the paper. 

 

180 

90% 

Total CONTENT Points= 180 points 

ASSIGNMENT FORMAT 

Category 

Points 

% 

Description 

APA Formatting 

10 

5% 

Formatting follows current edition APA Manual guidelines for  

1. title page 

2. body of paper (including citations and headings) 

3. reference page 

Writing Mechanics 

10 

5% 

Writing mechanics follow the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation, and other aspects of formal written work as found in the current edition of the APA manual. The length of the paper is at least 5 pages but no more than 8 pages. 

 

20 

10% 

Total FORMAT Points= 20 points 

 

200 

100% 

ASSIGNMENT TOTAL=200 points 

 

homework

Raymond Chandler
The Simple Art of Murder
An Essay
(1950)

© R.Chandler, The Simple Art of Murder, 1950

Source: R.Chandler. The Simple Art of Murder (collection)

E-Text: Greylib .

 

Fiction in any form has always intended to be realistic. Old-fashioned novels which now seem stilted and artificial to the point of burlesque did not appear that way to the people who first read them. Writers like Fielding and Smollett could seem realistic in the modern sense because they dealt largely with uninhibited characters, many of whom were about two jumps ahead of the police, but Jane Austen’s chronicles of highly inhibited people against a background of rural gentility seem real enough psychologically. There is plenty of that kind of social and emotional hypocrisy around today. Add to it a liberal dose of intellectual pretentiousness and you get the tone of the book page in your daily paper and the earnest and fatuous atmosphere breathed by discussion groups in little clubs. These are the people who make best sellers, which are promotional jobs based on a sort of indirect snob appeal, carefully escorted by the trained seals of the critical fraternity, and lovingly tended and watered by certain much too powerful pressure groups whose business is selling books, although they would like you to think they are fostering culture. Just get a little behind in your payments and you will find out how idealistic they are.

The detective story for a variety of reasons can seldom be promoted. It is usually about murder and hence lacks the element of uplift. Murder, which is a frustration of the individual and hence a frustration of the race, may have, and in fact has, a good deal of sociological implication. But it has been going on too long for it to be news. If the mystery novel is at all realistic (which it very seldom is) it is written in a certain spirit of detachment; otherwise nobody but a psychopath would want to write it or read it. The murder novel has also a depressing way of minding its own business, solving its own problems and answering its own questions. There is nothing left to discuss, except whether it was well enough written to be good fiction, and the people who make up the half-million sales wouldn’t know that anyway. The detection of quality in writing is difficult enough even for those who make a career of the job, without paying too much attention to the matter of advance sales.

The detective story (perhaps I had better call it that, since the English formula still dominates the trade) has to find its public by a slow process of distillation. That it does do this, and holds on thereafter with such tenacity, is a fact; the reasons for it are a study for more patient minds than mine. Nor is it any part of my thesis to maintain that it is a vital and significant form of art. There are no vital and significant forms of art; there is only art, and precious little of that. The growth of populations has in no way increased the amount; it has merely increased the adeptness with which substitutes can be produced and packaged.

Yet the detective story, even in its most conventional form, is difficult to write well. Good specimens of the art are much rarer than good serious novels. Second-rate items outlast most of the high-velocity fiction, and a great many that should never have been born simply refuse to die at all. They are as durable as the statues in public parks and just about as dull.

This fact is annoying to people of what is called discernment. They do not like it that penetrating and important works of fiction of a few years back stand on their special shelf in the library marked “Best-sellers of Yesteryear” or something, and nobody goes near them but an occasional shortsighted customer who bends down, peers briefly and hurries away; while at the same time old ladies jostle each other at the mystery shelf to grab off some item of the same vintage with such a title as “The Triple Petunia Murder Case” or “Inspector Pinchbottle to the Rescue”. They do not like it at all that “really important books” (and some of them are too, in a way) get the frosty mitt at the reprint counter while “Death Wears Yellow Garters” is put out in editions of fifty or one hundred thousand copies on the newsstands of the country, and is obviously not there just to say goodbye.

To tell the truth, I do not like it very much myself. In my less stilted moments I too write detective stories, and all this immortality makes just a little too much competition. Even Einstein couldn’t get very far if three hundred treatises of the higher physics were published every year, and several thousand others in some form or other were hanging around in excellent condition, and being read too.

Hemingway says somewhere that the good writer competes only with the dead. The good detective story writer (there must after all be a few) competes not only with all the unburied dead but with all the hosts of the living as well. And on almost equal terms; for it is one of the qualities of this kind of writing that the thing that makes people read it never goes out of style. The hero’s tie may be a little out of the mode and the good gray inspector may arrive in a dogcart instead of a streamlined sedan with siren screaming, but what he does when he gets there is the same old futzing around with timetables and bits of charred paper and who trampled the jolly old flowering arbutus under the library window.

I have, however, a less sordid interest in the matter. It seems to me that production of detective stories on so large a scale, and by writers whose immediate reward is small and whose need of critical praise is almost nil, would not be possible at all if the job took any talent. In that sense the raised eyebrow of the critic and the shoddy merchandising of the publisher are perfectly logical. The average detective story is probably no worse than the average novel, but you never see the average novel. It doesn’t get published. The average-or only slightly above average-detective story does. Not only is it published but it is sold in small quantities to rental libraries and it is read. There are even a few optimists who buy it at the full retail price of two dollars, because it looks so fresh and new and there is a picture of a corpse on the cover.

And the strange thing is that this average, more than middling dull, pooped-out piece of utterly unreal and mechanical fiction is really not very different from what are called the masterpieces of the art. It drags on a little more slowly, the dialogue is a shade grayer, the cardboard out of which the characters are cut is a shade thinner, and the cheating is a little more obvious. But it is the same kind of book, Whereas the good novel is not at all the same kind of book as the bad novel. It is about entirely different things. But the good detective story and the bad detective story are about exactly the same things, and they are about them in very much the same way. There are reasons for this too, and reasons for the reasons; there always are.

I suppose the principal dilemma of the traditional or classic or straight deductive or logic and deduction novel of detection is that for any approach to perfection it demands a combination of qualities not found in the same mind. The coolheaded constructionist does not also come across with lively characters, sharp dialogue, a sense of pace, and an acute use of observed detail. The grim logician has as much atmosphere as a drawing board. The scientific sleuth has a nice new shiny laboratory, but I’m sorry I can’t remember the face. The fellow who can write you a vivid and colorful prose simply will not be bothered with the coolie labor of breaking down unbreakable alibis.

The master of rare knowledge is living psychologically in the age of the hoop skirt. If you know all you should know about ceramics and Egyptian needlework, you don’t know anything at all about the police. If you know that platinum won’t melt under about 30000 F. by itself, but will melt at the glance of a pair of deep blue eyes if you put it near a bar of lead, then you don’t know how men make love in the twentieth century. And if you know enough about the elegant flвnerie of the prewar French Riviera to lay your story in that locale, you don’t know that a couple of capsules of barbital small enough to be swallowed will not only not kill a man-they will not even put him to sleep if he fights against them.

 

Every detective story writer makes mistakes, of course, and none will ever know as much as he should. Conan Doyle made mistakes which completely invalidated some of his stories, but he was a pioneer, and Sherlock Holmes after all is mostly an attitude and a few dozen lines of unforgettable dialogue. It is the ladies and gentlemen of what Mr. Howard Haycraft(in his book “Murder for Pleasure”) calls the Golden Age of detective fiction that really get me down. This age is not remote. For Mr. Haycraft’s purpose it starts after the First World War and lasts up to about 1930. For all practical purposes it is still here. Two thirds or three quarters of all the detective stories published still adhere to the formula the giants of this era created, perfected, polished, and sold to the world as problems in logic and deduction.

These are stern words, but be not alarmed. They are only words. Let us glance at one of the glories of the literature, an acknowledged masterpiece of the art of fooling the reader without cheating him. It is called “The Red House Mystery”, was written by A. A. Milne, and has been named by Alexander Woollcott (rather a fast man with a superlative) “one of the three best mystery stories of all time.” Words of that size are not spoken lightly. The book was published in 1922 but is timeless, and might as easily have been published in July, 1939, or, with a few slight changes, last week. It ran thirteen editions and seems to have been in print, in the original format, for about sixteen years. That happens to few books of any kind. It is an agreeable book, light, amusing in the Punch style, written with a deceptive smoothness that is not so easy as it looks.

It concerns Mark Ablett’s impersonation of his brother Robert as a hoax on his friends. Mark is the owner of the Red House, a typical laburnum-and-lodge-gate English country house. He has a secretary who encourages him and abets him in this impersonation, and who is going to murder him if he pulls it off. Nobody around the Red House has ever seen Robert, fifteen years absent in Australia and known by repute as a no-good. A letter is talked about (but never shown) announcing Robert’s arrival, and Mark hints it will not be a pleasant occasion. One afternoon, then, the supposed Robert arrives, identifies himself to a couple of servants, is shown into the study. Mark goes in after him (according to testimony at the inquest). Robert is then found dead on the floor with a bullet hole in his face, and of course Mark has vanished into thin air. Arrive the police, who suspect Mark must be the murderer, remove the debris, and proceed with the investigation-and in due course, with the inquest.

Milne is aware of one very difficult hurdle and tries as well as he can to get over it. Since the secretary is going to murder Mark, once Mark has established himself as Robert, the impersonation has to continue and fool the police. Since, also, everybody around the Red House knows Mark intimately, disguise is necessary. This is achieved by shaving off Mark’s beard, roughening his hands (“not the hands of a manicured gentleman”-testimony), and the use of a gruff voice and rough manner.

But this is not enough. The cops are going to have the body and the clothes on it and whatever is in the pockets. Therefore none of this must suggest Mark. Milne therefore works like a switch engine to put over the motivation that Mark is such a thoroughly conceited performer that he dresses the part down to the socks and underwear (from all of which the secretary has removed the maker’s labels), like a ham blacking himself all over to play Othello. If the reader will buy this (and the sales record shows he must have), Milne figures he is solid. Yet, however light in texture the story may be, it is offered as a problem of logic and deduction.

If it is not that, it is nothing at all. There is nothing else for it to be. If the situation is false, you cannot even accept it as a light novel, for there is no story for the light novel to be about. If the problem does not contain the elements of truth and plausibility, it is no problem; if the logic is an illusion, there is nothing to deduce. If the impersonation is impossible once the reader is told the conditions it must fulfill, then the whole thing is a fraud. Not a deliberate fraud, because Milne would not have written the story if he had known what he was up against. He is up against a number of deadly things, none of which he even considers. Nor, apparently, does the casual reader, who wants to like the story-hence takes it at its face value. But the reader is not called upon to know the facts of life when the author does not. The author is the expert in the case.

Here is what this author ignores:

1. The coroner holds formal jury inquest on a body for which no legal competent identification is offered. A coroner, usually in a big city, will sometimes hold inquest on a body that cannot be identified, if the record of such an inquest has or may have a value (fire, disaster, evidence of murder). No such reason exists here, and there is no one to identify the body. Witnesses said the man said he was Robert Ablett. This is mere presumption, and has weight only if nothing conflicts with it. Identification is a condition precedent to an inquest. It is a matter of law. Even in death a man has a right to his own identity. The coroner will, wherever humanly possible, enforce that right. To neglect it would be a violation of his office.

2. Since Mark Ablett, missing and suspected of the murder, cannot defend himself, all evidence of his movements before and after the murder is vital (as also whether he has money to run away on); yet all such evidence is given by the man closest to the murder and is without corroboration. It is automatically suspect until proved true.

3. The police find by direct investigation that Robert Ablett was not well thought of in his native village. Somebody there must have known him. No such person was brought to the inquest. (The story couldn’t stand it.)

4. The police know there is an element of threat in Robert’s supposed visit, and that it is connected with the murder must be obvious to them. Yet they make no attempt to check Robert in Australia, or find out what character he had there, or what associates, or even if he actually came to England, and with whom. (If they had, they would have found out he had been dead three years.)

5. The police surgeon examines a body with a recently shaved beard (exposing unweathered skin) and artificially roughened hands, but it is the body of a wealthy, soft-living man, long resident in a cool climate. Robert was a rough individual and had lived fifteen years in Australia. That is the surgeon’s information. It is impossible he would have noticed nothing to conflict with it.

6. The clothes are nameless, empty, and have had the labels removed. Yet the man wearing them asserted an identity. The presumption that he was not what he said he was is overpowering. Nothing whatever is done about his peculiar circumstance. It is never even mentioned as being peculiar.

7. A man is missing, a well-known local man, and a body in the morgue closely resembles him. It is impossible that the police should not at once eliminate the chance that the missing man is the dead man. Nothing would be easier than to prove it. Not even to think of it is incredible. It makes idiots of the police, so that a brash amateur may startle the world with a fake solution.

The detective in the case is an insouciant amateur named Anthony Gillingham, a nice lad with a cheery eye, a nice little flat in town, and that airy manner. He is not making any money on the assignment, but is always available when the local gendarmerie loses its notebook. The English police endure him with their customary stoicism, but I shudder to think what the boys down at the Homicide Bureau in my city would do to him.

 

There are even less plausible examples of the art than this. In “Trent’s Last Case” (often called the perfect detective story you have to accept the premise that a giant of international finance, whose lightest frown makes Wall Street quiver like a chihuahua, will plot his own death so as to hang his secretary, and that the secretary when pinched will maintain an aristocratic silence-the old Etonian in him, maybe. I have known relatively few international financiers, but I rather think the author of this novel has (if possible) known fewer.

