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See Attachment 250 Word Count

Due Friday May 6, 2022

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Discussion: Develop your definition of personality incorporating this week’s reading materials, video lectures, and Deut. 6:4: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength” and Matthew 22:34-40: “Hearing that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, the Pharisees got together. One of them, an expert in the law, tested him with this question: ‘Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?’ Jesus replied: “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.” Do these passages refer to specific personality characteristics or dimensions? How do they relate to Freud and Jung’s theories of personality?  Students should post a 250 word original response

See attachment 250 word count

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Chapter 1

Personality:
What It Is And Why You

Should Care

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter Outline

• Take a look at the word
• Personality and the social media
• The role of race and gender in

shaping personality
• The role of culture in shaping

personality
• Assessing your personality

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter Outline (continued)

• Research in the study of personality
• The role of theory in personality

theories
• Questions about human nature: what

are we like?

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Personality

• Dictionary definitions
– State of being a person

– Characteristics and qualities that form a
person’s distinctive character

– Sum total of a person’s physical, mental,
emotional, and social characteristics

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Personality (continued)

• Psychological definition
– Unique and relatively enduring internal

and external aspects of a person’s
character
• They influence behavior in different situations

• Description is complex
– Humans change according to different

situations and people

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Questions on Personality and
Social Media Interaction

Do people present their real selves on
social media?

Does the use of social media influence
or change one’s personality?

Does the use of social media differ with
different personalities?

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Personality and Social Media

• Personality includes how others see a
person online

• Social media has a wide and a more
instantly reachable audience

• Shapes and reflects personality

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Role of Race, Gender, and
Culture in Shaping Personality

• Race and gender
– Personality theorists traditionally

consisted of white men of European and
American heritage
• Ignored ethnic and gender influences

• Culture
– Cross-cultural psychology research
• Conclusion shows that personality is formed

by genetic and environmental influences

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Differences in Cultural Beliefs
and Values

• Individualism versus collectivism
– Impacts:
• Child-rearing practices
• Self enhancement – Tendency to promote

oneself aggressively and be conspicuous

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Assessment in Personality Study

• Evaluation of personality
– Used for diagnosis, education, counseling,

and research

• Principles of measurement
– Reliability: Consistency of response to a

psychological assessment device
– Validity: Extent to which an assessment

device measures what it is intended to
measure

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Assessment Methods

Self-report
inventories

Online test
administration

Projective
tests

Clinical
interviews

Behavioral
assessment

Thought and
experience

samples

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Self-Report Inventories

• Subjects answer questions about
their behaviors and feelings
– Objective measure – Minnesota

Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Advantages

Objective scoring

Quick assessment

Disadvantages

Not suited for people who possess
limited reading skills
Tendency to provide socially
desirable answers

Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Online Test Administration

• Advantages
– Less time-consuming and expensive
– Objective scoring
– Accepted by younger employees
– Prevents test takers from looking ahead

at questions and changing their answers

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Projective Tests

• Projective techniques
– Rorschach Inkblot Technique
– Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
– Word association and sentence completion

• Interpretation is subjective
– Reliability and validity of the tests are low

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Clinical Interviews

• Involves asking relevant questions
about:

• Past and present life experiences
• Social and family relationships
• Reasons for seeking psychological help

Advantage

Problem areas can be explored
in detail

Disadvantage

Subjective

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Behavioral Assessments

• Observer evaluates a person’s
behavior in a given situation
• Assessment occurs during clinical interview

Advantage

Provides valuable insights

Disadvantage

Less systematic

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Thought and Experience
Sampling

• Thought sampling
– Records thoughts and moods in a systematic manner

• Provides a sample over a period of time

• Experience sampling
– Participants are asked to describe social and environmental

context in which the experience being sampled occurs

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Thought and Experience
Sampling (continued)

• Relies on technological developments

Advantage

Determines how context
influences thought and mood

Disadvantage
Participant may forget to record
activities
Emotions and mood affect nature of
information reported

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Gender Issues in Assessment

• Personality assessment is influenced
by gender
– Assessment measures indicate

differential rates of diagnosis based on
gender for emotional disorders

• Therapists may exhibit bias against
women

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Ethnic Issues in Assessment

• Asians
– Less likely to seek help for emotional

problems
• African Americans
– Personality tests used are biased

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Ethnic Issues in Assessment
(continued 1)

• Hispanics
– Less likely to seek psychological

treatment
• Prefer to seek mental health advice from

their family physician

• Translation of personality tests
– Slang and colloquial expressions
– Problems arising from cross-culture

application

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Personality Assessment
Highlights

Asians tend to score:
• High in collectivism
• Low in assertiveness &

optimism

Hispanics tend to score:
• High in collectivism
• High in PTSD

symptoms following
injuries

African- Americans tend
to score:
• Low on trust
• Low on hopelessness

and depression (if
they identify with
Black cultural values)

• Low on self-esteem if
they perceive
discrimination against
them

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Personality Research Methods

Clinical
method

Experimental
method

Virtual
research
method

Correlational
method

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Clinical Method

• Case study: Detailed history of an
individual
– Contains data from various sources
– Consistencies in the patient’s lives are

used by theorists to generalize their
findings

– Advantage – Provides an in-depth view
of one’s personality

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Clinical Method (continued)

– Disadvantages
• No precision and control of the experimental

and correlational methods
• Subjective
• Accuracy of childhood memories cannot be

checked

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Experimental Method

• Involves determining effects of
variables or events on behavior
– An experimental situation is arranged by

psychologists
Independent variable Dependent variable

Variable that is manipulated Variable that is measured

Experimental group Control group

Exposed to experimental
treatment

Does not receive experimental
treatment

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Experimental Method (continued)

• Advantages
– Well controlled and systematic

• Disadvantages
– Safety and ethical reasons restrict

control over some aspects of personality
and behavior

– Dependent variable is influenced by the
subject’s attitude

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Virtual Research Method

• Online test administration
– Psychological tests, opinion surveys, and

subject responses to experimental
stimuli

• Advantages
– Fast responses
– Inexpensive
– Reaches broad range of subjects

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Virtual Research Method
(continued)

• Disadvantages
– Sample may not represent the

population
– Online test-takers may have different

characteristics from non-responders
– Honesty and accuracy of data is

questionable

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Correlational Method

• Measures the degree of relationship
between two variables
– Expressed by the correlation coefficient,

which ranges from -1.00 to +1.00

Advantage

Helps make predictions in the
real world

Disadvantage

Cause and effect conclusions may
be flawed

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Theory in the Study of
Personality

• Theory – Provides the framework to
describe data in a meaningful way
– Set of principles that must:
• Be testable and capable of stimulating

research

• Be able to clarify and explain data by
organizing those data into coherent
framework

• Help understand behavior

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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Questions About Human Nature

• Free will or determinism?
• Inherited nature or nurturing

environment?
• Dependent or independent of

childhood?
• Unique or universal?
• Satisfaction or growth?
• Optimism or pessimism?