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Reflections for ENGL 108

Safwan Alhawsawi

ENG 108

Dr. Nicholas Barlow

2/11/2022

Perceived Discrimination

“Perceived discrimination”, is a descriptive study of the perceived discrimination and homesickness, between international students and the United States students. The purpose of the text is to illustrate challenges that international students experience such as perceived discrimination in terms of ethnicity or race including homesickness and cultural shock as well as how these challenges affect the student’s psychological well-being. It targets higher education personnel, college students (both international and non-international) including mental health advisers and faculty. This is to help develop various intervention programs or steps, which can be used in universities or colleges, to reduce perceptions of discrimination and homesickness. In fact, according to the authors, reducing discrimination perceptions on universities should be one of the first goals, especially since discrimination perceive has a direct relation to homesickness as well as with students’ psychological well-being.

In the study, the authors examined the differences between the perceived discrimination and homesickness in various college students (Both the international and United States students) from two campuses of the same college. According to the study, after examining other related factors such as age, proficiency in English, and years of United States Residents among the international students, the results showed that the international student’s experiences as well as encounter higher levels of homesickness and perceived discrimination compared to the American student. Several factors played a major role in the predicated homesickness among the international students, which include, English proficiency, perceived discrimination, and age. In addition, ethnicity or race and the years of residence predicted the level of the perceived discrimination.

To prove this study, the authors developed four hypothesis questions, based on the perceived discrimination, homesickness, and cultural shock, and conducted research using different college students on two different campuses but from one university. Even though the research had several limitations, the results have helped in answering the formulated hypotheses. Well, according to the results, international students (especially non-Europeans) reported a higher level of perceived discrimination, which resulted in homesickness due to language and cultural differences and challenges in adjusting to their new environment. As the result, this can affect their mental health for example leading to lower self-esteem. In addition, the results indicated that among the international students, experienced or perceived discrimination increases with the time they spend in college increases.

The finding in this study has significant implications for the higher education institutions or personnel and also advisers, mental well-being counselors, and the faculty. This is because, the authors highlight the significance of the intervention program designs, campus support groups, and other social groups, which are developed to assist international students to get along with as well as overcome challenges related to discrimination and homesickness. According to (Poyrazil, S., & Lopez, D., 2007), “Through brochures, pamphlets, Web sites, and orientation programs, these students could be informed about what they may experience in the new culture and what psychological reactions they may have.” This helps them in transitioning more easily into the school environment as well as offers them a place to ask or discuss their experiences in their new environment. It also highlights multicultural training’s importance. This will help reduce or end discrimination between the two groups, the internal students, and American students.

The author suggests that the intervention programs developed to help reduce these challenges should mainly target non-European internal students because they are highly affected. Well, I disagree with this, because even though these programs will help international students learn how to recognize as well as cope with any discrimination, targeting American students will help in facilitating a positive intergroup interaction thus reducing discrimination and prejudice. This will help the international student cope well with their new, welcoming environment. In fact, according to the research study on international students, when both domestic and international students participate in an intervention together, it improves international student’s perception of their sense of belonging, social support as well as overall satisfaction, especially students, who are less open when beginning their freshman year.

Even though the article suggests developing steps or several interventions to reduce perceived discrimination, the disparity in friendship connection would be also great especially since it is more pronounced. Most programs and interventions suggested in the article are great but including fostering integration can assist in mitigating the international students’ problems of adjustment, reduce perceived discrimination thus improving their emotional or psychological well-being, and in turn, making them more comfortable.

In conclusion, this is a significant study article, which illustrates the problems that the international students experience such as perceived compared to the American students. From the results, developing intervention programs to help the international students adjust to their new environment is important and can benefit the higher education institutions and students in general.

Reference

Poyrazil, S., & Lopez, D., (2017). An Exploratory Study of Perceived Discrimination and Homesickness: A Comparison of International Students and American Students. The Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.141.3.263-280

Reflections For ENGL 108

Reflections assignment for ENGL 108, from my the last three projects, 750-1000 words.

