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World history homework help

I. A Modern War

Use of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, zeppelins

Bigger, more accurate cannons

Barbed-wire, phosphorous shells, mustard gas

Targeting of civilian populations

10 million soldiers die; 7 million civilians

20 million wounded

58% casualty rate

Massive influenza epidemic kills 50 million more worldwide (3% of global population)

II. Domestic Impacts of The Great War

Greater Power for Executives

Boon to Certain Industries and Corporations

Further Decline for Landed Aristocracy

Gains For Labor Unions

Great Migration in United States

Debt, Inflations, Taxes

Women in Workforce; in Political Causes of the War


Committee on Public Information

April 1917 Woodrow Wilson creates Committee on Public Information (CPI), headed by George Creel

75 million pamphlets distributed

Ads, Posters, Movies

Four-Minute Men

Represented U.S. as beacon of freedom, juxtaposed with tyranny of Germany

Targeted war protestors, represented Germans as animals

Function of unpopularity of war and possibilities of the new mass media and technology

III.Paris Peace Conference (1919)

Immediate Impacts:

*Germany Humiliated, Punished, Forced to Accept Blame

*Loses its Colonies

*Self-Determination in Europe: Create New States (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary)

*League of Nations Created But Weak

* Mandates Established in Middle East

*Japan shut out of negotiations

*Ho Chi Minh Ignored

Versailles Treaty: A Shameful End to a Shameful War

Europe After World War I

Middle East after World War I

Question of Russia…

Not present at Paris Peace Conference

Viewed as threat to global order



Refused to honor Russian treaties or debts

The World War I Era


Course of the War

Domestic Impacts

Impacts Geopolitically

“A World Safe for Democracy”

The Lost Utopia….

World history homework help

I. Age of Empire

1880-1914: major outburst of European empire building

1875: 10% of Africa controlled by Europeans

1895: 90% under control

By 1914: 4/5 of globe under American or European control

Fueled by industrialization

Justified, normalized by attendant cultural values

Motives for Imperialism

Economic (industrialization): raw materials, markets, strategic positions


Modern, new phenomenon in late 18th, 19th century

“Imagined Community”

Language, territory, culture, history, mythology, customs

Nationalism combined with economic drives and cultural ideologies cultivated a competitive drive for command of globe

II. Social Darwinism

1859, Charles Darwin publishes, On the Origin of Species

Introduces language of “evolution”, “natural selection”, “adaptation”, “progress”

Development of social sciences in 1870s

Erroneously apply Darwin’s theories to contemporary societies in the late 19th century

Natural, scientifically demonstrable, superiority of some groups; justifies inequality at home and imperialism abroad

Herbert Spencer: “Survival of the fittest”

Inferior bound by biology, impossible to fully ameliorate

Racial Science and Eugenics

Arthur de Gobineua: father of racial science

An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)

Distinction between “yellow”; “black” and “white”

Race formed culture; whites had superior culture

Whites had traits to govern and develop world

Blacks: weak intellect, “sensual”

Asians: cruel and deceptive

Ironically de Gobineua opposed the imperialism of his era but his theories were seized by those seeking justification

Eugenics in early 20th Century: asserted traits inherited, certain groups inferior, but also society in decline but able to be redeemed through reforms in line with eugenic “truths”

Tarzan and The Fantasies of Eugenics

III. A New Era: Decline of Spanish Empire

Despite reform efforts, Spain outpaced and in decline in industrializing 19th century

Independence movements in its few remaining colonies

Cuba and the United States in 1890s

Forces driving imperialism in U.S. in 1890s

Industrialization and Markets


Culture: Social Darwinism and Modern Media

(1898): The Spanish America War, “A Splendid Little War”

American Empire in 1900

U.S.-Philippine War

Filipinos had established government in 1897

McKinley: uplift and civilize and Christianize” the Filipinos

Atrocities committed by American troops (rapes, execution of civilians, torture of prisoners of war, burning of villages)

American troops prosecuted for “water boarding”

Concentration camps—death rates of 20%

General Jacob Smith and the Samar campaign (1901)

War officially spans January 1899 to July 4, 1902

Over 4,000 Americans dead; 16,000 Filipino soldiers dead; 500,000 to 1 million civilians dead

America and Global Ideology of Empire

War and colonization justified by idea of Filipinos as “unfit” for self-government

Role of U.S. as teacher, protector, civilizer

William Howard Taft, first Philippine commissioner in 1901, “fifty or a hundred years” to exhibit “Anglo-Saxon political principles”

Sen. Albert Beveridge argued for America’s divine sanction “the mission of our race as trustees of God is the civilization of the world”

Gods demands we “govern the savage and senile”

World history homework help

HIS 117 Journal Guidelines and Rubric
Beginning Research

Overview: Journals are private communication between you and the instructor. They are also an opportunity to get feedback on key components of your final
project. Before submission, be sure to check your assignment against the rubric below.