There is another one, by Freeman Wills Crofts (the soundest builder of them all when he doesn’t get too fancy), wherein a murderer, by the aid of make-up, split-second timing and some very sweet evasive action, impersonates the man he has just killed and thereby gets him alive and distant from the place of the crime. There is one by Dorothy Sayers in which a man is murdered alone at night in his house by a mechanically released weight which works because he always turns the radio on at just such a moment, always stands in just such a position in front of it, and always bends over just so far. A couple of inches either way and the customers would get a rain check. This is what is vulgarly known as having God sit in your lap; a murderer who needs that much help from Providence must be in the wrong business.

And there is a scheme of Agatha Christie’s featuring M. Hercule Poirot, that ingenious Belgian who talks in a literal translation of school-boy French. By duly messing around with his “little gray cells” M. Poirot decides that since nobody on a certain through sleeper could have done the murder alone, everybody did it together, breaking the process down into a series of simple operations like assembling an egg beater. This is the type that is guaranteed to knock the keenest mind for a loop. Only a halfwit could guess it.

There are much better plots by these same writers and by others of their school. There maybe one somewhere that would really stand up under close scrutiny. It would be fun to read it, even if I did have to go back to page 47 and refresh my memory about exactly what time the second gardener potted the prize-winning tea-rose begonia. There is nothing new about these stories and nothing old. The ones I mentioned are all English because the authorities, such as they are, seem to feel that the English writers had an edge in this dreary routine and that the Americans, even the creator of Philo Vance, only make the Junior Varsity.

This, the classic detective story, has learned nothing and forgotten nothing. It is the story you will find almost any week in the big shiny magazines, handsomely illustrated, and paying due deference to virginal love and the right kind of luxury goods. Perhaps the tempo has become a trifle faster and the dialogue a little more glib. There are more frozen daiquiris and stingers and fewer glasses of crusty old port, more clothes by Vogue and dйcors by “House Beautiful”, more chic, but not more truth. We spend more time in Miami hotels and Cape Cod summer colonies and go not so often down by the old gray sundial in the Elizabethan garden.

But fundamentally it is the same careful grouping of suspects, the same utterly incomprehensible trick of how somebody stabbed Mrs. Pottington Postlethwaite III with the solid platinum poniard just as she flatted on the top note of the “Bell Song” from Lakmй in the presence of fifteen ill-assorted guests; the same ingenue in fur-trimmed pajamas screaming in the night to make the company pop in and out of doors and ball up the timetable; the same moody silence next day as they sit around sipping Singapore slings and sneering at each other, while the flatfeet crawl to and fro under the Persian rugs, with their derby hats on.

Personally I like the English style better. It is not quite so brittle and the people as a rule just wear clothes and drink drinks. There is more sense of background, as if Cheesecake Manor really existed all around and not just in the part the camera sees; there are more long walks over the downs and the characters don’t all try to behave as if they had just been tested by MGM. The English may not always be the best writers in the world, but they are incomparably the best dull Writers.

 

There is a very simple statement to be made about all these stories: they do not really come off intellectually as problems, and they do not come off artistically as fiction. They are too contrived, and too little aware of what goes on in the world. They try to be honest, but honesty is an art. The poor writer is dishonest without knowing it, and the fairly good one can be dishonest because he doesn’t know what to be honest about. He thinks a complicated murder scheme which baffled the lazy reader, who won’t be bothered itemizing the details, will also baffle the police, whose business is with details.

The boys with their feet on the desks know that the easiest murder case in the world to break is the one somebody tried to get very cute with; the one that really bothers them is the murder somebody thought of only two minutes before he pulled it off. But if the writers of this fiction wrote about the kind of murders that happen, they would also have to write about the authentic flavor of life as it is lived. And since they cannot do that, they pretend that what they do is what should be done. Which is begging the question-and the best of them know it.

In her introduction to the first “Omnibus of Crime”, Dorothy Sayers wrote: “It (the detective story) does not, and by hypothesis never can, attain the loftiest level of literary achievement.” And she suggested somewhere else that this is because it is a “literature of escape” and not “a literature of expression.” I do not know what the loftiest level of literary achievement is: neither did Aeschylus or Shakespeare; neither does Miss Sayers. Other things being equal, which they never are, a more powerful theme will provoke a more powerful performance. Yet some very dull books have been written about God, and some very fine ones about how to make a living and stay fairly honest. It is always a matter of who writes the stuff, and what he has in him to write it with.

As for “literature of expression” and “literature of escape”-this is critics’ jargon, a use of abstract words as if they had absolute meanings. Everything written with vitality expresses that vitality: there are no dull subjects, only dull minds. All men who read escape from something else into what lies behind the printed page; the quality of the dream may be argued, but its release has become a functional necessity. All men must escape at times from the deadly rhythm of their private thoughts. It is part of the process of life among thinking beings. It is one of the things that distinguish them from the three-toed sloth; he apparently-one can never be quite sure-is perfectly content hanging upside down on a branch, not even reading Walter Lippmann. I hold no particular brief for the detective story as the ideal escape. I merely say that all reading for pleasure is escape, whether it be Greek, mathematics, astronomy, Benedetto Croce, or “The Diary of the Forgotten Man”. To say otherwise is to be an intellectual snob, and a juvenile at the art of living.

I do not think such considerations moved Miss Dorothy Sayers to her essay in critical futility.

I think what was really gnawing at Miss Sayers’ mind was the slow realization that her kind of detective story was an arid formula which could not even satisfy its own implications. It was second-grade literature because it was not about the things that could make first-grade literature. If it started out to be about real people (and she could write about them-her minor characters show that), they must very soon do unreal things in order to form the artificial pattern required by the plot. When they did unreal things, they ceased to be real themselves. They became puppets and cardboard lovers and papier-mвchй villains and detectives of exquisite and impossible gentility.

The only kind of writer who could be happy with these properties was the one who did not know what reality was. Dorothy Sayers’ own stories show that she was annoyed by this triteness; the weakest element in them is the part that makes them detective stories, the strongest the part which could be removed without touching the “problem of logic and deduction.” Yet she could not or would not give her characters their heads and let them make their own mystery. It took a much simpler and more direct mind than hers to do that.

 

In “The Long Week End”, which is a drastically competent account of English life and manners in the decades following the First World War, Robert Graves and Alan Hodge gave some attention to the detective story. They were just as traditionally English as the ornaments of the Golden Age, and they wrote of the time in which these writers were almost as well known as any writers in the world. Their hooks in one form or another sold into the millions, and in a dozen languages. These were the people who fixed the form and established the rules and founded the famous Detection Club, which is a Parnassus of English writers of mystery. Its roster includes practically every important writer of detective fiction since Conan Doyle.

But Graves and Hodge decided that during this whole period only one first-class writer had written detective stories at all. An American, Dashiell Hammett. Traditional or not, Graves and Hodge were not fuddyduddy connoisseurs of the secondrate; they could see what went on in the world and that the detective story of their time didn’t; and they were aware that writers who have the vision and the ability to produce real fiction do not produce unreal fiction.

How original a writer Hammett really was it isn’t easy to decide now, even if it mattered. He was one of a group-the only one who achieved critical recognition-who wrote or tried to write realistic mystery fiction. All literary movements are like this; some one individual is picked out to represent the whole movement; he is usually the culmination of the movement. Hammett was the ace performer, but there is nothing in his work that is not implicit in the early novels and short stories of Hemingway.

Yet, for all I know, Hemingway, may have learned something from Hammett as well as from writers like Dreiser, Ring Lardner, Carl Sandburg, Sherwood Anderson, and himself. A rather revolutionary debunking of both the language and the material of fiction had been going on for some time. It probably started in poetry; almost everything does. You can take it clear back to Walt Whitman, if you like. But Hammett applied it to the detective story, and this, because of its heavy crust of English gentility and American pseudogentility, was pretty hard to get moving.

I doubt that Hammett had any deliberate artistic aims whatever; he was trying to make a living by writing something he had firsthand information about. He made some of it up; all writers do; but it had a basis in fact; it was made up out of real things. The only reality the English detection writers knew was the conversational accent of Surbiton and Bognor Regis. If they wrote about dukes and Venetian vases, they knew no more about them out of their own experience than the wellheeled Hollywood character knows about the French Modernists that hang in his Bel-Air chвteau or the semi-antique Chippendale-cum-cobbler’s bench that he uses for a coffee table. Hammett took murder out of the Venetian vase and dropped it into the alley; it doesn’t have to stay there forever, but it looked like a good idea to get as far as possible from Emily Post’s idea of how a well-bred debutante gnaws a chicken wing.

Hammett wrote at first (and almost to the end) for people with a sharp, aggressive attitude to life. They were not afraid of the seamy side of things; they lived there. Violence did not dismay them; it was right down their street. Hammett gave murder back to the kind of people that commit it for reasons, not just to provide a corpse; and with the means at hand, not hand-wrought dueling pistols, curare and tropical fish. He put these people down on paper as they were, and he made them talk and think in the language they customarily used for these purposes.

He had style, but his audience didn’t know it, because it was in a language not supposed to be capable of such refinements. They thought they were getting a good meaty melodrama written in the kind of lingo they imagined they spoke themselves. It was, in a sense, but it was much more. All language begins with speech, and the speech of common men at that, but when it develops to the point of becoming a literary medium it only looks like speech. Hammett’s style at its worst was as formalized as a page of Marius the Epicurean; at its best it could say almost anything. I believe this style, which does not belong to Hammett or to anybody, but is the American language (and not even exclusively that any more), can say things he did not know how to say, or feel the need of saying. In his hands it had no overtones, left no echo, evoked no image beyond a distant hill.

Hammett is said to have lacked heart; yet the story he himself thought the most of is the record of a man’s devotion to a friend. He was spare, frugal, hard-boiled, but he did over and over again what only the best writers can ever do at all. He wrote scenes that seemed never to have been written before.

 

With all this he did not wreck the formal detective story. Nobody can; production demands a form that can be produced. Realism takes too much talent, too much knowledge, too much awareness. Hammett may have loosened it up a little here, and sharpened it a little there. Certainly all but the stupidest and most meretricious writers are more conscious of their artificiality than they used to be. And he demonstrated that the detective story can be important writing. “The Maltese Falcon” may or may not be a work of genius, but an art which is capable of it is not “by hypothesis” incapable of anything. Once a detective story can be as good as this, only the pedants will deny that it could be even better.

Hammett did something else; he made the detective story fun to write, not an exhausting concatenation of insignificant clues. Without him there might not have been a regional mystery as clever as Percival Wilde’s Inquest, or an ironic study as able as Raymond Postgate’s “Verdict of Twelve”, or a savage piece of intellectual double-talk like Kenneth Fearing’s “The Dagger of the Mind”, or a tragi-comic idealization of the murderer as in Donald Henderson’s “Mr. Bowling Buys a Newspaper”, or even a gay Hollywoodian gambol like Richard Sale’s “Lazarus No. 7”.

The realistic style is easy to abuse: from haste, from lack of awareness, from inability to bridge the chasm that lies between what a writer would like to be able to say and what he actually knows how to say. It is easy to fake; brutality is not strength, flipness is not wit, edge-of-the-chair writing can be as boring as flat writing; dalliance with promiscuous blondes can be very dull stuff when described by goaty young men with no other purpose in mind than to describe dalliance with promiscuous blondes. There has been so much of this sort of thing that if a character in a detective story says “Yeah,” the author is automatically a Hammett imitator.

And there are still a number of people around who say that Hammett did not write detective stories at all-merely hardboiled chronicles of mean streets with a perfunctory mystery element dropped in like the olive in a martini. These are the flustered old ladies-of both sexes (or no sex) and almost all ages-who like their murders scented with magnolia blossoms and do not care to be reminded that murder is an act of infinite cruelty, even

homework

LDRS 310: The Learning Organization





Personal Mastery Paper.

File Format: Save your Microsoft Word file in the following way: 

First Name <space> Last Name <space> LDRS 310 – Personal Mastery Paper

For example, Ann Smith LDRS 310 – Personal Mastery Paper).

What is a personal mastery paper?

Personal mastery is the self-leadership discipline of lifelong learning. Senge (1990) argues the essence of this practice is “learning how to generate and sustain creative tension in our lives” (p. 124). Creative tension is the product of two important self-development practices, first, “continuously clarifying what is important to us” and second, “continuously learning how to see current reality more clearly” (p. 141).

Personal mastery is not a place where we arrive, but rather a continuous process, a lifelong discipline of taking responsibility for our personal learning and growth.

What is the writing process?

Your paper body (Content) will include four parts, based on an autobiographical method of professional learning inquiry known as currere (Pinar, 1975)[footnoteRef:1], which explores the experiences giving shape to a person’s self-understanding and life’s work. We will also use Scharmer’s (2018) Theory-U to structure this inquiry process as four reflective movements, including (a) the past, (b) the future, (c) an analysis, and (d) a synthesis for the future. [1: Pinar, W. (1975). The method of “currere”. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Research Association, Washington, DC.
]

(a) The Past. Remember past leadership experiences and leadership role models you’ve had; consider how these experiences influenced the formation of your own personal leadership attitudes, ideas, capabilities, and behaviours.

Guiding Questions:

a. How has your past shaped who you are today?

b. How has your past shaped your work or what you are presently doing?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

(b) The Future. Imagine your highest future possible in terms of the authentic leader you aspire to be, the life of intention you aspire to live, talents you aspire to develop, experiences you intend to live, communities where you aspire to connect, and the contribution that you aspire to make in the world.

