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Operations Management homework help

Identifier Edition Statement Place of Publication Date of Publication Publisher Title Author Contributors Corporate Author Corporate Contributors Former owner Engraver Issuance type Flickr URL Shelfmarks
206 London 1879 [1878] S. Tinsley & Co. Walter Forbes. [A novel.] By A. A A. A. FORBES, Walter. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000206 British Library HMNTS 12641.b.30.
216 London; Virtue & Yorston 1868 Virtue & Co. All for Greed. [A novel. The dedication signed: A. A. A., i.e. Marie Pauline Rose, Baroness Blaze de Bury.] A., A. A. BLAZE DE BURY, Marie Pauline Rose – Baroness monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000216 British Library HMNTS 12626.cc.2.
218 London 1869 Bradbury, Evans & Co. Love the Avenger. By the author of “All for Greed.” [The dedication signed: A. A. A., i.e. Marie Pauline Rose, Baroness Blaze de Bury.] A., A. A. BLAZE DE BURY, Marie Pauline Rose – Baroness monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000218 British Library HMNTS 12625.dd.1.
472 London 1851 James Darling Welsh Sketches, chiefly ecclesiastical, to the close of the twelfth century. By the author of “Proposals for Christian Union” (E. S. A. [i.e. Ernest Appleyard]) A., E. S. Appleyard, Ernest Silvanus. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000472 British Library HMNTS 10369.bbb.15.
480 A new edition, revised, etc. London 1857 Wertheim & Macintosh [The World in which I live, and my place in it. By E. S. A. [i.e. Letitia Willgoss Stone.] Edited by … J. H. Broome.] A., E. S. BROOME, John Henry. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000480 British Library HMNTS 9007.d.28.
481 Fourth edition, revised, etc. London 1875 William Macintosh [The World in which I live, and my place in it. By E. S. A. [i.e. Letitia Willgoss Stone.] Edited by … J. H. Broome.] A., E. S. BROOME, John Henry. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000481 British Library HMNTS 9006.ee.10.
519 London 1872 The Author Lagonells. By the author of Darmayne (F. E. A. [i.e. Florence Emily Ashley]) A., F. E. ASHLEY, Florence Emily. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000519 British Library HMNTS 12637.e.3.
667 pp. 40. G. Bryan & Co: Oxford, 1898 The Coming of Spring, and other poems. By J. A. [i.e. J. Andrews.] A., J.|A., J. ANDREWS, J. – Writer of Verse monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000667 British Library HMNTS 011652.g.73.
874 London] 1676 A Warning to the inhabitants of England, and London in particular … By M. A. [i.e. Mary Adams.] Remaʿ. ADAMS, Mary. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000000874 British Library HMNTS 11645.bb.42.
1143 London 1679 A Satyr against Vertue. (A poem: supposed to be spoken by a Town-Hector. [By John Oldham. The preface signed: T. A.]) A., T. OLDHAM, John. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000001143 British Library HMNTS 11602.ee.10.(2.)
1280 Coventry 1802 Printed by J. Turner An Account of the many and great Loans, Benefactions and Charities, belonging to the City of Coventry … A new edition. [The dedication signed: AB, CD, EF, GH, &c. By Edward Jackson and Samuel Carte.] CARTE, Samuel.|JACKSON, Edward – Rector of Southam, and CARTE (Samuel) monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000001280 British Library HMNTS 1430.g.17.
1808 Christiania 1859 Erindringer som Bidrag til Norges Historie fra 1800-1815. Anden Udgave … Udgivet med nogle Rettelser og Tillæg af Christian C. A. Lange. Med Forfatterens Portraet, og hans Biographi af Amtmand J. C. Aall AALL, Jacob. AALL, J. C.|LANGE, Christian Christoph Andreas. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000001808 British Library HMNTS 9425.cc.37.
1905 Firenze 1888 Gli Studi storici in terra d’Otranto … Frammenti estratti in gran parte dall’ Archivio Storico Italiano … a cura e spese di L(uigi) G(iuseppe) D(e) S(imone) AAR, Ermanno – pseud. [i.e. Luigi Giuseppe Oronzo Mariano Raffaele Francesco Fortunato Felice de Simone.] S., L. G. D.|SIMONE, Luigi Giuseppe Oronzo Mariano Raffaele Francesco Fortunato Felice de. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000001905 British Library HMNTS 10136.g.22.
1929 Amsterdam 1839, 38-54 De Aardbol. Magazijn van hedendaagsche land- en volkenkunde … Met platen en kaarten. [Deel 4-9 by P. H. W.] WITKAMP, Pieter Harme. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000001929 British Library HMNTS 10002.g.16-19.
2836 Savona 1897 Cronache Savonesi dal 1500 al 1570 … Accresciute di documenti inediti pubblicate e annotate dal dott. G. Assereto ABATE, Giovanni Agostino. ASSERETO, Giovanni. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000002836 British Library HMNTS 10136.h.24.
2854 London 1865 E. Moxon & Co. See-Saw; a novel … Edited [or rather, written] by W. W. Reade ABATI, Francesco. READE, William Winwood. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000002854 British Library HMNTS 12623.bbb.12.
2956 Paris 1860-63 Géodésie d’une partie de la Haute Éthiopie, revue et rédigée par R. Radau. fasc. 1-3 ABBADIE, Antoine Thompson d’. RADAU, Rodolphe. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000002956 British Library HMNTS 10096.i.19.
2957 Paris 1873 [With eleven maps.] ABBADIE, Antoine Thompson d’. RADAU, Rodolphe. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000002957 British Library HMNTS 10095.i.13.
3017 Nueva edicion, anotada … y continuada … por J. J. de Acosta y Calbo. Puerto-Rico 1866 [Historia geográfica, civil y politica de la Isla de S. Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico, Dala a luz A. Valladares de Sotomayor.] ABBAD Y LASIERRA, Agustín Íñigo – Bishop of Barbastro ACOSTA Y CALBO, José Julian de. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000003017 British Library HMNTS 10480.h.18.
3131 New York 1899 W. Abbatt The Crisis of the Revolution, being the story of Arnold and André now for the first time collected from all sources, and illustrated with views of all places identified with it … Illustrations from original photographs by E. S. Bennett, etc ABBATT, William. ANDRÉ, John – Major|ARNOLD, Benedict. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000003131 British Library HMNTS 9603.g.14.
4598 Hull 1814 The Author Peace: a lyric poem. [With prefatory address by F. Wrangham?] ABBOTT, Thomas Eastoe. WRANGHAM, Francis. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000004598 British Library HMNTS 11641.f.1.
4884 London 1820 J. Hatchard & Son Abdallah; or, The Arabian Martyr: a Christian drama, in three acts. [In verse.] [By Thomas Foster Barham, the Elder.] BARHAM, Thomas Foster – the Elder monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000004884 British Library HMNTS 994.l.1.(7.)
4976 [Another edition.] Abdollatiphi historiæ Ægypti compendium … Partim ipse vertit, partim a Pocockio versum edendum curavit, notisque illustravit J. White. Arab. & Lat. Oxonii 1800 J. Cooke, etc. [Abdollatiphi Historiæ Ægypti compendium. [With a Latin version by Edward Pocock the younger.] Arab. & Lat.] WHITE, Joseph – Canon of Christ Church monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000004976 British Library HMNTS 983.e.6.|British Library HMNTS 148.d.4.|British Library HMNTS G.15137.