Prompt: For this journal assignment, submit an assignment in which you begin your research for your final paper. You should include the following:

 Your Topic: Brainstorm reasons humans created societies, states, and empires in the premodern world. At this point, your topic should be a rough idea that
you would like to explore and refine over the next few modules. Provide reasons for your choice. Here are a few ideas to get you started:

Humans created societies, states, and empires in the late Neolithic period to 1500 CE in order to accomplish the following:
o Maintain a common defense
o Allow for the growth of individuals
o Guarantee admission to heaven

 Your Research Focus: Identify three specific empires, states, or societies that you will research and analyze in your paper. Choose three societies, states, or
empires from the following world regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas. You may want to glance through the textbook to get ideas. You will analyze
these societies, states, and empires as examples to prove your thesis. In your journal assignment, provide the reasons you chose them.

 Sources: Consider the sources of primary and secondary information you can use to begin your research by exploring the links in the Research Guide
document. Choose at least one primary and one secondary source and cite them in Turabian style. You can refer to the History webpage for the Shapiro
Library as a guide, as well as this video on primary and secondary sources.

Guidelines for Submission: Your journal assignment should be 400 to 500 words in length with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch
margins. Cite your sources using Turabian style.


Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Topic Identifies a topic related to why humans
created societies, states, and empires and
provides reasons for selection

Identifies a topic but it does not directly relate
to why humans created societies, states, and
empires; does not provide reasons to support
selection or they are incomplete, inaccurate,
or not completely developed

Does not identify a topic or provide reasons 30

Research Focus Identifies three societies, states, and empires
from Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas and
provides reasons to support this selection

Identifies three societies, states, and empires
from Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas but
does not provide reasons to support this

Does not identify societies, states, and


Sources Lists at least one primary and one secondary
source cited in Turabian style and sources are
drawn from the links provided in the Research
Guide document

Provides at least two resources drawn from
the links provided in the Research Guide
document but does not correctly identify
them as primary or secondary and/or does
not correctly use Turabian style

Does not provide resources 30


Submission has no major errors related to
grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization

Submission contains significant errors related
to grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization
that do not impact readability or articulation
of ideas

Submission has critical errors related to
grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization
that impact readability or articulation of ideas


Total 100%

  • HIS 117 Journal Guidelines and Rubric Beginning Research
    • Beginning Research

World history homework help

I. Causes of “The Great War”

“The Long Fuse”

Nationalism: Inclusion/Exclusion

Imperialist Rivalries in Africa, Asia, Europe


Militarism: German vs. British naval race; European Powers double spending, 1890-1914

Causes Continued…

Internal Dissent

France (1906-09): massive strikes held; massive electoral gains for Left in 1914

Germany: 1912 Socialists largest group in Reichstag

Russia: 1912-1914 massive wave of violent strikes

**war to calm social tensions and build unity; need our own “splendid little war”

And Yet More Causes….

Rigid Alliance system

Security in alliances—makes cost of aggression high as attacking one means attacking their allies

But only works if aggressor true fears, and makes a small war into a big war

Technology and Mobilization

Complicated schedules of troop movements

Once started, hard to stop

Fear your foe is doing so too

II. War Begins: The Long Fuse Explodes

June 28, 1914

Franz Ferdinand

Austria mobilizes against Serbia

Russia mobilizes against Austria

1914: Central Powers vs. the Entente Powers

III. The Course of the War

Both sides believed it would be a short war

Schlieffen Plan: overrun Belgium and France and return back to Germany to defeat Russia

Counterattack at Battle of Marne and speedy Russian defenses thwart ambitions

1914-1917: war would devolve into brutal, costly and futile trench warfare

(1916)Battle of Verdun each side lost over 300,000 soldiers without a conclusive victory

Battle of Somme: 500,000 die an British gain a few square miles

A Modern War

Use of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, zeppelins

Bigger, more accurate cannons

Barbed-wire, phosphorous shells, mustard gas

Targeting of civilian populations

10 million soldiers die; 7 million civilians

20 million wounded

58% casualty rate

Massive influenza epidemic kills 50 million more worldwide (3% of global population)

1917: Turning Points

United States Enters War: Ethnic Identities, Propaganda, Economics, Submarine Warfare

Woodrow Wilson: “Make the world safe for democracy”

Russia withdraws; signs Brest-Litovsk treaty

German sailors mutiny; German economy collapses and Kaiser flees

November 11, 1918: Germany signs armistice agreement

World history homework help

you will research European colonialism and examine how the consequences were viewed differently by the colonizers and the colonized. You will also use historical evidence to analyze and explain the causes and global consequences of colonization.