Guiding Questions:

a. Who is your highest self you aspire to be? Describe what you envision yourself to be like in the future.

b. What is the work you aspire to do in the future?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

(c) The Analysis. Analyze your present state of growth in life and as a leader. What are the elements and structures that define the “present” moment in your lifelong learning journey? Connect your past and future with your current life situation. Consider the consequences of how you are presently generating creative tension (or not), are you releasing your aspirations, releasing the truth of reality, or growing?

Guiding Questions:

a. What are the current challenges and the emerging areas of possibility that your life and/or work asks you to address?

b. What about your current life/work frustrates you the most?

c. What would you have to let go of to bring your vision into reality?

i. Specifically, identify 2-3 places of internal resistance.

d. Where in your current life do you experience the beginnings (or seeds) of the future you want to create?

e. Who makes up your support community, and what do you believe are their highest hopes regarding your future journey?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

(d) The Synthesis. Define how you intend to bring the future you most desire into reality. Specifically, outline your way forward—that is, your plan—to achieving your highest future in life and as a Leader.

Guiding Questions:

a. Over the next three months, if you could prototype a microcosm of your future in which you could explore by doing, what would it look like?

b. Who is the community to help bring your future into reality and who can support you in your highest future intention?

c. If you committed to bringing your future into reality, what practical steps would you take over the next 3-7 days?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

What are the grading expectations?

A paper meeting all the expectations below demonstrates “very good work with less than 10 grammatical or APA flaws”, which according to the grading scale used in this course is a B+ grade. Work that does not meet all these expectations will receive a grade below B+.

· Demonstrates a careful understanding of the personal mastery paper’s scholarly context, audience, purpose, and all the prescribed elements.

· Follows a logical four-part reflective inquiry structure, including past, future, analysis and synthesis sections, as well as an introduction and conclusion.

· Uses straightforward language that communicates meaning to readers with clarity and fluency and is generally error-free.

· States ideas clearly, elaborates with explanations, and exemplifies using good, credible, relevant examples and other evidence, such as, expert sources. This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced.

· Correct use of APA conventions
, including 8 citations
, references documentation, document formatting, and stylistic writing elements.

To receive a grade above B+ the work must exceed all the expectations below. *

* To exceed expectations, you must demonstrate a thorough understanding of the assignment, your argumentation must be carefully constructed with insightful linkages and well-written transitions, you must have a higher density of ideas, substantial explanations, use compelling examples (personal or from expert sources), your language must be graceful, your grammar virtually error-free, and you make elegant use of APA conventions.

Page 1 of 1

Homework

 

Refer back to the interview and evaluation you conducted in the  Family Health Assessment. Identify the social determinates of health (SDOH) contributing to the family’s health status. In a 750-1,000 words, create a plan of action to incorporate health promotion strategies for this family. Include the following:

  1. Describe the SDOH that affect the family health status. What is the impact of these SDOH on the family? Discuss why these factors are prevalent for this family.
  2. Based on the information gathered through the family health assessment, recommend age-appropriate screenings for each family member. Provide support and rationale for your suggestions.
  3. Choose a health model to assist in creating a plan of action. Describe the model selected. Discuss the reasons why this health model is the best choice for this family. Provide a rationale for your reasoning.
  4. Using the model, outlined the steps for family-centered health promotion. Include strategies for communication.

Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources 

Prepare this according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, .

 

homework

LDRS 310: The Learning Organization





Personal Mastery Paper.

File Format: Save your Microsoft Word file in the following way: 

First Name <space> Last Name <space> LDRS 310 – Personal Mastery Paper

For example, Ann Smith LDRS 310 – Personal Mastery Paper).

What is a personal mastery paper?

Personal mastery is the self-leadership discipline of lifelong learning. Senge (1990) argues the essence of this practice is “learning how to generate and sustain creative tension in our lives” (p. 124). Creative tension is the product of two important self-development practices, first, “continuously clarifying what is important to us” and second, “continuously learning how to see current reality more clearly” (p. 141).

Personal mastery is not a place where we arrive, but rather a continuous process, a lifelong discipline of taking responsibility for our personal learning and growth.

What is the writing process?

Your paper body (Content) will include four parts, based on an autobiographical method of professional learning inquiry known as currere (Pinar, 1975)[footnoteRef:1], which explores the experiences giving shape to a person’s self-understanding and life’s work. We will also use Scharmer’s (2018) Theory-U to structure this inquiry process as four reflective movements, including (a) the past, (b) the future, (c) an analysis, and (d) a synthesis for the future. [1: Pinar, W. (1975). The method of “currere”. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Research Association, Washington, DC.
]

(a) The Past. Remember past leadership experiences and leadership role models you’ve had; consider how these experiences influenced the formation of your own personal leadership attitudes, ideas, capabilities, and behaviours.

Guiding Questions:

a. How has your past shaped who you are today?

b. How has your past shaped your work or what you are presently doing?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

(b) The Future. Imagine your highest future possible in terms of the authentic leader you aspire to be, the life of intention you aspire to live, talents you aspire to develop, experiences you intend to live, communities where you aspire to connect, and the contribution that you aspire to make in the world.

Guiding Questions:

a. Who is your highest self you aspire to be? Describe what you envision yourself to be like in the future.

b. What is the work you aspire to do in the future?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

(c) The Analysis. Analyze your present state of growth in life and as a leader. What are the elements and structures that define the “present” moment in your lifelong learning journey? Connect your past and future with your current life situation. Consider the consequences of how you are presently generating creative tension (or not), are you releasing your aspirations, releasing the truth of reality, or growing?

Guiding Questions:

a. What are the current challenges and the emerging areas of possibility that your life and/or work asks you to address?

b. What about your current life/work frustrates you the most?

c. What would you have to let go of to bring your vision into reality?

i. Specifically, identify 2-3 places of internal resistance.

d. Where in your current life do you experience the beginnings (or seeds) of the future you want to create?

e. Who makes up your support community, and what do you believe are their highest hopes regarding your future journey?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

(d) The Synthesis. Define how you intend to bring the future you most desire into reality. Specifically, outline your way forward—that is, your plan—to achieving your highest future in life and as a Leader.

Guiding Questions:

a. Over the next three months, if you could prototype a microcosm of your future in which you could explore by doing, what would it look like?

b. Who is the community to help bring your future into reality and who can support you in your highest future intention?

c. If you committed to bringing your future into reality, what practical steps would you take over the next 3-7 days?

1 to 2 pages double spaced

What are the grading expectations?

A paper meeting all the expectations below demonstrates “very good work with less than 10 grammatical or APA flaws”, which according to the grading scale used in this course is a B+ grade. Work that does not meet all these expectations will receive a grade below B+.

· Demonstrates a careful understanding of the personal mastery paper’s scholarly context, audience, purpose, and all the prescribed elements.

· Follows a logical four-part reflective inquiry structure, including past, future, analysis and synthesis sections, as well as an introduction and conclusion.

· Uses straightforward language that communicates meaning to readers with clarity and fluency and is generally error-free.

· States ideas clearly, elaborates with explanations, and exemplifies using good, credible, relevant examples and other evidence, such as, expert sources. This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced.

· Correct use of APA conventions
, including 8 citations
, references documentation, document formatting, and stylistic writing elements.

To receive a grade above B+ the work must exceed all the expectations below. *

* To exceed expectations, you must demonstrate a thorough understanding of the assignment, your argumentation must be carefully constructed with insightful linkages and well-written transitions, you must have a higher density of ideas, substantial explanations, use compelling examples (personal or from expert sources), your language must be graceful, your grammar virtually error-free, and you make elegant use of APA conventions.

Page 1 of 1

homework

1


2




Personal Mastery Paper

[Your Name in Given/Surname Order]

BA Leadership, Trinity Western University

LDRS 310: The Learning Organization




Personal Mastery Paper

This paper explores my life-long personal mastery of leadership experience in four reflective moments: the past, the future, the analysis, and the synthesis.

The Past

[Delete this sentence and start writing from 1 to 2 pages double spaced.]

The Future

[Delete this sentence and start writing from 1 to 2 pages double spaced.]

The Analysis

[Delete this sentence and start writing from 1 to 2 pages double spaced.]

The Synthesis




[Delete this sentence and start writing from 1 to 2 pages double spaced.]

Conclusion

[Delete this sentence and start writing from ½ to 1 page double spaced.]


References

[Delete this sentence and start writing – This paper must have at least 4 expert sources referenced, Correct use of APA conventions
, including 8 citations
, references documentation, and document formatting.]

homework

Raymond Chandler
Trouble Is My Business
(1939)

© R.Chandler, Trouble Is My Business, 1939

Source: R.Chandler. Trouble Is My Business (collection)

E-Text: Greylib .

Contents

1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8

 

ONE

Anna Halsey was about two hundred and forty pounds of middle-aged putty-faced woman in a black tailor-made suit. Her eyes were shiny black shoe buttons, her cheeks were as soft as suet and about the same color. She was sitting behind a black glass desk that looked like Napoleon’s tomb and she was smoking a cigarette in a black holder that was not quite as long as a rolled umbrella. She said: “I need a man.”

I watched her shake ash from the cigarette to the shiny top of the desk where flakes of it curled and crawled in the draft from an open window.

“I need a man good-looking enough to pick up a dame who has a sense of class, but he’s got to be tough enough to swap punches with a power shovel. I need a guy who can act like a bar lizard and backchat like Fred Allen, only better, and get hit on the head with a beer truck and think some cutie in the leg-line topped him with a breadstick.”

“It’s a cinch,” I said. “You need the New York Yankees, Robert Donat, and the Yacht Club Boys.”

“You might do,” Anna said, “cleaned up a little. Twenty bucks a day and ex’s. I haven’t brokered a job in years, but this one is out of my line. I’m in the smooth-angles of the detecting business and I make money without getting my can knocked off. Let’s see how Gladys likes you.”

She reversed the cigarette holder and tipped a key on a large black-and-chromium annunciator box. “Come in and empty Anna’s ash tray, honey.”

We waited.

The door opened and a tall blonde dressed better than the Duchess of Windsor strolled in.

She swayed elegantly across the room, emptied Anna’s ash tray, patted her fat cheek, gave me a smooth rippling glance and went out again.

“I think she blushed,” Anna said when the door closed. “I guess you still have It.”

“She blushed-and I have a dinner date with Darryl Zanuck,” I said. “Quit horsing around. What’s the story?”

“It’s to smear a girl. A redheaded number with bedroom eyes. She’s shill for a gambler and she’s got her hooks into a rich man’s pup.”

“What do I do to her?”

Anna sighed. “It’s kind of a mean job, Philip, I guess. If she’s got a record of any sort, you dig it up and toss it in her face. If she hasn’t, which is more likely as she comes from good people, it’s kind of up to you. You get an idea once in a while, don’t you?”

“I can’t remember the last one I had. What gambler and what rich man?”

“Marty Estel.”

I started to get up from my chair, then remembered that business had been bad for a month and that I needed the money.

I sat down again.

“You might get into trouble, of course,” Anna said. “I never heard of Marty bumping anybody off in the public square at high noon, but he don’t play with cigar coupons.”

“Trouble is my business,” I said. “Twenty-five a day and guarantee of two-fifty, if I pull the job.”

“I gotta make a little something for myself,” Anna whined.

“O.K. There’s plenty of coolie labor around town. Nice to have seen you looking so well. So long, Anna.”

I stood up this time. My life wasn’t worth much, but it was worth that much. Marty Estel was supposed to be pretty tough people, with the right helpers and the right protection behind him. His place was out in West Hollywood, on the Strip. He wouldn’t pull ‘anything crude, but if he pulled at all, something would pop.

“Sit down, it’s a deal,” Anna sneered. “I’m a poor old brokendown woman trying to run a high-class detective agency on nothing but fat and bad health, so take my last nickel and laugh at me.”

“Who’s the girl?” I had sat down again.

“Her name is Harriet Huntress-a swell name for the part too. She lives in the El Milano, nineteen-hundred block on North Sycamore, very high-class. Father went broke back in thirty-one and jumped out of his office window. Mother dead. Kid sister in boarding school back in Connecticut. That might make an angle.”

“Who dug up all this?”

“The client got a bunch of photostats of notes the pup had given to Marty. Fifty grand worth. The pup-he’s an adopted son to the old man-denied the notes, as kids will. So the client had the photostats experted by a guy named Arbogast, who pretends to be good at that sort of thing. He said O.K. and dug around a bit, but he’s too fat to do legwork, like me, and he’s off the case now.”

“But I could talk to him?”

“I don’t know why not.” Anna nodded several of her chins.

“This client-does he have a name?”

“Son, you have a treat coming. You can meet him in person-right now.”

She tipped the key of her call box again. “Have Mr. Jeeter come in, honey.”

“That Gladys,” I said, “does she have a steady?”

“You lay off Gladys!” Anna almost screamed at me. “She’s worth eighteen grand a year in divorce business to me. Any guy that lays a finger on her, Philip Marlowe, is practically cremated.”

“She’s got to fall some day,” I said. “Why couldn’t I catch her?”

The opening door stopped that.

I hadn’t seen him in the paneled reception room, so he must have been waiting in a private office. He hadn’t enjoyed it. He came in quickly, shut the door quickly, and yanked a thin octagonal platinum watch from his vest and glared at it. He was a tall white-blond type in pin-striped flannel of youthful cut. There was a small pink rosebud in his lapel. He had a keen frozen face, a little pouchy under the eyes, a little thick in the lips. He carried an ebony cane with a silver knob, wore spats and looked a smart sixty, but I gave him close to ten years more. I didn’t like him.

“Twenty-six minutes, Miss Halsey,” he said icily. “My time happens to be valuable. By regarding it as valuable I have managed to make a great deal of money.”

