Your Name Research Project Dr. Fayez Shriedeh
School of Hospitality @ LTUC
1.1 Aim and Objective of the Research
The aim of this research is to investigate crisis management practices that are used in response to Covid-19 in the (Sector) in Amman. Therefore, the objective research is to investigate crisis management practices that are used in response to Covid-19 in the (Sector) in Amman.
1.2 Research Question
What are the crisis management practices used by (Sector)….in response to Covid-19?
1.3 Rationale of the Study
Given the importance of Hospitality for the world economy and the sector’s impact on social and environmental issues, the damage caused by a crisis threatens not only the national economy but also the livelihoods of many tourist destinations. Therefore, it is worth monitoring crisis management strategies to minimize the negative effects.
The study results will provide a valuable addition to the knowledge obtained from other studies on the crisis management practices that are used by (Sector) in Amman. The study is valuable because it adds to the literature on crisis management.
The decision maker in the (Sector)………also might have a deep insight into which practices managers actually use during an industry crisis and which practices consider important.
1.4 Research Scope
The aim of this research is to investigate crisis management practices that are used in response to Covid-19 in the (Sector) in Amman. Accordingly, the study targeted the supervisory, middle and executive level of management to answer the survey questions. (Sector………) were chosen due to the lack of studies on crisis management practices during Covid-19 Pandemic in Jordan.
1.5 Research Structure
The whole research will be completed by following proper structures. The overall structures of the research are given below using a table:
This section will provide a basic overview of the research topic “ ………………………………..”
Several literature has been reviewed to understand and implement the research question properly. The literature review will give a deep idea about the (title).
The most common research methodologies are qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative methodology is used for implementing the research on the particular topic perfectly.
Primary and secondary research
The most relevant information for the research purpose will be collected from the primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire will be used for primary data collection. And, published articles, newspapers and websites will be used for secondary data collection.
Data analysis and findings
The collected data will be analyzed by using particular procedures so that appropriate findings can be generated from the research. The findings will be represented using numerical information.
The efficiency of the research methodologies and other alternatives
This section will show whether the research methodologies appropriate identified and captured the goals and objectives of the research (Jankowicz, 2007).
Conclusion and recommendations
This part will conclude the overall research and provide some recommendation for the business owners. The overall findings from the report will be given here in a summarized form.
2.0 Literature Review
3.1 Research Design
The framework that is used to define the processes of selecting the sources of information, the method of data collection and the technique of data analysis is commonly known as the research design (Zikmund et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to …(The aim of the research ……………………………………………………) therefore, a descriptive research design was employed in this study to describe characteristics of objects, people, groups, organizations, environments, or phenomenon in the first place then, an exploratory research method is used to explore the process of investigating a problem that has not been studied or thoroughly investigated in the past (Zikmund et al., 2013). This is explained in the below sections .
3.2 Research Approach
In this research, the deductive research approach used to derive a conclusion about the topic of interest based on a known general premise. A quantitative research approach is used as well because the quantitative research is the best approach to use if the researcher intends to purposefully describe, explain and interpret the collected data within a specific context (Uma Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). To achieve this, the researchers adopted the deductive-quantitative approach to collect data aiming to describe the topic of interest.
There are different types of research approaches and methodologies available for the researcher to conduct the research perfectly (Zikmund et al., 2013). However, the choice of an appropriate research method is solely dependent on the subject matter of the research, the availability of information and the background of the research. The main two approaches of the research are given as follows:
Quantitative approach: This approach is followed when there is available information about the subject matter. The quantitative approach is useful when the researcher has to use different types of data analysis model for conducting the research. A big advantage of this approach is that the results are valid, reliable and generalizable to a larger population. In addition, interpreting the data and presenting the findings is straightforward and less open to error and subjectivity. Also, the data collected consider valuable research can reflect well on the business. However, it is not likely that everybody will understand the quantitative approach. Basic knowledge about the statistics and math are required to understand the finding of the quantitative approach. In addition, quantitative research can be limited in its pursuit of concrete, statistical relationships, which can lead to researchers overlooking broader themes and relationships. Moreover, the opinions and biases of a researcher are just as likely to impact quantitative approaches to information gathering. In fact, the impact of this bias occurs earlier in the process of quantitative research than it does in qualitative research (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016).
