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Researching the Digital Strategies Used on a Corporate Website

Requirements: Present your findings in a research paper format. You may use charts to display some of your findings. The paper should be about 9- 10 pages doubled-spaced, size 12 font, and use APA. Cite your sources and provide the link for the websites in the reference section.

1. Choose an organization or business to research. You can use an NPO or corporation.

2. Research the following:

a. History of the organization/business

b. Leadership (founder/current) issues

c. Mission statement

d. Vision

e. Motto

f. Reputation

g. Corporate social responsibility

3. What is the purpose of the organization/business? What is the product? Who are their target customers?

4. Does the organization operate on a community, state, nation, or global basis? How does that impact its communication?

5. What issues/crisis situations are they facing or likely to face?

6. Commercials/Ads on YouTube: How does this organization present itself?

7. Online communication strategies as seen in the organization’s official website:

a. First Impressions: like/dislike? Ethos. Do you trust the information?

b. True to the brand?

c. Use of logo and colors

d. Display of mission/vision statement?

e. Purpose of website? Inform, persuade, sell, educate, recruit, involve visitors

f. Target audience of web site

g. Interactive? Involving the visitor

h. Use of social media: Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, etc.

i. Use of videos

j. Link for visitors to comment or ask questions (interactivity)

k. Link for additional information on an issue (product recall or other issue)

l. Links related to a problem the company is experiencing

m. Links to partnership with others in CR efforts

n. Links to CR or sustainability efforts

o. Links to Financial Reports/Investor Relations

p. Link to annual report

q. Others (e.g., websites in other languages)

8. Evaluation/Using the text:

A. What is the company/organization doing well to communicate who they are and what they do using digital media?

B. What areas on their website need improvement?

9. Final Thoughts: What did you learn from your digital analysis about how organizations are using their official website and other media to communicate?

You need to locate articles and books on the topic of public relations to supplement the textbook readings. You should select scholarly research articles. You will be able to identify those articles because they will be academic journals. Often they have journal, communication, or research in the topic. Avoid popular magazines like Redbook, Ebony, or Ladies Home Journal. You may also use the on-line books located on e-brary and net-library.

You may use the correct APA format. See the writing guidelines for this course. You need to include the web hyperlink the web pages. If you use a book, then you must attach a file with a copy of the title page.

Information Literacy Rubric

 

Excellent (3)

Acceptable (2)

Unacceptable (1)

Determine the Extent of Information Needed

Demonstrates the ability to locate and use 5 sources directly relevant to the topic from scholarly sources. These sources must be on the topic of the paper. They cannot be general resources.

Demonstrates the ability to locate 8-9 sources relevant to the topic.

The literature review has fewer than 8 sources.

Access the Needed Information

Sources are relevant, balanced, and thorough in scope. The logic for source selection is apparent.

Topics are supported with conceptual depth and strength.

The paper must cover all the major areas of the topic in depth.

Most sources target the topic. Some sources are bias or lack precision, verification, or purpose. The discussion varies in quality and extent of coverage of study.  The quality and relevance of the sources selected vary. Not all the areas of the paper are thoroughly developed.

Sources were too vague, general, or irrelevant. The quality and relevance of the sources is poor

Evaluate Information and its Sources Critically

The information included is scholarly and relevant to the literature review. The sources selected are scientific and not popular option.

The information includes has both scholarly material and some material written only on the basis of personal opinion. 

The material included is lacking in scholarly respectability. The information included is incomplete, inconsistent, or inaccurate. 

Use Information Effectively to Accomplish a Specific Purpose

The review of the website is thorough and focused It was well organized and easily understood.  It uses terminology appropriate to the discipline. It presents the material with a scholarly tone.

The sources reviewed are appropriate to the study.  The paper may not be logically organized or some sections may lack development.

The literature review is unprofessional including poor quality sources, poor organization, and missing information. The material may be used inappropriately or poorly organized.  The writing style may vary throughout the paper.

Access and Use Information Ethically and Legally–

Paper includes no plagiarism and documents correctly.

The literature review includes extensive documentation using the APA and MLA format.  The sources are documented in the paper and in the references. The electronic sources are hyperlinked to the references. The books are supported with copies of the titles pages hyperlinked to the references. Demonstrates a full understanding of ethical and legal restrictions on the use of information.

The literature review is document in the paper and in the references, but includes some minor documentation issues.  This paper would include no major unethical or illegal uses of the information.

The literature review lacks documentation in the paper or references. Does not demonstrate a full understanding of the ethical and legal l restrictions on the use of information. The literature review may include plagiarism.

Grading rubric:

Public Relations Project Rubric

 

Excellent

Acceptable

Below Acceptable

Purpose of the Organization

Using the history, leadership, mission statement, vision, motto, reputation, and corporate social responsibility, the student correctly and accurately identifies the purpose, the product, and the target customers.

The student fails to fully address one of the following: the purpose, the product, or the target customers.

The student has difficult identifying the purpose, the product, and the target customers.

Scope of Communication

Student correctly and accurately identifies the scope of the organizational communication:  international, national, state, or community.  The organization may address all four of these groups or only some of them.  Once these areas are identified, then discuss how that audience influence the communication of the organization.

Student accurately identifies some of the audiences, but misses other audiences or has difficulty explaining how those audiences affect communication.

Student has difficult identifying the scope of communication or how that affects the communication of the organization.

Issues

Student accurately identifies at least two issues the organization is facing and explains those fully and completely documenting your sources.

Student identifies one issue the organization is facing fully and completely.

The student has difficult explaining the issues the organization is facing.

Commercials/Ad

Student thoroughly describes at least two ads with great deal.

Student describes two ads, but those descriptions lack depth and breadth development.

Student only vaguely mentions ads or commercials.

Website

Thoroughly describes and analyzes the website addressing the issues in the assignment

Basically described the website including most of the details in the assignment.

Only has a vague description of the website.

Evaluation

Based on the previous information, the student accurately and thoroughly describes exactly how the organization is communicating well and where the organization needs improvement

The student basically describes what the organization is doing well and how it needs to improve

There is little analysis of the communication

Final Thoughts

Includes three ideas about how this analysis helped you learn about how organizations use their websites to communicate with their audiences.

Includes two ideas about how this analysis helped you learn about how organizations use their websites to communication with their audiences.

Has little information on what they learned about how organizations use their websites to communicate.

I need to present to present in class as well so I will need higlights for my presentation in separate page like bullet points.

Final

Analysis Memo Section #3

Shuli Wu

San Francisco State University

CAD 400: Community YouthDevelopment

Shamont Hussey

4 / 22 / 2022

Theme 1: Safety & Relationship

I chose the first theme is safety and relationships because they are important to children and youths’ development. Young people feel safe from physical and mental health, so safety will help young people to have good relationship with parents, peers and community. Now, From this society, many young people experience poor, war, disasters, hunger, etc., so they suffer many pressures, and their behaviors and mental health is challenged. Unsafe environment can affect young people’s relationship. Young people hope to get emotional support and care from others, so safety and relationship interact with each other.

According to Kanter (2001), she state, “The hour between 3:00 and 6:00 p.m. on school days are peak hours for teens to commit crimes and engage in sexual activity; for innocent children to become crime victims; for 16 and 17- year- olds to be in or cause car accidents ( P.13). From here, juvenile delinquency is on the rise, and the surrounding environment has a great impact on them. There are many factors that make young people feel unsafe, so parents, schools, and communities need to know how to help the young people. Kanter said, “After school programs are a way to give children access to computers and technology, to offer them opportunities; and reinforce basic skills.” After school problems provide many opportunities to young people, so young people can choose and study extra classes in the problems. From here, a safe environment can affect children and young people’s abilities. From Kanter (2001), she states, “Focus group participants responded that after- school programs give them an opportunity to interact with friends whom they do not have time to see during the school day (p.16).” A safe learning environment can help to build good relationships with friends, and people will see the young people will improve their social, academic and communication.

Theme 2: Engaging Young People in Active Community Work

The second theme is engaging young people in active community work because it is a good opportunity to train young people, and community work can help youths to improve academic, mental health, etc. Before we search for the young programs, we know the community provides many programs to young people. Young people can join many programs to learn the community activity and programs, and they know how the community’s running. Community work can provide many opportunities and resources for learning, leadership and management to young people. Youths will meet unknown challenges, but challenges can help young people a lot.

According to Kirshner and Ginwright (2012), they state, “ Evidence about civic development is the strongest, with particular emphasis on participants’ growing sense of agency and capacity to accomplish complex political campaign goals (P. 290).” Youths, especially, African American youths can develop their civil development and develop their civic consciousness when they engage youth organizations because it will train their leadership abilities, and they can connect the community to help the unfair phenomenon. Kirshner and Ginwright (2012), Youth organizers self-reported changes in their academic engagement (P. 291).From here, we can see youths joining the youth organization have good change for their academics, and they have interest to face the challenges. When young people are in active community work, they can combine their knowledge and practice in the community work. Like I said before, youth organizations have many advantages for youths, and Kirshner and Ginwright talk about their future research, “Youth organizing has the potential to contribute to individual youth development, improved schools and community institutions, and civic renewal in the broader society.” Youth organizations can change many areas in the community, so youths can join them to gain knowledge from out of school. Youths know how to help the community and society better.