5382 London 1847, 48 [1846-48] Punch Office The Comic History of England … With … coloured etchings, and … woodcuts, by John Leech A’BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott. LEECH, John – Artist monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000005382 British Library HMNTS C.131.d.16.|British Library HMNTS 9505.d.3.
5385 [Another edition.] Illustrated by John Leech. London [1897?] Bradbury, Agnew & Co. [The comic history of England … With twenty coloured etchings, and two hundred woodcuts. By John Leech.] A’BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott. LEECH, John – Artist monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000005385 British Library HMNTS 9503.f.4.
5389 [Another edition.] London [1897?] Bradbury, Agnew & Co. [The Comic History of Rome … Illustrated by John Leech.] A’BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott. LEECH, John – Artist monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000005389 British Library HMNTS 9039.i.11.
5432 Milano 1893 Signa: opera in tre atti [founded on the novel entitled: “Signa” by Ouida] … Traduzione ritmica di G. Mazzucato A’BECKETT, Gilbert Arthur – and RUDALL (H. A.) MAZZUCATO, Giovanni Andrea.|RUDALL, H. A.|Ouida monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000005432 British Library HMNTS 11779.g.8.(10.)
6036 London 1805 C. & R. Baldwin The Venetian Outlaw, a drama in three acts … Translated [from the French translation of J. H. D. Zschokke’s “Abällino, oder der grosse Bandit”] and adapted to the English stage by R. W. Elliston ELLISTON, Robert William. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000006036 British Library HMNTS 642.i.25.|British Library HMNTS 164.g.68.
6821 Aberdeen 1837 J. Davidson & Co. Description of the Coast between Aberdeen and Leith. [By William Duncan.]: Appendix DUNCAN, William – Clerk of Police, Aberdeen monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000006821 British Library HMNTS 797.d.2.
7521 Wien 1896 Aus Kaukasischen Ländern. Reisebriefe von H. Abich. Herausgegeben von dessen Witwe (A. Abich) ABICH, Wilhelm Hermann. ABICH, Adelaïde. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000007521 British Library HMNTS 10077.h.21.
7630 Abingdon 1898 W. H. Hooke Selections from the Municipal Chronicles of the Borough of Abingdon from A.D. 1555 to A.D. 1897. Edited by B. Challenor CHALLENOR, Bromley. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000007630 British Library HMNTS 10352.dd.26.
8239 Quebec 1899 L. J. Demers & Frère The Plains of Abraham, 1759, a spot sacred to the memory of Wolfe and Montcalm. An appeal to all Canada for the preservation of the Plains of Abraham as portion of the public domain BROTANEK, Rudolf. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000008239 British Library HMNTS 10470.ff.20.
8435 London 1892 Effingham Wilson & Co. The Witwatersrand Gold Mines. A true and unvarnished account of their origin and progress … Translated … by H. C. Simonsen ABRAHAM, Félix – Writer on Mining SIMONSEN, H. C. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000008435 British Library HMNTS 7106.b.46.
8440 London 1894 Effingham Wilson The New Era of the Goldmining Industry in the Witwatersrand … Translated from the German by H. C. Simonsen. With an authentic map of the fields ABRAHAM, Félix – Writer on Mining SIMONSEN, H. C. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000008440 British Library HMNTS 07108.g.6.
11361 Leipzig [1894-96 Tirol und Vorarlberg … Mit … einer Karte, zahlreichen Illustrationen, etc ACHLEITNER, Arthur – and UBL (E.) UBL, E. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000011361 British Library HMNTS 10201.g.13.
11852 pp. 40. W. Cann: Plymouth, [1876?] A Question of Holy Writ, suggested by a lecture on Buddha and Buddhism, delivered before the Literary Society of Exeter, by Lieut. Ackland, R.N., and answered in the following lines, etc. [By Joseph Plimsoll.]: Bible. Appendix. Miscellaneous ACKLAND – Lieut., R.N PLIMSOLL, Joseph. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000011852 British Library HMNTS 011650.k.89.(4.)
13074 London 1899 W. Thacker & Co. A Summer in High Asia: being a record of sport and travel in Baltistan and Ladakh … With an appendix on Central Asian trade by Capt. S. H. Godfrey … Illustrated from drawings by the author, photographs, and a map of the route ADAIR, Frederick Edward Shafto. GODFREY, Stuart Hill. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000013074 British Library HMNTS 10077.d.27.|British Library OC V 3030
13364 London [1885] Griffith, Farran & Co. A Hand-book and History of Sidmouth from the Triassic period up to “Now.” By אדם [Adam, i.e. P. O. Hutchinson]. Illustrated … With map HUTCHINSON, Peter Orlando. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000013364 British Library HMNTS 10358.g.35.(4.)|British Library HMNTS 10352.d.32.
14466 London [1860?] Adams & King The Historie of Eald Street, now called Old Street, with memoranda of the Parish of St. Luke and of the Chartreuse KING – Printer, of Goswell Street monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000014466 British Library HMNTS 10352.i.24.
14703 1845 1846 First (-Third) Annual Report on the Geology of the State of Vermont ADAMS, Charles Baker. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000014703 British Library HMNTS 1254.h.9.
15141 London 1893 T. Fisher Unwin The New Egypt. A social sketch. [Edited by J. W. Longsdon.] ADAMS, Francis William Lauderdale. LONGSDON, J. W. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000015141 British Library HMNTS 010096.e.61.
15146 London 1894 T. Fisher Unwin Tiberius: a drama … With introduction by W. M. Rossetti ADAMS, Francis William Lauderdale. ROSSETTI, William Michael. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000015146 British Library HMNTS 11781.gg.4.
16173 enk 1817 printed by W. Thorne, and published by J. Callow; J. Hunter; and J. Ridgway Memoirs of the Life and Doctrines of the late John Hunter, Esq., etc ADAMS, Joseph – M.D., F.L.S HUNTER, John – F.R.S monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000016173 British Library HMNTS 982.c.27.|British Library HMNTS RB.23.b.4745.
16543 London 1816 John Murray The Narrative of Robert Adams, a sailor, who was wrecked on the Western Coast of Africa, in the year 1810 … With a map, etc. [Edited by S. Cock.] Adams, Robert – Sailor COCK, Simon. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000016543 British Library HMNTS 983.e.7.|British Library HMNTS 147.e.3.|British Library HMNTS G.2842.
16544 [Another edition.] Boston 1817 Wells & Lilley [The Narrative of Robert Adams, a sailor, who was wrecked on the Western Coast of Africa, in the year 1810 … With a map, etc. [Edited by S. Cock.]] ADAMS, Robert – Sailor COCK, Simon. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000016544 British Library HMNTS 789.bb.21.
