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Response to Radiolab Podcast and Reading

Chapter 16
“This Will Go Down on Your Permanent
Record”: Redeeming Shame in a World
That Doesn’t Forget

Simon Cozens

1 Introduction

One of the most consequential changes of the Fourth Industrial Revolution has been
the creation of a permanent digital record of the lives of billions of citizens.
Facebook, Twitter and Instagram record our daily activity, moods and reactions,
while the search engine allows us to target an individual and instantly pull together
“vast number of aspects of his private life and which, without the search engine,
could not have been interconnected or could have been only with great dif!culty”
(Google Spain v AEPD, 2014, p. 80).

This has profound consequences for the handling of shame experiences. One
coping strategy for shame which has persisted since antiquity has been the idea of
self-reinvention: erasing the shameful self through self-imposed exile and
reconstructing a new social identity in another place. We see this strategy in a
wide variety of cultural contexts from ancient Athens (Ricoeur, 1967, p. 40), through
nineteenth-century Australia (Clark, 2009), to contemporary Japan (Kraus, 1990,
p. 212; Lewis, 2013, p. 203). Only 35 years ago, Heller could write that “[h]iding has
become easier than before; we can change our social status, our domicile, even our
names and start afresh. So the pressure of shame can be more easily alleviated”
(Heller, 1985, 15, emphasis mine). The Fourth Industrial Revolution has made this
self-reinvention impossible and has closed off such an avenue for evading shame, as
our social identities are no longer atomic and localised; “when you’re accused on the
Internet. . . it’s worldwide forever” (Ronson, 2015).

In this chapter, I will present insights on approaches to shame within Christian
pastoral communities in the light of the permanent public record. My argument is

S. Cozens (*)
Gloucester, UK

Worldview Center for Intercultural Studies, St. Leonards, TAS, Australia
e-mail: simon@simon-cozens.org

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021
C.-H. Mayer et al. (eds.), Shame 4.0, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59527-2_16


that the reservoir of ancient Christian theological experience contains valuable
perspectives which can help transform an individual’s relationship with their
shame in this context and that these perspectives can, with some adaptation, be
helpful beyond the faith community. In particular, I will demonstrate that the
metanarrative of the Christian community poses critical questions about the link
between shame and identity and highlights the need for a recon!guration in world-
view away from conditional models of self-acceptance based on perceived social
value, in favour of an unconditional self-acceptance based on the concept of the
intrinsic worth of the created person.

I will begin by examining the cultural changes brought about by the permanent
public memory. Next, I will brie”y outline a theological model of shame, before
looking at two dimensions of how the early Christian community used worldview
recon!guration to process shame experiences. Finally, I will give a contemporary
case study of actualising such a worldview recon!guration in the context of an
Australian church men’s group.

While I acknowledge that not all readers will subscribe to some aspects of the
proposed worldview, it is my belief that the elements of the approach—speci!cally,
explicitly surfacing the social expectations surrounding shame and value, forming
communities around new value structures and the deliberate construction of an
unconditional self-regard based on external intrinsic worth—will serve as resources
which can be adapted by practitioners to suit their context.

2 Shame and the Permanent Public Memory

In 1998, the Spanish government forced the sale of Mario Costeja González’s
property in order to recover social security debts, and this sale was advertised in
the newspaper La Vanguardia (Google Spain v AEPD, 2014). The online version of
these advertisements was indexed by Google, with the result that anyone searching
for Costeja’s name would soon discover that he was a defaulted debtor.

Before the advent of the 4IR, it was commonly held that “yesterday’s newspapers
are tomorrow’s !sh and chip papers”—that is, news was regarded as impermanent.
Incriminating information about an individual’s past would be dif!cult to determine
without extensive archival research. Today, however, these archives are digitised
and available online and easily retrievable through Internet search engines (Google
Spain v AEPD, 2014, p. 80).