Your task is to:

1. Conduct research and write a 2 paragraph response to the questions below. 

2. Make a reference to 2 sources used for your research and provide commentary on your sources.

     a)Choose one of the areas colonized by Europe (Japan, India or Africa). 

Describe how this happened (what did Europe want from this country and how did it go about taking it?) 

b)How did the people of this area respond to colonization?  Do you think people today would respond in the same way? 


A. Select the area you would like to write about (Japan, India or Africa). Review the lessons in this unit and conduct research about colonization and imperialism in this area. You will need to locate a total of 2 sources.

B. Write a 2 paragraph response to the following questions:

a)Choose one of the areas colonized by Europe (Japan, India or Africa). 

Describe how this happened (what did Europe want from this country and how did it go about taking it?) (4-5 sentences)

b)How did the people of this area respond to colonization?  Do you think people today would respond in the same way? (4-5 sentences)

· Here is a suggested format to follow: PDF: 

Cause and Consequences of Colonization – Suggested Format

Google Doc Version.

· Make sure to use proper grammar and spelling in your essay.

A. Include 2 sources at the end of your 2 paragraphs. Provide the link (URL) to each source and for each source, write 1-2 sentences describing why you selected the source. If you need to review how to analyze your sources, please review the previous lesson: 

Analyzing Sources

Follow this example for your sources:

Source 1:   


The first source I chose was…..

The reason I chose this source was because…

Source 2: 


The second source I chose was….

The reason I chose this source was because…

World history homework help

I. Germany (1918-1933):
Ripe for Radical Change

National Collapse: Military defeat, wounded national pride

Economic Collapse: Inflation, Depression, unemployment

Government Paralysis: Weimar Republic, “candle burning at both ends”; Strong sense that the system has “failed”

Revolutionary Atmosphere: Threat of communist revolution

Psychological Malaise

II. Nazism as Ideology

National Socialist German Workers’ Party founded shortly after World War I

Disgruntled army veterans


Popular among unemployed, veterans

Emphasis on organization, charisma of messenger (Hitler), and appeal of message of change

What did Nazis Believe?

Restore glory of Germany: ultra-nationalistic

Racist: “Aryan”, Teutonic superiority; blood not class unites and divides “the people”

Anti-Semitic: Jews as alien to nation; responsible for all Germany’s ills

Anti-communist: Class struggles divide the people; Jewish conspiracy; appeals to middle-class

Anti-democratic: parties, parliament divide the nation; worthless bureaucrats

Anti-rich: against Big Business; emphasis on Volk

The Appeal: Struggle, Action, Protest

Contradictions: Society not pure, Jews small population, both communists and capitalists?

Struggle: Conflict is natural; survival of the fittest; might makes right

Action: “Do something”; contradictions melt away

Protest: Depression, Communism, Greed, Foreign Powers===The Jews

Meaning, Identity, and Redemption

III. Adolf Hitler

Austria born, 1889

World War I veteran

Early leader of National Socialist Party

Failed coup in 1923

Mein Kampf (1924)

Charisma, consistency

Belonging; tribalism

Modern media: radio, film, staged rallies, book burnings

Appointed Chancellor in 1933

IV. Fascism: Marriage of Powers

1932: Fascists and Communists earn 50% of votes in Germany

“Junker” establishment: army, bureaucracy; industrialists fear revolution; Communist viewed as worse; Hitler as lesser of threats

Feb. 1933 Reichstag Fire: blame communists and socialists

March 1933: ban all parties except Nazis

Junkers, elite, wealthy side with Hitler

Needs financial support; stops talking social revolution; tones down anti-capitalist rhetoric

Revolution Solidified

1934: Hitler seized power; purged dissidents; integrated establishment

Courts middle class

Begins rapid rearmament

Ends Depression; back to work

Escalation of persecution of Jews

Challenges Versailles Treaty: right to an army, right to lost territory

“secure for the German people the land to which they are entitled”