Theme 3: Safety and Support for LGBTQ and Gender Non-Conforming Youth

LGBT is lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. LGBT youths face different problems from family, schools and community. Some parents cannot accept LGBT children, and their relationship is broken. In some communities, some people ignore LGBT children and their family because some people think that they are abnormal. Some LGBT youths can not receive emotional and social support, so they feel unsafe and increase risk for physical and mental health. LGBT youths need people’s support and understanding because they are the same as others. This will have a positive impact on their future life.

According to Snapp, el at., they state “Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults who thought their parents did not provide emotional and social support after they disclosed their sexual orientation had higher odds of depression and substance use (P. 421).” Family support is very important to LGBT youths, and they feel safety and support in their mind. They cannot identity with themselves, so their behaviors and mental are greatly impact, such as Depress, illegal drugs, risky sexual behavior and other risky behaviors, etc. On the other hand, “Social support is an important protective factor for the well-being of LGBT youth (Snapp, el at, .).” Social support’s functions is same as family support because LGBT youths relate to oppression and discrimination, and society have many activities to celebrate in the society. Society support related to employment, medical, and other institutions, for example, “My biggest barrier (is) finding a job because this is where I experience the most discrimination I don’t even get a job interview .unless it’s at a queer organization ( Asakura, 2019).” This is another reason to state LGBT youths need to get the society support because they have different experiences of discrimination. The impact of internalized discrimination is in the social, so it can let youths feel unsafe and disappointed in the society.

Part 2: Fictional Analysis

Evan and his family are immigrants from China, and they feel very curious about LGBT because they don’t know LGBT in China, and they think LGBT is abnormal. Evan and his Chinese classmates don’t contact with LGBT students. This is one of LGBT challenges. Teachers need to notice these problems, teachers and students can talk about LGBT in the classroom, and teachers provide some resources to let students know what LGBT is, and let them know what can do and what cannot do to respect LGBT students. Many students’ thoughts are the same with Evan. Evan understands LGBT students are the same as them, and they begin to communicate and make friends with LGBT students after they get some resources. Evan also gives some LGBT resources to his family, and let them know LGBT people need to be respected.

I also mention Evan doesn’t join any community work, and he likes playing computer games at home. School social workers can cooperate with the community, and they can motivate youths to join the community work. I know it is hard to motivate Evan to join the community work, when his brain is full of games. With these factors to affect, Evan needs to reflect, “ Why should I join some community work? Why are my classmates like joining the community?” Evan thinks critically about his problems, and he needs to try to do community work with other youths. His creativity is very good, so he can make some suggestions for community work. Community works need youths’ ideas to be better because they can get different ideas. Through community work, he can make other ethnic youths to be friends.

Evan is living and studying in the safety community, and schools and communities provide a safe learning environment to let youths join the after school time. Students can

choose their interesting classes, and their parents are completely reassured their children are in the safe place to study. Evan is good at computer knowledge, so he can join the computer programs. He can improve his computer knowledge to choose his major as his future major in college and future career. Evan also can communicate with teachers and other school students to reflect their ideas, so they can build good relationships with each other.

For Reference

Asakura. (2019). Extraordinary Acts to “Show Up”: Conceptualizing Resilience of LGBTQ Youth. Youth & Society, 51(2), 268–285. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X16671430

de Kanter. (2001). After-School Programs for Adolescents. NASSP Bulletin, 85(626), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263650108562602

Kirshner, & Ginwright, S. (2012). Youth Organizing as a Developmental Context for African American and Latino Adolescents. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 288–294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00243.x

Snapp, Watson, R. J., Russell, S. T., Diaz, R. M., & Ryan, C. (2015). Social Support Networks for LGBT Young Adults: Low Cost Strategies for Positive Adjustment. Family Relations, 64(3), 420–430. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12124

Final

I pretty much finished the paper. i just want some stuff added to it and another set of eyes to add information. The instructions and posted below. Add to paper and to also ass 3 apa citations.

Develop a cultural profile for one of the countries listed below:  Indicate specific findings regarding religion, kinship, recreation, and other subsystems.  Include the prevailing attitudes toward time, change, material factors, and individualism for the country you selected.  Also include Hofstede’s findings regarding the four dimensions of culture: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism for the country you selected and compare it to the United States.  Assume you are a U.S. manager of a subsidiary in the foreign country and explain how differences on these dimensions are likely to affect your management tasks.  What suggestions do you have for dealing with these differences in the workplace? 

final

NAME:________________________________

CE 444 Contracts and Specifications

Exam Number 3 – FINAL EXAM

(Worth a total of 50 points in the gradebook)

May 2021

Note: No materials are allowed in the taking of this exam other than pencil/pen and paper. No textbooks, notes, or cell phones are allowed. The test is set up as a true/false, fill in the blank, short essay, or draw the diagram format. The allowed sitting time for the exam is 60 minutes. Distance students must take the test in the presence of their designated proctors.

TRUE or FALSE (circle correct answer, 1 points/question for total of 5 points)

1. T or F In negotiations, you should seek to Compromise

2. T or F Action Submittals are also known as “For Approval” submittals

3. T or F Shop Drawings may be used to modify the contract

4. T or F In communication, senders remember 70% of what they say

5. T or F In private contracting, either an owner or a contractor may terminate a contract

Fill in the Blank/Short Answer/Matching/Draw the Diagram (1 point per answer for total of 45 points)

6. Name 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages to using subcontractors on a project. (4 points)

7. There are 3 types of contract warranties. Name all three and identify when they start (3 points).

8. Name 3 reasons an Owner may terminate a contract for Default/Cause (3 points)

9. Match the Dispute Resolution methods to their definitions (4 points):

Arbitration Outside 3rd party; both sides must agree

Mediation Court Action with Judge and Attorneys

Negotiation Outside 3rd party panel; decision is legally binding

Litigation Discussions between owner and contractor

10. Explain the following terms (4 points):

A. Latent Defects

B. Patent Defects

C. Statute of Repose

D. Statute of Limitations

11. Draw the Project Life Cycle and put the following types of estimates at the stage at which they are developed (Order of Magnitude, Square Foot, Systems, Unit Price). Include the expected accuracy of the estimates. (8 points)

12. Owner’s Cost = Capital Costs + Operations and Maintenance Costs
Identify 3 Capital Costs and 3 O&M Costs (6 points)

13. On the following photos of construction work in progress, identify a minimum of 3 safety violations on each photo. (6 points)

14. What are impact costs? Give an example. (3 points)

15. Explain contingencies (2 points)

16. Throughout this course, I’ve tried to emphasize how you, as an engineer, can improve the design, improve costs, or improve safety on a project. Give me an example of how you can influence a project in at least one of those areas. (2 points).

17. BONUS QUESTION #1 Match the type of drawing to the best definition (5 points):

Design Drawings Also called Redlines or “Mark-ups”

Record Drawings Typically produced by a manufacturer or fabricator.

Show more detail than design drawings.

As-Built Drawings Part of the Contract Documents
Depict Location, Dimension, Size, Form, Quantity, etc

Shop Drawings General in nature; used for initial estimate in cost

Schematic Drawings Developed from the Redlines by the A/E

BONUS QUESTION #2: Draw the diagram which represents your ability to influence costs in relationship to the project time. (3 points)

BONUS QUESTION #3: If you only remember ONE thing from this course, what should it be? (2 points)

5

final

NAME:________________________________

CE 444 Contracts and Specifications

Exam Number 3 – FINAL EXAM

(Worth a total of 50 points in the gradebook)

May 2021

Note: No materials are allowed in the taking of this exam other than pencil/pen and paper. No textbooks, notes, or cell phones are allowed. The test is set up as a true/false, fill in the blank, short essay, or draw the diagram format. The allowed sitting time for the exam is 60 minutes. Distance students must take the test in the presence of their designated proctors.