Qualitative approach: The qualitative approach is useful when the data is non-numerical. The data can be collected very easily as the formal of the data is textual. A big advantage of qualitative research is the ability to deeply probe and obtain rich descriptive data about social phenomena through structured interviews, cultural immersion, case studies and observation. Also, qualitative research can capture changing attitudes within a target group. Moreover, qualitative research provides a much more flexible approach. If useful insights are not being captured researchers can quickly adapt questions, change the setting or any other variable to improve responses. Furthermore, qualitative data capture allows researchers to be far more speculative about what areas they choose to investigate and how to do so. It allows data capture to be prompted by a researcher’s instinctive or ‘gut feel’ for where good information will be found.
Meanwhile, Sample size can be a big issue. If you seek to infer from a sample of, and Self-selection bias may arise where companies ask staff to volunteer their views. Conscious or unconscious bias can influence the researcher’s conclusions. Lacking rigorous scientific controls and numerical data, qualitative findings may be dismissed by some researchers as anecdotal information.
This method collects the data about the opinion or interest of the general people for any particular subject (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). Interview method, observation, and some other verbal techniques are used for getting information about the subject matter of the research.
From this research report, it can be concluded that different types of research approaches and methodologies are appropriate for different research initiatives. This research proposal has provided research question and research objective and appropriate research methodology to conduct the research (Anderson, Narus, and Narayandas, 2009). The research structures have been developed using common guidelines. Several types of research approaches and methodologies are given and the most appropriate research methodology has been indicated to conduct this research perfectly.
For the research purpose, the quantitative approach will be used. It will give accurate information to draw a perfect decision and recommendation about the outcomes of the findings.
3.3 Data Collection Method
In this study, the project carried out using a combination of both primary and secondary data collection method. Secondary research is a research method which involves the use of data, already collected through primary research therefore, the secondary information is received from various peer-reviewed journal articles and online academic journals.
The secondary data is easily accessible compared to primary data and it’s very affordable. It requires little to no cost to acquire them because they are sometimes given out for free. Also, the time spent on collecting secondary data is usually very little compared to that of primary data. Moreover, Secondary data makes it possible to carry out longitudinal studies without having to wait for a long time to draw conclusions and helps to generate new insights into existing primary data.
Meanwhile, secondary data may not be authentic and reliable. Researchers may have to deal with irrelevant data before finally finding the required data. Some of the data is exaggerated due to the personal bias of the data source (Greeson, 2015).
The primary data is one that involves the gathering of fresh data, i.e. when data about a particular subject is collected for the first time, then the research is known as primary one therefore, the primary data collected through the survey questionnaire method from marketing staff.
The advantages of primary data is specific to the needs of the researcher at the moment of data collection. The researcher is able to control the kind of data that is being collected and it is accurate compared to secondary data. Also, Primary data is usually up to date because it collects data in real-time and does not collect data from old sources. The researcher has full control over the data collected through primary research. He can decide which design, method, and data analysis techniques to be used.
Meanwhile, primary data is very expensive compared to secondary data. Therefore, it might be difficult to collect primary data. It is time-consuming and it may not be feasible to collect primary data in some cases due to its complexity and required commitment.
In this research, the primary data collection method was used because it provides valid, reliable and practical information which is used in addressing any given research question or research objectives. On the other hand, the secondary data collection method was adopted because it provides sufficient and theoretical information needed to address any given research question or research objectives.
A survey method is used as a research tool to collect the primary data with closed-ended questions. In other words, a personally administering questionnaire, which collected immediately after they are completed. A descriptive surveys are intended for use in the identification and measurement of the frequency of occurrence of a specific population (Zikmund et al., 2013). The descriptive survey is relevant for this current research study as it addresses the objectives and research questions, in particular question of (Research Question)? The questionnaire were sent to the respondents personally.
Information about gender was gathered in this research using dichotomous questioning that provided two alternatives. Information about organization size, age, qualifications, marital status, and work experience was gathered using multiple choice questions that had a range of options for the participant to choose from.