17602 London 1897 J. Bowden East End Idylls … With an introduction by the Hon. and Rev. J. G. Adderley Adcock, Arthur St. John ADDERLEY, James Granville – Hon monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000017602 British Library HMNTS 012625.i.5.
17752 Upsaliæ [1833] Acta historiam regis Chistierni II. illustrantia. Quae … præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer … pro gradu philosophico p.p. P. A. Adde, etc ADDE, Petrus Adolphus. GEIJER, Erik Gustaf. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000017752 British Library HMNTS 9425.bb.13.
18173 [Another edition.] With a complete index. [With a portrait engraved by Hopewood.] London 1804 Vernor & Hood [The Works of the late Right Honourable Joseph Addison, Esq. … The third edition, etc. [Edited by Thomas Tickell.]]: Works ADDISON, Joseph – Right Hon TICKELL, Thomas. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000018173 British Library HMNTS 12269.d.7.
18218 Edinburgh 1859 James Nichol The Poetical Works of Joseph Addison; Gay’s Fables; and Somerville’s Chase. With memoirs and critical dissertations by Rev. George Gilfillan: Two or more Works Addison, Joseph Gilfillan, George monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000018218 British Library HMNTS 11603.f.1.
18347 Yverdon 1777 L’Esprit d’Addisson, ou les Beautés du Spectateur, du Babillard et du Gardien, consistant principalement dans une collection des feuilles de Mr. Addisson, avec un précis de sa vie. Ouvrage nouvellement traduit de l’anglais par Mr. J. P. A: Essays from the Spectator, Guardian and Tatler ADDISON, Joseph – Right Hon A., J. P. – Mr monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000018347 British Library HMNTS 12270.pp.15.
18469 Londini 1799 F. & C. Rivington Addisoni Epistola missa ex Italiâ ad illustrem Dominum Halifax, anno 1701. [A translation into Latin hexameter verse.] Auctore A. Murphy. (Addison’s Letter to Lord Halifax.) Lat. & Eng: Miscellaneous Single Works ADDISON, Joseph – Right Hon MURPHY, Arthur. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000018469 British Library HMNTS 11647.f.44.(2.)
19340 St. Petersburg 1827 Augustin Freiherr von Meyerberg und seine Reise nach Russland. Nebst einer von ihm auf diese Reise veranstalteten Sammlung von Ansichten, Gebräuchen, Bildnissen u. s. w ADELUNG, Friedrich von. MAYER, Augustin – Baron von Mayerberg monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000019340 British Library HMNTS 10291.e.1.
20207 Berlin 1866 Studien zur Cultur-Geschichte Polens. Bd. 1 ADLER, Carl – Writer on Poland Długosz, Jan. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000020207 British Library HMNTS 9475.bbb.21.
20960 London 1853 Addey & Co. The Diary and Houres of the Ladye Adolie, a faythfulle childe. 1552. [Edited, or rather written, by Lady C. M. Pepys.] PEPYS, Charlotte Maria – Lady monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000020960 British Library HMNTS 12620.d.7.
21119 London 1874 Chapman & Hall Lays of Modern Oxford, by Adon. Illustrated by M. E. Edwards, F. Lockwood, and the author EDWARDS, Mary Ellen.|LOCKWOOD, Frank – Sir monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000021119 British Library HMNTS 11650.g.9.
21430 London 1790 J. Johnson Adriano; or, the first of June, a poem. By the author of The Village Curate [i.e. James Hurdis] Hurdis, James monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000021430 British Library HMNTS 11632.d.48.(2.)|British Library HMNTS 992.k.27.(3.)|British Library HMNTS 1508/379.(2.)
21782 London [1817.] J. Johnston The Adventures of a Post Captain. By a Naval Officer. [In verse.] With … engravings, by Mr. Williams WILLIAMS, Samuel – Wood Engraver monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000021782 British Library HMNTS 11642.g.19.
22060 Sceaux 1883 Histoire de la Ville de Sceaux depuis son origine jusqu’à nos jours … Sous la direction de … M. Charaire … Ouvrage illustré de gravures, etc ADVIELLE, Victor. CHARAIRE, Michel. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000022060 British Library HMNTS 10169.k.5.
22105 London 1795 J. Debrett The National Advocates, a poem. Affectionately inscribed to the Honourable Thomas Erskine and Vicary Gibbs, Esquire [in praise of their exertions in defence of Thomas Hardy, Horne Tooke and others]. [By William Hayley.] GIBBS, Vicary – Sir monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000022105 British Library HMNTS 644.k.24.(5.)|British Library HMNTS 11641.h.11.(7.)
22278 Coblenz 1865 Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald. Naturbilder aus der schweizerischen Alpenwelt von C. Aeby und E. v. Fellenberg … und Gerwer. Mit … einer Karte in Farbendruck von R. Leuzinger AEBY, Christoph. FELLENBERG, Edmund von.|GERWER, Rud. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000022278 British Library HMNTS 10196.f.21.
23565 London 1877 Chatto & Windus Prometheus the Fire-giver. An attempted restoration of the lost first part of the Prometheian Trilogy of Æschylus. [By William Cox Bennett.]: Appendix Aeschylus. BENNETT, William Cox. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000023565 British Library HMNTS 11652.c.8.
24344 Leipzig 1853 Cosmographiam Æthici Istrici ab Hieronymo ex Graeco in Latinum breviarium redactam … separato libello expressam primum edidit Henricus Wuttke. Accedunt duae tabulae, etc WUTTKE, Heinrich. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000024344 British Library HMNTS 10006.d.7.(1.)
24878 London 1886, [1885] Hodder & Stoughton The Children of Africa. Written for all English-speaking children. By … the author of “The Children of India,” etc. [i.e. A. W. Marston] MARSTON, Annie Wright. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000024878 British Library HMNTS 10095.e.1.
27797 London [1834] William W. Clowes Prospectus of an Expedition into the Interior of South Africa from Dalagoa Bay, etc. [By W. D. Cooley.]: General Appendix COOLEY, William Desborough. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000027797 British Library HMNTS 010096.h.36.
28615 Carlstad, Stockholm 1852-63 Försök till en statsekonomisk statistik öfver Sverige. (Den statsekonomiska afdelningen af C. A. Agardh, den statistiska af C. E. Ljungberg.) Agardh, C. A. (Carl Adolf) LJUNGBERG, Carl Edvard. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000028615 British Library HMNTS 10281.e.6.
28630 Carlstad 1857 Inledning till Sveriges fysiska geografi. Jemte upplysningar rörande ankologisk och fysisk karta öfver Sverige Agardh, C. A. (Carl Adolf) DAHLMAN, Carl Edvard. monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000028630 British Library HMNTS 10280.ee.3.
28758 Boston 1866, 76 Ticknor & Fields; J. R. Osgood Geological Sketches. [The preface signed: E. C. A., i.e. Elizabeth C. Agassiz. With a portrait.] Agassiz, Louis A., E. C.|Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary monographic http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/tags/sysnum000028758 British Library HMNTS 7108.aa.5.
28784 Paris 1869 Voyage au Brésil, traduit de l’anglais … par F. Vogeli. Ouvrage illustré, etc Agassiz, Louis Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary|VOGELI, Félix. monographic http://www

