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SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

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Data Set Instructions

The grades.sav file is a sample SPSS data set. The fictional data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of about 35 students (N = 105).

Last week, you converted grades2.dat to grades.sav. There are 21 variables in grades.sav. Open your grades.sav file and go to the Variable View tab. Make sure you have the following values and scales of measurement assigned.

SPSS variable

Definition

Values

Scale of measurement

id

Student identification number

Nominal

lastname

Student last name

Nominal

firstname

Student first name

Nominal

gender

Student gender

1 = female; 2 = male

Nominal

ethnicity

Student ethnicity

1 = Native; 2 = Asian; 3 = Black;

4 = White; 5 = Hispanic

Nominal

year

Class rank

1 = freshman; 2 = sophomore;

3 = junior; 4 = senior

Scale

lowup

Lower or upper division

1 = lower; 2 = upper

Ordinal

section

Class section

Nominal

gpa

Previous grade point average

Scale

extcr

Did extra credit project?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

review

Attended review sessions?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

quiz1

Quiz 1: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz2

Quiz 2: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz3

Quiz 3: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz4

Quiz 4: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz5

Quiz 5: number of correct answers

Scale

final

Final exam: number of correct answers

Scale

total

Total number of points earned

Scale

percent

Final percent

Scale

grade

Final grade

Nominal

passfail

Passed or failed the course?

Nominal

1

1

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

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Week 4: Correlation Application

Proper Reporting of Correlations

Reporting a correlation requires an understanding of the following elements: the statistical notation for a Pearson’s correlation (r), the degrees of freedom (df), the correlation coefficient, and the probability value. For example, you might report:

“There was a statistically significant positive correlation between test anxiety and test scores, r(98) = .32, p < .01 (two-tailed).” r, Degrees of Freedom, and Correlation Coefficient

The statistical notation for Pearson’s correlation is r, and following it is the degrees of freedom for this statistical test. The degrees of freedom for Pearson’s r is N − 2. For example, if there were 100 participants in the sample, then the df would be 98 (100 − 2 = 98). Note that SPSS output for Pearson’s r provides N, so you must subtract 2 from N to correctly report degrees of freedom. Next is the actual correlation coefficient including the sign. After the correlation coefficient is the probability value (p).

So, you might have a correlation of r(98) = +.20, p < .05.

Probability Values

Prior to the widespread use of SPSS and other statistical software programs, p values were often calculated by hand. The convention in reporting p values was to simply state, p < .05 to reject the null hypothesis and p > .05 to not reject the null hypothesis. However, SPSS provides an exact probability value that should be reported instead.

Hypothetical examples would be p = .02 to reject the null hypothesis and p = .54 to not reject the null hypothesis (round exact p values to two decimal places). One confusing point of SPSS output is that highly significant p values are reported as .000, because SPSS only reports probability values out to three decimal places. Remember that there is a “1” out there somewhere, such as p = .000001, as there is always some small chance that the null hypothesis is true. When SPSS reports a p value of .000, report p < .001 and reject the null hypothesis.

The “(two-tailed)” notation after the p value indicates that the researcher was testing a nondirectional alternative hypothesis (H1: rXY ≠ 0). He or she did not have any a priori justification to test a directional hypothesis of the relationship between commitment and length of the relationship. In terms of alpha level, the region of

rejection was therefore 2.5% on the left side of the distribution and 2.5% on the right side of the distribution (2.5% + 2.5% = 5%, or alpha level of .05). A “(one-tailed)” notation indicates a directional alternative hypothesis. In this case, all 5% of the region of rejection is established on either the left (negative) side (H1: rXY < 0) or the right (positive) side (H1: rXY > 0) of the distribution. A directional hypothesis must be justified prior to examining the results. In this course, we will always specify a two-tailed (non-directional) test, which is more conservative relative to a one-tailed test. The advantage is that a non-directional test detects relationships or differences on either side of the distribution, which is recommended in exploratory research.