Costeja brought a case against Google, claiming that the information indexed
about his debt was “inaccurate, irrelevant or no longer relevant” (David, 2014) and
should therefore be removed from the search index, in essence removing it from the
public memory. The court agreed and established a renewed form of the doctrine of
“the right to be forgotten”, based on “the fundamental need of an individual to
determine the development of his life in an autonomous way, without being perpet-
ually or periodically stigmatized as a consequence of a speci!c action performed in
the past” (Mantelero, 2013). In essence, the court held that the stigmatisation

356 S. Cozens

potential inherent in the permanent digital record must be balanced by an opportu-
nity for a “public forgetting” of information harmful to an individual’s reputation.
This is based on the principle that “a decent society needs to [!nd] ways to protect
the dignity of its members against shame and stigma” (Nussbaum, 2004, p. 282).

From this we can see that permanent public memory of the Internet, and in
particular its role in the stigmatisation of individuals, is suf!ciently transformational
as to require social and legal responses. The cultural changes brought by the
pervasive nature of the Internet do not end there. Social media is providing both
new sources of shame and self-image insecurity and also new mechanisms for
shaming (Cozens, 2019, p. 142; Ronson, 2015).

To see this positively, the fact that shame in the Internet age can no longer easily
be addressed by evasion is a welcome development: it highlights the opportunity for
positive self-rediscovery and growth provided when shame experiences are not
bypassed but rather faced, acknowledged, redeemed and integrated (Mayer, 2017).
But this changed relationship with shame in turn requires new pastoral and thera-
peutic approaches which do not require the reputational damage to an individual to
be expunged, spent or forgotten—because, given the permanent public memory, it
cannot ever be—but which dig deeper into far more fundamental questions of
wholeness, relationships and identity.

As we shall see, these very questions are explored in the Christian shame
narrative of the Fall.

2.1 Shame in Christian Theology: A Problem of Perspective

The Bible’s prototypical account of shame (Lewis, 1995, pp. 84–86), the Fall
account of Adam and Eve in Genesis 3, is one of the !rst places where shame is
discussed in world literature (see Chap. 15 in this book). This story is a foundational
part of the Christian metanarrative and hence makes up a core part of the worldview
of both historic and contemporary Christian communities. In order to understand
how these communities have transformed shame and how this can help us in the
context of the permanent public memory, we must !rst explore the narrative’s
depiction of shame and its relationship to identity.

It must be acknowledged that there is considerable diversity of opinion within
theological circles as to how to interpret the Genesis 3 narrative and hence how to
view shame from a Christian perspective. This diversity of opinion generally follows
from differences in theological approach. Biblical theologians—those who begin
their theological re”ection from the text of the Bible—have generally dialogued with
linguistics, literary criticism and, more recently, social anthropology and have
generally seen shame as positive in its discretionary function.

While many Biblical commentators entirely omit the topic of shame—something
which is explicitly mentioned in the text—and instead focus their discussion on
Adam and Eve’s guilt, something which does not explicitly appear in the narrative at
all, those who do tackle the issue, such as Gunkel and Westermann, generally follow

16 “This Will Go Down on Your Permanent Record”: Redeeming Shame in a World. . . 357