Fascism and Communism in Comparison

Both anti-liberal

Both one-party regimes

Both one-man dictatorships

Both use secret police, terror against population

Both have radical, transformative ideology

Both have scapegoats

Fascism: focus on race, protected elites, ultimately pro-capitalist

Communism: focus on class, destroyed elites, ultimately anti-capitalist

World history homework help

I. Russia as Traditional Society

Ruled by hereditary monarch: Tsar Nicolas II; Romanov family

Tradition of autocracy: rule by one

Small land holding aristocracy

Majority are peasants

Russia behind politically, economically

1905—Duma created; comprised of loyal and wealthy

Attempt to create industrialization through autocracy

II. Early 20th Century Russia: Social and Political Discontent

Industrialize by bringing in foreign investment

Fast, influx of best technology

But leads to popular discontent

85% of peasants own half of land; 3% of nobles own other half

Peasant land hunger; Miserable working conditions

No political remedy: absolutism, no constitution, no real parliament, no democracy, no real reform,

Worker strikes; radicalization of unions; use of troops to quell discontent

Russian troops firing on Russian people to protect interests of foreigners

No political remedy—violence as means to change

Role of World War I

4 million Russians conscripted

Wages fixed, strikes outlawed, real wages fall 15% to 45%

Bolsheviks Party outlawed but continue agitation

Food shortages, rationing, prohibition of alcohol

Military defeats and stalemates

February 1917: Tsar Nicholas at Front

Coldest winter in decades

Massive food and fuel shortages

670,000 strikes across Russia, mutinies, civil unrest in capital

“Bread, Peace, Land”

Police fire on crowds, the people shoot back

Who is to blame? Nicholas II abdicates

Provisional Government

Attempt to create new, constitutional, democratic government; enact reforms

The work of liberals in Duma; members of middle class

Just as unpopular as tsar; unable to restore order; insisted on continuing World War I

Returning soldiers and workers formed soviets (councils) who would govern local affairs and form new government; rival to Provisional Government

Enter Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

Child of middle class; early revolutionary; conspired to kill tsar and exiled in 1900

Interpreter of Karl Marx

Hoped to bring revolution from top down; short circuit process to go feudalism to communism

Nationalization of land

Single national bank

Create the world’s first Marxist state

Returns in April 1917 to undermine Provisional Government

The October Revolution

Lenin agitates for armed takeover; soviets have right to takeover

Peasants want land

Soldiers want peace

Workers demands: 8 hour workday, higher wages, price controls, worker management of industry

Provisional government tells all to wait

October 1917: soldiers loyal to Lenin seize Petrograd

Soviets purged of moderates; loyal to Lenin and committed to revolution

Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional Government; establish new state to be led by Communist Party

Withdraw from World War I in March 1918; Romanov family executed in July 1918

Revolution in Russia

Crisis of World War I

Futility of Provisional Government

Weakness and discrediting of moderates

Bread, Peace and Land as popular slogan

Bolsheviks put themselves at head of revolution already under way

End of traditional society

New mode of governing: one party rule, rapid industrialization directed from party, redistribution of wealth, use centralized authority to consolidate power and purge dissidents

World history homework help

I. Themes of 20th Century

Inclusion/Exclusion: nationalism, imperialism, immigration, globalization

Tradition vs. Change

Clashing visions of progress

II. Economic Antecedents: The Industrial Revolutions

First Industrial Revolution begins 1750

Machine Power and Transportation Revolution

Development of Market Economy: surplus sold for consumption by a market

Concentration and Investment of Capital

Urbanization and Concentration of Production

Available Labor Force: Wages and Immigration

The Inventions of 18th and 19th Century

Steam engine

Cotton gin

Mechanical Reaper

Interchangeable parts




Sewing Machine






III. Cultural Antecedents

Faith in Progress and Embrace of Change

1829: “technology” enters English language

Charles Darwin and “evolution”

Louis Pasteur and Germ Theory

Comforts and Pleasures of Market Economy

Einstein: demolished predictable, “clockwork” universe

Freud and Psychoanalysis

IV. Political Antecedents

Traditional Societies

Rural, agricultural

Peasants and Nobles

Power of Tradition, Custom, and Religion

Monarchies, personal rule by divine right

Kinship, blood ties over individualism

Inequality rooted in tradition

Society as a body


Challenge to Traditional Thinking

Emerge in 18th and 19th century: made the Industrial Revolution

Individualism: personal liberty above all

Competition: natural and positive

Work Ethic: thrift, temperance, perseverance

Private Property: sacred right, sign of virtue and worth

Equality: under law, of opportunity; assault on aristocracy and nobility

Liberal Politics

Free speech, civil rights, ex. Bill of Rights

Personal freedom and freedom from interference

Representative government

Equality before law

The Danger: The “Mob”: unpropertied, unfit masses seeking to redistribute wealth; threat of “unworthy”

The Solution: limited franchise, indirect elections, checks and balances, strong executives

Democratic Societies

Democrats and Radicals: The Have-Nots

Concentration of Wealth a Threat to Freedom

Leads to class domination

Rich control society and repress poor

Inequality and Injustice

State should redistribute wealth in interests of all members of society

Democratic Politics: universal suffrage, direct elections, weak executive

Liberal and Democratic Revolutions in 19th and 20th Centuries

How to organize society?

traditional; liberal; democratic

What vision of progress?