APA Focus of the Week: Reporting Standards in APA Format

Here are the most common statistical notations we will be using in this class, based off of Table 6.5 in the APA 7 manual (APA, 2020, pp. 183-186).

APA abbreviation or symbol

Definition

M

Mean

SD

Standard Deviation

df

Degrees of Freedom

p

Probability or Significance value

skewness

Skewness

kurtosis

Kurtosis

r

Pearson’s correlation coefficient

t

t-Test value

Levene’s F

Levene’s test of homogeneity of variance

W

Shapiro-Wilk

F

ANOVA statistic

ANOVA

Analysis of Variance

Reporting examples:

Mean and standard deviation

Group A (M = 25.63, SD= 1.77) had similar…

Pearson’s correlation

r(103) = 76.3, p <.001. There is a significant correlation between…

Levene’s assumption of homogeneity of variance

Levene’s F = .84, p = .67. The assumption of homogeneity of variance is met.

t-Test

t(98) = 22, p = .048. There is a significant difference between…

Shapiro-Wilk test of normality

W = .95, p = .03. The assumption of normality is violated.

ANOVA

F(3, 96) = 25.64, p = .032. There is a significant difference in at least one…

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

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Data Set Instructions

The grades.sav file is a sample SPSS data set. The fictional data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of about 35 students (N = 105).

Last week, you converted grades2.dat to grades.sav. There are 21 variables in grades.sav. Open your grades.sav file and go to the Variable View tab. Make sure you have the following values and scales of measurement assigned.

SPSS variable

Definition

Values

Scale of measurement

id

Student identification number

Nominal

lastname

Student last name

Nominal

firstname

Student first name

Nominal

gender

Student gender

1 = female; 2 = male

Nominal

ethnicity

Student ethnicity

1 = Native; 2 = Asian; 3 = Black;

4 = White; 5 = Hispanic

Nominal

year

Class rank

1 = freshman; 2 = sophomore;

3 = junior; 4 = senior

Scale

lowup

Lower or upper division

1 = lower; 2 = upper

Ordinal

section

Class section

Nominal

gpa

Previous grade point average

Scale

extcr

Did extra credit project?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

review

Attended review sessions?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

quiz1

Quiz 1: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz2

Quiz 2: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz3

Quiz 3: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz4

Quiz 4: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz5

Quiz 5: number of correct answers

Scale

final

Final exam: number of correct answers

Scale

total

Total number of points earned

Scale

percent

Final percent

Scale

grade

Final grade

Nominal

passfail

Passed or failed the course?

Nominal

1

1

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

Remove or Replace: Header Is Not Doc Title

[Type here]

Data Set Instructions

The grades.sav file is a sample SPSS data set. The fictional data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of about 35 students (N = 105).

Last week, you converted grades2.dat to grades.sav. There are 21 variables in grades.sav. Open your grades.sav file and go to the Variable View tab. Make sure you have the following values and scales of measurement assigned.

SPSS variable

Definition

Values

Scale of measurement

id

Student identification number

Nominal

lastname

Student last name

Nominal

firstname

Student first name

Nominal

gender

Student gender

1 = female; 2 = male

Nominal

ethnicity

Student ethnicity

1 = Native; 2 = Asian; 3 = Black;

4 = White; 5 = Hispanic

Nominal

year

Class rank

1 = freshman; 2 = sophomore;

3 = junior; 4 = senior

Scale

lowup

Lower or upper division

1 = lower; 2 = upper

Ordinal

section

Class section

Nominal

gpa

Previous grade point average

Scale

extcr

Did extra credit project?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

review

Attended review sessions?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

quiz1

Quiz 1: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz2

Quiz 2: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz3

Quiz 3: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz4

Quiz 4: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz5

Quiz 5: number of correct answers

Scale

final

Final exam: number of correct answers

Scale

total

Total number of points earned

Scale

percent

Final percent

Scale

grade

Final grade

Nominal

passfail

Passed or failed the course?