TRUE or FALSE (circle correct answer, 1 points/question for total of 5 points)

1. T or F In negotiations, you should seek to Compromise

2. T or F Action Submittals are also known as “For Approval” submittals

3. T or F Shop Drawings may be used to modify the contract

4. T or F In communication, senders remember 70% of what they say

5. T or F In private contracting, either an owner or a contractor may terminate a contract

Fill in the Blank/Short Answer/Matching/Draw the Diagram (1 point per answer for total of 45 points)

6. Name 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages to using subcontractors on a project. (4 points)

7. There are 3 types of contract warranties. Name all three and identify when they start (3 points).

8. Name 3 reasons an Owner may terminate a contract for Default/Cause (3 points)

9. Match the Dispute Resolution methods to their definitions (4 points):

Arbitration Outside 3rd party; both sides must agree

Mediation Court Action with Judge and Attorneys

Negotiation Outside 3rd party panel; decision is legally binding

Litigation Discussions between owner and contractor

10. Explain the following terms (4 points):

A. Latent Defects

B. Patent Defects

C. Statute of Repose

D. Statute of Limitations

11. Draw the Project Life Cycle and put the following types of estimates at the stage at which they are developed (Order of Magnitude, Square Foot, Systems, Unit Price). Include the expected accuracy of the estimates. (8 points)

12. Owner’s Cost = Capital Costs + Operations and Maintenance Costs
Identify 3 Capital Costs and 3 O&M Costs (6 points)

13. On the following photos of construction work in progress, identify a minimum of 3 safety violations on each photo. (6 points)

14. What are impact costs? Give an example. (3 points)

15. Explain contingencies (2 points)

16. Throughout this course, I’ve tried to emphasize how you, as an engineer, can improve the design, improve costs, or improve safety on a project. Give me an example of how you can influence a project in at least one of those areas. (2 points).

17. BONUS QUESTION #1 Match the type of drawing to the best definition (5 points):

Design Drawings Also called Redlines or “Mark-ups”

Record Drawings Typically produced by a manufacturer or fabricator.

Show more detail than design drawings.

As-Built Drawings Part of the Contract Documents
Depict Location, Dimension, Size, Form, Quantity, etc

Shop Drawings General in nature; used for initial estimate in cost

Schematic Drawings Developed from the Redlines by the A/E

BONUS QUESTION #2: Draw the diagram which represents your ability to influence costs in relationship to the project time. (3 points)

BONUS QUESTION #3: If you only remember ONE thing from this course, what should it be? (2 points)

5

Final

respond to each of the following. Each of the one-page responses to the documents should be typed, double-spaced, 12-point font, standard margins, and indicate the specific number of the question before the response; your response should be at least one full page, a full one-page is 23 lines. You can write more than one page, but not less.  

Final

Shuli Wu

CAD 400

03 / 11 / 22

Focus Youth Profile

Name : Evan

Gender identified: He/ Him/ Him

Age: 16

Race: Asian

Sexuality: Heterosexual

Family system: He lives with his parents and younger sister. His father supports family expenses. They are immigrant family, and they live in SF about 2 years. He seldom joins the youth program in community.

Community: Chinatown

School: San Francisco Galileo high school

Group: He often communicated with Chinese students, but he seldom with other ethnic groups’ students.

Three strengths: 1. He is proficient in computer knowledge.

He creativity is very good, and he suggests many ideas when he have group project.

He has logical thinking

Three weakness: 1. He feels shy to communicate with other race students.

He doesn’t like join the community activity, and he likes staying at home.

Sometime he is procrastinate.

Final

Shuli Wu

CAD 400

4 / 8 / 2022

Potential youth Organization

1.In San Francisco, youths and their families live in different districts, and I know many Asians live in the Chinatown community. 3 youth programs- Youth for Community Engagement (YCE) in CYC program, Summer Camp and outdoor Program in YMCA and Huckleberry ACE Academy–Career Training & College Access.

2. Now, I will introduce this program, Youth for Community Engagement (YCE) in CYC. This is a very good program for youths. This program is connecting immigrant’s youths and seniors. As we know, immigrant’s senior feel difficult when they come to a new environment, and they feel lonely. New immigrant’s youths can use their experience to communicate and accompany seniors, so youths can develop their social skills and confidence. Teenagers can integrate into the mainstream culture, and they keep a positive attitude to face life. On the other hand, this program also helps to clean beach, community activities.

For Summer Camp and outdoor Program, youths are very interested in camp because they can live in the outdoor environment, and they can build relationships with nature. Now, youths spend too much time on screen time, and they ignore outdoor play when they have free time. In the camp, they can explore the beauty of nature because they live near the ocean, forest or mountain. Everything they need to do by themselves, so they increase hand on skills. Youths can make new friends, and youths can train their leadership to get confident.

For Huckleberry ACE Academy–Career Training & College Access, and this is a career and college program. In this program, it has an internship, SAT, parent education and support,etc. This program can help youths to enter college and receive higher education. Youth can meet many professors in many areas, so youths can understand their future career. Providing youths with the opportunity to practice by themselves, when they explore and solving practical problems as students and internships, they can improve their ability to apply theory to practice.

3.

1. Community Youth Center (CYC)


Population served: Youths, kids.


Staff make-up: Jaynry W. Mak ( Chair), Hanson Wong (Vice Chair), Benjamin C.K. Lau (Secretary), etc.


Hours of operation: Each office’s hours are different, and some of them open at 9:30 or 10:00 am, close at 5:30pm, and closed on weekends.


Mission: Encourage a diverse population of high need young people to develop their full potential through academic, professional, family and community life.


Values : We put our values into practice throughout our culture.


History: It was founded in 1970, and it aims to solve the problem of juvenile delinquency and gang violence in San Francisco Chinatown. In the 1980s, CYC helped Asian Youth Abuse Program (AYSAP) to get Federal Office of Substance Abuse Prevention funds, and CYC handles community drug abuse. In the 1990s, it created youths’ career opportunity for youths. In 2000s, set up computer club.


Funding sources: 93% for the government, 3% for corporation and foundations, 3% for others and 1% for private donors.


Goals & Objectives: CYC aims to help new immigrant youths and families, and it promotes self-development, communication skills and positive attitudes. New immigrant youths need a sense of belonging and knowledge that they are doing something positive for themselves and others.


Programs offered: Youth for Community Engagement (YCE), Young Adult Worklink (YAWL), District 7 Youth Council (D7YC), Construction On Ramp,etc.


Contact information: 415-775-2636 or yce@cycsf.org

2.YMCA


Population served: Youths, kids, seniors


Staff make-up: Jamie Bruning-Miles (President and Chief executive officer), Mittie S. Grigsby ( Chief Vice President and Chief Financial officer), Erin Clark ( Senior Vice President Of programs and operations), etc.


Hours of operation:Each branch’s opening hour is different, some of them are 6:00am, in Chinatown it is open at 10:00 am, and they close at 8:00 pm. Weekend is closed.


Mission: YMCA mission is to build strong kids, strong families and strong communities by enriching the lives of all people in spirit, mind and body.

• Values: healthiest children in America will live in the Bay Area, building the skills and habits for a healthy life, being empowered to reach their highest potential.


History: YMCA is one of the founding charities in the bay area, and YMCA SF was founded in a small suite of rooms on Portsmouth Square in Chinatown in 1853. With the development of time, YMCA opens in each SF district, such as Mission, Richmond, Embarcadero, etc.


Funding sources: Government fund and personal donate


Goals & Objectives: Building strong connections with youths and families, it achieve the healthy, confidence, connection and security.


Programs offered: YMCA summer program, Teen outdoor leadership, Youth sports, etc.


Contact info: Memberservices@ymcasf.org or 415-772-5500

3.Huckleberry Youth Programs


Population served: Youths ( Middle school and high school students)


Staff make-up: Douglas Styles (Executive Direction), Priscilla Miranda ( Director of Main Program), Denise Coleman ( Director of Youth Justice), Katie Reisinger ( Director of health and safety)


Mission: Educate, motivate and support under served youth to develop healthy life choices, realize their potential and realize their dreams.

• Values: commitment to youth, inclusiveness, integrity, innovation, professionalism, and diversity.


History: Since 1967, we have achieved this goal by caring for our peers and adults and providing service networks and opportunities for young people and their families in San Francisco and Marin.


Funding sources: Accept the donation


Goals & Objectives: This organization is mainly to help low-income families, Adolescence offers a unique opportunity to change themselves and make choices, which will lead to a good future. The organization strives to help young people to develop healthy relationships and promote their talents, ideas, leadership and health.


Programs offered: Support for Sexually Exploited Youth, Health Care & Health Education in San Francisco, Huckleberry ACE Academy–Career Training & College Access, Juvenile Justice Diversion–CARC, etc.


Contact info: 415.621.2929

final

Catalog

Negotiating – Updated.pdf ·················································································································································································································································· 1
Partnering.pdf ··································································································································································································································································· 16
Microsoft PowerPoint – Permits.pdf ·································································································································································································································· 29
Record Drawings.pdf ························································································································································································································································ 47
Schedules.pdf ··································································································································································································································································· 55
Terminations.pdf ······························································································································································································································································· 91
Warranties – Updated.pdf ··············································································································································································································································· 103
Change Order Management.pdf ····································································································································································································································· 123
Claims short version.pdf ················································································································································································································································· 140
Communication – Updated.pdf ········································································································································································································································ 154
Engineering Estimates.pdf ············································································································································································································································· 181

Negotiating

Virginia Regorrah

20 April 2022

First and Most
Important Rule
of Negotiating

Follow the Boy Scout Motto

Alternately, read
Sun Tzu

“Know thy self, know thy
enemy. A thousand battles,
a thousand victories.”