Operations Management homework help

5/3/22, 12:51 PM Project Guidelines and Rubric – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022673/viewContent/17803182/View 1/11

Project Guidelines and Rubric

Competencies

In this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competencies:

Prepare and present internal and external reports.

Monitor and evaluate performance.

Recommend opportuni�es for performance improvements.

Scenario

You are a former Navy officer and fighter pilot, and you are now the controller of a division of TransGlobal Airlines, a large

organiza�on that operates a fleet of corporate jets for charter at several airports in the southeast part of the United States. Your

division’s private charter clients include several Fortune 500 companies in the region. The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) has informed

you that the company is considering the acquisi�on of two smaller avia�on firms in the region specializing in chartered flights for

luxury vaca�ons using light aircra� (60 passengers or less). The CFO has tasked you with assessing the organiza�onal benefits of

acquiring these avia�on firms. The CFO intends to develop a new business plan for the organiza�on if your analysis recommends

moving forward with the acquisi�on.

A�er an ini�al assessment, the company has shortlisted two airlines, Company A and Company B, to examine further for acquisi�on.

To understand all aspects of the two airlines under considera�on, you have visited each proposed site to assess their performance.

The assessment included crea�ng a balanced scorecard for each airline with all four components, financial, internal processes,

customers/market, and learning and growth, that will impact the acquisi�on of each firm.

The CFO has asked you to generate two scenarios for the proposed acquisi�on based on your analysis and governing or predic�ve

assump�ons. They include a worst-case scenario that considers the most serious outcomes that could occur if an�cipated targets

and assump�ons are drama�cally wrong; and a best-case scenario if an�cipated targets and assump�ons significantly exceed

forecasts.

Based on your assessment and analysis of the companies in Milestones One and Two, you will create and deliver a PowerPoint

Presenta�on for senior management’s review and analysis. You will also write an execu�ve summary with your recommenda�ons for

the leadership team.

Direc�ons

Part 1: Presenta�on

Record and submit a narrated PowerPoint presenta�on to share your analysis and recommenda�ons for the proposed acquisi�ons.

Use your data and analysis, along with feedback received from the milestone assignments, to complete your presenta�on. Note:

Remember to use both on-screen text and narra�on in your PowerPoint slides to convey your informa�on effec�vely. For example,

you can use brief bulleted lists on the slide and include detailed explana�ons in your narra�on. A resource is provided under

Suppor�ng Materials to help you record your presenta�on. If you are unable to submit a presenta�on with narra�on, be sure to

include detailed speaker notes with your submission.

1. Overview

A. Situa�on Analysis of TransGlobal Airlines (parent company). Use the informa�on from the Suppor�ng Materials

sec�on to highlight the parent company’s current business environment.

i. Internal environment: culture, leadership, internal processes, human resources, opera�ons, and financial



MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4 TM

5/3/22, 12:51 PM Project Guidelines and Rubric – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022673/viewContent/17803182/View 2/11

performance

ii. External environment: compe��ve, market, regulatory, customers, suppliers, and other relevant stakeholders

B. Acquisi�on Ra�onale: Explain why your company is planning to acquire these airlines. What strategic objec�ves will

the acquisi�on meet? How might the acquisi�on support the bigger picture goals of TransGlobal?

C. Proposed Acquisi�ons: Using the resources provided in the Suppor�ng Materials sec�on, provide an overview of the

two companies under considera�on to be acquired. Include the following informa�on for each company:

i. Loca�on, size, and age of the firm

ii. Customer segment and target market

iii. Major compe�tors

iv. Company leadership

v. Current financial and market status

2. Analysis

A. Analysis of Company A. Present your data and analysis of Company A. Include the following in your analysis:

i. Balanced scorecard data: Share the balanced scorecard for Company A. Copy and paste the relevant sec�ons

from your Milestone One spreadsheet. The balanced scorecard should highlight key performance indicators,

such as net profit, annual growth, and market share, and include the four components:

a. Financial: Complete the financial sec�on of the balanced scorecard template, iden�fying two of the

most impac�ul key performance indicators.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

b. Internal processes: Complete the internal processes sec�on of the balanced scorecard template,

iden�fying two of the most relevant KPIs.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

c. Customers/market: Complete the customers/market sec�on of the balanced scorecard template,

iden�fying two of the most relevant KPIs.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

d. Learning and growth: Complete the customers/market sec�on of the balanced scorecard template,

iden�fying two of the most relevant KPIs.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

ii. Balanced scorecard analysis: Describe your analysis of Company A’s performance based on its balanced

scorecard components. Perform a cost-benefit-risk analysis to explain whether the benefits jus�fy the costs

of acquisi�on.

a. Opportunity cost: What will it cost to move forward with this opportunity?

b. Risk: Iden�fy and explain the magnitude (low, medium, or high) of the risks this acquisi�on poses to

the parent company related to its market, financial, cultural, and opera�onal environments.

B. Analysis of Company B. Present your data and analysis of Company B. Include the following in your analysis:

i. Balanced Scorecard Data: Share the balanced scorecard of Company B and highlight some key performance

indicators, such as net profit, annual growth, and market share. Copy and paste the relevant sec�ons from

your Milestone One spreadsheet. The balanced scorecard should highlight key performance indicators, such

as net profit, annual growth, and market share, and include the four components:

a. Financial: Complete the financial sec�on of the balanced scorecard template, iden�fying two of the

most impac�ul key performance indicators.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

b. Internal processes: Complete the internal processes sec�on of the balanced scorecard template,

iden�fying two of the most relevant key performance indicators.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

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c. Customers/market: Complete the customers/market sec�on of the balanced scorecard template,

iden�fying two of the most relevant two key performance indicators.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

d. Learning and growth: Complete the customers/market sec�on of the balanced scorecard template,

iden�fying two of the most relevant key performance indicators.

a. Explain your ra�onale for the KPIs chosen, along with the cause-and-effect rela�onship

between the chosen KPIs.

ii. Balanced scorecard analysis: Perform a cost-benefit-risk analysis for Company B based on its balanced

scorecard components to explain whether the benefits jus�fy the costs of acquisi�on.

a. Opportunity cost: What will it cost to move forward with this opportunity?

b. Risk: Iden�fy and explain the magnitude (low, medium, or high) of the risks this acquisi�on poses to

the parent company as related to its market, financial, cultural, and opera�onal environments.

3. Proposal

A. Recommenda�on: Recommend whether TransGlobal Airlines should acquire one or both companies.

B. Ra�onale: Jus�fy how your recommenda�on supports the company’s strategic objec�ves. This includes one or more

of its financial, market, compe��ve, and cultural objec�ves.

C. Assump�ons: Explain how your acquisi�on recommenda�on will impact the company’s success in different

scenarios:

i. A worst-case scenario that considers the most serious outcomes that could occur if an�cipated targets and

assump�ons are drama�cally wrong; and

ii. A best-case scenario that considers outcomes that significantly exceed an�cipated targets and assump�ons.

Part 2: Execu�ve Summary

Submit a Word document summarizing your analysis and recommenda�ons for both companies.

A. Situa�on assessment: Briefly summarize your company’s current internal and external business environments and the

ra�onale for acquisi�on.

B. Data and analysis: Provide a brief overview of the two airlines under considera�on, including your findings and analysis from

your balanced scorecards.

C. Recommenda�on: Jus�fy your recommenda�on for the acquisi�on and explain how it supports the company’s objec�ves.

What to Submit

Acquisi�on Proposal Presenta�on

Using the instruc�ons provided under Suppor�ng Materials below, submit a recorded PowerPoint presenta�on with 10–12 slides.

Sources should be cited according to APA style. Consult the Shapiro Library APA Style Guide for more informa�on on cita�ons. If

you are unable to create a recorded PowerPoint presenta�on, ask your instructor about submi�ng this assignment in an alternate

format.

