• Home

final – mental health and aging

How to Write a
Research Paper
in Psychology

Preparing for your final paper

Library resources

• Healey Library online database

• http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ez
proxy.lib.umb.edu/ehost/search
/basic?vid=0&sid=54dcc9ee-
3c5b-464e-9b44-
3ade0c241ef0%40pdc-v-
sessmgr04

APA publication
guidelines

• https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/r
esearch_and_citation/apa_st
yle/apa_formatting_and_styl
e_guide/general_format.html

APA Style Elements

• First page includes title and name.
• Use formal scientific style rather than stating opinions.
• Citing references in paper takes the form of (Smith, 2022). This

reference should then be listed in a separate page for references in
proper citation form for APA 7th Edition- e.g.

Plugge, M. (2021). Successful ageing in the oldest old: Objectively and subjectively measured
evidence from a population-based survey in Germany. European Journal of Ageing, 18(4), 537–547.
https://doi-org.silk.library.umass.edu/10.1007/s10433-021-00609-7

• Place page number and your name at the top of each page.
• For this paper- be sure your class concepts are in bold.

Important pointers

Other paper options
• Interview with older adult

• Design questions intended to understand how class concepts applied to the individual’s life
• Write down questions ahead of time and submit along with responses for the paper

• Observations relevant to class concepts
• Organize a method of gathering relevant information
• Examples could include watching older adults cope with mobility issues
• Submit plan along with paper proposal

• Research topic on a related area
• Economics
• Political science
• Humanities (arts, literature)

Grading Rubric

10 points: Careful proofreading; no (or very few) typos.
10 points: APA Style is adhered to in formatting and style.

10 points: Paper is correct length (at least 10 pages including
1 page of references)
20 points: 10 references are cited using APA style.
50 points: At least 10 concepts from the course are
specifically identified in the paper. These may be terms,
theories, or facts. Each concept will receive a maximum score
of 5 based on how accurately it is presented. The concept
should be highlighted in bold and used appropriately in the
context of the paper.

Other pointers

  • How to Write a Research Paper in Psychology
  • Library resources
  • Slide Number 3
  • APA publication guidelines
  • APA Style Elements
  • Important pointers
  • Other paper options
  • Grading Rubric
  • Other pointers

final – mental health and aging

How to Write a
Research Paper
in Psychology

Preparing for your final paper

Library resources

• Healey Library online database

• http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ez
proxy.lib.umb.edu/ehost/search
/basic?vid=0&sid=54dcc9ee-
3c5b-464e-9b44-
3ade0c241ef0%40pdc-v-
sessmgr04

APA publication
guidelines

• https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/r
esearch_and_citation/apa_st
yle/apa_formatting_and_styl
e_guide/general_format.html

APA Style Elements

• First page includes title and name.
• Use formal scientific style rather than stating opinions.
• Citing references in paper takes the form of (Smith, 2022). This

reference should then be listed in a separate page for references in
proper citation form for APA 7th Edition- e.g.

Plugge, M. (2021). Successful ageing in the oldest old: Objectively and subjectively measured
evidence from a population-based survey in Germany. European Journal of Ageing, 18(4), 537–547.
https://doi-org.silk.library.umass.edu/10.1007/s10433-021-00609-7

• Place page number and your name at the top of each page.
• For this paper- be sure your class concepts are in bold.

Important pointers

Other paper options
• Interview with older adult

• Design questions intended to understand how class concepts applied to the individual’s life
• Write down questions ahead of time and submit along with responses for the paper

• Observations relevant to class concepts
• Organize a method of gathering relevant information
• Examples could include watching older adults cope with mobility issues
• Submit plan along with paper proposal

• Research topic on a related area
• Economics
• Political science
• Humanities (arts, literature)

Grading Rubric

10 points: Careful proofreading; no (or very few) typos.
10 points: APA Style is adhered to in formatting and style.

10 points: Paper is correct length (at least 10 pages including
1 page of references)
20 points: 10 references are cited using APA style.
50 points: At least 10 concepts from the course are
specifically identified in the paper. These may be terms,
theories, or facts. Each concept will receive a maximum score
of 5 based on how accurately it is presented. The concept
should be highlighted in bold and used appropriately in the
context of the paper.

Other pointers

  • How to Write a Research Paper in Psychology
  • Library resources
  • Slide Number 3
  • APA publication guidelines
  • APA Style Elements
  • Important pointers
  • Other paper options
  • Grading Rubric
  • Other pointers

final – mental health and aging

Work and Retirement
“Take your job seriously, but don’t take yourself too seriously.”

Alex Trebek
1940-2020

OLDER WORKERS:
1. take more sick days than younger workers
2. try hard to get a task done right the first time.
3. are less flexible than younger ones.
4. can be easily replaced by younger ones
5. learn new skills to stay competitive in the workplace.
6. are not as productive as younger ones because they’re just waiting to retire
7. are a good fit to startup companies.
8. aren’t worth hiring because they’ll just retire soon after starting.
9. are team players.
10. are more expensive than younger ones.

AGEFEED
What are older workers really like? See whether these statements
are fact or myth!

AGEFEED
…the facts

1. take more sick days than younger workers
Myth! Older workers tend to have better regular job attendance than younger ones.

2. try hard to get a task done right the first time.
Fact! While older workers may not work as quickly, they strive to get the tasks done right the first time without any
mistakes. Speed does not always produce the best results!

3. are less flexible than younger ones.
Myth! Older workers may be more likely to question changes, but they are just as likely as younger workers to
adapt if the changes are well reasoned.

4. can be easily replaced by younger ones
Myth! The workplace knowledge and expertise gained by older workers is often very difficult to replace and can
take years to develop.

5. learn new skills to stay competitive in the workplace.
Fact! Many take courses to enhance their skills helping to keep up with changing technologies or practices.

6. are not as productive as younger ones because they’re just waiting to retire
Myth! Evidence suggests that older workers are just as productive as younger ones.

7. are a good fit to startup companies.
Fact! The experience older workers bring to new companies can be valuable, particularly in times of uncertainty.

8. aren’t worth hiring because they’ll just retire soon after starting.
Myth! Older workers stay at a job longer than younger ones, who may view jobs as stepping stones.
9. are team players
Fact! With experience comes a better understanding of one’s strengths and weaknesses, which can be invaluable in
a team setting

10. are more expensive than younger ones.
Myth! With older workers, costs are lower for hiring, retention, training, and on the job accidents.

about older workers

MENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS
OF WORK AND RETIREMENT
Work cupies large proportion of an individual’s time

Allows for expression of identity in the form of feelings
of competence and social status

Involves generativity or desire to leave behind a legacy

Satisfaction at work is basic to feelings of productivity
which translates into economic security

Labor force inequities translate into physical and mental
health disadvantages

Strains at work affect family and other sources of
satisfaction

WORK PATTERNS IN
ADULTHOOD

Current U.S. data on jobs and employment:
Check these out for some helpful facts!

• Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) tracks
occupational trends including labor force
participation and unemployment

• O*NET online provides descriptions of
U.S. occupations along with trends and
predictions

• Social Security (SSA.gov) provides
information to help in retirement
planning

Highlights of U.S. labor force data
By 2030, all baby
boomers will be at
least 65 years old,
and 9.5 percent of
the civilian labor
force is projected to
be older than 65.
Not only is the share
of older people in
the labor force
growing, but their
labor force
participation rates
are rising.