“Well, we’re trying to save you some of the money,” Anna drawled. She didn’t like him either. “Sorry to keep you waiting, Mr. Jeeter, but you wanted to see the operative I selected and I had to send for him.”

“He doesn’t look the type to me,” Mr. Jeeter said, giving me a nasty glance. “I think more of a gentleman-“

“You’re not the Jeeter of _Tobacco Road_, are you?” I asked him.

He came slowly towards me and half lifted the stick. His icy eyes tore at me like claws. “So you insult me,” he said. “Me-a man in my position.”

“Now wait a minute,” Anna began.

“Wait a minute nothing,” I said. “This party said I was not a gentleman. Maybe that’s O.K. for a man in his position, whatever it is-but a man in my position doesn’t take a dirty crack from anybody. He can’t afford to. Unless, of course, it wasn’t intended.”

Mr. Jeeter stiffened and glared at me. He took his watch out again and looked at it. “Twenty-eight minutes,” he said. “I apologize, young man. I had no desire to be rude.”

“That’s swell,” I said. “I knew you weren’t the Jeeter in _Tobacco Road_ all along.”

That almost started him again, but he let it go. He wasn’t sure how I meant it.

“A question or two while we are together,” I said. “Are you willing to give this Huntress girl a little money-for expenses?”

“Not one cent,” he barked. “Why should I?”

“It’s got to be a sort of custom. Suppose she married him. What would he have?”

“At the moment a thousand dollars a month from a trust fund established by his mother, my late wife.” He dipped his head. “When he is twenty-eight years old, far too much money.”

“You can’t blame the girl for trying,” I said. “Not these days. How about Marty Estel? Any settlement there?”

He crumpled his gray gloves with a purple-veined hand. “The debt is uncollectible. It is a gambling debt.”

Anna sighed wearily and flicked ash around on her desk.

“Sure,” I said. “But gamblers can’t afford to let people welsh on them. After all, if your son had won, Marty would have paid _him_.”

“I’m not interested in that,” the tall thin man said coldly.

“Yeah, but think of Marty sitting there with fifty grand in notes. Not worth a nickel. How will he sleep nights?”

Mr. Jeeter looked thoughtful. “You mean there is danger of violence?” he suggested, almost suavely.

“That’s hard to say. He runs an exclusive place, gets a good movie crowd. He has his own reputation to think of. But he’s in a racket and he knows people. Things can happen-a long way off from where Marty is. And Marty is no bathmat. He gets up and walks.”

Mr. Jeeter looked at his watch again and it annoyed him. He slammed it back into his vest. “All that is your affair,” he snapped. “The district attorney is a personal friend of mine. If this matter seems to be beyond your powers-“

“Yeah,” I told him. “But you came slumming down our street just the same. Even if the D.A. is in your vest pocket-along with that watch.”

He put his hat on, drew on one glove, tapped the edge of his shoe with his stick, walked to the door and opened it.

“I ask results and I pay for them,” he said coldly. “I pay promptly. I even pay generously sometimes, although I am not considered a generous man. I think we all understand one another.”

He almost winked then and went on out. The door closed softly against the cushion of air in the door-closer. I looked at Anna and grinned.

“Sweet, isn’t he?” she said. “I’d like eight of him for my cocktail set.”

I gouged twenty dollars out of her-for expenses.


 

TWO

The Arbogast I wanted was John D. Arbogast and he had an office on Sunset near Ivar. I called him up from a phone booth. The voice that answered was fat. It wheezed softly, like the voice of a man who had just won a pie-eating contest.

“Mr. John D. Arbogast?”

“Yeah.”

“This is Philip Marlowe, a private detective working on a case you did some experting on. Party named Jeeter.”

“Yeah?”

“Can I come up and talk to you about it-after I eat lunch?”

“Yeah.” He hung up. I decided he was not a talkative man.

I had lunch and drove out there. It was east of Ivar, an old two-story building faced with brick which had been painted recently. The street floor was stores and a restaurant. The building entrance was the foot of a wide straight stairway to the second floor. On the directory at the bottom I read: John D. Arbogast, Suite 212. I went up the stairs and found myself in a wide straight hall that ran parallel with the street. A man in a smock was standing in an open doorway down to my right. He wore a round mirror strapped to his forehead and pushed back, and his face had a puzzled expression. He went back to his office and shut the door.

I went the other way, about half the distance along the hall. A door on the side away from Sunset was lettered: JOHN D. ARBOGAST, EXAMINER OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS. PRIVATE INVESTIGATOR. ENTER. The door opened without resistance onto a small windowless anteroom with a couple of easy chairs, some magazines, two chromium smoking stands. There were two floor lamps and a ceiling fixture, all lighted. A door on the other side of the cheap but thick new rug was lettered: JOHN D. ARBOGAST, EXAMINER OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS. PRIVATE.

A buzzer had rung when I opened the outer door and gone on ringing until it closed. Nothing happened. Nobody was in the waiting room. The inner door didn’t open. I went over and listened at the panel-no sound of conversation inside. I knocked. That didn’t buy me anything either. I tried the knob. It turned, so I opened the door and went in.

This room had two north windows, both curtained at the sides and both shut tight. There was dust on the sills. There was a desk, two filing cases, a carpet which was just a carpet, and walls which were just walls. To the left another door with a glass panel was lettered: JOHN D. ARBOGAST. LABORATORY. PRIVATE.

I had an idea I might be able to remember the name.

The room in which I stood was small. It seemed almost too small even for the pudgy hand that rested on the edge of the desk, motionless, holding a fat pencil like a carpenter’s pencil. The hand had a wrist, hairless as a plate. A buttoned shirt cuff, not too clean, came down out of a coat sleeve. The rest of the sleeve dropped over the far edge of the desk out of sight. The desk was less than six feet long, so he couldn’t have been a very tall man. The hand and the ends of the sleeves were all I saw of him from where I stood. I went quietly back through the anteroom and fixed its door so that it couldn’t be opened from the outside and put out the three lights and went back to the private office. I went around an end of the desk.

He was fat all right, enormously fat, fatter by far than Anna Halsey. His face, what I could see of it, looked about the size of a basket ball. It had a pleasant pinkness, even now. He was kneeling on the floor. He had his large head against the sharp inner corner of the kneehole of the desk, and his left hand was flat on the floor with a piece of yellow paper under it. The fingers were outspread as much as such fat fingers could be, and the yellow paper showed between. He looked as if he were pushing hard on the floor, but he wasn’t really. What was holding him up was his own fat. His body was folded down against his enormous thighs, and the thickness and fatness of them held him that way, kneeling, poised solid. It would have taken a couple of good blocking backs to knock him over. That wasn’t a very nice idea at the moment, but I had it just the same. I took time out and wiped the back of my neck, although it was not a warm day.

His hair was gray and clipped short and his neck had as many folds as a concertina. His feet were small, as the feet of fat men often are, and they were in black shiny shoes which were sideways on the carpet and close together and neat and nasty. He wore a dark suit that needed cleaning. I leaned down and buried my fingers in the bottomless fat of his neck. He had an artery in there somewhere, probably, but I couldn’t find it and he didn’t need it any more anyway. Between his bloated knees on the carpet a dark stain had spread and spread-

I knelt in another place and lifted the pudgy fingers that were holding down the piece of yellow paper. They were cool, but not cold, and soft and a little sticky. The paper was from a scratch pad. It would have been very nice if it had had a message on it, but it hadn’t. There were vague meaningless marks, not words, not even letters. He had tried to write something after he was shot-perhaps even thought he was writing something-but all he managed was some hen scratches.

He had slumped down then, still holding the paper, pinned it to the floor with his fat hand, held on to the fat pencil with his other hand, wedged his torso against his huge thighs, and so died. John D. Arbogast. Examiner of Questioned Documents. Private. Very damned private. He had said “yeah” to me three times over the phone.

And here he was.

I wiped doorknobs with my handkerchief, put off the lights in the anteroom, left the outer door so that it was locked from the outside, left the hallway, left the building and left the neighborhood. So far as I could tell nobody saw me go. So far as I could tell.


 

THREE

The El Milano was, as Anna had told me, in the 1900 block on North Sycamore. It was most of the block. I parked fairly near the ornamental forecourt and went along to the pale blue neon sign over the entrance to the basement garage. I walked down a railed ramp into a bright space of glistening cars and cold air. A trim light-colored Negro in a spotless coverall suit with blue cuffs came out of a glass office. His black hair was as smooth as a bandleader’s.

“Busy?” I asked him.

“Yes and no, sir.”

“I’ve got a car outside that needs a dusting. About five bucks worth of dusting.”

It didn’t work. He wasn’t the type. His chestnut eyes became thoughtful and remote. “That is a good deal of dusting, sir. May I ask if anything else would be included?”

“A little. Is Miss Harriet Huntress’ car in?”

He looked. I saw him look along the glistening row at a canary-yellow convertible which was about as inconspicuous as a privy on the front lawn.

“Yes, sir. It is in.”

“I’d like her apartment number and a way to get up there without going through the lobby. I’m a private detective.” I showed him a buzzer. He looked at the buzzer. It failed to amuse him.

He smiled the faintest smile I ever saw. “Five dollars is nice money, sir, to a working man. It falls a little short of being nice enough to make me risk my position. About from here to Chicago short, sir. I suggest that you save your five dollars, sir, and try the customary mode of entry.”

“You’re quite a guy,” I said. “What are you going to be when you grow up-a five-foot shelf?”

“I am already grown up, sir. I am thirty-four years old, married happily, and have two children. Good afternoon, sir.”

He turned on his heel. “Well, goodbye,” I said. “And pardon my whiskey breath. I just got in from Butte.”

I went back up along the ramp and wandered along the street to where I should have gone in the first place. I might have known that five bucks and a buzzer wouldn’t buy me anything in a place like the El Milano.

The Negro was probably telephoning the office right now.

The building was a huge white stucco affair, Moorish in style, with great fretted lanterns in the forecourt and huge date palms. The entrance was at the inside corner of an L, up marble steps, through an arch framed in California or dishpan mosaic.

A doorman opened the door for me and I went in. The lobby was not quite as big as the Yankee Stadium. It was floored with a pale blue carpet with sponge rubber underneath. It was so soft it made me want to lie down and roll. I waded over to the desk and put an elbow on it and was stared at by a pale thin clerk with one of those mustaches that get stuck under your fingernail. He toyed with it and looked past my shoulder at an Ali Baba oil jar big enough to keep a tiger in.

“Miss Huntress in?”

“Who shall I announce?”

“Mr. Marty Estel.”

That didn’t take any better than my play in the garage. He leaned on something with his left foot. A blue-and-gilt door opened at the end of the desk and a large sandy-haired man with cigar ash on his vest came out and leaned absently on the end of the desk and stared at the Ali Baba oil jar, as if trying to make up his mind whether it was a spittoon.

The clerk raised his voice. “You are Mr. Marty Estel?”

“From him.”

“Isn’t that a little different? And what is your name, sir, if one may ask?”

“One may ask,” I said. “One may not be told. Such are my orders. Sorry to be stubborn and all that rot.”

He didn’t like my manner. He didn’t like anything about me. “I’m afraid I can’t announce you,” he said coldly. “Mr. Hawkins, might I have your advice on a matter?”

The sandy-haired man took his eyes off the oil jar and slid along the desk until he was within blackjack range of me.

“Yes, Mr. Gregory?” he yawned.

“Nuts to both of you,” I said. “And that includes your lady friends.”

Hawkins grinned. “Come into my office, bo. We’ll kind of see if we can get you straightened out.”

I followed him into the doghole he had come out of. It was large enough for a pint-sized desk, two chairs, a knee-high cuspidor, and an open box of cigars. He placed his rear end against the desk and grinned at me sociably.

“Didn’t play it very smooth, did you, bo? I’m the house man here. Spill it.”

“Some days I feel like playing smooth,” I said, “and some days I feel like playing it like a waffle iron.” I got my wallet out and showed him the buzzer and the small photostat of my license behind a celluloid window.

“One of the boys, huh?” He nodded. “You ought to of asked for me in the first place.”

“Sure. Only I never heard of you. I want to see this Huntress frail. She doesn’t know me, but I have business with her, and it’s not noisy business.”

He made a yard and half sideways and cocked his cigar in the other corner of his mouth. He looked at my right eyebrow. “What’s the gag? Why try to apple-polish the dinge downstairs? You gettin’ any expense money?”

“Could be.”

“I’m nice people,” he said. “But I gotta protect the guests.”

“You’re almost out of cigars,” I said, looking at the ninety or so in the box. I lifted a couple, smelled them, tucked a folded ten-dollar bill below them and put them back.

“That’s cute,” he said. “You and me could get along. What you want done?”

“Tell her I’m from Marty Estel. She’ll see me.”

“It’s the job if I get a kickback.”

“You won’t. I’ve got important people behind me.”

I started to reach for my ten, but he pushed my hand away. “I’ll take a chance,” he said. He reached for his phone and asked for Suite 814 and began to hum. His humming sounded like a cow being sick. He leaned forward suddenly and his face became a honeyed smile. His voice dripped.

“Miss Huntress? This is Hawkins, the house man. Hawkins. Yeah . . . Hawkins. Sure, you meet a lot of people, Miss Huntress. Say, there’s a gentleman in my office wanting to see you with a message from Mr. Estel. We can’t let him up without your say so, because he don’t want to give us no name . . . Yeah, Hawkins, the house detective, Miss Huntress. Yeah, he says you don’t know him personal, but he looks O.K. to me . . . O.K. Thanks a lot, Miss Huntress. Serve him right up.”

He put the phone down and patted it gently.

“All you needed was some background music,” I said.