Nominal

1

1

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

Running head: DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE
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PAGE

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Data Analysis & Application Template

Learner Name

Capella University

Data Analysis and Application (DAA) Template

Use this file for all assignments that require the DAA Template. Although the statistical tests will change from week to week, the basic organization and structure of the DAA remains the same.
Update the title of the template. All should be written in narrative form (delete numbered lists).

Data Analysis Plan

1. Name the variables and the scales of measurement.

2. State your research question, null and alternate hypothesis.

Testing Assumptions

1. Paste the SPSS output for the given assumption.

2. Summarize whether or not the assumption is met.

Results & Interpretation

1. Paste the SPSS output for main inferential statistic(s) as discussed in the instructions.

2. Interpret statistical results as discussed in the instructions.

Statistical Conclusions

1. Provide a brief summary of your analysis and the conclusions drawn.

2. Analyze the limitations of the statistical test.

3. Provide any possible alternate explanations for the findings and potential areas for future exploration.

Application

1. Think of your own field of study. Describe how this type of analysis might be used in your field.

2. Analyze what the value and potential implication of such an analysis would be.

References

Provide references in proper APA Style if necessary.

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION


______________________________________________________________________________

Correlations

DAA Section 2: Testing Assumptions

Icon  Description automatically generatedOpen grades.sav in SPSS.

Graphical user interface, text, email  Description automatically generated

A picture containing text, clipart  Description automatically generated On the Analyze menu, point to Descriptive Statistics and select Descriptives…

Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect quiz1. Select the arrow to move quiz1 to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect gpa. Select the arrow to move gpa to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect total. Select the arrow to move total to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect final. Select the arrow to move final to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect Options…

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect Kurtosis and Skewness. Select Continue.

Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message  Description automatically generated

Press OK.

Graphical user interface, Word  Description automatically generated

Copy and paste the table into DAA Section 2.

A picture containing timeline  Description automatically generated

Below the output, discuss the skewness and kurtosis values and how you determined whether the assumption of normality was met or violated.

__________________________________________________________

DAA Section 3: Intercorrelation Matrix

Icon  Description automatically generatedOn the Analyze menu, scroll down to Correlate and select Bivariate…

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

A picture containing text, clipart  Description automatically generatedSelect quiz1. Select the arrow to move quiz1 to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect gpa. Select the arrow to move gpa to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect total. Select the arrow to move total to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generated Select final. Select the arrow to move final to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedPress OK.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedCopy and paste the intercorrelation matrix into DAA Section 3.

A picture containing table  Description automatically generated

Below the output, first report the total-final correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation. Second, report the gpa-quiz1 correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis

Icon  Description automatically generatedDAA Sections 2 and 3 should look like the next page.

Testing Assumptions

A picture containing timeline  Description automatically generated

Interpret the skewness and kurtosis values and how you determined whether the assumption of normality was met or violated.

Results & Interpretation

Below the output, first report the total-final correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation. Second, report the gpa-quiz1 correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.


SCREENSHOTS TAKEN FROM SPSS (PC) VERSION 28.

QUESTIONS? EMAIL: MULTI7864TEAM@CAPELLA.EDU

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION


______________________________________________________________________________

Correlations

DAA Section 2: Testing Assumptions

Icon  Description automatically generatedOpen grades.sav in SPSS.

Graphical user interface, text, email  Description automatically generated

A picture containing text, clipart  Description automatically generated On the Analyze menu, point to Descriptive Statistics and select Descriptives…

Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect quiz1. Select the arrow to move quiz1 to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect gpa. Select the arrow to move gpa to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect total. Select the arrow to move total to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect final. Select the arrow to move final to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect Options…

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect Kurtosis and Skewness. Select Continue.

Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message  Description automatically generated

Press OK.