Know Thy Self

• Understand your position
• Scope of work of the change
• The numbers

($, time and quantities) – how did you
arrive at them?

• The issues – what are the impacts?
• Have a flexible plan
• Identify where your line-in-the-sand is

– Where can you give? Where can’t
you?

Know…the
Other Guy

• Seek to understand their position
• Learn as much as you can about the

other negotiator and their firm.
• What are their concerns in the

negotiation?
• Anticipate their moves.

Be Prepared

• Have someone else take notes

• Use a computer

• Set the stage – negotiate where you are comfortable

• Have a plan with your team

Tips for Successful Negotiation

• Most people don’t like conflict

• Start with agreement

• Don’t get bogged down

• Ask questions and listen

• Silence is a great tactic

• It’s not always about money

• Don’t be afraid to call for a break. Or to walk out.

Many
Different

Terms for
Strategies

Domination

Compromise – arbitrary; a
shortcut to actually negotiating

Concession – changes in
positions are substantiated

Different
Philosophies

Regarding
Sharing of

Information

Reveal No Position

Reveal Minimum Position

Reveal Full Position

Tips for Successful
Negotiation

• He who talks money
first, loses…usually

• You’re not Solomon….
”splitting the baby” is
not negotiating

• This isn’t a competition
– but Americans often
treat it that way

Be Aware of
Different Tactics
• “Blow your Top”

• Ultimatum

• Gotta-catch-a-plane

• Good ole’ boy

• The Flirt

Alternate title –
recognize when
you’re being played

Cultural Differences

• Different cultures have different customs – and different things are
important in negotiation.

• Americans get straight to business, treat negotiation like a
competition…and then wonder why negotiations were not successful

• Some cultures want to spend time getting to know the other party first

• Some cultures are seeking consensus in the negotiation

Example:
Thailand

• Relationships are important;
personal relationships are key
to conducting business

• It takes time to build
relationships

• Politeness and “saving face”
are important

• “Yes” does not mean
acceptance or agreement

Example:
Turkey• Organizations are important;

organizational hierarchy is
important

• Relationships are morally
based; time must be
invested to establish a
relationship of trust

• Consensus and tradition are
important

QUESTIONS?

1

Partnering

CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 21 April 2021

What is Partnering?

Partnering builds goodwill and trust, encourages

open communication, and helps the parties

eliminate surprises and adversarial relationships. It

enables the parties to anticipate and resolve

problems, and avoid or minimize disputes through

development and use of Issue Resolution

processes.

What is Partnering?

Partnering is often called dispute prevention.

•Working TOGETHER instead of against each other

•A PROCESS for relationship building

•A PHILOSOPHY of teamwork and understanding the

other parties’ needs

•A COMMITMENT to cooperate and communicate

•An ATTITUDE of goodwill and trust

•SHARING RISKS with a “win-win-win” attitude

What Partnering isn’t:
•Relaxing contract terms

•Circumventing the processes

•Expecting extra work for free

•An excuse for poor performance

•A cure-all

•Easy to achieve!

Key

Elements

of

Partnering

Commitment

Communications

Shared

Resolution

of Problems

Empower

Others

Timely

Issue

Resolution

Trust

Successful Project completed Safely

The ultimate goal is the same

Owner Contractor

Successful Project completed Safely

But the sub-goals are often different

Owner ContractorMinimize
Cost

Timely

Completion

Maximize

Investment

Minimize

Operational

Cost

Subcontracting

Goals

Maximize

Profit

Minimize

Risk

Early

Completion

What is Partnering?

Partnering is a process of gaining trust through respect and

honesty. It is the realization that this is “our” project and that any

problems or challenges are jointly owned. It is the understanding

that what you are constructing is for the good of the community and

that they deserve your best product. It is the acknowledgement that

you are working with professionals from many fields and while they

all bring something different to the table, the end goal is the same.

Partnering is the faith you have in the other stakeholders and the

faith you keep with them.

Partnering Vocabulary

• SOLUTION vs. PROBLEM

• WE vs. YOU or THEM and US

Not Really Partnering

Vocabulary

• “In the Spirit of Partnering….”

PARTNERING

• May be Formal or Informal

• Commitment to Communication and Resolution of
Issues at the Lowest Possible Level

• Does not add to the price of the Contract

• Takes two (+) willing Partners

Tuckman’s Stages of Group

Development

Langton, Nancy; Robbins, Stephen P; Organizational Behaviour : Concepts,

Controversies, Applications; Pearson Education Canada; 2006

Partnering Agenda

• Project Overview, Challenges & Concerns

• Project Vision Development

• Goal Development

• Lines of Authority

• Charter Finalization

QUESTIONS?

1

Permits
CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 21 April 2021

Permits
CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 21 April 2021

PermitsPermits
• Contractor is generally responsible for

securing permits

• Initiated at the beginning of the project

• Must be closed out at the end of the project

• May be inspected by the permitting authority
for compliance

• Permit jurisdictions include City, County,
State, Tribal, Federal and specific installations

• Contractor is generally responsible for
securing permits

• Initiated at the beginning of the project

• Must be closed out at the end of the project

• May be inspected by the permitting authority
for compliance

• Permit jurisdictions include City, County,
State, Tribal, Federal and specific installations

General Types of PermitsGeneral Types of Permits

• Building Permits

• Work Permits

• Transportation Permits

• Environmental / Cultural Permits

• Security Permits

• Building Permits

• Work Permits

• Transportation Permits

• Environmental / Cultural Permits

• Security Permits

Building Permits
*depends on the jurisdiction

Building Permits
*depends on the jurisdiction

• Residential Construction

• Commercial Construction

• Demolition

• Scaffolding – if a scaffold will be used

• Sign – if moving or removing building signs

• Residential Construction

• Commercial Construction

• Demolition

• Scaffolding – if a scaffold will be used

• Sign – if moving or removing building signs

Building PermitsBuilding Permits
• Building (includes paving, roofing)

• Electrical

• Elevator

• Plumbing

• Mechanical / Heating

• Fire System

• Interior or Exterior Remodeling

• Building (includes paving, roofing)

• Electrical

• Elevator

• Plumbing

• Mechanical / Heating

• Fire System

• Interior or Exterior Remodeling

Transportation PermitsTransportation Permits

• Haul Route

• Street Use

• Access Driveway Permit

• Drainage Permit

• Work in Navigable Waters

• Haul Route

• Street Use

• Access Driveway Permit

• Drainage Permit

• Work in Navigable Waters

Environmental PermitsEnvironmental Permits
• Water

• Air

• Noise

• Waste

• Dredged Material

• Hazardous Remediation

• Cultural and Natural Resources

• Water

• Air

• Noise

• Waste

• Dredged Material

• Hazardous Remediation

• Cultural and Natural Resources

Environmental PermitsEnvironmental Permits

• National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System/State Disposal System Construction
Stormwater General Permit (NPDES/SDS)
http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-ty pes-and-
programs/stormwater/construction-stormwater/index.h tml

• SWPPP (Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan) is a
part of the NPDES permit

• In Minnesota, the Minnesota Pollution Control Authority
(MPCA) reviews/approves the SWPPP

• In North Dakota, the ND Department of Health is
responsible for reviewing/approving the SWPPP

• National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System/State Disposal System Construction
Stormwater General Permit (NPDES/SDS)
http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-ty pes-and-
programs/stormwater/construction-stormwater/index.h tml

• SWPPP (Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan) is a
part of the NPDES permit

• In Minnesota, the Minnesota Pollution Control Authority
(MPCA) reviews/approves the SWPPP

• In North Dakota, the ND Department of Health is
responsible for reviewing/approving the SWPPP

For Federal ProjectsFor Federal Projects

• National Environmental Policy Act:
• Requires Federal Agencies to integrate environmental

values into their decision-making processes.
• Requires an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and an

Environmental Assessment (EA)
• Process includes a mandatory public comment period

• National Historic Preservation Act:
• Requires agency review of potential cultural or historic

significance to sites prior to beginning construction

• National Environmental Policy Act:
• Requires Federal Agencies to integrate environmental

values into their decision-making processes.
• Requires an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and an

Environmental Assessment (EA)
• Process includes a mandatory public comment period

• National Historic Preservation Act:
• Requires agency review of potential cultural or historic

significance to sites prior to beginning construction

For Federal ProjectsFor Federal Projects

• Endangered Species Act:
• Requires a determination from USFW on whether a project

will impact Endangered Species

• Clean Water Act (Section 404):
• Regulates discharge of dredged or fill materials into

wetlands
• Permitting process includes a minimum 30-day public

comment period

• Clean Water Act (Section 401):
• Water quality certification requirement from the State

• Endangered Species Act:
• Requires a determination from USFW on whether a project

will impact Endangered Species

• Clean Water Act (Section 404):
• Regulates discharge of dredged or fill materials into

wetlands
• Permitting process includes a minimum 30-day public

comment period

• Clean Water Act (Section 401):
• Water quality certification requirement from the State

11

Example – NHPA

12

Example – NHPA

13

Example – NHPA

14

Example – Wetlands Permitting

Wetland PermittingWetland Permitting

PermitsPermits
• Identify permit requirements early

• Determine who is responsible for procuring
the each permit

• Ensure permitting time is included on the
schedule

• Monitor compliance

• Close -out upon project completion

• Identify permit requirements early

• Determine who is responsible for procuring
the each permit

• Ensure permitting time is included on the
schedule

• Monitor compliance

• Close -out upon project completion

Other Government RegulationsOther Government Regulations

• Drug -Free Workplace

• Equal Opportunity

• Wages and Overtime Compensation

• Buy American

• Payment of Taxes

• Drug -Free Workplace

• Equal Opportunity

• Wages and Overtime Compensation

• Buy American

• Payment of Taxes

QUESTIONS?QUESTIONS?