  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgement
  • Contents
  • Editors and Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Shame in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Industry 4.0, and the Age of Digitalisation
    • 1 Asking the Relevant Questions of Our Times
    • 2 What Meanings Do the Concepts of the “Fourth Industrial Revolution´´ and “Industry 4.0´´ Hold?
    • 3 Why a Positive View of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and Industry 4.0?
    • 4 Emotions and Shame Within a Changing World
    • 5 Critical Voices on the Fourth Industrial Revolution and Industry 4.0 Transitions
    • 6 Cultural Voices in the Fourth Industrial Revolution and in Industry 4.0
    • 7 Exploring New Perspectives on Shame in Cultures of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and Industry 4.0
    • 8 The Contribution of This Book
    • References
  • Part I: Shame 4.0 at the Workplace
    • Chapter 2: Transforming Shame Through Love: Envisioning Positive Transcultural Leadership in Contemporary and Future Workplaces
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Transforming Shame Through Compassionate Love in Leadership
        • 2.1 Conceptualisation of Shame
        • 2.2 Conceptualisation of Transformational and Transcultural Leadership
        • 2.3 Conceptualisation of Compassionate Love
        • 2.4 Love and Shame in 4IR Workplaces
      • 3 Research Methodology
        • 3.1 Research Instrument
        • 3.2 Sample and Sampling
        • 3.3 Ethics and Limitations
      • 4 Research Findings
        • 4.1 How Does Love Support Transforming Shame in the Workplace?
        • 4.2 How Are Love and Shame Interlinked?
        • 4.3 Narrations of Love-Transformed Shame
        • 4.4 Leadership Strategies to Transform Toxic Shame in the Workplace
      • 5 Discussion
      • 6 Conclusions
      • 7 Recommendations for Theory and Practice
      • References
    • Chapter 3: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Mental Health Shame: Negative Attitudes and External, Internal, and Reflected Shame Ab…
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 Challenging Work Mental Health
        • 1.2 Work Mental Health in the 4IR
        • 1.3 Mental Health Shame
        • 1.4 Shame Culture of Japan and the UK
        • 1.5 Aims
      • 2 Methods
        • 2.1 Participants
        • 2.2 Instruments
        • 2.3 Analysis Procedure
      • 3 Results
        • 3.1 Comparing the Levels of Mental Health and Shame
        • 3.2 Comparing Correlations Between Mental Health and Shame
        • 3.3 Comparing Shame´s Predictions of Mental Health
      • 4 Discussion
      • 5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 4: The Meaning of Shame for Malay People in Indonesia and Its Relation to Counterproductive Work Behaviors in the Four…
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Methods
        • 2.1 Samples
        • 2.2 Data Collection Method
        • 2.3 Data Analysis Technique
      • 3 Results
        • 3.1 The Meaning of “Malu´´ in Malay People
        • 3.2 The Impacts of Rapid Technological Advances as a Main Feature of the 4IR Culture on “Malu´´ in Malay People
        • 3.3 Shame-Proneness and Counterproductive Work Behavior
      • 4 Discussion
      • 5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 5: Shame 4.0: Empirical Evidence of the Importance of Emotions in a Technologising World of Work
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Emotions and Feelings in Industry 4.0
      • 3 Shame in Human-Technology Interaction
      • 4 Research Methodology
        • 4.1 Research Paradigm and Approach
        • 4.2 Research Methods
        • 4.3 The Organisation, Access to the Organisation, and the Sample
        • 4.4 Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting
        • 4.5 Qualitative Quality Criteria and Ethical Considerations
      • 5 Findings
        • 5.1 How Are Industry 4.0 and Shame Interconnected?
      • 6 Discussion
      • 7 Limitations
      • 8 Conclusion
      • 9 Recommendations from an Industrial and Organisational Psychology Perspective
      • References
    • Chapter 6: Bias, Prejudice and Shame in Predictive Policing: State-of-the-Art and Potential Interventions for Professionals
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Social Psychology Perspectives on Prejudice, Bias and Emotion
      • 3 Shame in the Context of Policing, Prejudice and Bias
      • 4 Prejudice and Bias in the Technological Age
      • 5 Predictive Policing, Prejudice and Bias
      • 6 Social Identity Theory and Its Impact on Predictive Policing
      • 7 Interventions to Address Prejudice and Bias and Potential Shame
      • 8 Social Psychology Interventions for the South African Predictive Policing Context
      • 9 Conclusions and Recommendations
      • References
  • Part II: Shame 4.0 in Therapy, Counselling and Health
    • Chapter 7: The Second Wave Positive Psychology of Shame in East and West in the Age of the 4IR
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 The Challenges of COVID-19
      • 3 The Digital Culture, 4IR, and Shame
        • 3.1 Shame and Meritocracy
        • 3.2 Shame from an Existential Spiritual Perspective
        • 3.3 Shame in the Asian Culture
        • 3.4 The Positive Side of Shame