Graphical user interface, Word  Description automatically generated

Copy and paste the table into DAA Section 2.

A picture containing timeline  Description automatically generated

Below the output, discuss the skewness and kurtosis values and how you determined whether the assumption of normality was met or violated.

__________________________________________________________

DAA Section 3: Intercorrelation Matrix

Icon  Description automatically generatedOn the Analyze menu, scroll down to Correlate and select Bivariate…

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

A picture containing text, clipart  Description automatically generatedSelect quiz1. Select the arrow to move quiz1 to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect gpa. Select the arrow to move gpa to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedSelect total. Select the arrow to move total to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generated Select final. Select the arrow to move final to the Variables box.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedPress OK.

Graphical user interface, application  Description automatically generated

Icon  Description automatically generatedCopy and paste the intercorrelation matrix into DAA Section 3.

A picture containing table  Description automatically generated

Below the output, first report the total-final correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation. Second, report the gpa-quiz1 correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis

Icon  Description automatically generatedDAA Sections 2 and 3 should look like the next page.

Testing Assumptions

A picture containing timeline  Description automatically generated

Interpret the skewness and kurtosis values and how you determined whether the assumption of normality was met or violated.

Results & Interpretation

Below the output, first report the total-final correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation. Second, report the gpa-quiz1 correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.


SCREENSHOTS TAKEN FROM SPSS (PC) VERSION 28.

QUESTIONS? EMAIL: MULTI7864TEAM@CAPELLA.EDU

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

Instructions

Complete the following for this assignment:

· For this assignment, you will use the Data Analysis and Application template (DAA Template [DOC]).

· For help with SPSS, refer to Step-by-Step SPSS: Correlations [DOCX].

· For help copying SPSS output into your DAA review the Copy/Export Output Instructions [HTML].

· Click on the “SPSS Speedrun” button to watch a brief tutorial video on this assignment.

· For information on the data set, you may find the Data Set Instructions [DOCX] helpful.

· Refer to the 7864 Course Study Guide [PDF] for information on analyses and interpretation.

The grades.sav file is a sample SPSS data set. The data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of 35 students (N = 105). There are 21 variables in grades.sav. 

This week’s assignment is on correlations. You will analyze the following variables in the grades.sav data set:

 

SPSS Variable

Definition

Quiz1

Quiz 1: number of correct answers

GPA

Previous grade point average

Total

Total number of points earned in class

Final

Final exam: number of correct answers

Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA: The Data Analysis Plan

· Name the four variables used in this analysis and whether they are categorical or continuous.

· State a research question, null hypothesis, and alternate hypothesis for total and final.

· State a research question, null hypothesis, and alternate hypothesis for gpa and quiz1.

Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA: Testing Assumptions

Test for one of the assumptions of correlation – normality.

· Create a descriptive statistics table in SPSS to assess normality. This table should include the four variables named above.

· Paste the table in the DAA.

· Interpret the skewness and kurtosis values and how you determined whether the assumption of normality was met or violated.

Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA: Results and Interpretation

· Paste the intercorrelation matrix (SPSS Correlation table) for the four variables into the document.

· Below the output, first report the total-final correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.

· Second, report the gpa-quiz1 correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.

Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA: Statistical Conclusions

· Provide a brief summary of your analysis and the conclusions drawn about correlations.

· Analyze the limitations of the statistical test and/or possible alternative explanations for your results.

Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA: Application

Analyze how you might use correlations in your field of study.

· Name two variables that would work for such an analysis and why studying the relationship may be important to the field or practice.

Submit your DAA template as an attached Word document in the assignment area.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assignment criteria:

· Competency 1: Analyze the computation, application, strengths, and limitations of various statistical tests.

. Analyze statistical assumptions.

· Competency 2: Analyze the decision-making process of data analysis.

. Articulate the data analysis plan.

· Competency 3: Apply knowledge of hypothesis testing.

. Interpret statistical results and hypotheses.