1

Record Drawings

CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 28 April 2021

Record Drawings

• Developed from Red-Line Drawings, also
known as As-Built Drawings, or sometimes
“Mark-ups”

• Record Drawings are developed from the Red
Lines by the A/E

• Show the conditions as constructed

Record Drawings

• Incorporate all changes – to include
Amendments, modifications, field changes,
supplemental instructions

• Critical value for future work and in the event
of an emergency

Red-Line Drawings
• Red-Lines or As-Builts are Deliverables

required of the Contractor upon completion of
the physical work

• Should be updated daily during the contract;
may be included as a required item for
progress payments

• Should be inspected by the A/E during site
visits

Red-Line Drawings – Example

Refresher: Drawing Types

• Design Development – drawings produced
during the Design Phase (conceptual,
schematic, design)

• Construction Drawings – Final set of design
drawings; part of contract documents, often
called “For Construction Drawings” or simply
“Design Drawings.”

• Shop Drawings – Used by the Contractor to
illustrate fabrication or installation. Often a
“deliverable” or submittal.

Refresher: Drawing Types

• As-Built Drawings – Also called “Red-Lines.”
Contractor maintains a marked-up set of
drawings of all the changes which occur
during construction.

• Record Drawings – Produced by the A/E from
the As-Built Drawings. Final Set of Drawings
provided to the Customer.

Questions?

1

Schedules

CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 7 April 2021

What is a Schedule?

Answer: A tool to determine the

necessary activities, the sequence

and the time frame to complete the

project in an efficient and economical

manner.

Who uses Schedules?

Answer: Everyone

(Owner, Owner’s Agent, Contractor

and Stakeholders)

Why are Schedules important?

Answer:

Allows the Owner and Contractor to

monitor time, determine if a project is

on-track or behind schedule and if it

needs to be accelerated. Determines

if time is due for modifications or

“force majeure”

How do I make a project schedule?

Answer: There are 5 Steps.

1. Determine the Activities

2. Put them in sequence (order)

3. Determine the relationship

between activities

4. Determine the activity durations

5. Determine the project duration

How do I start?

Answer:

Identifying the activities involved

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

is a good place to start

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
• Not so much a Schedule as a Planning method

• Breaks the project into activities by organizing the

work as a series of increasingly more detailed layers

• Portrays a logical sequence of work supporting

construction schedule preparation

• Example:
• Level 1 Project

• Level 2 Sub-project

• Level 3 Sub-network

• Level 4 Activity

• Level 5 Sub-Activity

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1House

Top Level is the “end product” – what you are constructing

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

Next level are the major elements of work.

House

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

House

Sitework Foundation Exterior Interior Services

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

House

Sitework Foundation Exterior Interior Services

Level 3

Next level are specific items within the major elements of work.

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

House

Sitework Foundation Exterior Interior Services

Level 3

Excavate

Utility

Connect.

Landscape

Concrete

Footing

Concrete

Slab

Walls

Windows

Doors

Roof

Framing

Drywall

Doors

Carpet

Electric

Plumbing

HVAC

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

How many types of Schedules are

there?

Answer:

Depends on your source.

For this course, we’re going to talk

about 4 – Program Schedule, Bar

Chart, CPM, Network Analysis

Schedule

PROGRAM / PROJECT SCHEDULES

– Developed by the Owner or Designer

– Utilized for managing a project
– Includes time for studies, design, advertisement and award

– Includes the estimated construction timeline

– May include O&M events

– Should be adjusted as changes occur

– Should be updated and maintained as construction

proceeds

Program Schedule

• Remember our second class and the Life Cycle of

Design?

Dec 2001Aug 2001 Jun 2002 Jul 11 2002 Aug 2003 Oct 2003Mar 2002

Bar Chart

– Also known as a Gantt Chart

– simple and easy

Activity

Mobilize

Clear & Grub

Strip

Excavate

Install forms

Place bedding

Compact

Install forms

Install wire

Inspect

Place concrete

Cure

Remove Forms

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5

Critical Path Method

– Critical Path Method (CPM)

– identifies the critical path *

– identifies time required to complete activities

– shows float time

– identifies early & late start, early & late finish

* Critical Path is the sequence of activities which takes

the longest to complete

ES

LS

D EF

LF

Activity
Description

ACTIVITY

The Activity is the building block, the basic element of

a schedule

Early Start

(ES)

Early Finish

(EF)

Late Start

(LS)

Late Finish

(LF)
TF

Duration (D)

Total Float

(TF)

DEFINTIONS

Duration (D): How long the activity takes

Early Start (ES): The earliest the activity can start, based on the finish of

previous, or predecessor activities

Early Finish (EF): The earliest an activity will be completed.

Late Start (LS): The latest an activity can start without delaying the

project

Late Finish (LF): The latest an activity can finish without delaying the

project

Total Float (TF): Amount of time an activity can be delayed without

affecting the project completion

Forward Pass – The process in a critical path analysis which

calculates activity early possible start and finish dates.

ES + D = EF

Backward Pass – The process in a critical path analysis which

calculates activity late allowable start and finish dates.

LF – D = LS

Calculation of Float- Determining how long an activity can be

delayed before it delays the project

LF – EF = TF = LS – ES

Critical Path – The path of activities, which if delayed, will delay

completion of the entire project

Network Analysis Schedule

– Network Analysis Schedule (NAS)

– Scheduling software

(Primavera P6, Microsoft Project)

– identifies the critical path

– identifies time required to complete activities

– shows float time

– identifies early & late start, early & late finish

– includes cost loading

– produces multiple reports

SCHEDULES REQUIRED DURING

CONSTRUCTION

– Preliminary Schedule

– activities to 90 days

– Initial Schedule

– “first look” (through completion)

– Progress Schedule

– Periodic updates

– Schedule of Values

– Shows prices associated with each event

WHEN ARE SCHEDULES

REQUIRED?

Schedules are Required:

– Within 10 days of NTP

– Upon Submission of Progress Payments

– With any requests for additional time

– Upon inclusion of additional work

– When the Contractor’s schedule has changed

– With any request for ad

final

Catalog

Negotiating – Updated.pdf ·················································································································································································································································· 1
Partnering.pdf ··································································································································································································································································· 16
Microsoft PowerPoint – Permits.pdf ·································································································································································································································· 29
Record Drawings.pdf ························································································································································································································································ 47
Schedules.pdf ··································································································································································································································································· 55
Terminations.pdf ······························································································································································································································································· 91
Warranties – Updated.pdf ··············································································································································································································································· 103
Change Order Management.pdf ····································································································································································································································· 123
Claims short version.pdf ················································································································································································································································· 140
Communication – Updated.pdf ········································································································································································································································ 154
Engineering Estimates.pdf ············································································································································································································································· 181

Negotiating

Virginia Regorrah

20 April 2022

First and Most
Important Rule
of Negotiating

Follow the Boy Scout Motto

Alternately, read
Sun Tzu

“Know thy self, know thy
enemy. A thousand battles,
a thousand victories.”

Know Thy Self

• Understand your position
• Scope of work of the change
• The numbers

($, time and quantities) – how did you
arrive at them?

• The issues – what are the impacts?
• Have a flexible plan
• Identify where your line-in-the-sand is

– Where can you give? Where can’t
you?

Know…the
Other Guy

• Seek to understand their position
• Learn as much as you can about the

other negotiator and their firm.
• What are their concerns in the

negotiation?
• Anticipate their moves.

Be Prepared

• Have someone else take notes

• Use a computer

• Set the stage – negotiate where you are comfortable

• Have a plan with your team

Tips for Successful Negotiation

• Most people don’t like conflict

• Start with agreement

• Don’t get bogged down

• Ask questions and listen

• Silence is a great tactic

• It’s not always about money

• Don’t be afraid to call for a break. Or to walk out.