      • 4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 8: Deterritorialization of Shame in Japan During the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR)
      • 1 The 4IR and Social Issues of Shame in Japan
      • 2 Hikikomori Is a Recent Social Phenomenon
      • 3 Therapeutic Application of Deterritorialization of Shame
      • 4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 9: A Re-conceptualisation of Erikson´s Life Cycle: A Proposed Process to Address Individual Experiences of `Shame´
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 The 4IR and Its Risk of the By-Product of `Shame´
      • 3 Definitions of `Shame´
      • 4 `Shame´ Within the Life Cycle of Human Development
      • 5 The Implications of Erikson´s Life Cycle to Concerns of the 4IR
      • 6 Reflections and Questions About This Proposal in the Context of the 4IR
      • References
    • Chapter 10: Overcoming Shame: A Positive Psychology Perspective
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 Factors Contributing to Shame
        • 1.2 Existential Positive Psychology (EPP) and Shame
      • 2 Managing Shame
        • 2.1 Shame Resilience Theory (SRT)
        • 2.2 Internal Shame and External Shame
        • 2.3 Meaning Therapy
          • 2.3.1 The PURE Strategy of Life Expansion
          • 2.3.2 The ABCDE Strategy of Life Protection
        • 2.4 Compassion-Focused Therapy and Shame
        • 2.5 Mindfulness Empathy
        • 2.6 Other Strategies to Manage Shame
      • 3 Shame in Fourth Industrial Revolution
      • 4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 11: Making the Cut: Mass Media and the Growing Desire for Genital Cosmetic Surgery by Young Women and Girls
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 The Ever-Oscillating Nature of Female Body Ideals
      • 2 Society, Body Image, and Cosmetic Surgery
        • 2.1 The Internet and Body Image
        • 2.2 Shame and the Desire for Cosmetic Surgery
      • 3 Shame and Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery
        • 3.1 The `Ideal´ Female Genital Aesthetic and Shame
        • 3.2 Shame and the Rise of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery
      • 4 Normalising Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery: The Influence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
        • 4.1 Body Talk Bodies Talk
        • 4.2 Pathologising the Female Body
      • 5 Implications, Considerations, and Conclusions
        • 5.1 Psychological and Social Implications
        • 5.2 Clinical and Ethical Considerations
        • 5.3 Concluding Comment
      • References
    • Chapter 12: “In the depths of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer´´. Life Crises, Shame E…
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Life Crises
        • 2.1 Life Crises and Gender
      • 3 Life Crises and Shame
        • 3.1 Shame and Gender
        • 3.2 Shame and Culture
      • 4 Life Crises and Digital Resources
      • 5 Research Methodology
        • 5.1 Data Collection, Analysis and Reporting
        • 5.2 Sample
        • 5.3 Limitations
      • 6 Findings of the Study
        • 6.1 Character of the Crisis Experienced
          • 6.1.1 Life Crises as Descriptions of Breaks in Development and Life Courses
          • 6.1.2 Life Crises as Marker in the Reconstruction of One´s Own Biography
          • 6.1.3 Life Crises as an Explicative Concept
          • 6.1.4 Relevance of Life Crises
        • 6.2 Relationship Between Life Crises and Shame
        • 6.3 Relevance of Digital Resources in Overcoming the Crisis
      • 7 Discussion
      • 8 Recommendations for Further Research
      • References
  • Part III: Shame 4.0 in Philosophy, Religion and Belief Systems
    • Chapter 13: Lessons Learnt from Baruch Spinoza: Shame and Faith Development in the Light of Challenges in Contemporary Society
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 Lessons to Learn in Industry 4.0
      • 2 Psychobiography in Research and Practice and Its Potential Impact on Contemporary Issues and Industry 4.0
      • 3 Baruch Spinoza: A Synoptic Biography of His Life and Work
      • 4 Shame Experiences and Their Transformation
      • 5 Fowler´s Faith Development Theory (FDT)
        • 5.1 Pre-stage (Stage 0): Primal Faith and the Incorporate Self
        • 5.2 Stage 1: Intuitive Projective Faith and the Impulsive Self
        • 5.3 Stage 2: Mythical-Literal Faith and the Imperial Self
        • 5.4 Stage 3: Synthetic-Conventional Faith and the Interpersonal Self
        • 5.5 Stage 4: Individuative-Reflective Faith and the Institutional Self
        • 5.6 Stage 5: Conjunctive Faith and the Interindividual Self
        • 5.7 Stage 6: Universalising Faith and the God-Grounded Self
      • 6 Findings and Discussion: Shame and Faith in Baruch Spinoza´s Life
        • 6.1 Baruch Spinoza´s Family Background
        • 6.2 Childhood and Adolescence of Baruch Spinoza (1632-1650)
        • 6.3 Early Adulthood (1650-1660)
        • 6.4 Middle Adulthood (1660-1677) to His Death Aged 45
      • 7 Conclusions and Recommendations
        • 7.1 How did Spinoza Deal with and Transform the Experienced Shame in His Life?
        • 7.2 How Did the Development of Faith Happen in His Life?
        • 7.3 How Are Shame and Faith Development Connected?
        • 7.4 Which Lessons Can Be Learnt from Spinoza´s Life for Dealing with the New Challenges in Industry 4.0?