Note the large
increase for older
workers!

It’s worth staying im
school!!workers!

The next two slides
illustrate the gender gap in
salaries along with
possible explanations

Female median earnings

Male median earnings

WOMEN’S EARNINGS BY OCCUPATION
Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers in the Past 12 Months by Sex and Occupation

$25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000
ALL OCCUPATIONS

Selected Occupations with 80% or More Female
Workers

Registered nurses
Payroll and timekeeping clerks

Secretaries and administrative assistants
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

Medical assistants
Hairdressers, hairstylists and cosmetologists

Teacher assistants
Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

Childcare workers
Maids and housekeeping cleaners

Selected Occupations with 80% or More Male Workers
Software developers, applications and systems software

Civil engineers
Construction managers

Police and sheriff patrol officers
First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers
Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

“Women seem to be a little bit
less willing, less able, in a
game of chicken, if the guy is
driving towards the cliff of not
feeding the children, and the
woman is driving towards the
cliff of not feeding the
children, she pulls off first
and she feeds the children,”
Stevenson said. “And the
problem is that if he knows
that she’s going to pull off
first, then he wins the game of
chicken.” – Boston Globe,

1/24/22

‘Greedy jobs’ have led to a shocking pay
disparity for well-educated women

VOCATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT

THEORIES OF VOCATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
Provide explanations for career choices and
pathways, based on assumption that optimal
development involves expression of interests and
identity.

Relate to mental health given the importance of
work in both daily life and access to opportunities,
including ability to afford basic necessities.

Are less about abilities than interests.

SUMMARY OF VOCATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
Holland’s RIASEC theory: 6 factors make up people and work
environments
 Optimal development occurs when there is a match between person’s interests and

environmental characteristics
 Related to Five Factor Model (although there are 6 types)
 Proposes that career paths represent attempts by the worker to maximize

congruence

Super’s self-concept theory: Vocational development occurs within the
“life-space” – “life stages” framework
 Emphasizes expression of self-concept through work
 Puts vocational development in context of other major life roles.

Here’s an illustration of Holland’s RIASEC Codes.
Next, you can decide where you might fit in.

THE RIASEC “Party Game”:
Imagine walking into a room in which the six groups of people below are already interacting. Read
the descriptions of each group and list the group you would be drawn to first, then your second
choice, and finally your third choice. These represent your 3 letter Holland Code.

https://www.mynextmove.org/explore/ip

I took this O^NET Interest test– you can see my results in the next 5 slides

•A.S.E.: Someone with the three-letter code A.S.E. is
artistic, social and enterprising. This person is very
creative and emotional. They have a deep level of
concern for the well-being of others and are
passionate about solving social issues. They value their
personal reputation and seek power in their career. A
person with these traits might look for a high-level
position in a business focusing on social change.

Imagine walki

These are the jobs that fit my profile. Interesting, isn’t it?

Environmental determinants
Labor market
Employment practices

Situation determinants
Historical
Socioeconomic

Personal determinants
Psychological
Biological

Lifestyle
factorsAges

45
Super’s life-space
life-stages model
of vocational
development-
This is an
additional slide
that shows a
broader view of
Super’s theory.
Does it remind you
of
Bronfenbrenner?

Related concepts in vocational
development (check the text for
more info on these)
Protean career: Workers feel are self-directed by
their values

Boundaryless career: Workers seek support from
others in their same field

Core self-evaluation: Personality influences
vocational development

Occupation as calling: For some individuals,
vocational choice reflects a consuming passion

THEORIES OF VOCATIONAL
SATISFACTION

Focus on how workers feel about their jobs, based
on assumption that satisfied workers are more
productive workers.

Relate to mental health based on the assumption
that when workers feel positively about their jobs,
they will have higher levels of well-being.

Pay less attention to interests or abilities than to
motivation, emotions, and values.

SUMMARY OF VOCATIONAL
SATISFACTION THEORIES
•Self-determination theory: Workers are most satisfied when 3 needs
are met:
• Competence
• Relatedness
• Autonomy

•Affect theories: Emphasize influence of mood on satisfaction, including
daily variations (e.g. “affect spin”)

•Occupational reinforcement theory: Person-environment “congruence”
based on values alignment predicts satisfaction

Sources of workplace stress fall into these 3
categories. Can you relate to any of them?

Burnout
Emotional labor
Discrimination

Emotional
labor

Having to put on an act to cover
your real feelings.
Can take the form of needing to
cover up a stigmatized but
concealable identity in the
workplace, such as sexual
orientation or a non-normative
family situation.

The undermining boss and stifling work culture depicted in the film reflected realities found in the actual white-
collar workforce (Credit: Alamy Stock Photo)
https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20190205-office-space-turns-20-how-the-film-changed-work

If you ever saw Office Space, you might be able to understand how much it reflected
what is hoped to be less of a toxic work culture (check out the website below)

Age discrimination is reflected in these common myths about older workers.
Discrimination

According to the
EEOC, unfounded assumptions
about age and ability continue to
drive age discrimination in the
workplace. Research on ageist
stereotypes demonstrates that
most people have specific
negative beliefs about aging and
that most of those beliefs are
inaccurate. These stereotypes
often may be applied to older
workers, leading to negative
evaluations and/or firing, rather
than coaching or retraining.

WORK-LIFE BALANCE
AND STRESS

Conflict/strain vs. enrichment
models present alternate
approaches to work-life/family
balance

Remote working has added
complications but also
improvements for maintaining
work-life balance

The next 2 slides are from the
text, so check out the
explanation there.

Family Work
Development
opportunities for

growth

Affect
levels of happiness

Capital
sense of accomplishment

Efficiency
better use of time

Enrichment

WORK-FAMILY ENCRICHMENT

This PEW survey shows
the differential effect of
COVID on mothers and
fathers.

AGE AND
VOCATIONAL
PERFORMANCE

Job factors that
contribute to
decline

Worker factors
that contribute to
improvement

Physical exertion Openness to change

Shift work

Age bias

Lack of collaboration

Cognitive effort

Greater expertise

Fewer absences

Know the ropes

Fewer injuries

Age and Job Performance Scorecard

RETIREMENT

Sources of retirement income
These are the sources of
retirement income for
U.S. retired adults

SOCIAL SECURITY: THE FACTS

Social Security Act passed in 1935

49.7 million 65+ receiving benefits in 2022

Average monthly benefit is $1587

“Pay -as-you-go” system (i.e. not pre-funded)

Trust Fund is meant to be reserve

Rather than rely on Social Security, most workers who can afford to
are now investing in 401k’s, or private retirement investment accounts

We recognize same-sex couples’ marriages in all states, and some non-marital legal
relationships (such as some civil unions and domestic partnerships), for purposes of
determining entitlement to Social Security benefits, Medicare entitlement, and
eligibility and payment amount for Supplemental Security Income (SSI). We also
recognize same-sex marriages and some non-marital legal relationships established in
foreign jurisdictions for purposes of determining entitlement to Social Security
benefits, Medicare entitlement, and SSI.

Anticipatory period
Changes in work attitudes
Financial assessment

Decision to retire
Announcement of
retirement date
Financial preparation

Official retirement
Final day of work
Recognition by employers
and coworkers

Initial adjustment
Shifts in use of time
Financial adaptation

Stabilization
Adaptation to non-
working role

Bridge employment
Blurred retirement
Continued involvement in
labor force

Retirement is best thought of as a process over
time

Whitehall study on mental health and retirement (Fleischmann et al., 2020)

Retirement was generally related to
improvements in mental health.