“You can ride up,” he said dreamily. He reached absently into his cigar box and removed the folded bill. “A darb,” he said softly. “Every time I think of that dame I have to go out and walk around the block. Let’s go.”

We went out to the lobby again and Hawkins took me to the elevator and highsigned me in.

As the elevator doors closed I saw him on his way to the entrance, probably for his walk around the block.

The elevator had a carpeted floor and mirrors and indirect lighting. It rose as softly as the mercury in a thermometer. The doors whispered open, I wandered over the moss they used for a hall carpet and came to a door marked 814. I pushed a little button beside it, chimes rang inside and the door opened.

She wore a street dress of pale green wool and a small cockeyed hat that hung on her ear like a butterfly. Her eyes were wide-set and there was thinking room between them. Their color was lapis-lazuli blue and the color of her hair was dusky red, like a fire under control but still dangerous. She was too tall to be cute. She wore plenty of make-up in the right places and the cigarette she was poking at me had a built-on mouthpiece about three inches long. She didn’t look hard, but she looked as if she had heard all the answers and remembered the ones she thought she might be able to use sometime.

She looked me over coolly. “Well, what’s the message, browneyes?”

“I’d have to come in,” I said. “I never could talk on my feet.”

She laughed disinterestedly and I slid past the end of her cigarette into a long rather narrow room with plenty of nice furniture, plenty of windows, plenty of drapes, plenty of everything. A fire blazed behind a screen, a big log on top of a gas teaser. There was a silk Oriental rug in front of a nice rose davenport in front of the nice fire, and beside that there was Scotch and swish on a tabouret, ice in a bucket, everything to make a man feel at home.

“You’d better have a drink,” she said. “You probably can’t talk without a glass in your hand.”

I sat down and reached for the Scotch. The girl sat in a deep chair and crossed her knees. I thought of Hawkins walking around the block. I could see a little something in his point of view.

“So you’re from Marty Estel,” she said, refusing a drink.

“Never met him.”

“I had an idea to that effect. What’s the racket, bum? Marty will love to hear how you used his name.”

“I’m shaking in my shoes. What made you let me up?”

“Curiosity. I’ve been expecting lads like you any day. I never dodge trouble. Some kind of a dick, aren’t you?”

I lit a cigarette and nodded. “Private. I have a little deal to propose.”

“Propose it.” She yawned.

“How much will you take to lay off young Jeeter?”

She yawned again. “You interest me-so little I could hardly tell you.”

“Don’t scare me to death. Honest, how much are you asking? Or is that an insult?”

She smiled. She had a nice smile. She had lovely teeth. “I’m a bad girl now,” she said. “I don’t have to ask. They bring it to me, tied up with ribbon.”

“The old man’s a little tough. They say he draws a lot of water.”

“Water doesn’t cost much.”

I nodded and drank some more of my drink. It was good Scotch. In fact it was perfect. “His idea is you get nothing. You get smeared. You get put in the middle. I can’t see it that way.”

“But you’re working for him.”

“Sounds funny, doesn’t it? There’s probably a smart way to play this, but I just can’t think of it at the moment. How much would you take-or would you?”

“How about fifty grand?”

“Fifty grand for you and another fifty for Marty?”

She laughed. “Now, you ought to know Marty wouldn’t like me to mix in his business. I was just thinking of my end.”

She crossed her legs the other way. I put another lump of ice in my drink.

“I was thinking of five hundred,” I said.

“Five hundred what?” She looked puzzled.

“Dollars-not Rolls-Royces.”

She laughed heartily. “You amuse me. I ought to tell you to go to hell, but I like brown eyes. Warm brown eyes with flecks of gold in them.”

“You’re throwing it away. I don’t have a nickel.”

She smiled and fitted a fresh cigarette between her lips. I went over to light it for her. Her eyes came up and looked into mine. Hers had sparks in them.

“Maybe I have a nickel already,” she said softly.

“Maybe that’s why he hired the fat boy-so you couldn’t make him dance.” I sat down again.

“Who hired what fat boy?”

“Old Jeeter hired a fat boy named Arbogast. He was on the case before me. Didn’t you know? He got bumped off this afternoon.”

I said it quite casually for the shock effect, but she didn’t move. The provocative smile didn’t leave the corners of her lips. Her eyes didn’t change. She made a dim sound with her breath.

“Does it have to have something to do with me?” she asked quietly.

“I don’t know. I don’t know who murdered him. It was done in his office, around noon or a little later. It may not have anything to do with the Jeeter case. But it happened pretty pat-just after I had been put on the job and before I got a chance to talk to him.”

She nodded. “I see. And you think Marty does things like that. And of course you told the police?”

“Of course I did not.”

“You’re giving away a little weight there, brother.”

“Yeah. But let’s get together on a price and it had better be low. Because whatever the cops do to me they’ll do plenty to Marty Estel and you when they get the story-if they get it.”

“A little spot of blackmail,” the girl said coolly. “I think I might call it that. Don’t go too far with me, brown-eyes. By the way, do I know your name?”

“Philip Marlowe.”

“Then listen, Philip. I was in the Social Register once. My family were nice people. Old man Jeeter ruined my father- all proper and legitimate, the way that kind of heel ruins people-but he ruined him, and my father committed suicide, and my mother died and I’ve got a kid sister back East in school and perhaps I’m not too damn particular how I get the money to take care of her. And maybe I’m going to take care of old J eeter one of these days, too-even if I have to marry his son to do it.”

“Stepson, adopted son,” I said. “No relation at all.”

“It’ll hurt him just as hard, brother. And the boy will have plenty of the long green in a couple of years. I could do worse-even if he does drink too much.”

“You wouldn’t say that in front of him, lady.”

“No? Take a look behind you, gumshoe. You ought to have the wax taken out of your ears.”

I stood up and turned fast. He stood about four feet from me. He had come out of some door and sneaked across the carpet and I had been too busy being clever with nothing on the ball to hear him. He was big, blond, dressed in a rough sporty suit, with a scarf and open-necked shirt. He was redfaced and his eyes glittered and they were not focusing any too well. He was a bit drunk for that early in the day.

“Beat it while you can still walk,” he sneered at me. “I heard it. Harry can say anything she likes about me. I like it. Dangle, before I knock your teeth down your throat!”

The girl laughed behind me. I didn’t like that. I took a step towards the big blond boy. His eyes blinked. Big as he was, he was a pushover.

“Ruin him, baby,” the girl said coldly behind my back. “I love to see these hard numbers bend at the knees.”

I looked back at her with a leer. That was a mistake. He was wild, probably, but he could still hit a wall that didn’t jump. He hit me while I was looking back over my shoulder. It hurts to be hit that way. He hit me plenty hard, on the back end of the jawbone.

I went over sideways, tried to spread my legs, and slid on the silk rug. I did a nose dive somewhere or other and my head was not as hard as the piece of furniture it smashed into.

For a brief blurred moment I saw his red face sneering down at me in triumph. I think I was a little sorry for him-even then.

Darkness folded down and I went out.


 

FOUR

When I came to, the light from the windows across the room was hitting me square in the eyes. The back of my head ached. I felt it and it was sticky. I moved around slowly, like a cat in a strange house, got up on my knees and reached for the bottle of Scotch on the tabouret at the end of the davenport. By some miracle I hadn’t knocked it over. Falling I had hit my head on the clawlike leg of a chair. That had hurt me a lot more than young Jeeter’s haymaker. I could feel the sore place on my jaw all right, but it wasn’t important enough to write in my diary.

I got up on my feet, took a swig of the Scotch and looked

Homework

PROGRAM EVALUATION ASSIGNMENT

The program Evaluation Assignments will focus on ethical and/or practical concerns as well as provide examples of program evaluation research.

Using the following website: https://www.nasen.org find a program for your state:

The table from Unit 7 highlighted in table form the key points from the research literature and should be using in thinking about the issues, both ethically and methodologically, concerning developing a NEP/SEP program evaluation.  Drawing on the previous Program Evaluation assignments (1-4), and using where you live as the hypothetical case, you will by the Program Evaluation Assignment 6 due date, submit a two-to-three page report (single-spaced, 1” margins) that does the following:

Make sure, you look and see what the program actually does in terms of services.  Consider the mission of the program if it is listed, and then discuss what an evaluation could look based on what has been learned in PA 502/503, the research you have examined concerning SEP/NEP programs, as well as addressing ethical and pragmatic issues, generally speaking, but also in terms of what an assessment team must be cognizant for the local program.  People who could possibly be on the assessment team are the audience of the paper.  This is where the social, economic, cultural, demographics, etc., for the local area could play a role in how a program evaluation is developed and conducted (and should be discussed).  Make sure to provide adequate detail for the area along with the research to indicate what should be considered regarding a program evaluation for the program you chose.  

So Introduce the program, the mission, and services provided and what the focus would be for the example.  You are not doing and evaluation but explaining how it might be done.  The how would be covered next.  In other words, what would the program evaluation look like-you are not doing one but describing how it might be done.  What service would be the focus, what would success look like, and how might this service be evaluated and assessed in terms of the defined measure of success.  For the final part-Ethical Considerations and Pitfalls, you will draw on and apply what was covered for Part 2 of Program Evaluation Assignments 1-4, which at a minimum should include Compensation and Incentives, Cultural Issues, Pragmatic Issues, and Political Issues.  These could all be subheadings and should be discussed generally and how it could impact of evaluation of the example program.

Make sure to be clear, concise, and organized.

Some Hopefully Helpful Hints!

For the final program evaluation piece, make sure you are using the program (and focusing on one objective) to provide context for how an evaluation could be done relating back to the articles that were covered that illustrate problems evaluators would face–avoid quoting but if you refer to a problem (a potential pit fall) that could impact evaluation discussed in the research, remember to cite it.  Why or why incentives should not be used; what other ethical issues, or possible political, cultural, or economic as well as pragmatic issues that could bias a program evaluation.  These should be discussed within the context of the program evaluation NOT the program.  Also, you are not evaluating the program but writing up suggestions for others how this could be done and what to watch out for. So again, the program is both the example and context by which to illustrate what you have learned about problems that confront an evaluator of an NEP program (or really many public programs). 

homework

2

Leadership

Eighth Edition

3

To Madison, Isla, and Sullivan

4

Leadership

Theory and Practice

Eighth Edition

Peter G. Northouse
Western Michigan University

5

FOR INFORMATION:

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Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.

Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.

Description: Eighth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, [2018] | Revised edition of the author’s
Leadership, 2015. | Includes index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017049134 | ISBN 9781506362311 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.

6

Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2018 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2017049134

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7

Brief Contents

1. Preface
2. Acknowledgments
3. About the Author
4. About the Contributors
5. 1. Introduction
6. 2. Trait Approach
7. 3. Skills Approach
8. 4. Behavioral Approach
9. 5. Situational Approach

10. 6. Path–Goal Theory
11. 7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
12. 8. Transformational Leadership
13. 9. Authentic Leadership
14. 10. Servant Leadership
15. 11. Adaptive Leadership
16. 12. Followership
17. 13. Leadership Ethics
18. 14. Team Leadership
19. 15. Gender and Leadership
20. 16. Culture and Leadership
21. Author Index
22. Subject Index

8

Detailed Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
About the Contributors
1. Introduction

Leadership Defined
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership
Definition and Components

Leadership Described
Trait Versus Process Leadership
Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership
Leadership and Power
Leadership and Coercion
Leadership and Management

Plan of the Book
Summary
References

2. Trait Approach
Description

Intelligence
Self-Confidence
Determination
Integrity
Sociability
Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership
Strengths and Leadership
Emotional Intelligence

How Does the Trait Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research
Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround
Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank

Leadership Instrument
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)

Summary
References

9

3. Skills Approach
Description

Three-Skill Approach
Technical Skills
Human Skills
Conceptual Skills
Summary of the Three-Skill Approach

Skills Model
Competencies
Individual Attributes
Leadership Outcomes
Career Experiences
Environmental Influences
Summary of the Skills Model

How Does the Skills Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team
Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams
Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe

Leadership Instrument
Skills Inventory

Summary
References

4. Behavioral Approach
Description

The Ohio State Studies
The University of Michigan Studies
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid

Authority–Compliance (9,1)
Country-Club Management (1,9)
Impoverished Management (1,1)
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
Team Management (9,9)

Paternalism/Maternalism
Opportunism

How Does the Behavioral Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application

10

Case Studies
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First
Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up
Case 4.3 We Are Family

Leadership Instrument
Leadership Behavior Questionnaire

Summary
References

5. Situational Approach
Description

Leadership Style
Development Level

How Does the Situational Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels
Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening?
Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across

Leadership Instrument
Situational Leadership® Questionnaire: Sample Items

Summary
References

6. Path–Goal Theory
Description

Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership
Supportive Leadership
Participative Leadership
Achievement-Oriented Leadership

Follower Characteristics
Task Characteristics

How Does Path–Goal Theory Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors
Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others
Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra

Leadership Instrument

11

Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire
Summary
References

7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Description

Early Studies
Later Studies
Leadership Making

How Does LMX Theory Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments
Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair
Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities

Leadership Instrument
LMX 7 Questionnaire

Summary
References

8. Transformational Leadership
Description

Transformational Leadership Defined
Transformational Leadership and Charisma
A Model of Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Factors
Transactional Leadership Factors
Nonleadership Factor

Other Transformational Perspectives
Bennis and Nanus
Kouzes and Posner

How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 8.1 The Vision Failed
Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership
Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center

Leadership Instrument
Sample Items From the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
Form 5X-Short

12

Summary
References

9. Authentic Leadership
Description

Authentic Leadership Defined
Approaches to Authentic Leadership

Practical Approach
Theoretical Approach

How Does Authentic Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader?
Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire
Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady

Leadership Instrument
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire

Summary
References

10. Servant Leadership
Description

Servant Leadership Defined
Historical Basis of Servant Leadership
Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader
Building a Theory About Servant Leadership

Model of Servant Leadership
Antecedent Conditions
Servant Leader Behaviors
Outcomes
Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership

How Does Servant Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble
Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor
Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight

Leadership Instrument
Servant Leadership Questionnaire

Summary

13

References
11. Adaptive Leadership

Description
Adaptive Leadership Defined

A Model of Adaptive Leadership
Situational Challenges
Technical Challenges
Technical and Adaptive Challenges
Adaptive Challenges
Leader Behaviors
Adaptive Work

How Does Adaptive Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness
Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus
Case 11.3 Redskins No More

Leadership Instrument
Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire

Summary
References

12. Followership
Description

Followership Defined
Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives
Typologies of Followership

The Zaleznik Typology
The Kelley Typology
The Chaleff Typology
The Kellerman Typology

Theoretical Approaches to Followership
Reversing the Lens
The Leadership Co-Created Process
New Perspectives on Followership

Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done
Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of the
Organization’s Mission
Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders
Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader
Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders

14

Followership and Destructive Leaders
1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures
2. Our Need for Security and Certainty
3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special
4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community
5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death
6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad Leader

How Does Followership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 12.1 Bluebird Care
Case 12.2 Olympic Rowers
Case 12.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal

Leadership Instrument
Followership Questionnaire

Summary
References

13. Leadership Ethics
Description

Ethics Defined
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
Level 2. Conventional Morality
Level 3. Postconventional Morality

Ethical Theories
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
The Dark Side of Leadership
Principles of Ethical Leadership

Ethical Leaders Respect Others
Ethical Leaders Serve Others
Ethical Leaders Are Just
Ethical Leaders Are Honest
Ethical Leaders Build Community

Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant
Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe?