Hierarchy and order; individualism; equal societies

World history homework help


{1} This is a critical essay, not a research paper requiring additional materials. The Essay is DUE ON MONDAY, 5/9, in class. (The due dates associated with the essay are found on the syllabus.) Before that date you also must complete a related task: a 250-300 word (1-page) preliminary Abstract, containing your essay thesis and some further detail on its overall content and conclusions. This is listed on the syllabus as Thesis/Abstract, and is DUE ON MONDAY 4/25. When turning in the essay you must also include your Abstract, with my comments and the grade, and the Essay Grading Checklist (on Blackboard). Together these make up the CRITICAL ESSAY PACKET (announcement to follow).

For this assignment you need only 2 required books:

<> Jill Ker Conway ed, Written By Herself, Vol. 2

<> Robert Strayer & Eric Nelson, Ways of the World, Vol. 2

The assigned chapters from Conway are by Vera Brittain (pp. 66-116), Emma Mashinini (352-388) Vijaya Pandit (438-488) and Gloria Wade-Gayles (569-619), also listed on the course syllabus. Your Essay must discuss ALL 4 of these authors. Just as important, students also must make full use of Strayer & Nelson, Ways of the World, which explores major processes in world history experienced by the women writers. (also cf. syllabus, p.1).

An essay is a specific literary genre, in which the writer formulates a THESIS or central argument, supports it with EVIDENCE in the MAIN BODY, and offers final insights in the CONCLUSION. Your essay must be 1500-1750 WORDS (6-7 PAGES) in length. You may write some more if you wish, but not much more; part of the assignment is to stay within length limits. It must have a DISTINCT TITLE which serves as a brief summary or description of the actual thesis or content (not e.g. “Critical Essay” or “World History”). You must also include the Bibliography found at the end on the Guidelines. The following requirements comprise two further parts: {2} the questions and issues to be discussed, and {3} specifications for citations and paper format.

{2} In developing a thesis based on the readings, you must address the following questions. Your answer to these questions constitutes your thesis.

— What do these women’s lives and writings tell us about major developments in modern world history?

— What do they have in common, and how did their varied backgrounds and circumstances result in different experiences?

{3} Your essay must have AT LEAST 16 SEPARATE CITATIONS with SPECIFIC PAGE REFERENCES, an average of MORE THAN 2 PER PAGE. Footnotes (preferred) or endnotes are acceptable, but not in-text citations; notes do not count as part of the word total. You must cite each of the 4 female authors AT LEAST 3 TIMES in separate notes, though you may cite more than one in particular notes. Strayer must be cited AT LEAST 3 TIMES and only once from the sections on the women’s movement. Direct quotations are permitted in support of your thesis, but they should be minimal and brief. It is your voice that matters, and your views developed through careful attention to the sources. You may refer to other course materials, but only to SUPPLEMENT the minimum total of required references, NOT to SUPPLANT them; they are best cited along with the page references to readings. Use of Internet materials is not PROHIBITED but is STRONGLY DISCOURAGED; the point is to analyze the assigned readings. One further suggestion: you can write a stronger paper by integrating your analysis of all four authors around key themes, rather than discussing them separately and in succession.

Essays must be typed in 14 or 12-point type, and double-spaced with 1.5-inch margins at the top, bottom and sides; pages must be individually numbered at top or bottom. Please include your name, email address and course number, along with the word count. NOTE: unlike the Map Test which allowed you to work together, you must WORK INDEPENDENTLY (apart from discussing the assignment) and SUBMIT SEPARATE ESSAYS. Finally, be sure to include the Bibliography found below at the end of the Critical Essay packet.





*** DO NOT use ANY INTERNET MATERIAL without a full, verifiable SOURCE (not just URL) ***



Jill Ker Conway ed, Written By Herself, Vol. 2: Women’s Memoirs from Britain, Africa, Asia and the United States (Vintage Books, 1996)

Includes excerpts from:

— Vera Brittain, “Testament of Youth,” 66-116

— Emma Mashinini, “Strikes have Followed Me all my Life,” 352-388

— Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, “The Scope of Happiness,” 438-488

— Gloria Wade-Gayles, “Pushed Back to Strength,” 569-619

Robert W. Strayer & Eric W. Nelson, Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources, Vol. 2 (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015)