          • 7.4.1 The Person and Personal Development of Spinoza
          • 7.4.2 Topics of Spinoza for Contemporary Society
      • References
    • Chapter 14: lajjA and the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR): The Need for Pause
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Two Faces of 4IR
      • 3 What We Know About lajjA
      • 4 lajjA, Responsibility and 4IR: Need for Pause
      • 5 Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 15: Relooking at Shame as a Cultural Phenomenon Through a Generational Perspective
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Methodology
      • 3 Results and Discussion
      • 4 Implication for Future Studies
      • 5 Conclusion
      • 6 Implications of the Study
      • Appendix 1: Structured Interview Questions
      • Appendix 2: Story Titles
      • Appendix 3: Story Narration
      • Appendix 4
      • References
    • Chapter 16: “This Will Go Down on Your Permanent Record´´: Redeeming Shame in a World That Doesn´t Forget
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Shame and the Permanent Public Memory
        • 2.1 Shame in Christian Theology: A Problem of Perspective
      • 3 Deconstructing the Shame System
      • 4 “Consider Yourselves´´: Positive Image-Building in Community
      • 5 Redeeming Shame Today
      • 6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part IV: Shame 4.0 in the Media
    • Chapter 17: Shame Dwells in the Eyes: Analysing Social Media Culture Using Aristotle´s Perspectives
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Research Methodology
      • 3 Aristotle on Shame: Aidos and Aiskhyne
      • 4 The Social Self: Common Ground Between Aristotle´s Account and Social Media Culture
      • 5 The Semiotic Square of Shame, Showing How Shame Dwells in the Eyes (Fig. 17.1)
      • 6 Aiskhyne: A Mental Picture of Disgrace
      • 7 Aidos Dwells in the Eyes
      • 8 Aidos and Aiskhyne in the Nicomachean Ethics
      • 9 Aiskhyne, Aidos and Social Media Shame
      • 10 Social Media Shame in 4IR
      • 11 Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • Chapter 18: Naming and Shaming in Cyberspace: Forms, Effects and Counterstrategies
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 What Is Online Shaming?
      • 3 Forms and Causes of Online Shaming
        • 3.1 Slut-Shaming
        • 3.2 Glorifying Eating Disorders, Body Image and Shame
      • 4 Counterstrategies to Transform Shame in the 4IR Context
      • 5 Conclusion
      • 6 Outlook Regarding Future Theory and Practice
      • References
    • Chapter 19: Body Shame and Social Media for Chinese International Students in the United States
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 The Concept of Shame
        • 1.2 Shame and Self-Identity in Cultural Contexts
        • 1.3 Social Media and Body Shame in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
      • 2 Method
        • 2.1 Participants
        • 2.2 Procedures
        • 2.3 Phenomenology Approach
        • 2.4 Data Analyses and Credibility
      • 3 Results
        • 3.1 Experiences of Body Shame
          • 3.1.1 Theme 1. Shame as a Challenging Feeling to Communicate
          • 3.1.2 Theme 2. The Various Focuses on the Body
          • 3.1.3 Theme 3. Body Shame as Comparisons to Real or Imaginary Others and the Norm
          • 3.1.4 Theme 4. Body Shame is a Major Contributor to Low Self-Esteem
          • 3.1.5 Theme 5. Consequences of Body Shame: Romantic Relationship Barrier, Social Isolation, and Urges for Compensatory Behavio…
        • 3.2 Body Shame in the Cross-Cultural Contexts
          • 3.2.1 Theme 1. Different Internalized Cultural Norms/Values
          • 3.2.2 Theme 2. Earlier Body Shame Experience in the Cultural Context
          • 3.2.3 Theme 3. Positive Lifestyle Changes in Cultural Adjustment
        • 3.3 Body Shame and Social Media
          • 3.3.1 Theme 1. Social Media Influences Ideal Body Image
          • 3.3.2 Theme 2. Social Media Triggers Negative Emotions and Enhances Body Shame
          • 3.3.3 Theme 3. Peer Comparison and the Interaction on Social Media
          • 3.3.4 Theme 4. Shifting Focus Away from Social Media
      • 4 Discussion
      • 5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 20: Shaming in the Internet Era: Evaluating the Reintegrative Function of Shame in Digital Spaces
      • 1 Defining the Concept of Shame
      • 2 Historical Notions About Shame and Shaming
        • 2.1 The Culture of Shame
        • 2.2 Shame and lajjA
        • 2.3 The Industrial Revolution and Digital World
      • 3 Significance of the Study
      • 4 Methodology
        • 4.1 Participants
        • 4.2 Research Paradigm
        • 4.3 Procedure
        • 4.4 Survey Questionnaire
        • 4.5 Method of Data Collection
        • 4.6 Analysis
        • 4.7 Ethical Considerations
      • 5 Findings
        • 5.1 Notions About Online Shaming
        • 5.2 Characteristics Assigned to the Vigilante
          • 5.2.1 Feelings of Inferiority
          • 5.2.2 Anonymity of Physical Identity
          • 5.2.3 Ingenuity
        • 5.3 Encountering Shame
          • 5.3.1 Limiting Activity
          • 5.3.2 Silence and Agitation
          • 5.3.3 Confrontation
          • 5.3.4 Counter Shaming
          • 5.3.5 Legal Assistance
          • 5.3.6 Resilience