Individuals retiring from poorer
working conditions experienced
more pronounced improvements in
mental health upon retirement.

However, workers in “good jobs”
have better mental health outcomes

Theories of retirement and mental
health
Role strain: Work role is the most important role in life, and
without it people lose their identity

Life course: Age norms create expectation that older adults will
retire

Continuity: People maintain their identities from work into
retirement

RESOURCE MODEL OF RETIREMENT

Physical Financial Social

Emotional Cognitive Motivational

Fleischmann, M., Xue, B., & Head, J. (2020). Mental health before and after retirement—Assessing the relevance of psychosocial working conditions: The Whitehall II
prospective study of British civil servants. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 75(2), 403–413. https://doi-
org.silk.library.umass.edu/10.1093/geronb/gbz042

Whitehall II showed that
across the retirement
transition, workers in
lower levels of
employment were
worse off while working
and better off after
retirement. The only
change that was less
beneficial was loss of
work social support.

LEISURE AND MENTAL
HEALTH IN LATER
ADULTHOOD

Benefits of leisure to mental
health
Cognitive stimulation, especially new activities

Social connections, including re-establishing old
friendships

Physical activity, which can help alleviate stress and
maintain health

Contribute to sense of identity

  • Work and Retirement
  • Slide Number 4
  • Slide Number 5
  • Mental health implications of work and retirement
  • WORK PATTERNS IN ADULTHOOD
  • Current U.S. data on jobs and employment:�Check these out for some helpful facts!
  • Highlights of U.S. labor force data
  • Slide Number 12
  • Slide Number 16
  • Slide Number 17
  • Slide Number 18
  • Slide Number 19
  • VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Theories of vocational development
  • Summary of vocational development theories
  • Slide Number 23
  • Slide Number 24
  • Slide Number 25
  • Slide Number 26
  • Slide Number 27
  • Slide Number 28
  • Slide Number 29
  • Slide Number 30
  • Slide Number 31
  • Slide Number 32
  • Slide Number 33
  • Related concepts in vocational development (check the text for more info on these)
  • Theories of vocational satisfaction
  • Summary of vocational satisfaction theories
  • Sources of workplace stress fall into these 3 categories. Can you relate to any of them?
  • Emotional labor
  • Slide Number 39
  • Slide Number 40
  • WOrk-life balance and stress
  • Work-family encrichment
  • Slide Number 43
  • Age and vocational performance
  • Slide Number 45
  • RETIREMENT
  • Sources of retirement income
  • Social Security: The Facts
  • Slide Number 49
  • Slide Number 50
  • Slide Number 51
  • Retirement is best thought of as a process over time
  • Whitehall study on mental health and retirement (Fleischmann et al., 2020)
  • Theories of retirement and mental health
  • Resource model of retirement
  • Slide Number 58
  • LEISURE and mental health in later adulthood
  • Benefits of leisure to mental health

final – mental health and aging

Health and Prevention
“Do not try to live forever, you will not succeed.”

George Bernard Shaw
1856-1950

AGEFEED

#TIPS

1. Stay connected to friends and family. Loneliness can be harmful to your health.
2. Eat a healthy diet. High-fiber fruits, veggies, and whole grains help keep the digestive

system functioning. Avoid sugar, salt, prepackaged foods, butter, and fatty meats.
3. Watch your weight to avoid arthritis. Excess weight puts pressure on the weight-

bearing joints eventually leading to irreversible damage.
4. Stay physically active. Strength training and balance exercises can help reduce falls as

you age.
5. Practice sleep healthy habits. Turn off technology before bed and stick to a consistent

schedule.
6. Stop smoking or using any tobacco products. Now!
7. Take good care of your teeth. Brushing, flossing, and seeing the dentist can help

prevent later-life oral problems including gum recession, staining, decay, and tooth loss.
8. Learn to manage stress. Coping with stress can promote physical and mental health.
9. Stay on top of your health. Get regular check-ups and follow your medical

professional’s advice.
10.Take dance classes. You’ll get your exercise while benefiting from the mental

stimulation involved in learning new moves and remembering choreography.

KEY CONCEPTS IN
HEALTH AND
PREVENTION

Activities of daily living (ADL)

Eating Bathing Dressing

Transferring Toileting

Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL):
• Use the telephone
• Go shopping
• Prepare meals
• Complete housekeeping tasks
• Do the laundry
• Use private or public transportation
• Take medications
• Handle finances

Tobacco use

Alcohol use

Unhealthy diet

Sedentary lifestyle

Obesity

Cancer

Cardiovascular
disease

Diabetes

Chronic lung
disease

RI
SK

F
A

CT
O

RS

CH
RO

N
IC D

ISEA
SE

34.4

6
3.2

10.1

31.1

12.5

55.7

13.9

6.6

22.4

47.6

23

59.1

25.1

11.1

30.7

51.9

19.4

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Hypertension Coronary Heart Disease Stroke Cancer, All Arthritis Diabetes

Percent within Age Groups 45 and Older with Chronic Conditions

45-64 65-74 75+

Non-Communicable Disease Burden

As of 2018, NCD’s
accounted for deaths of

41 million people
worldwide

Over 85% of those
deaths occur in low and
middle-income countries
where they affect <70 yrs
old

DISEASES OF THE
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM

Eastern Europe has the highest prevalence of deaths from heart disease (adjusted for age) followed by Central Asia
and Central Europe. The lowest rates of heart disease are in Central Sub-Saharan Africa, with similarly low rates in
southern Latin America and the high income countries in the Asia Pacific region

25% 27%
35%

50-64 65-74 75+

Rates of physical inactivity

14%
inactivity in
college-
educated

Development
of
atherosclerosis

As plaque builds up in t he art e rie s of a pe rson wit h he art
dise ase , t he inside of t he art e rie s be gins t o narrow, which
le sse ns or blocks t he flow of blood.

A st roke happe ns w he n a
blood clot blocks blood
flow t o t he brain. This
cause s brain t issue t o
be come damage d or die .

HIGH BLOOD SUGAR

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

LOW HDL (“GOOD”)
CHOLESTEROL

HIGH TRIGLYCERIDES

EXCESS FAT AROUND WAIST

METABOLIC SYNDROME

Metabolic syndrome is a term used to characterize people who
show 3 of the 5 risk factors illustrated here.

Prevention of heart disease and
stroke relies on 3 key factors

Cancer

Percent of new cancer cases by age, U.S.

Overweight and obesity present
risk factors for cancer among
women.

Worldwide
cancer deaths in
2018

9.6 million deaths from cancer in 2018

70% were in low- and middle-income countries

One-third due to risk factors of :high BMI, low
intake of fruits and vegetables, sedentary life
style, and use of tobacco and alcohol.

The most common cancers are lung, breast,
colorectal, prostate, skin, and stomach, with the
most number of deaths due to lung cancer

Forms of cancer treatment

Radiation Surgery Chemotherapy Targeted drug
therapies

Targeted therapy treats cancer by targeting the
changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide,
and spread.