Execu�ve Summary

Submit a 2- to 3-page Word document with 12-point Times New Roman font, double spacing, and one-inch margins. Sources should

be cited according to APA style. Consult the Shapiro Library APA Style Guide for more informa�on on cita�ons.

Suppor�ng Materials

TransGlobal AirLines

Resource: TransGlobal Airlines Company Informa�on

Resource: TransGlobal Airlines Financials

Company A

Resource: Company A Informa�on

Resource: Company A Financials

Resource: Company A Interview Notes Memo

Company B

Resource: Company B Informa�on

Resource: Company B Financials

Resource: Company B Interview Notes Memo

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Resource: Company B Interview Notes Memo

Reading: Record a Presenta�on

Use this resource to learn how to record your PowerPoint presenta�on with narra�on and video.

Resource: MBA Research Guide

This Shapiro Library resource will help you find any addi�onal informa�on you may need to complete the project.

Project Rubric

Criteria Exemplary (100%) Proficient (85%) Needs Improveme

Overview: Current Situa�on Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Describes the current situa�on of

the parent company; highlights the

company’s current business

environment using its market,

regulatory, compe��ve, and

cultural environments

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include describing

regulatory, compe��v

cultural environments

and clearly

Overview: Acquisi�on

Ra�onale

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Explains why the parent company

is planning to acquire these

airlines; describes what strategic

objec�ves the acquisi�on will

meet

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include describing

ra�onale behind acqu

rela�on to the compan

objec�ves

Overview: Proposed

Acquisi�ons

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Provides an overview of the two

companies under considera�on to

be acquired, including the loca�on,

size, and age of the firm; customer

segment; target market; major

compe�tors; company leadership;

and current financial and market

status

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include describing

informa�on related to

size, and age of the fir

segment; target marke

compe�tors; company

and current financial a

status adequately and

Analysis of Company A:

Balanced Scorecard Data

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Shares the balanced scorecard of

Company A with its four

components: financial, internal

processes, customers/market, and

learning and growth; iden�fies

two of the most relevant key

performance indicators in each

component

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include iden�fyin

key performance indic

of the four componen

internal processes,

customers/market, an

and growth

Analysis of Company A:

Balanced Scorecard Analysis—

Opportunity Cost

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Performs a cost-benefit-risk

analysis for Company A based on

its balanced scorecard

components to explain whether

the benefits jus�fy the costs of

acquisi�on; measures the correct

opportunity cost associated with

this acquisi�on

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include accurately

determining the oppo

associated with the ac

A l i f C A E d fi i i A l th b l d d Sh t

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Analysis of Company A:

Balanced Scorecard Analysis—

Risk

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Analyzes the balanced scorecard

of Company A to accurately

iden�fy and explain the magnitude

(low, medium, or high) of the risks

acquisi�on poses to the parent

company as related to its market,

financial, cultural, and opera�onal

environments

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include correctly

and ra�onally explaini

magnitude of the risks

poses to the parent co

related to the market,

cultural, and opera�on

environments

Analysis of Company B:

Balanced Scorecard Data

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Shares the balanced scorecard of

Company B with its four

components: financial, internal

processes, customers/market, and

learning and growth; iden�fies

two of the most relevant key

performance indicators in each

component

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include iden�fyin

key performance indic

of the four componen

internal processes,

customers/market, an

and growth

Analysis of Company B:

Balanced Scorecard Analysis—

Opportunity Cost

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Performs a cost-benefit-risk

analysis for Company B based on

its balanced scorecard

components to explain whether

the benefits jus�fy the costs of

acquisi�on; measures the correct

opportunity cost associated with

this acquisi�on

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include determin

correct opportunity co

associated with the ac

Analysis of Company B:

Balanced Scorecard Analysis—

Risk

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Analyzes the balanced scorecard

of Company B to accurately

iden�fy and explain the magnitude

(low, medium, or high) of the risks

this acquisi�on poses to the

parent company as related to its

market, financial, cultural, and

opera�onal environments

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include correctly

and ra�onally explaini

magnitude of the risks

poses to the parent co

related to the market,

cultural, and opera�on

environments

Proposal: Recommenda�on Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Makes appropriate

recommenda�ons whether to

acquire one or both the companies

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include making th

recommenda�on abou

to acquire one or both

proposed companies

Proposal: Ra�onale Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Jus�fies how the recommenda�on

supports the company’s strategic

objec�ves, including one or more

of its financial, market,

compe��ve, and cultural

objec�ves

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include providing

explana�on for how th

recommenda�on supp

more of the company’

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more of the company

objec�ves

Proposal: Assump�ons Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Explains logically how the

acquisi�on recommenda�on will

impact the company’s success in

the worst-case and best-case

scenarios

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include explaining

acquisi�on recommen

impact the company’s

both worst-case and b

scenarios

Execu�ve Summary: Situa�on

Assessment

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Summarizes the current situa�on

of parent company, including an

analysis of its internal and external

environments and the ra�onale for

acquisi�on

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include summariz

current situa�on of th

including the analysis

internal and external e

Execu�ve Summary: Data and

Analysis

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Provides a brief overview of the

two airlines under considera�on,

including findings and analysis

from their balanced scorecards

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include summariz

and analysis from the

scorecards

Execu�ve Summary:

Recommenda�on

Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Makes the acquisi�on

recommenda�ons explaining how

it supports the company’s

objec�ves

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

omissions; areas for im

may include adequate

how the recommenda

supports the company

Ar�cula�on of Response Exceeds proficiency in an

excep�onally clear, insigh�ul,

sophis�cated, or crea�ve manner

Clearly conveys meaning with

correct grammar, sentence

structure, and spelling,

demonstra�ng an understanding

of audience and purpose

Shows progress towar

proficiency, but with e

grammar, sentence str

spelling that nega�vel

readability

Cita�ons and A�ribu�ons Uses cita�ons for ideas requiring

a�ribu�on, with few or no minor

errors

Uses cita�ons for ideas requiring

a�ribu�on, with consistent minor

errors

Uses cita�ons for idea

a�ribu�on, with majo

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Activity Details

Operations Management homework help

Produced by Library and Learning Services
7th Edition, 2021

Harvard Referencing
Guide

1

Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
What is referencing? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

When do you need to reference? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

When is a reference not needed? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

Citing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Referring to sources within your work (citing)…………………………………………………………. 7
Citing a short quotation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Citing a long quotation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote…………………………………………………………………… 8

Making changes to quotations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Omitting part of a quotation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation. ………………………………………………. 8

Pointing out an error ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Adding your own emphasis……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Citing more than one source ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Citing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………………….. 9

Citing sources by same author in same year ……………………………………………………………… 9

Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in the same year …………………..10

Citing a corporate author ………………………………………………………………………………………10
How do I cite a source with missing publication details? ……………………………………………..10

Citing a source without a given author………………………………………………………………….10

Citing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………………….10

Updated versions…………………………………………………………………………………………………11

Abbreviating organisation names ……………………………………………………………………………11
Citing a source used within another source: secondary referencing ……………………………….11

Citing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………………12

Compiling your reference list …………………………………………………………………………………12

References list or bibliography? …………………………………………………………………………..12
Elements of a reference…………………………………………………………………………………………13