The cost, access and ethical issues related to the research are discussed below-
· Price- the budget for this research is (50 JOD), and hence, in this budget, the entire study is completed. The budget includes expense related to the printing and stationery, internet charges, survey conducting charges and other miscellaneous charges.
· Access- the access to secondary data is obtained from the internet web using google scholar data base and google webpage. Access to primary information for the survey is obtained from the consent being taken from the respondents.
· Ethical issues– proper referencing and citations have been done for ethically justifying the secondary data collected (Uma Sekaran and Bougie, 2016). Moreover, the act of plagiarism is avoided. For the survey method, respondents are ensured that their responses will be kept confidential and will be solely used for research purpose. Lastly, their consent was sought before their responses was applied in the research study.
3.4 Sampling and Sample Size
The population scope of the research study is the lower, middle, and upper management level working in (sector).in Jordan, more specifically Amman, but because of the time limitation, budget limitation, COVID-19 restrictions, place limitation, the questionnaire was distributed using Non-Probability Convenience sampling approach, in which people are sampled simply because they are ‘convenient’ sources of data for researchers. Respondents’ sampling was based on their acceptance and willingness to participate and answer the survey questions. Accordingly, the sample size for this research drawn from …(How many survey been collected).
The structured questionnaire in the study divided into four parts: part one, a cover page that explains that the research objectives aligned with the research consent form, and the assurance of confidentiality statement to induce the respondents to complete and return the questionnaire. Part two dealt with the respondents’ demographic data, where participants were asked to provide information about their gender, age, level of education, current position and the duration of their working experience in the investigated sector. The third section sought to reveal the respondents’ perceptions towards the crisis management practices taken in response to Covid-19. The structure of the questionnaire form was adopted based on the study of Israel (2007) as seen in Appendix A.
3.6 Timeline of Research Activities
The research will be conducted throughout seven weeks. Commencing at the beginning of May 2022 to mid of June 2022. Below is the timeline for the research activities to be conduct.
The research method which will be adopted is the quantitative data method. This method will help to analyse various practical areas associated with ways through which management practices have taken in response to crisis management in the hospitality sector. The numerical data will be employed to acquire more understanding regarding the rationale behind this study and the result will be expressed in a quantitative research form. The secondary method adopted in this research will entail the collection of already existing articles associated with ways through which practices can be taken through online search in data bases such as; Google Scholar, Science Direct, Emerald, and Ebsco-host by using the search terms; crisis management, management practices, covid-19, hospitality, Jordan. On the other hand, the primary data collection will be obtained through survey question methods where administration staff will be included as the respondents since they are in the right position to provide relevant information which will help to address the research aims and objectives.
The primary research approaches will be used in form of survey questionnaire, while the secondary research strategy will be applied in form of peer-reviewed articles. The primary research adopted in this research study will provide practical information help identify the most common methods used in response of crisis management in the era of covid-19 and the secondary research will provide theoretical information which will also help to identify most management practices used in response to crisis in hospitality sector. According to Armstrong (2010), primary research methods provides practical information which can be used to address any given research question or aims, while secondary research provides theoretical information which can be used to address any research question or research aims and objectives.
4.0 Data Analysis
Data analysis forms one of the most critical sections of the research, wherein the collected data the information is analyzed by presenting it in an effective manner (Zikmund et al., 2013). For the primary data, the statistical analysis method will be adopted for data analysis. According to Aveyard (2011), the statistical analysis method provides an effective approach to present primary data. The obtained data is organized with meaningful combinations and is bifurcated within the most easily understood sections. This analysis methods also facilitates the presentation of participants’ responses in graphical and tabular form for better understanding of data (Aveyard, 2011). Meanwhile, for the secondary data, the systematic assessment or review of relevant articles as well as an in-depth analysis of reoccurring topics which emerge from the systematic review of research articles (Fram et al., 2015).
Table 4.1: The Merits and Limitations Associated with both Primary and Secondary Research Methods
Primary data collection and analysis approach
1) The information provided from primary research is usually relevant reliable and update.