Many
Different

Terms for
Strategies

Domination

Compromise – arbitrary; a
shortcut to actually negotiating

Concession – changes in
positions are substantiated

Different
Philosophies

Regarding
Sharing of

Information

Reveal No Position

Reveal Minimum Position

Reveal Full Position

Tips for Successful
Negotiation

• He who talks money
first, loses…usually

• You’re not Solomon….
”splitting the baby” is
not negotiating

• This isn’t a competition
– but Americans often
treat it that way

Be Aware of
Different Tactics
• “Blow your Top”

• Ultimatum

• Gotta-catch-a-plane

• Good ole’ boy

• The Flirt

Alternate title –
recognize when
you’re being played

Cultural Differences

• Different cultures have different customs – and different things are
important in negotiation.

• Americans get straight to business, treat negotiation like a
competition…and then wonder why negotiations were not successful

• Some cultures want to spend time getting to know the other party first

• Some cultures are seeking consensus in the negotiation

Example:
Thailand

• Relationships are important;
personal relationships are key
to conducting business

• It takes time to build
relationships

• Politeness and “saving face”
are important

• “Yes” does not mean
acceptance or agreement

Example:
Turkey• Organizations are important;

organizational hierarchy is
important

• Relationships are morally
based; time must be
invested to establish a
relationship of trust

• Consensus and tradition are
important

QUESTIONS?

1

Partnering

CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 21 April 2021

What is Partnering?

Partnering builds goodwill and trust, encourages

open communication, and helps the parties

eliminate surprises and adversarial relationships. It

enables the parties to anticipate and resolve

problems, and avoid or minimize disputes through

development and use of Issue Resolution

processes.

What is Partnering?

Partnering is often called dispute prevention.

•Working TOGETHER instead of against each other

•A PROCESS for relationship building

•A PHILOSOPHY of teamwork and understanding the

other parties’ needs

•A COMMITMENT to cooperate and communicate

•An ATTITUDE of goodwill and trust

•SHARING RISKS with a “win-win-win” attitude

What Partnering isn’t:
•Relaxing contract terms

•Circumventing the processes

•Expecting extra work for free

•An excuse for poor performance

•A cure-all

•Easy to achieve!

Key

Elements

of

Partnering

Commitment

Communications

Shared

Resolution

of Problems

Empower

Others

Timely

Issue

Resolution

Trust

Successful Project completed Safely

The ultimate goal is the same

Owner Contractor

Successful Project completed Safely

But the sub-goals are often different

Owner ContractorMinimize
Cost

Timely

Completion

Maximize

Investment

Minimize

Operational

Cost

Subcontracting

Goals

Maximize

Profit

Minimize

Risk

Early

Completion

What is Partnering?

Partnering is a process of gaining trust through respect and

honesty. It is the realization that this is “our” project and that any

problems or challenges are jointly owned. It is the understanding

that what you are constructing is for the good of the community and

that they deserve your best product. It is the acknowledgement that

you are working with professionals from many fields and while they

all bring something different to the table, the end goal is the same.

Partnering is the faith you have in the other stakeholders and the

faith you keep with them.

Partnering Vocabulary

• SOLUTION vs. PROBLEM

• WE vs. YOU or THEM and US

Not Really Partnering

Vocabulary

• “In the Spirit of Partnering….”

PARTNERING

• May be Formal or Informal

• Commitment to Communication and Resolution of
Issues at the Lowest Possible Level

• Does not add to the price of the Contract

• Takes two (+) willing Partners

Tuckman’s Stages of Group

Development

Langton, Nancy; Robbins, Stephen P; Organizational Behaviour : Concepts,

Controversies, Applications; Pearson Education Canada; 2006

Partnering Agenda

• Project Overview, Challenges & Concerns

• Project Vision Development

• Goal Development

• Lines of Authority

• Charter Finalization

QUESTIONS?

1

Permits
CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 21 April 2021

Permits
CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 21 April 2021

PermitsPermits
• Contractor is generally responsible for

securing permits

• Initiated at the beginning of the project

• Must be closed out at the end of the project

• May be inspected by the permitting authority
for compliance

• Permit jurisdictions include City, County,
State, Tribal, Federal and specific installations

• Contractor is generally responsible for
securing permits

• Initiated at the beginning of the project

• Must be closed out at the end of the project

• May be inspected by the permitting authority
for compliance

• Permit jurisdictions include City, County,
State, Tribal, Federal and specific installations

General Types of PermitsGeneral Types of Permits

• Building Permits

• Work Permits

• Transportation Permits

• Environmental / Cultural Permits

• Security Permits

• Building Permits

• Work Permits

• Transportation Permits

• Environmental / Cultural Permits

• Security Permits

Building Permits
*depends on the jurisdiction

Building Permits
*depends on the jurisdiction

• Residential Construction

• Commercial Construction

• Demolition

• Scaffolding – if a scaffold will be used

• Sign – if moving or removing building signs

• Residential Construction

• Commercial Construction

• Demolition

• Scaffolding – if a scaffold will be used

• Sign – if moving or removing building signs

Building PermitsBuilding Permits
• Building (includes paving, roofing)

• Electrical

• Elevator

• Plumbing

• Mechanical / Heating

• Fire System

• Interior or Exterior Remodeling

• Building (includes paving, roofing)

• Electrical

• Elevator

• Plumbing

• Mechanical / Heating

• Fire System

• Interior or Exterior Remodeling

Transportation PermitsTransportation Permits

• Haul Route

• Street Use

• Access Driveway Permit

• Drainage Permit

• Work in Navigable Waters

• Haul Route

• Street Use

• Access Driveway Permit

• Drainage Permit

• Work in Navigable Waters

Environmental PermitsEnvironmental Permits
• Water

• Air

• Noise

• Waste

• Dredged Material

• Hazardous Remediation

• Cultural and Natural Resources

• Water

• Air

• Noise

• Waste

• Dredged Material

• Hazardous Remediation

• Cultural and Natural Resources

Environmental PermitsEnvironmental Permits

• National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System/State Disposal System Construction
Stormwater General Permit (NPDES/SDS)
http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-ty pes-and-
programs/stormwater/construction-stormwater/index.h tml

• SWPPP (Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan) is a
part of the NPDES permit

• In Minnesota, the Minnesota Pollution Control Authority
(MPCA) reviews/approves the SWPPP

• In North Dakota, the ND Department of Health is
responsible for reviewing/approving the SWPPP

• National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System/State Disposal System Construction
Stormwater General Permit (NPDES/SDS)
http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-ty pes-and-
programs/stormwater/construction-stormwater/index.h tml

• SWPPP (Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan) is a
part of the NPDES permit

• In Minnesota, the Minnesota Pollution Control Authority
(MPCA) reviews/approves the SWPPP

• In North Dakota, the ND Department of Health is
responsible for reviewing/approving the SWPPP

For Federal ProjectsFor Federal Projects

• National Environmental Policy Act:
• Requires Federal Agencies to integrate environmental

values into their decision-making processes.
• Requires an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and an

Environmental Assessment (EA)
• Process includes a mandatory public comment period

• National Historic Preservation Act:
• Requires agency review of potential cultural or historic

significance to sites prior to beginning construction

• National Environmental Policy Act:
• Requires Federal Agencies to integrate environmental

values into their decision-making processes.
• Requires an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and an

Environmental Assessment (EA)
• Process includes a mandatory public comment period

• National Historic Preservation Act:
• Requires agency review of potential cultural or historic

significance to sites prior to beginning construction

For Federal ProjectsFor Federal Projects

• Endangered Species Act:
• Requires a determination from USFW on whether a project

will impact Endangered Species

• Clean Water Act (Section 404):
• Regulates discharge of dredged or fill materials into

wetlands
• Permitting process includes a minimum 30-day public

comment period

• Clean Water Act (Section 401):
• Water quality certification requirement from the State

• Endangered Species Act:
• Requires a determination from USFW on whether a project

will impact Endangered Species

• Clean Water Act (Section 404):
• Regulates discharge of dredged or fill materials into

wetlands
• Permitting process includes a minimum 30-day public

comment period

• Clean Water Act (Section 401):
• Water quality certification requirement from the State

11

Example – NHPA

12

Example – NHPA

13

Example – NHPA

14

Example – Wetlands Permitting

Wetland PermittingWetland Permitting

PermitsPermits
• Identify permit requirements early

• Determine who is responsible for procuring
the each permit

• Ensure permitting time is included on the
schedule

• Monitor compliance

• Close -out upon project completion

• Identify permit requirements early

• Determine who is responsible for procuring
the each permit

• Ensure permitting time is included on the
schedule

• Monitor compliance

• Close -out upon project completion

Other Government RegulationsOther Government Regulations

• Drug -Free Workplace

• Equal Opportunity

• Wages and Overtime Compensation

• Buy American

• Payment of Taxes

• Drug -Free Workplace

• Equal Opportunity

• Wages and Overtime Compensation

• Buy American

• Payment of Taxes

QUESTIONS?QUESTIONS?