          • 5.3.7 Demand for Change in Perception of Vigilante
          • 5.3.8 Response to Apology
        • 5.4 Perceived Consequences of Shaming
          • 5.4.1 Stunting Creativity
          • 5.4.2 Self-Doubt
          • 5.4.3 Irreversibility of Shame
        • 5.5 Perceived Sentiments on Shaming
          • 5.5.1 Anger Toward the Vigilante
          • 5.5.2 Fear of Non-conformity and Judgment
          • 5.5.3 Fear of Being Infamous
          • 5.5.4 Embarrassment and Shame to Assert Self
      • 6 Discussion
      • 7 Summary
      • 8 Limitations and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 21: Real-World Consequences of Devirtualization from Online to Offline Spaces: The Role of Shame as a Resource in the …
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 Background to the Honor Killing of Qandeel Baloch
        • 1.2 Aims
      • 2 Shame
        • 2.1 Shame as a Master Emotion
        • 2.2 The Information Threat Theory of Shame
      • 3 Shame and Honor Killing in Pakistan
      • 4 Blurred Boundaries in Social Media Communication
        • 4.1 Social Media Versus Real-World Protest
      • 5 Case Study: The Honor Killing of Qandeel Baloch
      • 6 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 22: Transcending Shame Through Rebellion: The Modern Arab Woman, Sexual Suppression, and the Will to Break Free
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 Defining `Arab´ Women and the `Arab´ World
      • 2 Unconscious Dynamics of Shame in the Context of Arab Culture
        • 2.1 Conceptualising Shame
        • 2.2 Shame and the Arab Context
        • 2.3 (Arab) Women in (Arab) Society
      • 3 Women and the Culture of Psychosocial Shame
        • 3.1 Arab Women and Shame
        • 3.2 The Rise of Arab Women
      • 4 Transcending Shame Through the Fourth Industrial Revolution
        • 4.1 The Rise into Rebellion
        • 4.2 Liberation and Control
      • 5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 23: A Place for 4IR in Transforming Shame in Returning Migrants
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Shame as a Driver of Migration
      • 3 Shame in Returning Migration
      • 4 What´s the Need?
      • 5 Current Efforts
      • 6 Harnessing the 4IR
      • References
    • Chapter 24: The Terror of Being Judged: Public Shaming as Resource and Strategic Tool
      • 1 Introduction: Shame as Political Tool
      • 2 Research Methodology
      • 3 Case Example True Fruits
        • 3.1 Initial Situation
        • 3.2 Public Shaming Activities
        • 3.3 Company Reaction
        • 3.4 Interpretation of the Results with Regard to the Company
          • 3.4.1 Personalisation
          • 3.4.2 Time and Effort
          • 3.4.3 Expectations
          • 3.4.4 Problem-Solving Competence
          • 3.4.5 Integrity
          • 3.4.6 Empathy
        • 3.5 Interpretation of the Results with Regard to the Campaign Initiators
      • 4 Conclusions
      • 5 Further Need for Research
      • References
    • Chapter 25: Artificial Shame in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
      • 1 Introduction
        • 1.1 Objective of the Chapter
      • 2 Research Methodology
        • 2.1 Study Design
        • 2.2 Study Eligibility Criteria
        • 2.3 Data Analysis
        • 2.4 Strategies Used to Ensure Data Quality
      • 3 Theoretical Background
        • 3.1 The Concept of Shame
        • 3.2 The Evolution of Shame
      • 4 Literature Review
        • 4.1 The Concept of Artificial Intelligence
        • 4.2 The Concept of Artificial Morality
        • 4.3 Artificial Cognitive Architecture
        • 4.4 Theoretical Framework for the Design of Artificial Emotion Systems in Machines
      • 5 Discussion and Practical Implications
        • 5.1 Emotions and Machines: Artificial Shame?
      • 6 Chapter Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 26: Cybershaming Never Rests: Suggestions for Dealing with Cybershaming in a Digital Culture
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Digital Culture
      • 3 Cybershaming
        • 3.1 The Virtues and Vices of Cybershaming
          • 3.1.1 The Virtues of Cybershaming
          • 3.1.2 The Vices of Cybershaming
      • 4 Social Justice
        • 4.1 The Role of Social Norms in Cybershaming
      • 5 Dealing with Cybershaming
        • 5.1 Digital Discretion
        • 5.2 Shame as a Resource
      • 6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 27: Technologies of Shame: Agency, Identity, and Visibility
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Shame as a Cloaking Device
      • 3 The Technological Origins of Shame
      • 4 Shaming Technology
      • 5 Shame Embedded in Technology
      • References
  • Part V: Outlook for Shame 4.0 in the Face of the Covid-19 Pandemic
    • Chapter 28: “Who Could Breathe Without Hope´´ Shame and Shaming 4.0 During Covid-19 and Beyond
      • 1 Trends in Global Working and Learning Environments during Covid-19
      • 2 COVID-19 Promotes Shaming in the Form of Racism and Social and Cultural Finger-Pointing
      • 3 COVID-19 Fosters Shame Through Social Isolation and Loneliness
      • 4 Positive Psychology and Coping with Shame 4.0 During Covid-19
      • References
    • Chapter 29: Shame Warrior
      • 1 Introduction: The Role of Energy and How it Influences Human Behaviour?