Publication information in the frontmatter of a book ………………………………………………….13

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

Reverse title page……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

How do I reference if publication details are missing? …………………………………………………14
Referencing a source without a given author………………………………………………………….14

2

Referencing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………….14

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary referencing ………………………………..15

Referencing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………….15
Referencing sources by the same author in the same year……………………………………………15

Referencing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………15

What is a DOI?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Referencing a source not listed in this guide……………………………………………………………..16
Example essay extract with citations and references list……………………………………………….16

Example reference formats for different source types………………………………………………….17

A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Act of Parliament………………………………………………………………………………………………18

App (Mobile) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………18
Archive material ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art or graffiti) ..19

Artwork (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Art installation/exhibition …………………………………………………………………………………..20
B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

Blog ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Book ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21

Book (translation) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..21

Book volume ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21
Book chapter (in an edited book) …………………………………………………………………………22

Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters) ……………………………………22

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables…………………………………………………………..23

British Standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………23

C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
Case Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Cochrane Review………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Command Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Computer game ……………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Computer program …………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Computer software code ……………………………………………………………………………………26

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students] ……………………………………………………26

Header [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………………………..26

Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students] ……………………………………………………..26

3

Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students] …………………………………………27

Method Referencing [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………27

Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students] …………………………………27
Conference paper……………………………………………………………………………………………..28

Conference poster…………………………………………………………………………………………….28

Conversation (in person)…………………………………………………………………………………….28

D………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Dance performance …………………………………………………………………………………………..29

Dance (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Dataset …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

E ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30

e-book (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
e-book (via e-book reader) …………………………………………………………………………………31

e-book chapter in an edited e-book …………………………………………………………………….31

Email………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions) ……………………………..32
F ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Facebook ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33

Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download) …………………………………………………………….33

Film (DVD: commentaries and special features) ………………………………………………………33

Film (streamed) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
G ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34

Government document ……………………………………………………………………………………..34

H………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35

Hansard ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers ……………………………………………………..35
I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (Creative Commons licensed) …………………………………………………………………….36

Informal or in-house publication………………………………………………………………………….36
International standards………………………………………………………………………………………37

Interview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………37

Instagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

J ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article…………………………………………………………………………………………………..38

4

Journal article (forthcoming) ……………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………….39

Journal article (no issue number; article number given)…………………………………………….39
L……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet (with no date)…………………………………………………………………………………………40

Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes……………………………………………………………………………………..40
Legislation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

M ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

Magazine article ……………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Magazine article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………41
Market report…………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (Digimap) …………………………………………………………………………………………………42

Map (Google Earth) …………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (printed) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
Map (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact ………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact (online)……………………………………………………………………………………44

Music (live performance/concert)…………………………………………………………………………44

Band concert: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Classical: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (lyrics) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (musical score/sheet music) ……………………………………………………………………….46

Music (recorded track)……………………………………………………………………………………….46

Music streaming……………………………………………………………………………………………….47
N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

Newspaper article …………………………………………………………………………………………….47

Newspaper article (online) ………………………………………………………………………………….47

O………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
Ofsted report …………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

Online discussion list or discussion forum ……………………………………………………………..48

Organisational documents/policies ………………………………………………………………………48

Organisational documents/policies (anonymised)……………………………………………………49

P ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49

5

Patent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49

PDFs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………50

Play ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
Podcast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50

Poem, short story or play in an anthology ……………………………………………………………..51

Poem in a collection ………………………………………………………………………………………….51

R ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
Radio broadcast ……………………………………………………………………………………………….51

Religious text …………………………………………………………………………………………………..52

S ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52

Self-citation …………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Skype……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Sound recording (based on recorded lectures) ……………………………………………………….53

Statutory Instrument …………………………………………………………………………………………53

T ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54

Telephone call………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
Television advertisement ……………………………………………………………………………………54

Television programme (broadcast) ……………………………………………………………………….55

Television programme (streamed content, e.g. Netflix, BBC iPlayer)…………………………….55

Theatre performance (live) ………………………………………………………………………………….55

Theatre programme (print) …………………………………………………………………………………56
Thesis or dissertation…………………………………………………………………………………………56

Translated material……………………………………………………………………………………………56

Twitter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

V ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

Video (online e.g. YouTube, TED) …………………………………………………………………………57
Video (subscribed content e.g. Anatomy TV, SAGE video) …………………………………………58

W ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58

Webinar ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58

Website or webpage …………………………………………………………………………………………59
Wiki ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….59

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….60

6

Introduction
This guide has been designed to provide examples and guidance on how to
use UON Harvard referencing in a consistent and accurate manner.

Library and Learning Services have also produced a two-page quick start to referencing, ‘The
Harvard Referencing – Quick Guide’. It is important to check with your tutor to see if they
have any specific referencing requirements.

What is referencing?
Referencing is a way of acknowledging other peoples’ ideas and work. You do this through
a citation (in the text of your work) and a reference at the end of your work.
References to other people’s ideas and work are an important part of academic writing as
they:

• provide support for arguments and claims that you make
• show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading

Remember to reference every source that you use:
• to avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and use them

as your own)
• to allow the reader of your work to refer to the original source to check and verify the

ideas presented
• to avoid losing marks!

When do you need to reference?
You need to reference when:
• you quote another person (or group of people) or copy images
• you write about an idea which another person (or group of people) has created.

For example:
There has been a tendency amongst health workers to diagnose women experiencing
domestic violence with a mental illness, rather than identifying the distress as a result
of violence (Harne and Radford, 2008, p.44).

When is a reference not needed?
You do not need to reference when:
• when you are writing about your own ideas (unless you have included them in a previous

assignment)
• when the information you are writing about is common knowledge, for example:
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire.

To decide whether a piece of information is common knowledge, ask yourself whether your
reader could be familiar with the information without needing to do any research and
whether the information is widely available. If the answer to both of these is ‘yes’, the
information is probably common knowledge; but it’s better to err on the side of caution and
include a reference if you are in any doubt.

7

Citing
Referring to sources within your work (citing)
The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you have
used for any of the reasons listed above. If you are using a direct quotation or are referring
to a specific idea or assertion by an author, you need to let your reader know where you
found the information by giving the author/creator’s surname, the year and the page
number, e.g. (Surname, Year, Page).

Example 1: Research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem (Jones,
2010, p.4)
Example 2: Jones’ research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem
(2010, p.4)

The page number is important, as one of the prime functions of referencing is to enable your
reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify the conclusions you
have drawn. By using the page number, your reader can do this without having to read the
entire work. If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to a work
by an author in its entirety or to a more general argument you only need to include the
author/creator’s surname and the year, e.g. (Surname, Year).
If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the year and
page number (if applicable), e.g. (Year, Page).

Example 1: Terry Eagleton (1983) created an essential guide to literary theory that still
resonates into the twenty first century…
Example 2: Nikki Gamble has created a set of activities to aid narrative thinking and
investigation (2013, p.70) …

Citing a short quotation
… whilst it is possible that “poor parenting has little effect on primary educational
development it more profoundly affects secondary or higher educational achievement”
(Healey, 2003, p.22).
Remember: it is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the
author’s words into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This
demonstrates more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Citing a long quotation
Note: There is no need to use quotation marks. Instead start a new line and indent the
quotation.