2). It provides specific and vital information associated with the situation or scenario to be addressed.
1). This method of research study is very costly.
2). Poor methodology or questionnaire design may provide bias results.
3). It may be difficult to find enough samples, respondents to represent the population equally or accurately.
Secondary data collection and analysis approach
1). Access and collection of information is easy
2). Information collected through this method is usually sufficient enough to address any given research question.
3) It is relatively cheap to conduct this type of research study
1). Most times information collected through this method is outdated and this provides inaccurate results.
2) The data provided may be biased and thus, it will be very difficult to determine if the collected information is accurate.
3) The validity and reliability of information collected through this method is usually biased.
The data were coded accordingly as seen in Appendix B. The missing values below 50% were replaced with median or nearby points as recommended by Zikmund et al. (2013). Under this section, the responses of the respondents of the survey questionnaire method are presented with the help of graphical and tabular methods. With the help of this method, the collected data is retrieved and interpreted in a better manner, which paves ways for useful data findings. In the following section, the response rate and the respondents’ answers are presented.
4.1 Respondent Demographic Profiles
4.2 Descriptive Analysis of the Questions
For secondary data analysis and findings, while gathering research materials, in secondary research study, online searches were conducted with search engines including google scholar, web of science, EBSCOhost, and Science Direct. The used search terms includes; crisis management, crisis management practices, (sector) management, and Covid-19. Every research material made reference to must fulfil certain conditions like; it must be written in English, it must be a recent publication, it must a peer-reviewed report, article, e-journal or e-book. After the search (any number from 20-30) articles was obtained and they were filtered using the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria used in filtering the online articles are; publication dates, peer-reviewed articles was included, and duplicates were excluded from the obtained articles. After the inclusion and exclusion criteria was used to filter the articles, the total number of articles reduced to (any number from 5-7). However, these chosen articles will be critically analyzed and research gaps were identified.
In analysis of the chosen articles, the author outlined the major themes arising from the articles and at the end, one major theme was identified which is, crisis management practices. The literature review section 2.0 shows the identified theme.
Overall, from the above section, various approaches within the hospitality sector mainly the (sector name) ha been used to be able to discover the crisis management practices in the chosen hospitality sector. The strategy of using a combination of primary and secondary data collection method was effective in the sense that it provided a diverse range of information; this has helped in effectively conducting the research. In addition to using survey method in data collection which is include the high representativeness of the entire population and the low cost of the method when compared to other alternatives. Also, its cost effective method (Queirós, Faria, & Almeida, 2017). However, at the same time, the reliability of survey data is very dependent on the survey structure and the accuracy of answers provided by the respondents (Queirós et al., 2017).
The main pitfalls to this research that it was a time-consuming approach which is the main pitfall to this research due to the effect of COVID-19 as most of the respondents were not available. Moreover, As far as the data analysis and findings, the use of tables and chart approach and summative research evaluation technique have been used. This approach has proved to be helpful in the sense that the collected data is presented well and that the findings are made by the overall data collected.
The outcome of the research can be communicated to the targeted audience through wide range of strategies or means. The audience for this research project are those who working in different levels of management at the hospitality sectors, young adults, hospitality directors, hospitality governmental organizations and are interested in crisis management practices. The outcome of the research can therefore be communicated to through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google. This can also be communicated to them through educational institutions such as colleges and universities. Also, the findings can be communicated to the concerned managers in the selected hospitality sector. A presentation also can be conducted to communicate this research to the target audience.
The outcomes of the research meet research objectives as it identified the management practices used in the hospitality industry in response to Covid-19 in Amman. From the research study, the main management practices used during Covid-19 are,…………, ….,,……., and ………….. .Therefore, the research findings answered the research questions.
My biggest change is in dealing with the structure of the whole article. The structure of article is already mentioned in the introduction part, so the next step is to follow the structure I have made. Each title, should take concerted action with the structure and the development in the introduction. The most important thing is to organize and get idea fragments in order in my mind. I followed the principles of thinking first and writing second. After dividing the whole structure into some main parts, some smaller structures in each part should also be divided further. In my revision process, I firstly made a plan for the overall structure, and then for the words, finally for the content. Therefore, after finishing this article, I have learned that breaking up the goal is very important. When the big goal becomes into small, it will be much easier.