Response to Radiolab Podcast and Reading


Listen to this podcast and read the attached file then start working

1. In “The Right to Be Forgotten,” Radiolab reporter Molly Webster considers the ethics of digital memory.  After listening to this episode, what do you think: should we have the right to be forgotten online?  Why or why not?  Did you agree with the decisions that Cleveland-based editors made about un-publishing particular stories?  Why or why not?

2. Why people advocate for the right to be forgotten is multifaceted, but as Cozens points out, some of it comes from the human emotion of shame. He thinks a “permanent public memory” requires new approaches to shame and redemption. What do you think, how we should we collectively deal with shame in a future society where what you said or did may follow you forever? What would it mean to be redeemed or atone for past mistakes in a world that never forgets?

Response to Radiolab Podcast and Reading


Listen to this podcast and read the attached file then start working

1. In “The Right to Be Forgotten,” Radiolab reporter Molly Webster considers the ethics of digital memory.  After listening to this episode, what do you think: should we have the right to be forgotten online?  Why or why not?  Did you agree with the decisions that Cleveland-based editors made about un-publishing particular stories?  Why or why not?

2. Why people advocate for the right to be forgotten is multifaceted, but as Cozens points out, some of it comes from the human emotion of shame. He thinks a “permanent public memory” requires new approaches to shame and redemption. What do you think, how we should we collectively deal with shame in a future society where what you said or did may follow you forever? What would it mean to be redeemed or atone for past mistakes in a world that never forgets?