Example: The methodology required for a thorough literature search requires an
understanding of a number of different sources:

… it is important to be familiar with the tertiary sources (bibliographies of
bibliographies), which will help you to identify the secondary sources (such as
bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to primary sources for
your review (Pickard, 2013, p.27).

8

You do not need to include the page number from the quotation in your reference list. If you
are taking a quotation from a website you may not be able to find a page number, so you
will need to include an indication of where the quote can be found. Give a line or screen
number instead, e.g. use [45 lines] or [approx. 5 screens].

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote
It is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the author’s words
into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This demonstrates
more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Making changes to quotations
Making small changes to quotations can help you integrate them into your own writing.
Omitting part of a quotation or adding your own letters, words or phrases
can create a smooth transition between your ideas and those of the authors you are quoting.
However, make sure you do not change the original meaning.

Omitting part of a quotation
Indicate this by using three dots (an ellipsis):

Example: Bell (2014, p.105) states that the main purpose of a literature review is to “provide
the reader with a picture … of the state of knowledge and of major questions on the
subject”.

You do not need to begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already
assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation.
Indicate this with brackets [ ]:

Example:
Original quotation:
‘In this field, social workers are working very closely with families …’ (Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Quotation with an insertion:
‘In this field [crime prevention], social workers are working very closely with families …’
(Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Pointing out an error
Do not correct typographical or grammatical errors (such as a spelling mistake or incorrect
date); instead add [sic] after the original:
Gardner (2008, p.35) pointed out that ‘the government maid [sic] the wrong decision’.

Adding your own emphasis
If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay,
put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own.

9

Example: Bell (2014, p. 239) explains that in qualitative data analysis “it is not the words
themselves that matter, but their meaning” (emphasis added).

If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original.

Example: Bell (2014, p. 82) acknowledges that “all disciplines have a core of quality journals
that include nationally or even internationally refereed articles” (italics in original).

Citing more than one source
If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi colon.

Example: There are many factors relating to individuals’ perceived body image. Jones (2010,
p.4) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem, whereas others believe a more
complex relationship exists (Philips, 1995; Norton, 2005).

In your reference list at the end of your work, make sure you reference these separately.

Citing a source with more than one author
Some sources will have several authors. If there are two authors, write (Surname A and
Surname B, Year). In your text, your citation could look like this:

Example: A number of practitioners have tackled the issue of teaching information skills in
the university setting (Webb and Powis, 2004).
If there are more than two authors, you can use et al. which means ‘and others’ in Latin, e.g.
(Surname et al., Year). For three or more authors, don’t list all of them, just the first one
named: …There has been some debate amongst medical practitioners on the issue
(Williamson et al., 2008) …

However, in your reference list you must make sure you give credit to all the authors (don’t
use et al.). Instead, write all of the authors in the order that they appear on your source as
shown below:

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in contemporary
healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
Remember: et al. should be in italics with a full stop, as it is an abbreviation.

Citing sources by same author in same year
If you are referring to two sources by the same author, produced in the same year, you can
distinguish between them by adding letters to the end of the year for both your citation and
reference.

Example: Research into the importance of choco

Operations Management homework help

PM-J2

Phillip Crosby is known as one of the fathers of modern quality management. He is known to have said, “Quality is free.” Yet, in project management, the level of quality is linked to the increase in scope and budget. In your opinion, is quality in a project really free? Why, or why not?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Operations Management homework help

1

RESEARCH PROPOSAL 15

Research proposal

Student’s Name- Dhruv Gupta

Institutional Affiliation- Regents University London

Professor- Nikos Nitsas

Research proposal

Executive summary

In the recent past, many business organizations across the world are increasingly adopting the employee engagement concept. Engaging employees helps to increase their commitment and increases their contribution towards the success of business organizations. Employees that are constantly engaged in organizational operations are motivated to improve their productivity in business organizations contributing to positive organizational output. Previous research has established a connection between employee engagements and increased organizational output (Sun & Bunchapattanasakda, 2019). Companies that keep their employees engaged tend to exhibit higher levels of employee satisfaction which generates a positive impact on organizational financial success. The levels of employee engagement in business organizations differ depending on the management practice in business organizations. In some organizations, employees are given an opportunity to contribute to organizational matters by collecting employee opinions. On the other hand, in organizations with minimal employee engagement, employees are given limited opportunities to engage in organizational success.

The primary objective of many business organizations in the modern world is optimization of profits and productivity. The management practice in business organizations aims to achieve two major outcomes together employee work satisfaction and increased revenue and profits. Employee engagement is also referred to as worker engagement. Engaged employees are employees that demonstrate a high level of enthusiasm in their work and also tend to act in the best interest of a company. This proposal will draw from both primary and secondary sources in evaluating the impact of employee engagement on organizational success. the study will deploy a descriptive approach.

Table of Contents
1.Section 1: Introduction 3
1.1 Research problem 4
1.2 Significance of the problem 5
1.3 Research questions and research aim ………….……………..…………..…………..………65
2. Section 2: Real-world comparison 9
2.1 Significance of pay and benefit programs on employee productivity……………………..…..7
2.2 Factors that impact on employee engagement…………………………………………………8
3. Section 3: Research approach 9
3.1 Research method 10
3.2 Data collection 10
3.3 Data analysis 10
3.4 Instruments retesting and design 11
3.5 Anticipated challenges 11
4. References……………………………………………….…………………………………….14

Section 1: Introduction

1.1 Research Problem

Although the primary emphasis of many organizations in the 21st century is profits and revenue optimization, employee engagement play a crucial role in improving productivity in business organizations.

In the recent past, managers in contemporary business organizations aim to achieve a more flexible management practice by emphasizing employee engagement. On one hand, some researchers and scholars associate employee engagement with employees deploying differing degrees of emotional, physical and cognitive aspects in their work performance. Employee engagement in contemporary business organizations is associated with a positive attitude among employees as well as positive behaviour at work (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2017). The other concept that is closely associated with employee engagement is the levels of commitment. Business organizations in the modern world have different policies and management practices that impact employee engagement. In the 21st century, many researchers and scholars consider employee engagement as one of the critical metrics in modern business organizations. The level of employee engagement in business organizations has a direct impact on the rate of organizational growth. Many human resource managers in business organizations hold the belief that employee engagement has much to do with the emotions employees derive from how they are treated at work (Sun & Bunchapattanasakda, 2019). An employee’s work experience is determined by the levels of employee engagement.

There has been an evolution of the concept of employee engagement in the past few decades. The styles and practices in management are laying emphasis on the significance of high employee engagement, employee empowerment, trust and general organizational commitment.

1.2 Significance of the study

According to reports from Kingston University on employee engagement, employee engagement is multifaceted. According to the findings of the above study, employee engagement encompasses the idea that employees should have a direct contribution to the success and function of business success and enhanced organizational processes. Employee engagement plays a crucial role in creating diverse opportunities for employees to increase connections with their colleagues and the management in their respective organizations. Employee engagement encompasses the creation of an enabling environment where employees derive motivation and a great desire to carry out their work.