15

Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal
Leadership Instrument

Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form)
Summary
References

14. Team Leadership
Description

Team Leadership Model
Team Effectiveness
Leadership Decisions
Leadership Actions

How Does the Team Leadership Model Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work?
Case 14.2 Team Crisis Within the Gates
Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper

Leadership Instrument
Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire

Summary
References

15. Gender and Leadership
Description

The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth
Understanding the Labyrinth

Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness
Navigating the Labyrinth

Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling”
Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility
Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status

Leadership Instrument
The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test

Summary
References

16. Culture and Leadership

16

Description
Culture Defined
Related Concepts

Ethnocentrism
Prejudice

Dimensions of Culture
Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
Institutional Collectivism
In-Group Collectivism
Gender Egalitarianism
Assertiveness
Future Orientation
Performance Orientation
Humane Orientation

Clusters of World Cultures
Characteristics of Clusters

Anglo
Confucian Asia
Eastern Europe
Germanic Europe
Latin America
Latin Europe
Middle East
Nordic Europe
Southern Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa

Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters
Eastern Europe Leadership Profile
Latin America Leadership Profile
Latin Europe Leadership Profile
Confucian Asia Leadership Profile
Nordic Europe Leadership Profile
Anglo Leadership Profile
Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile
Southern Asia Leadership Profile
Germanic Europe Leadership Profile
Middle East Leadership Profile

Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes
Strengths
Criticisms
Application

17

Case Studies
Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace
Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing
Case 16.3 Whose Latino Center Is It?

Leadership Instrument
Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire

Summary
References

Author Index
Subject Index

18

Preface

This eighth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the objective of
bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the
more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and
analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each
theoretical approach can be applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is
to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.

19

New to This Edition

First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on followership, which examines the
nature of followership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The chapter presents a
definition, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to
leadership. It also examines the relationship between followership and destructive, or toxic,
leadership. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of followership are examined, and a
questionnaire to help readers assess their own follower style is provided. Three case studies
illustrating followership, including one that addresses the Penn State sexual abuse scandal
and another that looks at the 1936 U.S. Olympic rowing team, are presented at the end of
the chapter.

In addition to the discussion of destructive leadership in Chapter 12, this edition includes
an expanded discussion of the dark side of leadership and psuedotransformational
leadership and the negative uses and abuses of leadership in several of the chapters. Readers
will also find that the ethics chapter features a new self-assessment instrument, the Ethical
Leadership Style Questionnaire (ELSQ), which assesses a leader’s style of ethical leadership
and will help leaders understand their decision-making preferences when confronting
ethical dilemmas.

This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to
include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many
leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and
authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical
definitions of leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier
editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to
advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to
practice it more effectively.

20

Special Features

Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt
has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers
of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In
addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.

Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then
practice.
Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach
under consideration, and assists the reader in determining the relative merits of each
approach.
Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the
approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.
Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues
and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers
to interpret the case.
A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader apply the
approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.
Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more
meaningful.

Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive,
understandable, and practical.

21

Audience

This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of
how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate
classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public
administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and
organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and
military science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a
supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within
MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing
education, in-service training, and other leadership-development programs.

22

Digital Resources

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24

SAGE edge for students

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25

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Assignable video with corresponding multimedia assessment tools bring
concepts to life that increase student engagement and appeal to different
learning styles. The video assessment questions feed to your gradebook.
Integrated links to the eBook make it easy to access the mobile-friendly
version of the text, which can be read anywhere, anytime.

Interactive eBook

Leadership (8th ed.) is also available as an interactive eBook, which can be packaged with
the text for just $5 or purchased separately. The interactive eBook offers hyperlinks to
original and licensed videos, including Peter Northouse author videos in which the author
illuminates various leadership concepts. The interactive eBook includes additional case
studies, as well as carefully chosen journal articles from the web, all from the same pages
found in the printed text. Users will also have immediate access to study tools such as
highlighting, bookmarking, note-taking/sharing, and more!

26

Acknowledgments

Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the eighth edition of
Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie
Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Lauren Holmes and Alissa Nance),
who have contributed in so many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For
their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy editor,
Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Bennie Clark Allen. In her own unique way, each
of these people made valuable contributions to the eighth edition.

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the
development of this manuscript:

Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College-Forest Park
Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University
Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University
Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University
Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University
Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University
Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University
Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University
Ric Rohm, Southeastern University
Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University
Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University
Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa
Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College
Mary Zonsius, Rush University

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the
development of the seventh edition manuscript:

Hamid Akbari, Winona State University
Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville
Mel Albin, Excelsior College
Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University
Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University
Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University
Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University
Dianne Burns, University of Manchester

27

Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University
Steven Bryant, Drury University
Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University
David Conrad, Augsburg College
Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing
S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University
Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama
Brad Gatlin, John Brown University
Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University
Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine
Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University
Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver
Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University
Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University
Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville
Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College
Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University
David Lees, University of Derby
David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carol McMillan, New School University
Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University
Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe
Keeok Park, University of La Verne
Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth
Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University
Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque
Casey Rae, George Fox University
Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology
Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge
Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)
Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University
Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica
Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University
Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville
Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College
John Tummons, University of Missouri
Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University
Tamara Von George, Granite State College
Natalie Walker, Seminole State College
William Welch, Bowie State University

28

David E. Williams, Texas Tech University
Tony Wohlers, Cameron University
Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business
Alec Zama, Grand View University
Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills

In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool
and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky
University), Kari Keating (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Kathryn Woods
(Austin Peay State University), Eric Buschlen (Central Michigan University), Lou Sabina
(Stetson University), and Neda Dallal.

A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse for her insightful critiques and
ongoing support. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her exceptional
editing and guidance throughout this project. For his review of and comments on the
followership chapter, I am indebted to Ronald Riggio (Claremont McKenna University). I
would like to thank Sarah Chace (Marian University) for her contributions to the adaptive
leadership chapter, Leah Omilion-Hodges (Western Michigan University) for her
contributions to the leader–member exchange chapter, Isolde Anderson (Hope College) for
her comprehensive literature reviews, Robin Curtiss for her contributions to a case study on
followership, and Rudy Leon for her editorial assistance.

Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students whom I have
taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped clarify my thinking about
leadership and encouraged me to make plain the practical implications of leadership
theories.

29

About the Author

Peter G. Northouse, PhD,
is Professor Emeritus of Communication in the School of Communication at
Western Michigan University. Leadership: Theory and Practice is the best-selling
academic textbook on leadership in the world and has been translated into 13
languages. In addition to authoring publications in professional journals, he is the
author of Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice (now in its fourth edition)
and co-author of Leadership Case Studies in Education (now in its second edition) and
Health Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals (now in its third edition).
His scholarly and curricular interests include models of leadership, leadership
assessment, ethical leadership, and leadership and group dynamics. For more than 30
years, he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership, interpersonal
communication, and organizational communication on both the undergraduate and
graduate levels. Currently, he is a consultant and lecturer on trends in leadership
research, leadership development, and leadership education. He holds a doctorate in
speech communication from the University of Denver, and master’s and bachelor’s
degrees in communication education from Michigan State University.

30

About the Contributors

Crystal L. Hoyt
completed her doctorate in social psychology at the University of California, Santa
Barbara, and is a professor of leadership studies and psychology at the University of
Richmond. Her primary research interests include female and minority leaders,
stereotyping and discrimination, stigma, and cognitive biases. In her primary area of
research, she explores the role of beliefs, such as self-efficacy, implicit theories, and
political ideologies, in the experiences and perceptions of women and minorities in
leadership or STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields, or of
those who are overweight. In a more applied fashion, she examines factors, such as
role models, that may buffer individuals from the deleterious effects of stereotypes
and discrimination. Her research appears in journals such as Psychological Science,
Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, and The Leadership Quarterly. She has published over 50 journal articles and
book chapters, and she has co-edited three books.

Susan E. Kogler Hill
(PhD, University of Denver, 1974) is Professor Emeritus and former chair of the
School of Communication at Cleveland State University. Her research and
consulting have been in the areas of interpersonal and organizational communication.
She specializes in group leadership, teamwork, empowerment, and mentoring. She is
author of a text titled Improving Interpersonal Competence. In addition, she has
written book chapters and published articles in many professional journals.

Stefanie Simon
is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Siena College. She
earned her PhD in social psychology from Tulane University and was the Robert A.
Oden Jr. Postdoctoral Fellow for Innovation in the Liberal Arts at Carleton College
before joining the faculty at Siena. Her research centers on the psychology of
diversity, with a focus on prejudice, discrimination, and leadership. In her work, she
focuses on the perspective of the target of prejudice and discrimination, as well as the
perspective of the perpetrator of prejudice and discrimination. She is particularly
interested in how leaders of diverse groups can promote positive intergroup relations
and reduce inequality in society.

31

1 Introduction

Leadership is a highly sought-after and highly valued commodity. In the 20 years since the
first edition of this book was published, the public has become increasingly captivated by
the idea of leadership. People continue to as

homework

2

Leadership

Eighth Edition

3

To Madison, Isla, and Sullivan

4

Leadership

Theory and Practice

Eighth Edition

Peter G. Northouse
Western Michigan University

5

FOR INFORMATION:

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information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.

Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.

Description: Eighth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, [2018] | Revised edition of the author’s
Leadership, 2015. | Includes index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017049134 | ISBN 9781506362311 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.

6

Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2018 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2017049134

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley

Content Development Editor: Lauren Holmes

Editorial Assistant: Alissa Nance

Production Editor: Bennie Clark Allen

Copy Editor: Melinda Masson

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Sally Jaskold

Indexer: Jean Casalegno

Cover Designer: Gail Buschman

Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers

7

Brief Contents

1. Preface
2. Acknowledgments
3. About the Author
4. About the Contributors
5. 1. Introduction
6. 2. Trait Approach
7. 3. Skills Approach
8. 4. Behavioral Approach
9. 5. Situational Approach

10. 6. Path–Goal Theory
11. 7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
12. 8. Transformational Leadership
13. 9. Authentic Leadership
14. 10. Servant Leadership
15. 11. Adaptive Leadership
16. 12. Followership
17. 13. Leadership Ethics
18. 14. Team Leadership
19. 15. Gender and Leadership
20. 16. Culture and Leadership
21. Author Index
22. Subject Index

8

Detailed Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
About the Contributors
1. Introduction

Leadership Defined
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership
Definition and Components

Leadership Described
Trait Versus Process Leadership
Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership
Leadership and Power
Leadership and Coercion
Leadership and Management

Plan of the Book
Summary
References

2. Trait Approach
Description

Intelligence
Self-Confidence
Determination
Integrity
Sociability
Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership
Strengths and Leadership
Emotional Intelligence

How Does the Trait Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research
Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround
Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank

Leadership Instrument
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)

Summary
References

9

3. Skills Approach
Description

Three-Skill Approach
Technical Skills
Human Skills
Conceptual Skills
Summary of the Three-Skill Approach

Skills Model
Competencies
Individual Attributes
Leadership Outcomes
Career Experiences
Environmental Influences
Summary of the Skills Model

How Does the Skills Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team
Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams
Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe

Leadership Instrument
Skills Inventory

Summary
References

4. Behavioral Approach
Description

The Ohio State Studies
The University of Michigan Studies
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid

Authority–Compliance (9,1)
Country-Club Management (1,9)
Impoverished Management (1,1)
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
Team Management (9,9)

Paternalism/Maternalism
Opportunism

How Does the Behavioral Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application

10

Case Studies
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First
Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up
Case 4.3 We Are Family

Leadership Instrument
Leadership Behavior Questionnaire

Summary
References

5. Situational Approach
Description

Leadership Style
Development Level

How Does the Situational Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels
Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening?
Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across