***Your Final Portfolio will be graded according to the following criteria:

● The portfolio includes 4-6 representative artifacts and 750-1000 words of new text in the form of reflections (20 pts.)

● The reflections adequately contextualize the artifacts, clarifying their significance and what they are meant to illustrate (20 pts.)

● The portfolio shows engagement with the writing process (e.g., for the major assignments), course concepts, and/or SLOs (20 pts.)

● The portfolio addresses the student’s learning goals and/or development as a writer (20 pts.)

● The presentation or design is appropriate and effective (20 pts.)

Reflections For ENGL 108

Reflections assignment for ENGL 108, from my the last three projects, 750-1000 words.

***Your Final Portfolio will be graded according to the following criteria:

● The portfolio includes 4-6 representative artifacts and 750-1000 words of new text in the form of reflections (20 pts.)

● The reflections adequately contextualize the artifacts, clarifying their significance and what they are meant to illustrate (20 pts.)

● The portfolio shows engagement with the writing process (e.g., for the major assignments), course concepts, and/or SLOs (20 pts.)

● The portfolio addresses the student’s learning goals and/or development as a writer (20 pts.)

● The presentation or design is appropriate and effective (20 pts.)

Reflections for ENGL 108

Portfolio
Imagine that you have been asked to share with a group of prospective international students
what you learned in English 108. Specifically, you want to show how the course helped you
develop as a writer, to give these students a better understanding of the course. Therefore, you
are putting together a learner portfolio in which you will include examples of your writing and
relate them to your classroom experiences.

To prepare your portfolio, consider what aspects of your writing you would like to show, and
what prospective students might want to know more about. In addition, you are encouraged to
reflect on the Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs), your own learning goals, and the course
concepts listed below. You are also welcome to look back on your experiences in English 106
and/or 107 (if applicable).

The portfolio should contain 4-6 artifacts (writing samples), such as excerpts from the main
assignments, notes, outlines, feedback you gave or received, discussion posts, mind maps,
outlines, reflective annotations, revisions, etc. Each artifact should be accompanied by a brief
reflection, so you will submit 4-6 reflections along with the artifacts. In these reflections, you
are asked to comment on the artifact’s significance, connect it to class interactions or personal
insights, explain how it shows your development as a writer, and/or situate it in the context of
your learning trajectory or life events more broadly. You might also address how the course will
help you with the other kinds of academic, professional, or personal writing you hope or expect
to do in the future. Note that you are encouraged not only to discuss your
accomplishments, but also your struggles; these will likely be relevant to the prospective
students as well. (And successful writers are usually aware of both their strengths and their
weaknesses!)

Aim for around 750-1000 words of new writing (previous writing samples are not included in this
word count), so that you can elaborate a bit in your reflections while not overwhelming the
reader with excessive detail. This means that each reflection could be around 150-200 words,
as a rough indication.

Course Concepts
The following course concepts may provide inspiration for your reflections: genre, reading
response, annotated bibliography, literature review, redesign, stance, evaluation, annotation,
reporting verbs, bi-/multilingualism, summary, synthesis, APA, text, purpose,
internationalization, international student experiences, study abroad, intercultural/global
competence. A successful portfolio will engage with some of these terms, though you are not
expected to discuss all of them (this is simply not possible, given the time and space
limitations).

Steps

1. Brainstorm ideas. Consider what samples of your work you would want to share with the
prospective students, given the concerns they may have about taking English writing
courses (and ENGL 108 specifically), or what they might hope to gain from these

courses. In addition, take a moment to decide how you would like to present yourself,
and what aspects of your work you will use to give an impression of what you are like as
a student, a thinker, and a writer. Portfolios can be biographic in nature, and learner
portfolios are no exception to his!

2. Look through the portfolio(s) that you put together for English 106, 107, and/or any other
portfolios you have compiled in the past, and consider if you might be able to use these
as examples or draw connections with them in this assignment.