DISEASES OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL
SYSTEM

A jo in t w it h s e ve r e o s t e o a r t h r it is

Risk factors
and
treatment for
osteoarthritis

Risk Factors
• Impact and

repeated use of
joints

• Overweight and
obese, especially
affects lower
joints

Treatment
• Over-the-counter

pain medications
• Exercise, geared to

individual’s ability
• Injection into joints

affects
• Replacement of joint

Percentage of adults
with arthritis by
obesity, diabetes, and
heart disease status,
U.S. 2013-2015 (age-
adjusted)

Osteoporosis

Risk factors
and
treatments
for
osteoporosis

Risk factors
• Postmenopausal status
• White female
• Excessive alcohol use
• Cigarette smoking
• Diets low in calcium,

protein, minerals,
vitamins

• Sedentary lifestyle

Treatment
• Medications (have

risks)
• Not calcitonin
• Dietary silicon
• Prevention through

weight-bearing
exercise

Prevalence of
osteoporosis or low
bone mass at the
femur neck among
adults aged 50 and
older having elevated
10-yr probability of
hip or major
osteoporotic fracture

Diabetes

Pancreas

Insulin

Insulin moves glucose
into cell where it’s
converted to glycogen

Healthy

Type 2

Cells fail to
respond to insulin
properly; glucose
accumulates
outside cell

Treatment involves insulin, dietary changes, exercise, and avoidance of interactions
with over-the-counter medications

Estimated age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes by race/ethnicity and sex among adults
18 years of age and older, U.S. 2013-2015.

RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Neurocognitive disorders

Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders

Memory loss

Aphasia

Apraxia

Agnosia

Social cognition

Disturbances in executive functioning

Diagnostic
criteria for

neurocognitive
disorders

• Memory loss
• Aphasia
• Apraxia
• Agnosia
• Social cognitive disturbances
• Disturbance in executive

functioning

Prevalence Estimates of Neurocognitive
Disorders, U.S. vs. World

10% 5-8%

World Health Organization includes all forms of neurocognitive disorders and
uses different modeling approach

Alzheimer’s Association places estimate at 5.8 million (includes all forms of
neurocognitive disorders); using the WHO modeling approach yields 3.25 million
and rule out the 25% who do not have Alzheimer’s Disease.

Other
factors
affecting
prevalence
estimates

HIGHER RATES IN LOW- TO
MIDDLE-INCOME

COUNTRIES

ACCURACY OF DIAGNOSTIC
METHODS

AVAILABILITY OF AUTOPSY
RECORDS

Progression of
changes that
can lead to
Alzheimer’s
disease

Differences
between
normal aging
and
Alzheimer’s
disease

Normal aging
• Making a bad decision once

in a while
• Missing a monthly payment
• Forgetting which day it is and

remembering it later
• Sometimes forgetting which

word to use
• Losing things from time to

time

Alzheimer’s disease
• Making poor judgments

and decisions a lot of the
time

• Problems taking care of
monthly bills

• Losing track of the date or
time of year

• Trouble having a
conversation

• Misplacing things often
and being unable to find
them

APP APP

Normal APP Cleavage Formation of β-amyloid plaque

plaque

How Alzheimer’s changes the brain

Normal cleavage of APP
occurs when it is snipped by
α-secretase, releasing a
neuroprotective fragment
along with the snipped APP.
In the formation of a plaque,
the snipping by β-secretase
and ϒ-secretase results in
abnormal cleavage and the
production of plaques.

secretase

secretase

secretase

Tau disintegration

Microtubule

Neurofibrillary tangles are formed when tau
disintegrates leading microtubules to
become twisted and tangled.

Genetic theories of Alzheimer’s disease

Early onset cases
led to discovery of
potential genetic

causes

The ApoE gene
now thought to
be involved in

plaques

Social support
Mental activity

Physical exercise

Limited alcohol

Mediterranean diet

May reduce
Alzheimer’s
risk

Protective factors against Alzheimer’s disease

Medical treatments for
Alzheimer’s disease

• Anticholinesterase
• THA (tacrine)
• Donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept)
• Galantamine (Razadyne)
• Rivastigmine (Exelon)

• Glutamate
• Memantine (Namenda)

• Anti beta-amyloid oligomers
• Aducanumab

Psychosocial treatments

Teach
behavioral
methods

01
Adhere to
schedule

02
Target
problematic
behaviors

03
Identify when
patient
becomes
disruptive

04

Other forms of
neurocognitive

disorder

• Vascular neurocognitive disorder
(multi-infarct dementia)

• Frontotemporal neurocognitive
disorder

• Parkinson’s disease
• Neurocognitive disorder with

Lewy bodies
• Pick’s disease

Reversible neurocognitive disorders

Normal pressure
hydrocephalus

Subdural
hematoma Delirium

Polypharmacy

Wernicke’s disease
(can progress to

Korsakoff
syndrome)

Pseudodementia

  • Health and Prevention
  • Slide Number 2
  • KEY CONCEPTS IN HEALTH AND PREVENTION
  • Activities of daily living (ADL)
  • Slide Number 5
  • Slide Number 6
  • Slide Number 7
  • Non-Communicable Disease Burden
  • DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  • Slide Number 10
  • Slide Number 11
  • Slide Number 12
  • Development of atherosclerosis
  • Slide Number 14
  • Slide Number 16
  • Slide Number 17
  • Slide Number 18
  • Prevention of heart disease and stroke relies on 3 key factors
  • Cancer
  • Slide Number 21
  • Percent of new cancer cases by age, U.S.
  • Slide Number 23
  • Worldwide cancer deaths in 2018
  • Forms of cancer treatment
  • Slide Number 26
  • DISEASES OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Slide Number 28
  • Risk factors and treatment for osteoarthritis
  • Percentage of adults with arthritis by obesity, diabetes, and heart disease status, U.S. 2013-2015 (age-adjusted)
  • Osteoporosis
  • Risk factors and treatments for osteoporosis
  • Prevalence of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femur neck among adults aged 50 and older having elevated 10-yr probability of hip or major osteoporotic fracture
  • Diabetes
  • Slide Number 35
  • Slide Number 36
  • RESPIRATORY DISEASES
  • Slide Number 38
  • Slide Number 39
  • Slide Number 40
  • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders
  • Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders
  • Prevalence Estimates of Neurocognitive Disorders, U.S. vs. World
  • Other factors affecting prevalence estimates
  • Slide Number 46
  • Differences between normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Slide Number 48
  • Slide Number 49
  • Genetic theories of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Protective factors against Alzheimer’s disease
  • Medical treatments for Alzheimer’s disease
  • Psychosocial treatments
  • Other forms of neurocognitive disorder
  • Reversible neurocognitive disorders

final – mental health and aging

Final Paper (100 points) The final paper will consist of a 10-page double-spaced paper
(including citations) on a topic covered during the semester. It will be due as an email
attachment to the instructor on MAY 13 at 10am. Please use 12 pt font and 1 inch margins and
follow APA style:
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html). This
paper should consist of an objective and empirically-informed approach to the topic and all
references should be given proper citation, including any use of quotes or conclusions based on
published material. The instructor will discuss sample topics during the first class, but students
are free to choose others based on their own academic and personal interests in the field of
aging. Gerontology 250 Spring 2022 Page 5 If you wish to receive feedback on your paper
before the due date, you may submit a final draft no later than May 6, 2022. You will then
receive feedback to help you prepare the final version before submission.

Grading rubric for the paper is as follows: 10 points: Careful proofreading; no (or very few)
typos. 10 points: APA Style is adhered to in formatting and style. 10 points: Paper is correct
length (at least 10 pages including 1 page of references) 20 points: 10 references are cited
using APA style. 50 points: At least 10 concepts from the course are specifically identified in the
paper. These may be terms, theories, or facts. Each concept will receive a maximum score of 5
based on how accurately it is presented. The concept should be highlighted in bold and used
appropriately in the context of the paper.