· Competency 4: Interpret the results of statistical analyses.

. Explain statistical conclusions, the limitations of the test, and possible alternative explanations.

· Competency 6: Apply the results of statistical analyses (your own or others) to your field of interest or career.

. Analyze the potential applications of the test in the field and their implications.

· Competency 7: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations for members in the identified field of study.

. Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and adheres to APA style and formatting.

· Include 2 academic references above 2017

· NO CONSIDERATION FOR PLAGIARISM

· APA FORMAT AND INDEX CITATION

· PLEASE WRITE FROM PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

· Due 5/8/22 at 10aM

OTHER RESOURCES

· George, D., & Mallery, P. (2019). 
IBM SPSS statistics 25 step by step: A simple guide and reference
 (15th ed.).
 Routledge.

. Chapter 10 describes how to run a bivariate correlational analysis in SPSS.

· Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS: North American edition (5th ed.). Sage.

. Review information in Chapter 8 about assumptions and effect sizes to help you with your assignment.

· For help copying SPSS output into your DAA review the 
Copy/Export Output Instructions [HTML]
.

COPY/EXPORT OUTPUT INSTRUCTIONS

SPSS output can be selectively copied and pasted into Word by using the Copy command:

1. Click on the SPSS output in the Viewer window.

2. Right-click for options.

3. Click the Copy command.

4. Paste the output into a Microsoft Word document.

The Copy command will preserve the formatting of the SPSS tables and charts when pasting into Microsoft Word.

An alternative method is to use the Export command:

1. Click on the SPSS output in the Viewer window.

2. Right-click for options.

3. Click the Export command.

4. Save the file as Word/RTF (.doc) to your computer.

5. Open the .doc file.

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

Instructions

Complete the following for this assignment:

· For this assignment, you will use the Data Analysis and Application template (DAA Template [DOC]).

· For help with SPSS, refer to Step-by-Step SPSS: Correlations [DOCX].

· For help copying SPSS output into your DAA review the Copy/Export Output Instructions [HTML].

· Click on the “SPSS Speedrun” button to watch a brief tutorial video on this assignment.

· For information on the data set, you may find the Data Set Instructions [DOCX] helpful.

· Refer to the 7864 Course Study Guide [PDF] for information on analyses and interpretation.

The grades.sav file is a sample SPSS data set. The data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of 35 students (N = 105). There are 21 variables in grades.sav. 

This week’s assignment is on correlations. You will analyze the following variables in the grades.sav data set:

 

SPSS Variable

Definition

Quiz1

Quiz 1: number of correct answers

GPA

Previous grade point average

Total

Total number of points earned in class

Final

Final exam: number of correct answers

Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA: The Data Analysis Plan

· Name the four variables used in this analysis and whether they are categorical or continuous.

· State a research question, null hypothesis, and alternate hypothesis for total and final.

· State a research question, null hypothesis, and alternate hypothesis for gpa and quiz1.

Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA: Testing Assumptions

Test for one of the assumptions of correlation – normality.

· Create a descriptive statistics table in SPSS to assess normality. This table should include the four variables named above.

· Paste the table in the DAA.

· Interpret the skewness and kurtosis values and how you determined whether the assumption of normality was met or violated.

Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA: Results and Interpretation

· Paste the intercorrelation matrix (SPSS Correlation table) for the four variables into the document.

· Below the output, first report the total-final correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.

· Second, report the gpa-quiz1 correlation including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, and p value. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.

Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA: Statistical Conclusions

· Provide a brief summary of your analysis and the conclusions drawn about correlations.

· Analyze the limitations of the statistical test and/or possible alternative explanations for your results.

Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA: Application

Analyze how you might use correlations in your field of study.

· Name two variables that would work for such an analysis and why studying the relationship may be important to the field or practice.

Submit your DAA template as an attached Word document in the assignment area.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assignment criteria:

· Competency 1: Analyze the computation, application, strengths, and limitations of various statistical tests.