3. Decide on a format for your portfolio. You can get creative with this, or you might choose
to keep it simple, as long as your portfolio is easy to navigate and accessible for your
targeted audience (prospective international students). This means that it should be
clear, for example, which reflection is connected to which artifact and vice versa. In the
past, students have used Google Sites, Adobe Spark, Prezi, and PowerPoint, or simply
text-based versions in Word or PDF.

4. Draft your reflections and design your portfolio to make the various elements work
together effectively. If you are concerned that the organization of your portfolio is not
immediately clear, consider providing a table of contents. You might also opt to use
hyperlinks to guide your reader.

5. When you feel that your portfolio is complete, consider asking a friend to browse through
it to check that everything is clear and understandable. Make sure that hyperlinks work
properly, your portfolio is shareable, and others can see it if you are using an online
location (e.g., published URL or shared document).

Planning/drafting: Due Dates 37 and 38
Partial draft: Due Date 39
Complete draft for peer review: Due Date 40
Final due date: Due Date 42

Relevant SLOs
1D. explain how and why a text’s audiences, purposes, and contexts influence rhetorical
options.
1E. adapt composing practices (including rhetorical choices) to a variety of audiences,
purposes, and contexts.
2C. use a variety of research methods, including primary and/or secondary research, for
purposes of inquiry.
2D. evaluate the quality, appropriateness, and credibility of sources.
2F. compose persuasive researched arguments for various audiences and purposes, and in
multiple modalities.
3C. explain why genre conventions for structure, paragraphing, tone, and mechanics vary within
and across genres.
3D. identify and effectively use variations in genre conventions within and/or across genres,
including formats and/or design features.
4E. evaluate and act on peer and instructor feedback to revise their texts.
5A. narrate their processes and progress as writers throughout Foundations Writing courses.

5B. recognize and articulate how their values, goals, and/or circumstances inform their choices
as writers
5C. assess how writing experiences and artifacts might influence future writing situations.

Assessment Criteria
Your Final Portfolio will be graded according to the following criteria:

● The portfolio includes 4-6 representative artifacts and 750-1000 words of new text in the
form of reflections (20 pts.)

● The reflections adequately contextualize the artifacts, clarifying their significance and
what they are meant to illustrate (20 pts.)

● The portfolio shows engagement with the writing process (e.g., for the major
assignments), course concepts, and/or SLOs (20 pts.)

● The portfolio addresses the student’s learning goals and/or development as a writer (20
pts.)

● The presentation or design is appropriate and effective (20 pts.)

Reflections for ENGL 108

Alhajhog

Janna

Instructor: Nick Halsey

English 108

English 108: Reflecting on the Artifacts


Taking English 108 was extremely useful to me; I have learned a lot of new things and developed my old skills. Although I have written numerous papers before, this course has mostly affected me positively. Due dates were all well explained and clear, samples posted were beneficial, and class activities added to our writing knowledge a lot. Therefore, the four listed artifacts are the most assignments that positively cause my writing to improve, and be the writer I am today. 

Artifacts: DD26 Literature Review Draft for Peer Review

4E. evaluate and act on peer and instructor feedback to revise their texts.



This artifact is a response project. In English-108, discussion posts and responses are really important; we have an instruction to follow and then we post our response based on those instructions. We receive feedback and suggestions from our classmates after posting our response. The peer review teaches the students how to be open-minded and receive different opinions from different students; also, how to revise our work after having feedback. Getting feedback from various students makes me improve my revision skills and try to have a different approach and different usage of words. Plus, this artifact relates to SLO 4E because it is connected to reviewing. Peer review is when you receive suggestions and feedback from other students. For example, “I suggest that you have to specify how your English version is different from the Saudi version by utilizing genre conventions like formality or structure, etc.”. This was one of the pieces of feedback I received in DD33, which was really helpful to me; it was important to have a different audience for each version, but I had the same audience for both of them. Therefore, this response was useful; it taught me to be more careful when reading the instructions of a project. Lastly, this SLO improved my grades so much and was really helpful to me and a lot of other students.