Class concepts for paper

Primary aging

Bipolar disorder

Suicide

Activities of daily living

High risk behaviors on our life.

Body control system

Death & Dying

Schizophrenia

Mental Health issues

Alzheimer

PTSD

final – mental health and aging

Basic cognitive functions:
Information processing,
attention, and memory

“By the time you’re eighty years old you’ve learned everything. You only have to remember it.”
George Burns
1896-1996

AGEFEED

#braingames

1. Train your brain. Look for new challenges every day, from crossword puzzles to
videogames to taking different routes to get to the same place.

2. Limit distractions. Easier said than done in this age of multitasking, but focusing on
one task at a time boosts your memory (hint: stay off social media during class!)

3. Keep organized. Make lists, reduce clutter, and keep common items in the same
location.

4. Practice mindfulness. Focus on your current inner state while you remain aware of
your surroundings.

5. Stay healthy. Good physical health promotes mental agility.
6. Use mnemonics. Memory tricks can help you remember everything from gardening

advice (“leaflets of three, let it be” to avoid poison ivy) to people’s names (“Joy has a
baby boy”).

7. Stay hydrated. Drinking plenty of water can help you avoid sluggishness and memory
loss.

8. Use visualization. Ever go into another room to get something and forget what it
was? Imagine that you’re picking the item up as soon as you decide to go get it.

9. Write things down. Like, with a pen or pencil. Handwriting outweighs typing on a
computer or phone, in part because your brain is better activated when creating each
letter’s shape rather than hitting keys that all have the same shape and feel.

10. Make new brainpaths. Use your fingertips to trace the outlines of objects. Each
repetition will help you build new synapses.

+

PROCESSING
SPEED AND
ATTENTION

Two
approaches to
understanding
aging and
attention

General slowing hypothesis:
Fewer resources means
slower and less efficient
processing

Inhibitory deficit: Older adults
can’t tune out irrelevant
information

500

1000

1500 2000 2500 3000

3500

4000

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000
O

ld
er

a
du

lts
R

T
(m

s)

Younger adults RT (ms)

Older adults respond at
slower speeds than
young adults

Brinley plot:
Performance of older adults is plotted against
performance by younger adults, revealing that
as the task becomes more difficult (requires
more time), older adults are
disproportionately slower.

Incongruent
sequence

Congruent
sequence

green

green

red

green

blue

red

Stroop task of inhibitory
control

(incongruent)

Videogames and attention

Training in videogames can boost attention under the right circumstances

MEMORY

Scaffolding theory
of memory

According to the scaffolding theory,
older adults can recruit alternate
neural circuits as needed by task
demands as shown by these
potential routes.

Abilities that
decline

Abilities that are
stable

Episodic memory Semantic memory

Source memory

False memory

Retrieval failure

Prospective memory

Flashbulb memory

Implicit memory

Procedural memory

Long-term memory and aging scorecard

The
“reminiscence
bump” in
early
adulthood

Do older people just have more to remember?

Our brains get slower as we age not because of
age-related cognitive decline, but because it
takes longer to process the lifetime of
experiences and knowledge we’ve acquired.

Michael Ramscar (2014)

Factors that can
influence memory in

later life

• Psychosocial factors
• Stress and depression
• Memory “self-efficacy”
• Stereotype threat

• Health-related factors
• Smoking
• Diet
• Aerobic exercise
• Strength training

Properly timed exercise aids memory
Vigorous activity four hours after first learning something boosts recall

Specific ways to improve
memory in later life

• Better encoding
• Practice
• Strategy use

Imagine a place you know well.

Mentally walk through each room,
associating items you want to
remember with that room.

To recall those items, retrace your
steps.

The use of method of loci as a way to improve
long-term memory (also called “Memory Palace”)

https://artofmemory.com/wiki/How_to_Build_a_Memory_Palace

Driving and Aging

Younger and older drivers

Younger drivers- highest crash rates

• Drink and drive
• Distracted driving
• Less experience
• Driving cheaper, less safe cars

Older drivers- highest fatality rates

• Mobility limitations
• Vision changes
• Restricted UFOV
• “Fear of driving”

The productivity illusion in distracted driving
(Watson et al., 2016)

Lambert et al., 2016

Across all indicators, including
subjective:

Nissan Rogue highest
Kia Optima lowest

“Confusion Corner” in Manitoba

Limited UFOV

Healthier UFOV

`

Reaction time and pedal error in older drivers

NHTSA, 2015:
12,000 accidents/year due to pedal error.

Another relevant design factor is stepover height,
defined as the difference in height between the
plane of the brake pedal face and the plane of the
accelerator pedal face. Vehicles with little stepover
height may cause the driver to inadvertently depress
both pedals at the same time or be more likely to
confuse the pedal location.

That is, if the force/displacement profiles of the
brake and accelerator pedals are similar, the tactile
feedback to the driver might cause a failure to
properly identify the pedal being applied.

Age-related decline in detection of response error

Hasegawa et al.,2020, PLoSOne

Sample
questions
from the
National
Highway
Traffic Safety
Administra-
tion’s self-test
for older
drivers

Steps Older Drivers can
Take to Improve Their
Driving

• Exercise to increase strength and flexibility

• Avoid drug-drug interactions

• Vision tests

• Drive during daylight and good weather

• Find safest routes (well-lit streets, arrows at
lights, easy parking)

• Plan route before driving

• Leave enough room in front

• Avoid distractions (including food)

• Consider alternatives to driving, including
online shopping

Rotaries or
roundabouts

can help
reduce

accidents

Reduction in collisions
with roundabouts
(percent)

• Reasons:
• Low travel speeds
• No light to beat
• One-way travel

Acuity
Night vision
Headline glare

Anxiety
Confusion

Social attitudes

Availability of other
transportation

Mobility
Strength
Coordination
Pain

Psychological

Biopsychosocial model of driving and aging

  • Basic cognitive functions: Information processing, attention, and memory
  • Slide Number 2
  • PROCESSING SPEED AND ATTENTION
  • Two approaches to understanding aging and attention
  • Slide Number 5
  • Slide Number 6
  • Videogames and attention
  • MEMORY
  • Slide Number 12
  • Slide Number 17
  • Slide Number 18
  • Scaffolding theory of memory
  • Slide Number 22
  • The “reminiscence bump” in early adulthood
  • Do older people just have more to remember?
  • Factors that can influence memory in later life
  • Slide Number 28
  • Slide Number 29
  • Slide Number 30
  • Slide Number 33
  • Slide Number 34
  • Slide Number 35
  • Specific ways to improve memory in later life
  • Slide Number 37
  • Slide Number 38
  • Driving and Aging
  • Younger and older drivers
  • Slide Number 41
  • Slide Number 42
  • Slide Number 43
  • Slide Number 44
  • Slide Number 46
  • Slide Number 48
  • Slide Number 49
  • Slide Number 50
  • Reaction time and pedal error in older drivers
  • Slide Number 52
  • Sample questions from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administra-tion’s self-test for older drivers
  • Steps Older Drivers can Take to Improve Their Driving
  • Rotaries or roundabouts can help reduce accidents
  • Slide Number 63
  • Reduction in collisions with roundabouts (percent)
  • Slide Number 65

final – mental health and aging

“Those who think they have no
time for bodily exercise will sooner
or later have to find time for
illness.”