Leadership Instrument
Situational Leadership® Questionnaire: Sample Items

Summary
References

6. Path–Goal Theory
Description

Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership
Supportive Leadership
Participative Leadership
Achievement-Oriented Leadership

Follower Characteristics
Task Characteristics

How Does Path–Goal Theory Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors
Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others
Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra

Leadership Instrument

11

Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire
Summary
References

7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Description

Early Studies
Later Studies
Leadership Making

How Does LMX Theory Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments
Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair
Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities

Leadership Instrument
LMX 7 Questionnaire

Summary
References

8. Transformational Leadership
Description

Transformational Leadership Defined
Transformational Leadership and Charisma
A Model of Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Factors
Transactional Leadership Factors
Nonleadership Factor

Other Transformational Perspectives
Bennis and Nanus
Kouzes and Posner

How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 8.1 The Vision Failed
Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership
Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center

Leadership Instrument
Sample Items From the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
Form 5X-Short

12

Summary
References

9. Authentic Leadership
Description

Authentic Leadership Defined
Approaches to Authentic Leadership

Practical Approach
Theoretical Approach

How Does Authentic Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader?
Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire
Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady

Leadership Instrument
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire

Summary
References

10. Servant Leadership
Description

Servant Leadership Defined
Historical Basis of Servant Leadership
Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader
Building a Theory About Servant Leadership

Model of Servant Leadership
Antecedent Conditions
Servant Leader Behaviors
Outcomes
Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership

How Does Servant Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble
Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor
Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight

Leadership Instrument
Servant Leadership Questionnaire

Summary

13

References
11. Adaptive Leadership

Description
Adaptive Leadership Defined

A Model of Adaptive Leadership
Situational Challenges
Technical Challenges
Technical and Adaptive Challenges
Adaptive Challenges
Leader Behaviors
Adaptive Work

How Does Adaptive Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness
Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus
Case 11.3 Redskins No More

Leadership Instrument
Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire

Summary
References

12. Followership
Description

Followership Defined
Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives
Typologies of Followership

The Zaleznik Typology
The Kelley Typology
The Chaleff Typology
The Kellerman Typology

Theoretical Approaches to Followership
Reversing the Lens
The Leadership Co-Created Process
New Perspectives on Followership

Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done
Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of the
Organization’s Mission
Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders
Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader
Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders

14

Followership and Destructive Leaders
1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures
2. Our Need for Security and Certainty
3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special
4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community
5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death
6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad Leader

How Does Followership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 12.1 Bluebird Care
Case 12.2 Olympic Rowers
Case 12.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal

Leadership Instrument
Followership Questionnaire

Summary
References

13. Leadership Ethics
Description

Ethics Defined
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
Level 2. Conventional Morality
Level 3. Postconventional Morality

Ethical Theories
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
The Dark Side of Leadership
Principles of Ethical Leadership

Ethical Leaders Respect Others
Ethical Leaders Serve Others
Ethical Leaders Are Just
Ethical Leaders Are Honest
Ethical Leaders Build Community

Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant
Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe?

15

Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal
Leadership Instrument

Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form)
Summary
References

14. Team Leadership
Description

Team Leadership Model
Team Effectiveness
Leadership Decisions
Leadership Actions

How Does the Team Leadership Model Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work?
Case 14.2 Team Crisis Within the Gates
Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper

Leadership Instrument
Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire

Summary
References

15. Gender and Leadership
Description

The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth
Understanding the Labyrinth

Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness
Navigating the Labyrinth

Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies

Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling”
Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility
Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status

Leadership Instrument
The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test

Summary
References

16. Culture and Leadership

16

Description
Culture Defined
Related Concepts

Ethnocentrism
Prejudice

Dimensions of Culture
Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
Institutional Collectivism
In-Group Collectivism
Gender Egalitarianism
Assertiveness
Future Orientation
Performance Orientation
Humane Orientation

Clusters of World Cultures
Characteristics of Clusters

Anglo
Confucian Asia
Eastern Europe
Germanic Europe
Latin America
Latin Europe
Middle East
Nordic Europe
Southern Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa

Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters
Eastern Europe Leadership Profile
Latin America Leadership Profile
Latin Europe Leadership Profile
Confucian Asia Leadership Profile
Nordic Europe Leadership Profile
Anglo Leadership Profile
Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile
Southern Asia Leadership Profile
Germanic Europe Leadership Profile
Middle East Leadership Profile

Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes
Strengths
Criticisms
Application

17

Case Studies
Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace
Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing
Case 16.3 Whose Latino Center Is It?

Leadership Instrument
Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire

Summary
References

Author Index
Subject Index

18

Preface

This eighth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the objective of
bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the
more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and
analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each
theoretical approach can be applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is
to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.

19

New to This Edition

First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on followership, which examines the
nature of followership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The chapter presents a
definition, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to
leadership. It also examines the relationship between followership and destructive, or toxic,
leadership. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of followership are examined, and a
questionnaire to help readers assess their own follower style is provided. Three case studies
illustrating followership, including one that addresses the Penn State sexual abuse scandal
and another that looks at the 1936 U.S. Olympic rowing team, are presented at the end of
the chapter.

In addition to the discussion of destructive leadership in Chapter 12, this edition includes
an expanded discussion of the dark side of leadership and psuedotransformational
leadership and the negative uses and abuses of leadership in several of the chapters. Readers
will also find that the ethics chapter features a new self-assessment instrument, the Ethical
Leadership Style Questionnaire (ELSQ), which assesses a leader’s style of ethical leadership
and will help leaders understand their decision-making preferences when confronting
ethical dilemmas.

This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to
include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many
leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and
authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical
definitions of leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier
editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to
advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to
practice it more effectively.

20

Special Features

Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt
has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers
of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In
addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.

Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then
practice.
Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach
under consideration, and assists the reader in determining the relative merits of each
approach.
Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the
approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.
Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues
and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers
to interpret the case.
A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader apply the
approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.
Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more
meaningful.

Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive,
understandable, and practical.

21

Audience

This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of
how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate
classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public
administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and
organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and
military science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a
supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within
MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing
education, in-service training, and other leadership-development programs.

22

Digital Resources

23

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Carefully selected video and multimedia content enhances exploration of key topics
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Sample answers to questions in the text provide an essential reference.
Case notes include summaries, analyses, sample answers to assist with discussion, and
exercises.
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Chapter-specific discussion questions for study help launch classroom interaction by
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Tables and figures from the book are available for download.
SAGE coursepacks provide easy LMS integration.

24

SAGE edge for students

The open-access companion website helps students accomplish their coursework goals in an
easy-to-use learning environment:

Mobile-friendly practice quizzes encourage self-guided assessment and practice.
Mobile-friendly flashcards strengthen understanding of key concepts.
Carefully selected video and multimedia content enhances exploration of key topics
to reinforce concepts and provide further insights.
EXCLUSIVE! Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to
support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter.
Meaningful web resources with exercises facilitate further exploration of topics.

25

SAGE coursepacks

SAGE coursepacks make it easy to import our quality instructor and student resource
content into your school’s learning management system (LMS) with minimal effort.
Intuitive and simple to use, SAGE coursepacks give you the control to focus on what really
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In addition to the content available on the SAGE edge site, the coursepacks include the
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Pedagogically robust assessment tools foster review, practice, and critical thinking
and offer a better, more complete way to measure student engagement:

Diagnostic chapter pretests and posttests identify opportunities for student
improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning
objectives.
Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and
resources are provided.
Assignable video with corresponding multimedia assessment tools bring
concepts to life that increase student engagement and appeal to different
learning styles. The video assessment questions feed to your gradebook.
Integrated links to the eBook make it easy to access the mobile-friendly
version of the text, which can be read anywhere, anytime.

Interactive eBook

Leadership (8th ed.) is also available as an interactive eBook, which can be packaged with
the text for just $5 or purchased separately. The interactive eBook offers hyperlinks to
original and licensed videos, including Peter Northouse author videos in which the author
illuminates various leadership concepts. The interactive eBook includes additional case
studies, as well as carefully chosen journal articles from the web, all from the same pages
found in the printed text. Users will also have immediate access to study tools such as
highlighting, bookmarking, note-taking/sharing, and more!

26

Acknowledgments

Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the eighth edition of
Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie
Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Lauren Holmes and Alissa Nance),
who have contributed in so many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For
their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy editor,
Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Bennie Clark Allen. In her own unique way, each
of these people made valuable contributions to the eighth edition.

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the
development of this manuscript:

Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College-Forest Park
Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University
Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University
Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University
Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University
Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University
Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University
Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University
Ric Rohm, Southeastern University
Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University
Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University
Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa
Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College
Mary Zonsius, Rush University

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the
development of the seventh edition manuscript:

Hamid Akbari, Winona State University
Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville
Mel Albin, Excelsior College
Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University
Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University
Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University
Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University
Dianne Burns, University of Manchester

27

Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University
Steven Bryant, Drury University
Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University
David Conrad, Augsburg College
Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing
S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University
Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama
Brad Gatlin, John Brown University
Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University
Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine
Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University
Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver
Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University
Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University
Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville
Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College
Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University
David Lees, University of Derby
David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carol McMillan, New School University
Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University
Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe
Keeok Park, University of La Verne
Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth
Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University
Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque
Casey Rae, George Fox University
Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology
Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge
Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)
Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University
Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica
Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University
Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville
Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College
John Tummons, University of Missouri
Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University
Tamara Von George, Granite State College
Natalie Walker, Seminole State College
William Welch, Bowie State University

28

David E. Williams, Texas Tech University
Tony Wohlers, Cameron University
Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business
Alec Zama, Grand View University
Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills

In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool
and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky
University), Kari Keating (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Kathryn Woods
(Austin Peay State University), Eric Buschlen (Central Michigan University), Lou Sabina
(Stetson University), and Neda Dallal.

A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse for her insightful critiques and
ongoing support. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her exceptional
editing and guidance throughout this project. For his review of and comments on the
followership chapter, I am indebted to Ronald Riggio (Claremont McKenna University). I
would like to thank Sarah Chace (Marian University) for her contributions to the adaptive
leadership chapter, Leah Omilion-Hodges (Western Michigan University) for her
contributions to the leader–member exchange chapter, Isolde Anderson (Hope College) for
her comprehensive literature reviews, Robin Curtiss for her contributions to a case study on
followership, and Rudy Leon for her editorial assistance.

Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students whom I have
taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped clarify my thinking about
leadership and encouraged me to make plain the practical implications of leadership
theories.

29

About the Author

Peter G. Northouse, PhD,
is Professor Emeritus of Communication in the School of Communication at
Western Michigan University. Leadership: Theory and Practice is the best-selling
academic textbook on leadership in the world and has been translated into 13
languages. In addition to authoring publications in professional journals, he is the
author of Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice (now in its fourth edition)
and co-author of Leadership Case Studies in Education (now in its second edition) and
Health Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals (now in its third edition).
His scholarly and curricular interests include models of leadership, leadership
assessment, ethical leadership, and leadership and group dynamics. For more than 30
years, he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership, interpersonal
communication, and organizational communication on both the undergraduate and
graduate levels. Currently, he is a consultant and lecturer on trends in leadership
research, leadership development, and leadership education. He holds a doctorate in
speech communication from the University of Denver, and master’s and bachelor’s
degrees in communication education from Michigan State University.

30

About the Contributors

Crystal L. Hoyt
completed her doctorate in social psychology at the University of California, Santa
Barbara, and is a professor of leadership studies and psychology at the University of
Richmond. Her primary research interests include female and minority leaders,
stereotyping and discrimination, stigma, and cognitive biases. In her primary area of
research, she explores the role of beliefs, such as self-efficacy, implicit theories, and
political ideologies, in the experiences and perceptions of women and minorities in
leadership or STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields, or of
those who are overweight. In a more applied fashion, she examines factors, such as
role models, that may buffer individuals from the deleterious effects of stereotypes
and discrimination. Her research appears in journals such as Psychological Science,
Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, and The Leadership Quarterly. She has published over 50 journal articles and
book chapters, and she has co-edited three books.

Susan E. Kogler Hill
(PhD, University of Denver, 1974) is Professor Emeritus and former chair of the
School of Communication at Cleveland State University. Her research and
consulting have been in the areas of interpersonal and organizational communication.
She specializes in group leadership, teamwork, empowerment, and mentoring. She is
author of a text titled Improving Interpersonal Competence. In addition, she has
written book chapters and published articles in many professional journals.

Stefanie Simon
is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Siena College. She
earned her PhD in social psychology from Tulane University and was the Robert A.
Oden Jr. Postdoctoral Fellow for Innovation in the Liberal Arts at Carleton College
before joining the faculty at Siena. Her research centers on the psychology of
diversity, with a focus on prejudice, discrimination, and leadership. In her work, she
focuses on the perspective of the target of prejudice and discrimination, as well as the
perspective of the perpetrator of prejudice and discrimination. She is particularly
interested in how leaders of diverse groups can promote positive intergroup relations
and reduce inequality in society.

31

1 Introduction

Leadership is a highly sought-after and highly valued commodity. In the 20 years since the
first edition of this book was published, the public has become increasingly captivated by
the idea of leadership. People continue to as

Homework

Graphical user interface, application, PowerPoint  Description automatically generated

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSIGNMENT

Program Evaluation Assignment 5
The program Evaluation Assignments will focus on ethical and/or practical concerns as well as provide examples of program evaluation research.

Using Table 7.2 (Royse, et al., p.200) as a guide, develop and submit by the Program Evaluation Assignment 5 due date a similar table using the research articles on NEP/SEP provided for the program evaluation assignments (there are 7). Each student will find and add at least one additional NEP/SEP research article to the research articles covered to this point in the course (should be a minimum of 8 research articles entries). Make sure to try and organize the articles in the table by theme or research focus. Also, add one column between Author and Program. That column will be Title where the article title will go (include the citation here but without the authors’ names). Be clear and concise with the findings. The table should be done in landscape rather than portrait orientation and must be done in Word.  It should not be more than 2 pages–not including a title page if you include one.  