Artifact 2: DD17T3 References list

2D. evaluate the quality, appropriateness, and credibility of sources



The literature review was one of the most important projects we did in English-108. The day we started the literature review, I worked really hard on it. In this specific artifact, we were supposed to gather a minimum of six sources and interpret them to support the idea of the topic we chose. I knew it was time-consuming since it needed the right sources and the specific information we were seeking to look for regarding our topic. This artifact helped my research skills by looking for the right information and paying more attention to details. I read a lot of different articles, which made me learn how to search for and spot the information that fits my topic. Moreover, even though it was time-consuming, I learned not only to manage my time well but also to organize my thoughts and ideas. Writing notes beside the main ideas, evaluating the collected information, and finding the results are all time-consuming, but they lead to gaining more knowledge about the researched topic. I could do better in the future when it comes to doing research papers due to the skills I gained from this. This artifact connects with SLO 2D: quality, appropriateness, and credibility of sources. When I did this assignment, I focused on choosing the appropriate sources for my topic and searching for sources that had good quality and were credible.

Artifact 2: DD12 Sentence Variety Workshop

1E. Adapt composing practices to a variety of audiences, purposes, and contexts.

Sentence variety workshop was extremely beneficial to me; it taught me how to write a sentence in many various ways. This task focused on three main things: first, understanding how sentence variety is really important, and practicing on different examples; second, learning new habits as a writer; third, and last, revising the sentence. We did a lot of practice on changing the structure of sentences, identifying the differences between the old and new sentences, and calculating the longest sentences we had. Furthermore, the outcomes of this specific activity were absolutely effective. Due to this task, we are now able to structure the sentence in different ways depending on the topic or audience we want to send the message to. Besides, the sentence variety workshop activity would be connected to SLO 1E, since it is about composing practices for a variety of audiences, purposes, and contexts. Through this SLO I learned how to adapt my writing based on the intended audience and purpose.

Artifact 4: DD18T1 Annotated Bibliography Tables.

2C. Use a variety of research methods, including primary and/or secondary research, for
purposes of inquiry.

Due date eighteen task one was about annotating the collected sources we had ready for the research paper. We had to separate each one of them into either secondary or primary research. Where primary research is when the information/materials are collected based on a self-conducted research process. On the other hand, secondary research is when the information/materials are gathered from previous conducted studies. Moreover, the primary sources helped me in developing my knowledge, skills, and analytical capacities. For example, when I read directly from a primary source, it made me more interested in asking more questions, and made me make bright conclusions that are related to the topic I chose. While doing the secondary research, improved my interpretation skills; where reading between the lines was really important. The SLO of this artifact would be 2C, because it includes a variety of research methods. Reading from two different methods, understanding them, and writing about them had not only improved my writing skills, but also my reading skills. As a result, since the assignment was specifically about either secondary or primary research, then this SLO is perfectly fitted.

Reflections for ENGL 108

Alhajhog

Janna

Instructor: Nick Halsey

English 108

English 108: Reflecting on the Artifacts


Taking English 108 was extremely useful to me; I have learned a lot of new things and developed my old skills. Although I have written numerous papers before, this course has mostly affected me positively. Due dates were all well explained and clear, samples posted were beneficial, and class activities added to our writing knowledge a lot. Therefore, the four listed artifacts are the most assignments that positively cause my writing to improve, and be the writer I am today. 

Artifacts: DD26 Literature Review Draft for Peer Review

4E. evaluate and act on peer and instructor feedback to revise their texts.