Edward Stanley
1826-1893

AGEFEED
1. Total number of cosmetic procedure: 4.2 million
2. Number of invasive cosmetic surgeries: 400,000
3. Number of facelifts or eyelifts: 180,000
4. Number of Botox ® treatments: 1.7 million; average cost:

$397
5. Number of filler injections: 927,000; average cost: $669
6. Percent of all procedures by 55+ adults: 23%
7. Average cost of facelift: $7655
8. Increase in yearly number of procedures: 50,000
9. Reasons for plastic surgery: Re-entering the dating scene.
10. Newest trend in plastic surgery: The “Daddy-do-over”

#top10facts

Plastic surgery is big business for U.S. adults 55 and older. Check out
these 2018 facts!

Appearance

“Exposome” of
aging and the
skin

Photoaging:
Effect on the
Skin

Changes in the hands reflect alterations in the skin as well as
nails.

BODY BUILD

BMI and
body type

Aerobic
• 150 minutes of moderate activity per week
• No less than 10 minutes for each session

Resistance
• Each major muscle group 2-3 days per week
• 2-4 sets of each exercise
• Previously sedentary should start with light

intensity

Summary of exercise recommendations from AHA-ACSM

Mobility

Diets to help minimizing
bone loss include:

• Protein (e.g. eggs, quinoa, cottage cheese,
tuna, oat)

• Calcium (e.g. almonds, kale, broccoli,
cheese, tofu, sesame seed)

• Vitamin D (milk)
• Magnesium (bananas)
• Certain types of nuts (walnuts, Brazil nuts)
• Potatoes
• Carotenoids (carrots, squash, and apricots)

Effects of aging on the joints

Best
exercises
for
reducing
joint
damage

Yoga

Pilates

Resistance training

Stretching

Proper
workstation to
avoid joint
damage

VITAL BODILY FUNCTIONS

Wearable
technology

• Gaining popularity among older
adults

• Requires internal motivation
• Enhanced use with social

support

Master athletes

• Maintain high
physical functioning
throughout life

• However, they are a
self-selected group

“Age is not a barrier to fitness.”
Dr. Charles Eugster

Dr. Charles Eugster

https://www.bostonglobe.com/2021/01/16/sports/how-this-95-year-old-gymnast-stays-young-can-be-
lesson-us-all/

Incontinence in women

Poorer health Decreased mobility

Current use of
hormone

replacement
therapy

Being overweight History of falls Heart disease

BODILY CONTROL SYSTEMS

The endocrine system includes a complex set of structures that produce hormones
via feedback loops involving the body’s organs.

Circadian oscillation

Rhythm
dampened and
shifted with aging

Changes in circadian rhythms occur due to alterations in the
hormone melatonin, released by the pineal gland. Note that
these changes contribute to alterations in sleep cycles.

Estrogen
replacement

therapy

• Initial studies showed support
• 2002- warnings of increased risk

of blood clots and cancer
• 2015- UK issued report

documenting risks and benefits
• Locally applied estrogen can

offset dryness and pain
associated with sexual activity

• Alternatives include exercise,
quitting smoking, lowering
cholesterol and having one
alcoholic drink per day
(preferably wine)

C E N T R A L N E R V O U S S Y S T E M

S L E E P

T E M P E R AT U R E C O N T R O L

Photograph showing gray matter and white matter in the brain

Age-
related
declines

Factors
that

promote
decline

Plasticity

Factors
that

promote
plasticity

Disuse
Sedentary life
style
Poor diet
Environmental
toxins (including
alcohol)

Mental engagement
Physical exercise
Diet

PASA- front-back compensation
HAROLD- hemisphere compensation
CRUNCH- general compensation

Factors that promote
decline can be offset
by those that can
promote plasticity
across the adult years.

White matter
hyperintensities

• Related to the extent of brain
atrophy and some measures of
cognitive functioning

• Exact roles in normal aging and
disease are as yet unclear.

Healthy sleep habits for older adults

Avoid sedentary lifestyle

Exercise early in the day

Don’t nap during the day

Avoid reading late at night on e-readers or mobile devices

Manage depression and anxiety

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

Presbyopia

Effects of
presbyopia
on vision

Normal vision The same scene as viewed by a person with cataract

13.30%

11.80%

13.00%

18.10%

17.10%

Other

Hispanic

Black

White

All

Prevalence Rates of Cataracts by Race (2010)

ARMD

• Affects about 8% of adults 40-85
years of age

• Fourth most common form of
blindness worldwide

• Prevention through good eye health
• Beta carotene
• Glasses that protect from blue

and UV light

Age-related
hearing loss

Metabolic
presbycusis

Sensory
presbycusis

Exposure to noise

Exposure to noise can
accelerate age-
related changes in
hearing due to
presbyopia

Communication
strategies for

talking to older
adults

carefullyEnunciate

as if person isn’t there or is a childDon’t talk

contextProvide

positive and patientRemain

voice pitch lowKeep

gum while talkingDon’t chew

background noiseMinimize

while speaking to personLook

Communication
strategies for

talking to older
adults

• Enunciate carefully
• Don’t talk as if the person isn’t there or is a

child
• Provide context
• Remain positive and patient
• Keep voice pitch low
• Don’t chew gum while talking
• Minimize background noise
• Look while speaking to a person

Practical fall
prevention
strategies

• Exercise
• Eyeglasses
• Prosthetic aid
• Shower chair or bath bench
• Sit while grooming
• Have sturdy stepstools if needed in kitchen
• Keep the cell phone handy
• Stability training

Exercises to
reduce fall
risk
Functional training in
control of core bodily
muscles involved in posture
and balance.

Smell
Some form of dysfunction:
13%- 60-69 year
39%- 80+

Trouble detecting
Smoke- 20%
Natural gas- 31%

Poorest taste for:
Sour
Bitter

Most enjoyment of:
Sweet
Salty

Taste

Pain in
older
adults

Can increase
risk of falling

  • Physical Changes
  • Slide Number 2
  • Appearance
  • Slide Number 4
  • Slide Number 5
  • Slide Number 6
  • Slide Number 7
  • Slide Number 8
  • Slide Number 9
  • Slide Number 10
  • BODY BUILD
  • Slide Number 12
  • Summary of exercise recommendations from AHA-ACSM
  • Mobility
  • Slide Number 15
  • Slide Number 16
  • Diets to help minimizing bone loss include:
  • Slide Number 18
  • Best exercises for reducing joint damage
  • Proper workstation to avoid joint damage
  • VITAL BODILY FUNCTIONS
  • Slide Number 22
  • Slide Number 23
  • Slide Number 24
  • Slide Number 25
  • Wearable technology
  • Master athletes
  • Slide Number 28
  • Slide Number 29
  • Slide Number 30
  • Incontinence in women
  • Slide Number 32
  • BODILY CONTROL SYSTEMS
  • Slide Number 34
  • Slide Number 35
  • Estrogen replacement therapy
  • Slide Number 37
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Photograph showing gray matter and white matter in the brain
  • Slide Number 40
  • White matter hyperintensities
  • Healthy sleep habits for older adults
  • Slide Number 43
  • SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
  • Presbyopia
  • Effects of presbyopia on vision
  • Slide Number 47
  • Slide Number 48
  • Slide Number 49
  • ARMD
  • Age-related hearing loss
  • Exposure to noise
  • Communication strategies for talking to older adults
  • Communication strategies for talking to older adults
  • Practical fall prevention strategies
  • Exercises to reduce fall risk
  • Slide Number 57
  • Pain in older adults

final – mental health and aging

Basic cognitive functions:
Information processing,
attention, and memory

“By the time you’re eighty years old you’ve learned everything. You only have to remember it.”
George Burns
1896-1996

AGEFEED

#braingames

1. Train your brain. Look for new challenges every day, from crossword puzzles to
videogames to taking different routes to get to the same place.