Homework

  

CASE STUDY 2

A 33-year-old woman with advanced stage breast cancer has been admitted to the emergency room with cardiac arrest. She is not married, and her boyfriend accompanies her in the ambulance.

  • Based on the scenarios provided:
    • Select one scenario and reflect on the material presented throughout this course.
    • What necessary information would need to be obtained about the patient through health assessments and diagnostic tests?
    • Consider how you would respond as an advanced practice nurse. Review evidence-based practice guidelines and ethical considerations applicable to the scenarios you selected.
  •  

The Lab Assignment

Write a detailed one-page narrative (not a formal paper) explaining the health assessment information required for a diagnosis of your selected patient (include the scenario number). Explain how you would respond to the scenario as an advanced practice nurse using evidence-based practice guidelines and applying ethical considerations. Justify your response using at least three different references from current evidence-based literatu

Homework

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSIGNMENT

FOR PSPP Only

Before doing the regression exercises, do the following

Go to:

File>New>Syntax

In the syntax box, line 1, type without quotation marks “set format f22.6”

The go to Run>All

Then run your regressions, it will give coefficients up to 6 decimal places rather than just 2.

1. Using the STATES10 data set, examine the relationship between states’ rate of U.S. Military Fatalities in Iraq and Afghanistan as of January 2010 (DFS90) and the independent variable 2006 Public High School Graduation Rate (EDS131) 

 

A. What is the research hypothesis? 

B. Run a scatterplot and describe what you see. Save your complete output (all exercises) when you are done as a .pdf and submit along with your assignment. 

C. Regression Coefficient B for EDS131 

D. Significance Level
E. Is the relationship significant?         YES / NO
F. R Square 

G. In your own words, describe the relationship between DFS90 and EDS131. How would you explain these findings?  

H. List at least 2 possible control variables 

I. Any issues of temporal order or spuriousness?  

 

2. Using the STATES10 data set, examine the relationship between property crime rate, 2008 (CRS48) as predicted by (the independent variable) the percent of a population in a state that is living below the poverty level, 2008 (PVS519). 

A. What is the research hypothesis?
B. Run a scatterplot and describe what you see. 

C. Regression Coefficient B for PVS519 

D. Significance Level
E. Is the relationship significant?         YES / NO
F. R Square 

G. In your own words, describe the relationship between CRS48 and PVS519. How would you explain these findings? 

H. List at least 2 possible control variables

I. Any issues of temporal order or spuriousness? 

 

3.

Remember your hypothesis for Discussion 8-_Try it now with newer data! Using the STATES10 data set, use multiple regression to predict the Percent of Population Receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: 2018 (SNAP_Pct_18) using such indicators as percent African American: 2018 (Black_Pct_18), percent Hispanic, 2018 (Hsp_Pct_18), Bachelor’s degree or More: 2018 (Bach2018), Mar_RT_17 (Marriage Rate per 1,000 Pop: 2017), Median Household Income: 2018 (MedHHInc_18) and percent vote for Republican presidential candidate: 2016 (GOPVOTE16). 

SNAP_Pct_18 (Percent of Population Receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Benefits: 2018)

Black_Pct_17 (Percent of Population Black: 2017)
Hist_Pct_17 (Percent of Population Hispanic: 2017)
Bachelors_18 (Bachelor’s Degree or more: 2018)
Mar_RT_17 (Marriage Rate per 1,000 Pop: 2017)
MedHHInc17 (Median Household Income: 2017)
RepVT_16 (Republican Vote for President: 2016)

A. Constant
B. Adjusted R Square 

C. Regression Coefficient B for Black_Pct_17

    C.1 Significance Level
    C.2 Is the relationship significant? 

D. Regression Coefficient B for Hist_Pct_17

    D.1 Significance Level
    D.2 Is the relationship significant? 

E. Regression Coefficient B for Bachelors_18

    E.1 Significance Level
    E.2 Is the relationship significant? 

F. Regression Coefficient B for Mar_RT_17
    F.1 Significance Level
    F.2 Is the relationship significant?

G. Regression Coefficient B for MedHHInc17
    G.1 Significance Level
    G.2 Is the relationship significant?

H. Regression Coefficient B for RepVT_16
    H.1 Significance Level
    H.2 Is the relationship significant?

What are the findings?  Were your hypothesis any better this time around?  Be specific.

Homework

 

 

Using evidence-based resources from your search, answer the following questions and support your answers using current evidence from the literature.

  • Analyze the subjective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
  • Analyze the objective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
  • Is the assessment supported by the subjective and objective information? Why or why not?
  • Would diagnostics be appropriate for this case, and how would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
  • Would you reject/accept the current diagnosis? Why or why not? Identify five possible conditions that may be considered as a differential diagnosis for this patient. Explain your reasoning using at least three different references from current evidence-based literature.

 

Homework

The initial post must include responses to all the questions in this discussion. 

JL, a 50-year-old woman, was camping with her 3 children and spouse, fell and broke the left tibia at the ankle. She is in the emergency department, waiting for the fracture to be immobilized. The leg hurts and she note that the ankle is swelling. A diagnosis of a simple fracture and sprain (damage to ligaments) is made.

Discussion Questions

1. What is the cause of pain and swelling? What can JL expect in the days to come as inflammation resolves and healing begins?

2. What is the rationale for immobilizing the fractured bone?

JL’s son Matt, age 10 years, has a runny nose and itchy eyes and is irritable. The camping tent was set up in a grassy field, and the boys played several games on the field. Matt is also seen by a health care provider and a diagnosis of allergy to pollen is made.

Explain the rationale for each of Matt’s symptoms.

1. Identify the type of immune response involved. 

2. Discuss what Matt can expect in the future. 

homework

IIRP Tips on Writing Reflection Papers

A reflection paper is not a summary of the course readings or a stream of
conscious mind dump on paper.

Main themes
Readings

Integrate

Effects on:
Thinking
Practice

Classroom
Experience

1. As the diagram suggests, a reflection paper is your identification of the main
themes of the readings integrated with your classroom experience and how both
affect your thinking and practice.

2. A reflection paper is your chance to add your thoughts and analysis to what
you have read and experienced.

3. A reflection paper is meant to illustrate your understanding of the material and
how it affects your ideas and possible practice in future.

4. Begin by jotting down some of the reading material and class experiences that
stand out in your mind. Decide why they stand out to you.

5. It may be helpful to use the restorative questions to generate some of your
thoughts and feelings about the course experience.

6. Using the first person singular (“I”), relate the readings and classes to your
previous knowledge and experience.

7. Consider if and how what you have read and learned changes your thinking
and might affect your practice in both personal and professional situations.

8. Review the readings and class notes to be sure you’ve included all the
relevant information you can and made all the connections you can.

9. Give your reflection paper structure with an opening paragraph, main body,
and conclusion.

10. It may be helpful to write the body of the paper first by using Steps 4-7, and
then decide what your opening paragraph should say. The opening paragraph
may be brief, only a sentence or two, but it should offer some overall statement
of your perspective based on what you’ve learned (e.g., Before I read the articles
for YC/ED 501, I had never considered that I was an authoritative supervisor, that
is, someone who gives my staff firm direction but little support.). Then you could
go on to describe which readings or class experiences affected your thinking and
why. You could disagree with some of the readings or ideas. The conclusion of

https://iirp.edu/pdf/IIRP-Reflection-Tip-Sheet.pdf Retrieved on 22-Sep-2019

IIRP/4/6/10MM/BR/SO

your reflection may also be brief (e.g., I realize that I must learn how to be more
supportive to get the best from my staff.). Or it could be uncertain (e.g., I don’t
agree with everything I learned but I am going to consider using some of the
practices in future to see if they change my office environment.).

11. Include in-text references and a reference page for any materials you cite
using APA citation formatting.

homework

AEH Division 1

ENGL 1213: Composition II Value: 30 points

Writing Assignment 3: Letter of
Application
Due Dates

• Final Journal:

Purpose
Throughout Composition II, you have utilized research skills, problem solving skills, and analytic skills. The
Reflective Analysis provides the student the opportunity to assess their progress and accomplishments in
ENGL 1213 and consider future opportunities of success in academic courses, career field, and real-world
applications. For this reflection, you will write a letter of application for the provided job announcement (see
page 2).

Method of Organization
• Proper letter format for addresses, date, salutation, and closing
• A self-introduction paragraph with information on the job for which you are applying (see page 2)
• A skills/requirement met paragraph detailing all of the accomplishments you achieved throughout

ENGL 1213. This will include the research done and the problem-solving skills used.
• An explanation paragraph detailing why the above credentials fit for the job posting.
• A call to action.

Tasks

• Reflect on all of the essays written in ENGL Comp II. What did you research? How did you

research? What were some of your major achievements?
• Apply all of the knowledge that you’ve gained over the course of the semester, accurately choosing

what to mention in your letter for the job posting.
• Apply the knowledge you’ve gained to a real-world situation.
• Write a 250-500 word letter in response to the hypothetical job posting (see page 2).

Requirements
• Letter format—note that this is single-spaced
• 250-500 words

Grades for this Journal

3% Of the overall grade for the
course

Reflect on all of
the essays.

Apply all of the
knowledge you
gained over the
course of the

semester.

Apply the knowledge
you gained to a real-

world situation.

Write a 250 to 500
word letter in

response to the
hypothetical job

posting.

AEH Division 2

Prompt
Dr. Pat Simons, a PhD researcher at the University of Oklahoma, is searching for a new student research
assistant for the Psychology Department. The requirements are a completion of Composition I and II. The
new research assistant’s tasks will be to take assignments from Dr. Simons and conduct well rounded
research. This will include an examination of texts from a number of scholarly sources as well as applying
knowledge learned from said sources to new experiments and research.

Students will write a 1-page cover letter (250-500 words) in response to Dr. Simons’ search for a new research
assistant. Explain how your experiences in Composition I and II helped give the ability to complete the
requirements of the job. Use specific examples from essays done in the past (topics, thesis statements,
problem solving skills, etc.) How did these particular essays help prepare you for this type of work? How do
these essays, not just apply to academia, but to the work force as well?

Criteria for Success

Category Description Points
Mechanics Students will communicate using academic language and conventions of

Standard American English.
5

Formatting Students will format an essay utilizing MLA style formatting. 5
Organization Students will present information in a unified and coherent manner. 5
Content and
Analysis

Students will write an essay that responds to all parts of the prompt. 15

Total 30 pts.

Homework

The initial post must include responses to all the questions in this discussion. 

JL, a 50-year-old woman, was camping with her 3 children and spouse, fell and broke the left tibia at the ankle. She is in the emergency department, waiting for the fracture to be immobilized. The leg hurts and she note that the ankle is swelling. A diagnosis of a simple fracture and sprain (damage to ligaments) is made.

Discussion Questions

1. What is the cause of pain and swelling? What can JL expect in the days to come as inflammation resolves and healing begins?

2. What is the rationale for immobilizing the fractured bone?

JL’s son Matt, age 10 years, has a runny nose and itchy eyes and is irritable. The camping tent was set up in a grassy field, and the boys played several games on the field. Matt is also seen by a health care provider and a diagnosis of allergy to pollen is made.

Explain the rationale for each of Matt’s symptoms.

1. Identify the type of immune response involved. 

2. Discuss what Matt can expect in the future. 

homework

IIRP Tips on Writing Reflection Papers

A reflection paper is not a summary of the course readings or a stream of
conscious mind dump on paper.

Main themes
Readings

Integrate

Effects on:
Thinking
Practice

Classroom
Experience

1. As the diagram suggests, a reflection paper is your identification of the main
themes of the readings integrated with your classroom experience and how both
affect your thinking and practice.

2. A reflection paper is your chance to add your thoughts and analysis to what
you have read and experienced.

3. A reflection paper is meant to illustrate your understanding of the material and
how it affects your ideas and possible practice in future.

4. Begin by jotting down some of the reading material and class experiences that
stand out in your mind. Decide why they stand out to you.

5. It may be helpful to use the restorative questions to generate some of your
thoughts and feelings about the course experience.

6. Using the first person singular (“I”), relate the readings and classes to your
previous knowledge and experience.

7. Consider if and how what you have read and learned changes your thinking
and might affect your practice in both personal and professional situations.

8. Review the readings and class notes to be sure you’ve included all the
relevant information you can and made all the connections you can.

9. Give your reflection paper structure with an opening paragraph, main body,
and conclusion.

10. It may be helpful to write the body of the paper first by using Steps 4-7, and
then decide what your opening paragraph should say. The opening paragraph
may be brief, only a sentence or two, but it should offer some overall statement
of your perspective based on what you’ve learned (e.g., Before I read the articles
for YC/ED 501, I had never considered that I was an authoritative supervisor, that
is, someone who gives my staff firm direction but little support.). Then you could
go on to describe which readings or class experiences affected your thinking and
why. You could disagree with some of the readings or ideas. The conclusion of

https://iirp.edu/pdf/IIRP-Reflection-Tip-Sheet.pdf Retrieved on 22-Sep-2019

IIRP/4/6/10MM/BR/SO

your reflection may also be brief (e.g., I realize that I must learn how to be more
supportive to get the best from my staff.). Or it could be uncertain (e.g., I don’t
agree with everything I learned but I am going to consider using some of the
practices in future to see if they change my office environment.).

11. Include in-text references and a reference page for any materials you cite
using APA citation formatting.