This artifact is a response project. In English-108, discussion posts and responses are really important; we have an instruction to follow and then we post our response based on those instructions. We receive feedback and suggestions from our classmates after posting our response. The peer review teaches the students how to be open-minded and receive different opinions from different students; also, how to revise our work after having feedback. Getting feedback from various students makes me improve my revision skills and try to have a different approach and different usage of words. Plus, this artifact relates to SLO 4E because it is connected to reviewing. Peer review is when you receive suggestions and feedback from other students. For example, “I suggest that you have to specify how your English version is different from the Saudi version by utilizing genre conventions like formality or structure, etc.”. This was one of the pieces of feedback I received in DD33, which was really helpful to me; it was important to have a different audience for each version, but I had the same audience for both of them. Therefore, this response was useful; it taught me to be more careful when reading the instructions of a project. Lastly, this SLO improved my grades so much and was really helpful to me and a lot of other students.

Artifact 2: DD17T3 References list

2D. evaluate the quality, appropriateness, and credibility of sources



The literature review was one of the most important projects we did in English-108. The day we started the literature review, I worked really hard on it. In this specific artifact, we were supposed to gather a minimum of six sources and interpret them to support the idea of the topic we chose. I knew it was time-consuming since it needed the right sources and the specific information we were seeking to look for regarding our topic. This artifact helped my research skills by looking for the right information and paying more attention to details. I read a lot of different articles, which made me learn how to search for and spot the information that fits my topic. Moreover, even though it was time-consuming, I learned not only to manage my time well but also to organize my thoughts and ideas. Writing notes beside the main ideas, evaluating the collected information, and finding the results are all time-consuming, but they lead to gaining more knowledge about the researched topic. I could do better in the future when it comes to doing research papers due to the skills I gained from this. This artifact connects with SLO 2D: quality, appropriateness, and credibility of sources. When I did this assignment, I focused on choosing the appropriate sources for my topic and searching for sources that had good quality and were credible.

Artifact 2: DD12 Sentence Variety Workshop

1E. Adapt composing practices to a variety of audiences, purposes, and contexts.

Sentence variety workshop was extremely beneficial to me; it taught me how to write a sentence in many various ways. This task focused on three main things: first, understanding how sentence variety is really important, and practicing on different examples; second, learning new habits as a writer; third, and last, revising the sentence. We did a lot of practice on changing the structure of sentences, identifying the differences between the old and new sentences, and calculating the longest sentences we had. Furthermore, the outcomes of this specific activity were absolutely effective. Due to this task, we are now able to structure the sentence in different ways depending on the topic or audience we want to send the message to. Besides, the sentence variety workshop activity would be connected to SLO 1E, since it is about composing practices for a variety of audiences, purposes, and contexts. Through this SLO I learned how to adapt my writing based on the intended audience and purpose.

Artifact 4: DD18T1 Annotated Bibliography Tables.

2C. Use a variety of research methods, including primary and/or secondary research, for
purposes of inquiry.

Due date eighteen task one was about annotating the collected sources we had ready for the research paper. We had to separate each one of them into either secondary or primary research. Where primary research is when the information/materials are collected based on a self-conducted research process. On the other hand, secondary research is when the information/materials are gathered from previous conducted studies. Moreover, the primary sources helped me in developing my knowledge, skills, and analytical capacities. For example, when I read directly from a primary source, it made me more interested in asking more questions, and made me make bright conclusions that are related to the topic I chose. While doing the secondary research, improved my interpretation skills; where reading between the lines was really important. The SLO of this artifact would be 2C, because it includes a variety of research methods. Reading from two different methods, understanding them, and writing about them had not only improved my writing skills, but also my reading skills. As a result, since the assignment was specifically about either secondary or primary research, then this SLO is perfectly fitted.

Reflections for ENGL 108

Safwan Alhawsawi

ENG 108

Dr. Nicholas Barlow

4/21/2022

Homesickness Among International Students

Homesickness is a major issue for international students. It is among the most frequently reported issues of international college learners in the United States. International learning involves, leaving family, and friends as a home culture in pursuit of an academic opportunity abroad (Wu, Garza, & Guzman, 2015). International students are interested in this issue due to their experience with homesickness. International students tend to experience homesickness at least once. They tend to miss people as well as places, establish new social networks as well as adjusting new cultural and environmental needs. It is thus not surprising to hear that about 50% of international learners report frequent feelings of home sicknesses (Oghenerhoro, 2020). Homesickness can as well be perceived as mini grief in which relocation and adjustment to college life may turn into major stressors when resources, as well as coping techniques, are not sufficient (Stroebe, 2015). Therefore, in this review, we will concentrate on the impact of homesickness among the international students.