2. Limit distractions. Easier said than done in this age of multitasking, but focusing on
one task at a time boosts your memory (hint: stay off social media during class!)

3. Keep organized. Make lists, reduce clutter, and keep common items in the same
location.

4. Practice mindfulness. Focus on your current inner state while you remain aware of
your surroundings.

5. Stay healthy. Good physical health promotes mental agility.
6. Use mnemonics. Memory tricks can help you remember everything from gardening

advice (“leaflets of three, let it be” to avoid poison ivy) to people’s names (“Joy has a
baby boy”).

7. Stay hydrated. Drinking plenty of water can help you avoid sluggishness and memory
loss.

8. Use visualization. Ever go into another room to get something and forget what it
was? Imagine that you’re picking the item up as soon as you decide to go get it.

9. Write things down. Like, with a pen or pencil. Handwriting outweighs typing on a
computer or phone, in part because your brain is better activated when creating each
letter’s shape rather than hitting keys that all have the same shape and feel.

10. Make new brainpaths. Use your fingertips to trace the outlines of objects. Each
repetition will help you build new synapses.

+

PROCESSING
SPEED AND
ATTENTION

Two
approaches to
understanding
aging and
attention

General slowing hypothesis:
Fewer resources means
slower and less efficient
processing

Inhibitory deficit: Older adults
can’t tune out irrelevant
information

500

1000

1500 2000 2500 3000

3500

4000

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000
O

ld
er

a
du

lts
R

T
(m

s)

Younger adults RT (ms)

Older adults respond at
slower speeds than
young adults

Brinley plot:
Performance of older adults is plotted against
performance by younger adults, revealing that
as the task becomes more difficult (requires
more time), older adults are
disproportionately slower.

Incongruent
sequence

Congruent
sequence

green

green

red

green

blue

red

Stroop task of inhibitory
control

(incongruent)

Videogames and attention

Training in videogames can boost attention under the right circumstances

MEMORY

Scaffolding theory
of memory

According to the scaffolding theory,
older adults can recruit alternate
neural circuits as needed by task
demands as shown by these
potential routes.

Abilities that
decline

Abilities that are
stable

Episodic memory Semantic memory

Source memory

False memory

Retrieval failure

Prospective memory

Flashbulb memory

Implicit memory

Procedural memory

Long-term memory and aging scorecard

The
“reminiscence
bump” in
early
adulthood

Do older people just have more to remember?

Our brains get slower as we age not because of
age-related cognitive decline, but because it
takes longer to process the lifetime of
experiences and knowledge we’ve acquired.

Michael Ramscar (2014)

Factors that can
influence memory in

later life

• Psychosocial factors
• Stress and depression
• Memory “self-efficacy”
• Stereotype threat

• Health-related factors
• Smoking
• Diet
• Aerobic exercise
• Strength training

Properly timed exercise aids memory
Vigorous activity four hours after first learning something boosts recall

Specific ways to improve
memory in later life

• Better encoding
• Practice
• Strategy use

Imagine a place you know well.

Mentally walk through each room,
associating items you want to
remember with that room.

To recall those items, retrace your
steps.

The use of method of loci as a way to improve
long-term memory (also called “Memory Palace”)

https://artofmemory.com/wiki/How_to_Build_a_Memory_Palace

Driving and Aging

Younger and older drivers

Younger drivers- highest crash rates

• Drink and drive
• Distracted driving
• Less experience
• Driving cheaper, less safe cars

Older drivers- highest fatality rates

• Mobility limitations
• Vision changes
• Restricted UFOV
• “Fear of driving”

The productivity illusion in distracted driving
(Watson et al., 2016)

Lambert et al., 2016

Across all indicators, including
subjective:

Nissan Rogue highest
Kia Optima lowest

“Confusion Corner” in Manitoba

Limited UFOV

Healthier UFOV

`

Reaction time and pedal error in older drivers

NHTSA, 2015:
12,000 accidents/year due to pedal error.

Another relevant design factor is stepover height,
defined as the difference in height between the
plane of the brake pedal face and the plane of the
accelerator pedal face. Vehicles with little stepover
height may cause the driver to inadvertently depress
both pedals at the same time or be more likely to
confuse the pedal location.

That is, if the force/displacement profiles of the
brake and accelerator pedals are similar, the tactile
feedback to the driver might cause a failure to
properly identify the pedal being applied.

Age-related decline in detection of response error

Hasegawa et al.,2020, PLoSOne

Sample
questions
from the
National
Highway
Traffic Safety
Administra-
tion’s self-test
for older
drivers

Steps Older Drivers can
Take to Improve Their
Driving

• Exercise to increase strength and flexibility

• Avoid drug-drug interactions

• Vision tests

• Drive during daylight and good weather

• Find safest routes (well-lit streets, arrows at
lights, easy parking)

• Plan route before driving

• Leave enough room in front

• Avoid distractions (including food)

• Consider alternatives to driving, including
online shopping

Rotaries or
roundabouts

can help
reduce

accidents

Reduction in collisions
with roundabouts
(percent)

• Reasons:
• Low travel speeds
• No light to beat
• One-way travel

Acuity
Night vision
Headline glare

Anxiety
Confusion

Social attitudes

Availability of other
transportation

Mobility
Strength
Coordination
Pain

Psychological

Biopsychosocial model of driving and aging

  • Basic cognitive functions: Information processing, attention, and memory
  • Slide Number 2
  • PROCESSING SPEED AND ATTENTION
  • Two approaches to understanding aging and attention
  • Slide Number 5
  • Slide Number 6
  • Videogames and attention
  • MEMORY
  • Slide Number 12
  • Slide Number 17
  • Slide Number 18
  • Scaffolding theory of memory
  • Slide Number 22
  • The “reminiscence bump” in early adulthood
  • Do older people just have more to remember?
  • Factors that can influence memory in later life
  • Slide Number 28
  • Slide Number 29
  • Slide Number 30
  • Slide Number 33
  • Slide Number 34
  • Slide Number 35
  • Specific ways to improve memory in later life
  • Slide Number 37
  • Slide Number 38
  • Driving and Aging
  • Younger and older drivers
  • Slide Number 41
  • Slide Number 42
  • Slide Number 43
  • Slide Number 44
  • Slide Number 46
  • Slide Number 48
  • Slide Number 49
  • Slide Number 50
  • Reaction time and pedal error in older drivers
  • Slide Number 52
  • Sample questions from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administra-tion’s self-test for older drivers
  • Steps Older Drivers can Take to Improve Their Driving
  • Rotaries or roundabouts can help reduce accidents
  • Slide Number 63
  • Reduction in collisions with roundabouts (percent)
  • Slide Number 65

final – mental health and aging

“Those who think they have no
time for bodily exercise will sooner
or later have to find time for
illness.”