1

Record Drawings

CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 28 April 2021

Record Drawings

• Developed from Red-Line Drawings, also
known as As-Built Drawings, or sometimes
“Mark-ups”

• Record Drawings are developed from the Red
Lines by the A/E

• Show the conditions as constructed

Record Drawings

• Incorporate all changes – to include
Amendments, modifications, field changes,
supplemental instructions

• Critical value for future work and in the event
of an emergency

Red-Line Drawings
• Red-Lines or As-Builts are Deliverables

required of the Contractor upon completion of
the physical work

• Should be updated daily during the contract;
may be included as a required item for
progress payments

• Should be inspected by the A/E during site
visits

Red-Line Drawings – Example

Refresher: Drawing Types

• Design Development – drawings produced
during the Design Phase (conceptual,
schematic, design)

• Construction Drawings – Final set of design
drawings; part of contract documents, often
called “For Construction Drawings” or simply
“Design Drawings.”

• Shop Drawings – Used by the Contractor to
illustrate fabrication or installation. Often a
“deliverable” or submittal.

Refresher: Drawing Types

• As-Built Drawings – Also called “Red-Lines.”
Contractor maintains a marked-up set of
drawings of all the changes which occur
during construction.

• Record Drawings – Produced by the A/E from
the As-Built Drawings. Final Set of Drawings
provided to the Customer.

Questions?

1

Schedules

CE 444

Contracts and Specifications

Virginia Regorrah 7 April 2021

What is a Schedule?

Answer: A tool to determine the

necessary activities, the sequence

and the time frame to complete the

project in an efficient and economical

manner.

Who uses Schedules?

Answer: Everyone

(Owner, Owner’s Agent, Contractor

and Stakeholders)

Why are Schedules important?

Answer:

Allows the Owner and Contractor to

monitor time, determine if a project is

on-track or behind schedule and if it

needs to be accelerated. Determines

if time is due for modifications or

“force majeure”

How do I make a project schedule?

Answer: There are 5 Steps.

1. Determine the Activities

2. Put them in sequence (order)

3. Determine the relationship

between activities

4. Determine the activity durations

5. Determine the project duration

How do I start?

Answer:

Identifying the activities involved

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

is a good place to start

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
• Not so much a Schedule as a Planning method

• Breaks the project into activities by organizing the

work as a series of increasingly more detailed layers

• Portrays a logical sequence of work supporting

construction schedule preparation

• Example:
• Level 1 Project

• Level 2 Sub-project

• Level 3 Sub-network

• Level 4 Activity

• Level 5 Sub-Activity

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1House

Top Level is the “end product” – what you are constructing

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

Next level are the major elements of work.

House

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

House

Sitework Foundation Exterior Interior Services

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

House

Sitework Foundation Exterior Interior Services

Level 3

Next level are specific items within the major elements of work.

WBS Example: Building a House

Level 1

Level 2

House

Sitework Foundation Exterior Interior Services

Level 3

Excavate

Utility

Connect.

Landscape

Concrete

Footing

Concrete

Slab

Walls

Windows

Doors

Roof

Framing

Drywall

Doors

Carpet

Electric

Plumbing

HVAC

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

How many types of Schedules are

there?

Answer:

Depends on your source.

For this course, we’re going to talk

about 4 – Program Schedule, Bar

Chart, CPM, Network Analysis

Schedule

PROGRAM / PROJECT SCHEDULES

– Developed by the Owner or Designer

– Utilized for managing a project
– Includes time for studies, design, advertisement and award

– Includes the estimated construction timeline

– May include O&M events

– Should be adjusted as changes occur

– Should be updated and maintained as construction

proceeds

Program Schedule

• Remember our second class and the Life Cycle of

Design?

Dec 2001Aug 2001 Jun 2002 Jul 11 2002 Aug 2003 Oct 2003Mar 2002

Bar Chart

– Also known as a Gantt Chart

– simple and easy

Activity

Mobilize

Clear & Grub

Strip

Excavate

Install forms

Place bedding

Compact

Install forms

Install wire

Inspect

Place concrete

Cure

Remove Forms

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5

Critical Path Method

– Critical Path Method (CPM)

– identifies the critical path *

– identifies time required to complete activities

– shows float time

– identifies early & late start, early & late finish

* Critical Path is the sequence of activities which takes

the longest to complete

ES

LS

D EF

LF

Activity
Description

ACTIVITY

The Activity is the building block, the basic element of

a schedule

Early Start

(ES)

Early Finish

(EF)

Late Start

(LS)

Late Finish

(LF)
TF

Duration (D)

Total Float

(TF)

DEFINTIONS

Duration (D): How long the activity takes

Early Start (ES): The earliest the activity can start, based on the finish of

previous, or predecessor activities

Early Finish (EF): The earliest an activity will be completed.

Late Start (LS): The latest an activity can start without delaying the

project

Late Finish (LF): The latest an activity can finish without delaying the

project

Total Float (TF): Amount of time an activity can be delayed without

affecting the project completion

Forward Pass – The process in a critical path analysis which

calculates activity early possible start and finish dates.

ES + D = EF

Backward Pass – The process in a critical path analysis which

calculates activity late allowable start and finish dates.

LF – D = LS

Calculation of Float- Determining how long an activity can be

delayed before it delays the project

LF – EF = TF = LS – ES

Critical Path – The path of activities, which if delayed, will delay

completion of the entire project

Network Analysis Schedule

– Network Analysis Schedule (NAS)

– Scheduling software

(Primavera P6, Microsoft Project)

– identifies the critical path

– identifies time required to complete activities

– shows float time

– identifies early & late start, early & late finish

– includes cost loading

– produces multiple reports

SCHEDULES REQUIRED DURING

CONSTRUCTION

– Preliminary Schedule

– activities to 90 days

– Initial Schedule

– “first look” (through completion)

– Progress Schedule

– Periodic updates

– Schedule of Values

– Shows prices associated with each event

WHEN ARE SCHEDULES

REQUIRED?

Schedules are Required:

– Within 10 days of NTP

– Upon Submission of Progress Payments

– With any requests for additional time

– Upon inclusion of additional work

– When the Contractor’s schedule has changed

– With any request for ad

Final

50. Developing Intercultural Competency is an on-going learning process.

a. True

b. False

49. Neuliep’s textbook, Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach, provides theories, models, and skills needed for Intercultural Competence.

a. True

b. False

43. The psychomotor component of intercultural communication is the degree to which one approaches or avoids intercultural communication–that is, one’s level of motivation to interact with others from different cultures.

a. True

b. False

41. The affective component of intercultural communication is the degree to which one approaches or avoids intercultural communication–that is, one’s level of motivation to interact with others from different cultures.

a. True

b. False

37. Intercultural competence is something that is perceived about another person, rather than something an individual inherently possesses.

a. True

b. False

23. While perceptions of teacher immediacy vary across cultures, teacher immediacy is almost always associated with positive learning outcomes.

a. True

b. False

24. An accommodating learning style is based on the combination of ______.

a. reflective observation and abstract conceptualization

b. reflective observation and concrete experience

c. concrete experience and active experimentation

d. concrete experience and abstract conceptualization

25. The mode of acculturation, called assimilation, occurs when ______.

a. individuals desire contact with the host culture while not necessarily maintaining an identity with their native culture

b. individuals desire a high level of interaction with the host culture while maintaining their identity with their native culture

c. individuals prefer low levels of interaction with the host culture while desiring a close connection with their native culture

d individuals choose not to identify with their native culture or the host culture

26. Some cultural groups enter acculturation voluntarily, such as immigrants entering a country, whereas other groups experience acculturation involuntarily, such slaves brought to countries like the United States and Brazil.

a. True

b. False

27. The mode of acculturation, called marginalization, occurs when ______.

a. individuals desire contact with the host culture while not necessarily maintaining an identity with their native culture

b. individuals desire a high level of interaction with the host culture while maintaining their identity with their native culture

c. individuals prefer low levels of interaction with the host culture while desiring a close connection with their native culture

d. individuals choose not to identify with their native culture or the host culture

28. To the extent that the cultures are more similar than different, less acculturative stress is experienced.

a. True

b. False

29. The mode of acculturation, called separation, occurs when ______.

a. individuals desire contact with the host culture while not necessarily maintaining an identity with their native culture

b. individuals desire a high level of interaction with the host culture while maintaining their identity with their native culture

c. individuals prefer low levels of interaction with the host culture while desiring a close connection with their native culture

d. individuals choose not to identify with their native culture or the host culture

19. As part of the health and illness theory some countries in African believe in witchcraft as cause of disease.

a. True

b. False

20. People from different cultures generally attribute illness to which of the following causes?

a. factors within the individual, such as bad eating and exercise habits

b. factors within the natural environment, such as air and water pollution

c. societal factors, such as intergroup conflict, poor health care facilities

d. all of these

21. Research shows that students from Australia, China, and the United States overwhelmingly prefer joint decision making with their doctors.

a. True

b. False

final

2

Microsoft Business and Market Overview

Cameron Ekechi

College Writing II ENG-21011-105

04/22/2022

Rosann M Gage

Business and Market Overview Section

For my project, I decided to cover Microsoft and the organization’s lack of performance management system. Microsoft Corporation was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen as a technology corporation focused on the development, licensing, and maintenance of software applications (Larson, 2012). The company’s headquarters are in the city of Redmond, in the state of Washington. Microsoft is organized into three key business segments: the Productivity and Business Processes sector, the Intelligent Cloud segment, and the More Personal Computing segment (Bellis, 2020). With the help of these categories, the firm can provide a diverse range of goods and services to consumers worldwide. In the case of the Productivity and Business Processes category, it offers commercial Office 365 products and services to enterprises (Yahoo Finance 2). Skype, Outlook.com, OneDrive, and SharePoint are just a few of the corporation’s services available via this division. Microsoft’s Windows operating system is the primary product offered by the More Personal Computing sector. As a result, Microsoft Corporation can provide a diverse range of goods and services to its worldwide clients in these areas. The organization employs a total of 114,000 full-time employees at the present moment (Bellis, 2020). The paper aims to provide a business and market overview concerning Microsoft to determine how the company is fairing in the business world and actions and measures in place to facilitate competitiveness and profitability through the sale of their products.