Causes of Homesickness among international students

International students tend to have issues with feeling alone as well as in relationships. When the majority of the international learners come abroad, there are no families and no friends. They tend to be lonely and thus international students tend to do everything by themselves (Stroebe, 2015). Additionally, at times it is hard to contact families and friends due to time differences. Basically, they tend to be so lonely and thus they try making friends abroad. Some people have the ability to make friends in an easy way, however, some people do not have the ability to match other people. If international learners cannot make friends easily, they tend to be so uncomfortable (Oghenerhoro, 2020). International learners tend to be emotional or wish to go back to their nation. Therefore, international learners can become home as soon as they get into the new nation.

According to Gebregergis (2018), language is another main reason behind homesickness is language. International students are always required to study a second language, though they do not have the ability to speak well, and they cannot listen well. Therefore, international learners may experience challenges with language. For instance, when they wish to complain to someone, they may not be in the capacity to tell one why they want to say it (English, et al., 2017). These factors may result in homesickness. Culture shock is another aspect that may result in homesickness. International students live abroad and therefore there are various cultures. In addition, in college, there are many students that have various cultures. International learners tend to get culture shock on food, money, and other things. Majorly, food tends to be the main factor for homesickness. Though international learners are hungry, they cannot eat sufficient food due to the different foods in their countries. They tend to get uncomfortable, and they get sick. International students cannot get energy without eating. It is difficult to understand the various cultures of international learners when they come to the nation. In addition, local people do not really understand the different cultures (Thomas, 2020). Thus, at times, international learners are in trouble in different cultures.

According to Ferrara (2020), an individual’s geographic distance away from home is a risk factor. The further away an individual is from home, the high the likelihood of experiencing homesickness. The longer the physical distance from home and the less frequent physical contact a person has with the people and places that they miss, the higher the chances of experiencing homesickness. Therefore, the inability to contact home and attachment figures places learners at a high risk of suffering from homesickness. Mainly in higher education, the learners that were away from home were at a high risk of experiencing the feelings of home sicknesses.

Effects of Homesickness among the International Students

When a learner is homesick in college it tends to easily show. While other learners have the ability to come right out and claim what they are going through, others may not be so forthcoming. The knowledge of the symptoms of homesickness can maximize the chances of identifying it. The signs of homesickness can differ from one learner to the other. Some of the signs which can be easily identified by learners include anxiety, depression, feeling as though they do not fit in, reduced motivation, loneliness, sadness, irritability, desiring a connection with an individual, and a sense of grief as well as loss (Sun, Hagedorn, & Zhang, 2016).

Basically, being a homesick college student tends to be distressing, and it can inappropriately affect their lives. For instance, they may miss classes since they feel sad as well as depressed to attend or may struggle to remain focused thus leading to the tumbling grades. Avoiding social activities as well as isolating themselves are as well potential signs of homesickness (Kegel, 2009). Basically, homesickness impacts the academic performance of college students negatively. Excessive acculturative stress tends to lead to eating and sleeping issues, low energy as well as migraines. Additionally, there have been several studies that bring out the connection between homesickness and depression. Homesickness is highly related to depression scores. Some alarming impacts of homesickness-based depression among college learners have been documented including suicide.