Edward Stanley
1826-1893

AGEFEED
1. Total number of cosmetic procedure: 4.2 million
2. Number of invasive cosmetic surgeries: 400,000
3. Number of facelifts or eyelifts: 180,000
4. Number of Botox ® treatments: 1.7 million; average cost:

$397
5. Number of filler injections: 927,000; average cost: $669
6. Percent of all procedures by 55+ adults: 23%
7. Average cost of facelift: $7655
8. Increase in yearly number of procedures: 50,000
9. Reasons for plastic surgery: Re-entering the dating scene.
10. Newest trend in plastic surgery: The “Daddy-do-over”

#top10facts

Plastic surgery is big business for U.S. adults 55 and older. Check out
these 2018 facts!

Appearance

“Exposome” of
aging and the
skin

Photoaging:
Effect on the
Skin

Changes in the hands reflect alterations in the skin as well as
nails.

BODY BUILD

BMI and
body type

Aerobic
• 150 minutes of moderate activity per week
• No less than 10 minutes for each session

Resistance
• Each major muscle group 2-3 days per week
• 2-4 sets of each exercise
• Previously sedentary should start with light

intensity

Summary of exercise recommendations from AHA-ACSM

Mobility

Diets to help minimizing
bone loss include:

• Protein (e.g. eggs, quinoa, cottage cheese,
tuna, oat)

• Calcium (e.g. almonds, kale, broccoli,
cheese, tofu, sesame seed)

• Vitamin D (milk)
• Magnesium (bananas)
• Certain types of nuts (walnuts, Brazil nuts)
• Potatoes
• Carotenoids (carrots, squash, and apricots)

Effects of aging on the joints

Best
exercises
for
reducing
joint
damage

Yoga

Pilates

Resistance training

Stretching

Proper
workstation to
avoid joint
damage

VITAL BODILY FUNCTIONS

Wearable
technology

• Gaining popularity among older
adults

• Requires internal motivation
• Enhanced use with social

support

Master athletes

• Maintain high
physical functioning
throughout life

• However, they are a
self-selected group

“Age is not a barrier to fitness.”
Dr. Charles Eugster

Dr. Charles Eugster

https://www.bostonglobe.com/2021/01/16/sports/how-this-95-year-old-gymnast-stays-young-can-be-
lesson-us-all/

Incontinence in women

Poorer health Decreased mobility

Current use of
hormone

replacement
therapy

Being overweight History of falls Heart disease

BODILY CONTROL SYSTEMS

The endocrine system includes a complex set of structures that produce hormones
via feedback loops involving the body’s organs.

Circadian oscillation

Rhythm
dampened and
shifted with aging

Changes in circadian rhythms occur due to alterations in the
hormone melatonin, released by the pineal gland. Note that
these changes contribute to alterations in sleep cycles.

Estrogen
replacement

therapy

• Initial studies showed support
• 2002- warnings of increased risk

of blood clots and cancer
• 2015- UK issued report

documenting risks and benefits
• Locally applied estrogen can

offset dryness and pain
associated with sexual activity

• Alternatives include exercise,
quitting smoking, lowering
cholesterol and having one
alcoholic drink per day
(preferably wine)

C E N T R A L N E R V O U S S Y S T E M

S L E E P

T E M P E R AT U R E C O N T R O L

Photograph showing gray matter and white matter in the brain

Age-
related
declines

Factors
that

promote
decline

Plasticity

Factors
that

promote
plasticity

Disuse
Sedentary life
style
Poor diet
Environmental
toxins (including
alcohol)

Mental engagement
Physical exercise
Diet

PASA- front-back compensation
HAROLD- hemisphere compensation
CRUNCH- general compensation

Factors that promote
decline can be offset
by those that can
promote plasticity
across the adult years.

White matter
hyperintensities

• Related to the extent of brain
atrophy and some measures of
cognitive functioning

• Exact roles in normal aging and
disease are as yet unclear.

Healthy sleep habits for older adults

Avoid sedentary lifestyle

Exercise early in the day

Don’t nap during the day

Avoid reading late at night on e-readers or mobile devices

Manage depression and anxiety

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

Presbyopia

Effects of
presbyopia
on vision

Normal vision The same scene as viewed by a person with cataract

13.30%

11.80%

13.00%

18.10%

17.10%

Other

Hispanic

Black

White

All

Prevalence Rates of Cataracts by Race (2010)

ARMD

• Affects about 8% of adults 40-85
years of age

• Fourth most common form of
blindness worldwide

• Prevention through good eye health
• Beta carotene
• Glasses that protect from blue

and UV light

Age-related
hearing loss

Metabolic
presbycusis

Sensory
presbycusis

Exposure to noise

Exposure to noise can
accelerate age-
related changes in
hearing due to
presbyopia

Communication
strategies for

talking to older
adults

carefullyEnunciate

as if person isn’t there or is a childDon’t talk

contextProvide

positive and patientRemain

voice pitch lowKeep

gum while talkingDon’t chew

background noiseMinimize

while speaking to personLook

Communication
strategies for

talking to older
adults

• Enunciate carefully
• Don’t talk as if the person isn’t there or is a

child
• Provide context
• Remain positive and patient
• Keep voice pitch low
• Don’t chew gum while talking
• Minimize background noise
• Look while speaking to a person

Practical fall
prevention
strategies

• Exercise
• Eyeglasses
• Prosthetic aid
• Shower chair or bath bench
• Sit while grooming
• Have sturdy stepstools if needed in kitchen
• Keep the cell phone handy
• Stability training

Exercises to
reduce fall
risk
Functional training in
control of core bodily
muscles involved in posture
and balance.

Smell
Some form of dysfunction:
13%- 60-69 year
39%- 80+

Trouble detecting
Smoke- 20%
Natural gas- 31%

Poorest taste for:
Sour
Bitter

Most enjoyment of:
Sweet
Salty

Taste

Pain in
older
adults

Can increase
risk of falling

  • Physical Changes
  • Slide Number 2
  • Appearance
  • Slide Number 4
  • Slide Number 5
  • Slide Number 6
  • Slide Number 7
  • Slide Number 8
  • Slide Number 9
  • Slide Number 10
  • BODY BUILD
  • Slide Number 12
  • Summary of exercise recommendations from AHA-ACSM
  • Mobility
  • Slide Number 15
  • Slide Number 16
  • Diets to help minimizing bone loss include:
  • Slide Number 18
  • Best exercises for reducing joint damage
  • Proper workstation to avoid joint damage
  • VITAL BODILY FUNCTIONS
  • Slide Number 22
  • Slide Number 23
  • Slide Number 24
  • Slide Number 25
  • Wearable technology
  • Master athletes
  • Slide Number 28
  • Slide Number 29
  • Slide Number 30
  • Incontinence in women
  • Slide Number 32
  • BODILY CONTROL SYSTEMS
  • Slide Number 34
  • Slide Number 35
  • Estrogen replacement therapy
  • Slide Number 37
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Photograph showing gray matter and white matter in the brain
  • Slide Number 40
  • White matter hyperintensities
  • Healthy sleep habits for older adults
  • Slide Number 43
  • SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
  • Presbyopia
  • Effects of presbyopia on vision
  • Slide Number 47
  • Slide Number 48
  • Slide Number 49
  • ARMD
  • Age-related hearing loss
  • Exposure to noise
  • Communication strategies for talking to older adults
  • Communication strategies for talking to older adults
  • Practical fall prevention strategies
  • Exercises to reduce fall risk
  • Slide Number 57
  • Pain in older adults