In this research study, the quantitative research design was adopted in this research study. In the data collection, both the primary and secondary data collection method was employed. In the primary methods, set of questionnaires was developed and distributed to (number of the collected surveys ) samples which was selected using convenience sampling techniques, from the (sector) in Amman. This method helped to analyze various practical areas associated with ways through which motivated the investigated (sector) to applied the these practices as a response to Covid-19 in the hospitality sector. The numerical data was employed to acquire more understanding regarding the rationale behind this study and the result will be expressed in a quantitative research form. On the other hand, the secondary data was used to provide theoretical information to address the research question. The secondary data collection involved collecting articles online. While gathering research materials, online searches were conducted with search engines including google scholar, web of science, EBSCOhost, and Science Direct with such keywords as sustainability, green hotel practices, sustainability goals, and sustainable development which are put in library applications such as Boolean operation form and/or. Every research material made reference to must fulfil certain conditions like; it must be written in English, it must be a recent publication, it must a peer-reviewed report, article, e-journal or e-book. There will be in-depth assessment of all the research materials. The findings from primary search could be considered valid and reliable as information was directly obtain from hotel’s staff who are in the right position to provide the best answers to the research questions. Both method was effective in meeting the research objectives.
Furthermore, the reflection of this research contributed to the existing literature by providing empirical findings extracted from the crisis stream using a refection phase of survey method. Strategies for structured reflection were already employed in each step of the research as emphasized by McKenney and Reeves (2014). For example, lessons learned from the review of the outcomes involve the practices used in the hospitality sector in response to covid-19. Also, the researcher noted that it is important to use the best methodology that appropriately fits the description of the research.
In this research study, the use of the quantitative data method that uses statistical analysis to present the data sources. This method was used to derive the results concerning the study purposed. Considering another methodology approach would have been the qualitative research method, it was identified that this research methodology would not have succeeded within this research project as it would not have been able to generate the desired results needed. The research outcomes would not have been as detailed and accurate as they would have been achieved in quantitative data, the qualitative data method makes use of only theoretical approaches such as thematic analysis, case study method as well as other methods (Zikmund et al., 2013). These theoretical approaches would not have been able to cover the dynamic nature of the research purpose. It has been the combination of both the primary and secondary methods of quantitative data method which has been able to justify the real purpose of the research.
A critical reflection is provided with regards to crisis management practices of the research methods considering the improvements and future considerations. Secondary research method could have contributed more if literature review was extended. More emphasis was laid on the primary research method. Furthermore, data could have been presented more effectively if the statistical presentation was also used along with the graphical display.
Overall, in the entire process of conducting this research, my role was useful. I was engaged through this research starting from formulating research aims and objectives to the conclusion (Botta et al. 2016). I have gained a lot of knowledge and expertise in this subject matter as well as in conducting this research. However, my time management skills were not so practical as a result of which I could not give enough time to secondary analysis. Also, for future improvement, I need to work on my time management skills and analytical skills.
Limitations and Recommendations
Like any other research, this study has several limitations to some extent associated with the framework and which may lead to several future research directions. This study tested the framework of management practices that taken in response to Covid-19 from the perspective of different staff levels. To increase the knowledge, future work should investigate this framework in different industries, from different perspectives, and in different countries. In addition to the perspectives of the employees, the perspectives of shareholder and the managers only are also recommended for study.
Another limitation that the focus of this study focused on only four dimensions of management practices. Future studies to examine the remaining dimesnions.
A limitation also concerning the sample size, the accuracy of the provided information in the primary research could be biased because the small sample size was used and thus, it is recommended for large sample size to be used in future research study for more accurate and valid results. Due to Covid-19 restrictions, a convenience sampling were used and the results could not be generalized so, future researches are recommended to use a probability sampling technique to be able to generalize the results. In addition, the information provided by the secondary research may not be accurate because it produces outdated information. Therefore, it is better to use more of primary research method for this type of research.