. Analyze statistical assumptions.

· Competency 2: Analyze the decision-making process of data analysis.

. Articulate the data analysis plan.

· Competency 3: Apply knowledge of hypothesis testing.

. Interpret statistical results and hypotheses.

· Competency 4: Interpret the results of statistical analyses.

. Explain statistical conclusions, the limitations of the test, and possible alternative explanations.

· Competency 6: Apply the results of statistical analyses (your own or others) to your field of interest or career.

. Analyze the potential applications of the test in the field and their implications.

· Competency 7: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations for members in the identified field of study.

. Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and adheres to APA style and formatting.

· Include 2 academic references above 2017

· NO CONSIDERATION FOR PLAGIARISM

· APA FORMAT AND INDEX CITATION

· PLEASE WRITE FROM PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

· Due 5/8/22 at 10aM

OTHER RESOURCES

· George, D., & Mallery, P. (2019). 
IBM SPSS statistics 25 step by step: A simple guide and reference
 (15th ed.).
 Routledge.

. Chapter 10 describes how to run a bivariate correlational analysis in SPSS.

· Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS: North American edition (5th ed.). Sage.

. Review information in Chapter 8 about assumptions and effect sizes to help you with your assignment.

· For help copying SPSS output into your DAA review the 
Copy/Export Output Instructions [HTML]
.

COPY/EXPORT OUTPUT INSTRUCTIONS

SPSS output can be selectively copied and pasted into Word by using the Copy command:

1. Click on the SPSS output in the Viewer window.

2. Right-click for options.

3. Click the Copy command.

4. Paste the output into a Microsoft Word document.

The Copy command will preserve the formatting of the SPSS tables and charts when pasting into Microsoft Word.

An alternative method is to use the Export command:

1. Click on the SPSS output in the Viewer window.

2. Right-click for options.

3. Click the Export command.

4. Save the file as Word/RTF (.doc) to your computer.

5. Open the .doc file.

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

Read about how to apply your knowledge of correlation and run some analyses in SPSS.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2019). 
IBM SPSS statistics 25 step by step: A simple guide and reference
 (15th ed.).
 Routledge.

. Chapter 10 describes how to run a bivariate correlational analysis in SPSS.

· Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS: North American edition (5th ed.). Sage.

. Review information in Chapter 8 about assumptions and effect sizes to help you with your assignment.

SCH7864_4CORRELATION APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION

Remove or Replace: Header Is Not Doc Title

Data Set Instructions

The grades.sav file is a sample SPSS data set. The fictional data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of about 35 students (N = 105).

Last week, you converted grades2.dat to grades.sav. There are 21 variables in grades.sav. Open your grades.sav file and go to the Variable View tab. Make sure you have the following values and scales of measurement assigned.

SPSS variable

Definition

Values

Scale of measurement

id

Student identification number

Nominal

lastname

Student last name

Nominal

firstname

Student first name

Nominal

gender

Student gender

1 = female; 2 = male

Nominal

ethnicity

Student ethnicity

1 = Native; 2 = Asian; 3 = Black;

4 = White; 5 = Hispanic

Nominal

year

Class rank

1 = freshman; 2 = sophomore;

3 = junior; 4 = senior

Scale

lowup

Lower or upper division

1 = lower; 2 = upper

Ordinal

section

Class section

Nominal

gpa

Previous grade point average

Scale

extcr

Did extra credit project?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

review

Attended review sessions?

1 = no; 2 = yes

Nominal

quiz1

Quiz 1: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz2

Quiz 2: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz3

Quiz 3: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz4

Quiz 4: number of correct answers

Scale

quiz5

Quiz 5: number of correct answers

Scale

final

Final exam: number of correct answers

Scale

total

Total number of points earned

Scale

percent

Final percent

Scale

grade

Final grade

Nominal

passfail

Passed or failed the course?

Nominal

1

1