Interventions

Assisting international learners to develop friendships in the host nation is among the mainstay of acculturation techniques for college students. Poyrazli and Devonish (2020), advocate for initiatives to enhance the quality of social networks rather than an improvement on the number of close friends. Thus, a counselor may assess the degree of social support that learners have and if support is limited as a result of personal features which may include shyness as well as language barriers and environmental aspects. The majority of the international learners tend to stay in groups of fellow nationals through major interactions with the host natation students tends to be predictive of better cultural adjustment. Thus, peer programs that connect internationals with host county peers may be an appropriate technique for minimizing homesickness. Basically, peer pairing programs that associate international learners with host nation students tend to be more effective in comparison to the formal counseling techniques.

According to Rathakrishan, et al (2021), It may be beneficial to develop acculturative approaches for different subgroups of overseas students. For example, while forbearance is a common coping strategy among African foreign students, it is critical to organize informal outreach seminars that emphasize the importance of receiving high-quality assistance when stress levels rise. In terms of cultural collectivist traditions, counselors can use counseling programs to tap into the existing social support of Asian and Latin American international students.

Learners should embrace as well as accept the new school. They should major in exploring the school as well as its surroundings. They should embrace new opportunities to assist them to feel better in addressing the issue of homesickness in school. They should focus on the reason why they came to the facility. This can be achieved by noting the reasons why they chose the new school as well as the reason why they came to study in the nation. They should as well major in staying active. Staying active by going for walks, hitting the gym as well as exploring the new campus are effective methods of feeling more energetic as well as positive. Learners should as well consider staying connected to home even when they are far away. This aids in making it easy to feel as though one is missing out back at home (Billedo, Kerkhof, & Finkenauer, 2020). One may consider staying connected through regular chats, staying connected with social media, and sharing one’s culture.

The number of learners choosing to attend a university far away from their home country tends to be increasing. Though studying abroad tends to be an exciting transition for international students’ cultural relocation is related to increased psychological distress. Due to the increased homesickness among the international learners and its connection with depression, it is important for the schools’ counseling centers to develop alternative, culturally based services for the students. Maybe the main researchers and counselors alike are the main gap between learners’ interpersonal expectations for learning in other nations as well as real experiences (Thurber, & Walton, 2012). Developing the detailed impact of social expectation in comparison to social reality may enhance the clarity of the main nature of homesickness among the international learners. Homesickness prevention initiatives provide them with social support for international college learners which may improve the emotional toll that is caused by homesickness (Thurber, & Walton, 2012).

References

Billedo, C. J., Kerkhof, P., & Finkenauer, C. (2020). More facebook, less homesick? Investigating the short-term and long-term reciprocal relations of interactions, homesickness, and adjustment among international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations75, 118-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.01.004

Ferrara T. (2020). Understanding Homesickness: A Review of the Literature. Journal for Leadership and Instruction.
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1255848.pdf

Gebregergis, W. T. (2018). Major causes of acculturative stress and their relations with sociodemographic factors and depression among international students. Open Journal of Social Sciences6(10), 68-87. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2018.610007

Kegel, K. (2009). Homesickness in International College Students. Compelling Counseling Interventions, 67-76. https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/2009-V-Print/Article 7 Kegel.pdf

Oghenerhoro, A. A. (2020). Homesickness among International Students in Famagusta, North Cyprus (Master’s thesis, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)-Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ)). http://i-rep.emu.edu.tr:8080/jspui/handle/11129/5034

Poyrazli, S., & Devonish, O. B. (2020). Cultural Value Orientation, Social Networking Site (SNS) Use, and Homesickness in International Students. International Social Science Review96(3), 2. https://digitalcommons.northgeorgia.edu/issr/vol96/iss3/2/\

Rathakrishnan, B. A., Bikar Singh, S. S., Kamaluddin, M. R., Ghazali, M. F., Yahaya, A., Mohamed, N. H., & Krishnan, A. R. (2021). Homesickness and socio-cultural adaptation towards perceived stress among international students of a public university in Sabah: an exploration study for social sustainability. Sustainability13(9), 4924.https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/9/4924

Thomas, D. (2020). Factors that contribute to homesickness among students in Thailand. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences41(1), 136-141. https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/235043