A business model describes how a company manufactures, delivers, and sells a product or service to generate public wealth. According to Laudon (2018), Microsoft offers software and systems for leisure, but it also provides software and systems for companies. This may be observed in the corporate world with Microsoft Office, cloud computing, and Skype for business, to name a few examples. Because of Microsoft’s many divisions and products, it may be said that the company has a variety of revenue-generating business models (Hacklin et al., 2018). The first and most popular kind of business is the sale of software. Microsoft offers software, such as Internet Explorer Windows or Microsoft Office, to individuals, organizations, and even the government. In addition to the fact that Microsoft does not have to cover the costs of shipping, packaging, and general inventory, this model is also the most profitable for the company in terms of revenues.

When it comes to software development, Microsoft employs a “trunk-based-branching strategy” to aid in the development of software quickly and consistently (Mijacobs & EdKaim, 2021). It follows from this that, with every update or bug correction, Microsoft creates a new branch of its original program. They then build the latest update or repair, distribute it to their team members, pull the software, and test it over 60,000 times before releasing it to its consumers. Beyond general software, Microsoft creates and profits from gaming goods, subscriptions, and simply available cloud services and its general software business (Mijacobs & EdKaim, 2021). Examples include the Xbox, Microsoft Office for Business subscriptions, and the cloud. Microsoft Office for Business subscriptions is also available. Microsoft derives money not just from the sale of these items but also through subscriptions and the retention of its consumers via these products. This is owing to the high expense of switching to a different operating system (Apple, Google, etc.) Microsoft sells most of its products exclusively through digital channels (Saebi & Foss, 2015). This includes software, the cloud, Microsoft Office, and other similar services. This means that Microsoft will not be responsible for storing, delivering, or incurring any inventory costs for these products. The Xbox, Surface, and other devices can be purchased in stores and only require the most basic manufacturing and inventory management procedures.

The release flow developed by Microsoft spans the complete DevOps process, from development to deployment (Mijacobs & EdKaim, 2021). When developers are ready to incorporate their modifications into the system and distribute their changes to the rest of the team, they push their subsidiary to a branch on the server and create a pull request for the changes (Saebi & Foss, 2015). Some developers are working in Microsoft’s repository, each of whom has multiple branches. Therefore, Microsoft has established a naming scheme for divisions on the server to help reduce confusion and what we refer to as “branch proliferation. Typically, developers create a local branch named users/username>/feature, where username> is replaced with the account name of the developer who is working on the project.

As previously mentioned in the business model section, Microsoft provides a diverse range of goods and services to meet customers’ demands and various requirements (He, 2014). Microsoft includes software, as well as software applications, for governments. Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Office, Skype, Outlook, and even cloud computing are examples of how this works. These items may be marketed to both individual consumers and corporations simultaneously. Microsoft provides products specifically designed for enterprises, such as Skype for Corporate and Microsoft Office, which are only available to business customers (Poett, 2022). Microsoft provides cloud computing services to both corporations and individuals on the service side of things. This may be seen in the case of Microsoft One Drive. Some of these products, such as Microsoft Office, generate revenue via subscriptions, which Microsoft profits from. Microsoft sells a variety of additional gadgets and its software and cloud services. The Xbox is Microsoft’s game console, which is available for purchase. Microsoft also provides different devices, such as the Surface, to customers (He, 2014). This tablet computer is small enough to fit in your hand yet powerful enough to do tasks similar to traditional computers. Microsoft now provides access to the LinkedIn social networking site as a service. This is a website where job seekers may create profiles and search for available positions. It is also a location where prospective employers may get in touch with the business.

Microsoft looks to be pursuing a broad differentiation approach in its growth plan. Attempting to get a competitive edge is the motivation behind this (Hacklin et al., 2018). Selling things that are generally one-of-a-kind to many customers is called broad differentiation. This is evident in the items Microsoft provides and the way the company advertises and sells them (Hacklin et al., 2018). Microsoft provides innovative software, cloud computing, and goods for ordinary consumers and business customers. Microsoft has an extensive client base because it offers a wide range of customers, including regular people, corporations, and even the government. As a result, Microsoft has made significant investments in the advancement of technology. From 2018 to 2019, Microsoft increased its investment in research & development by an extra 2.6 billion dollars. Improvements to Windows and cloud computing have been the primary emphasis of this. Microsoft has also witnessed tremendous growth in LinkedIn, and the company expects to make an additional eight acquisitions in the group by 2020.

Microsoft Corporation views diversity as a necessary component of its aggressive growth strategy. This comprehensive strategy aims to assist Microsoft’s expansion via mergers and acquisitions. The corporation expands via this enthusiastic approach by launching new companies (Ilag, 2020). For instance, when Microsoft purchased Nokia’s devices and services group to re-enter the smartphone hardware industry, the company diversified its business. The corporation can successfully execute this aggressive growth plan via new product development and commercial endeavors (Ilag, 2020). Consequently, all of these are based on the direct approach of broad differentiation.

In conclusion, the paper aims to provide a business and market overview concerning Microsoft to determine how the company is fairing in the business world and actions and measures in place to facilitate competitiveness and profitability through the sale of their products. A business model describes how a company manufactures, delivers, and sells a product or service to generate public wealth. When it comes to software development, Microsoft employs a “trunk-based-branching strategy” to aid in developing software quickly and consistently. The company provides innovative software, cloud computing, and goods for ordinary consumers and business customers. Microsoft has an extensive client base because it offers a wide range of customers, including regular people, corporations, and even the government. Microsoft has several hundred developers working in its repository, each of whom has some branching relationships with other developers. To avoid confusion and the occurrence of what they refer to as branch proliferation.

References

Bellis, M. (2020). Who Founded Microsoft and What Made It So Successful?. ThoughtCo. Retrieved 22 April 2022, from https://www.thoughtco.com/microsoft-history-of-a-computing-giant-1991140.

Hacklin, F., Björkdahl, J., & Wallin, M. (2018). Strategies for business model innovation: How firms reel in migrating value. Long Range Planning51(1), 82-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2017.06.009

He, X. J. (2014). Business intelligence and big data analytics: An overview. Communications of the IIMA14(3), 1.

Ilag, B. N. (2020). Microsoft Teams Overview. In Understanding Microsoft Teams Administration (pp. 1-36). Apress, Berkeley, CA.

Larson, B., English, D., & Purington, P. (2012). Delivering business intelligence with Microsoft SQL server 2016. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Laudon, Kenneth C., and Jane P. Laudon. Essentials of Mis. Pearson, 2018.

Mijacobs, & EdKaim. (2021). How Microsoft develops modern software with DevOps – Azure DevOps. Docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 22 April 2022, from https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/devops/develop/how-microsoft-develops-devops.

Mundy, J., & Thornthwaite, W. (2011). The Microsoft data warehouse toolkit: with SQL Server 2008 R2 and the Microsoft Business Intelligence toolset. John Wiley & Sons.

Poett, T. (2022). Enterprise Voice and Skype for Business | IR. Ir.com. Retrieved 22 April 2022, from https://www.ir.com/blog/communications/skype-for-business-and-lync-monitoring-for-enterprise-voice.

Saebi, T., & Foss, N. (2015). Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions. European Management Journal33(3), 201-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2014.11.002

Final

5 pages

1) Write about three (3) chapters that resonated with you during the semester, think about content that you learned during the readings or documentaries that you viewed as this will allow your thoughts surface. 

2) What resonated with you in relation to the development of Black children?

3) What do we currently know in the literature/research regarding the development of Black children? 

4) What are the next steps to address the development of Black children, including how might you address any limitations in the current literature/research?