Employee engagement enables employees to develop a sense of loyalty and trust which enable employees to stick for a longer duration in business organizations. Engaged employees consider the goals of the organization as their own goals and work with determination to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Schmidt study associated employee engagement with increased level of job satisfaction and commitment (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2017). Previous research also tends to associate employee engagement with talent retention and customer service. Engaged employees have a greater sense of commitment and desire to serve customers with a higher level of passion and determination. Employee engagement helps to overcome monopoly in modern business organizations. Employees are allocated assignments and tasks that meet their expectations and interests. This enables them to devote maximum time at work rather at work which contributes directly to organizational productivity and financial success (Sun & Bunchapattanasakda, 2019). Managers in the contemporary world evaluate and track employee performance regularly to determine whether employees are satisfied at work. This ensures that business organizations do not consider their organizations as a source of earning money but also a source of their career development and employee training. Employee engagement enables employees to perceive business organizations as an opportunity to learn and upgrade their working skills.

1.3 Research questions

Do employee engagement programs play any role in increasing productivity in business organizations?

What are the employee engagement programs available in 21st century business organizations?

1.4 Research aim

The research project will focus on the role of employee engagement programs in increasing productivity in business organizations.

Section 2: Real-world comparison

This section will draw from previous primary and secondary sources of peer-reviewed articles, textbooks and other published articles on employee engagement. Different authors and scholars have generated different definitions of the concept of employee engagement. The engagement has been defined by Rothbard as psychological presence integrating two main components absorption and attention (Mann & Harter, 2016). On one hand, attention encompasses being engrossed in a role and how an employee focuses on their assigned roles. There are several elements of job engagement as listed by Maslach some these elements include the level of workload on employees, control, rewards programs, employee recognition, social and community support programs and values and fairness in organizations (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2017). According to this research, there is a close connection between employee engagement and employees feeling of control and appropriate as well as a sustainable workload. In some business organizations, employees are subjected to unsustainable workloads which undermine their productivity and contribute to high levels of employee turnover. Employees are more likely to quit business organizations where the level of employee engagement is low. Where the levels of employee engagement are high, employees tend to develop a sense of high satisfaction which in turn triggers high performance (Mann & Harter, 2016). Previous scholars associate employee engagement with the attitude held by employees towards their value and contribution to their organization. In modern management practices, managers aim to attract talent, increase the rate of employee satisfaction and reduce the rate of employee turnover (Sun & Bunchapattanasakda, 2019). Increasing the levels of employee engagement happens for the benefit of business organizations and employee productivity. Managers in contemporary business organizations should aim to develop and nurture employee engagement which encompasses the development of a two-way relationship between employees and the employer.

2.1 Significance of pay and benefit programs on employee productivity

Some researchers recognize the significance of pays and benefits on employee productivity. Many managers in the modern world have many employee benefits and pay programs that help to build on the levels of employee levels of commitment and reduce the rate of employee turnover (Rothmann, 2016). Many business organizations in the contemporary world aim to match their employee benefits and pay programs with the prevailing market average (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2017). Enhanced levels of engagement are one of the approaches through which employees can give back to their business organizations. the levels of employees engaged in a business organization can be accessed from the reward programs and resources available to employees in business organizations. According to Penna, the business organization in the modern world should adhere to the Hierarchy of engagement that is similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. At the bottom line of the hierarchy is employee pay and benefits programs (Chandani et al., 2016). After deriving pay and benefit programs, employees explore opportunities to access career development opportunities. This integrates the elements of the style of leadership and promotion possibilities (Mann & Harter, 2016). Other researchers such as Mone and London consider employee engagement as a phenomenon where employees feel committed, empowered and passionate about their performance at work. The level of employee involvement and commitment has a significant impact on their values and organization (Osborne & Hammound, 2017). Business organizations in the modern world aim to nurture and develop employee engagement which can be used as a tool in measuring the association or the relationship between the organization and the employees.

2.2 Factors that impact on employee engagement

There are several factors that impact employee engagement. These factors tend to run across all business organizations. Selection and employee recruitment have a significant impact on employee engagement. Business organizations have different structures of employee selection and training programs (Chandani et al., 2016). The selection and recruitment process encompasses the identification of potential employees while making appropriate employment offers. Business organizations integrate employee career development programs to enhance employee engagement. Career development programs are another critical factor in employee engagement (Sun & Bunchapattanasakda, 2019). Business organizations and companies with enhanced levels of employees engaged in the modern world have well established and regular career development programs and opportunities that present new opportunities for employees to improve their skills, abilities and competence.

Business managers in the modern world have employee engagement programs that aim to increase employee retention and avoid the high costs of employee turnover. Business organizations incur high costs in replacing employees leaving the organization. The high costs of employee replacement encourage the management in business organizations to have employee engagement programs.

Employee engagement impacts the level of emotional attachment between an employee and business organizations. According to previous research studies, approximately 31% of employees are considered actively engaged in the workplace. These actively engaged employees tend to demonstrate passion and a feeling of emotional and profound connection with the company. Employees who are regularly engaged in their business organizations are highly motivated are more productive.

Section 3: Research Approach

3.1 Research method

The research will deploy the use of questionnaires as well as draw from secondary resources from peer-reviewed articles. The use of questionnaires comprises an appropriate way to obtain data and information from a large population. The questionnaires will be administered by sending emails to study participants. All the participants will have the right to confidentiality and privacy throughout the research process (Stokes, 2017). Before collecting data. All the study participants will be informed on the need to collect data and the progress of the research. Although there are limitations associated with sending questionnaires through emails such as distorted interpretations, where the levels of skills are low, the questionnaires will be administered by a team of enumerators. The use of enumerators will help to simplify the administration of questionnaires by providing interpretations for complex questions of difficult to understand questions. However, enumerators must pay attention that they do not make the data collection process biased through guiding study participants to respond in a specific way. Questionnaires will be administered to employees in business organizations aiming to evaluate their levels of trust and engagement in business organizations (Stokes, 2017). All study participants will be granted the right to take part or refrain from taking part in the study. The questionnaire that will be deployed in the study will contain multiple questions both closed and open-ended questions.

3.2 Data collection

Data collection is considered a critical activity in the study. The techniques deployed in the data collection will ensure that the data collected demonstrates all the qualities of data. The first element of data that will be considered in the study is data precision and accuracy. The data collected in the study must be accurate and precise. The data should be free from errors. Inaccurate data tends to mislead the study findings, results and recommendations. The other element that will be considered in data collection is validity and legitimacy (Stokes, 2017). The data collected must demonstrate validity and legitimacy. The data will be collected after obtaining written or oral consent from the study participants. All the study participants will take part in the study voluntarily. There are no study participants that will be coerced to take part in the study. Coercing study participants to take part in the data collection activity tends to result in the collection of illegitimate data. During the data collection activity in the study, study participants will be protected from some forms of discrimination such as gender, race and ethnicity. The legitimacy of the data collated with be evaluated through assessing study consent. The data collection process must also demonstrate reliability and consistency (Stokes, 2017). The data collected in the study must exhibit consistency and reliability. The data must also be timely and relevant. Although data obtained from secondary sources could be outdated. The data collected from questionnaires must demonstrate timeliness and relevance.

3.3 Data analysis

Data analysis encompasses the analysis of raw data with the primary objective of gaining meaningful insights from data. in this research, regression analysis will be deployed in the study. The regression analysis will help to review the relationship between employee performance and levels of employee engagement. The data analysis procedure will involve determining whether there exists any correlation between levels of employee engagement in business organizations and the levels of employee productivity. After the data analysis procedure, data will be presented in tables and charts to make the data easy to understand and interpret.

3.4 Design, pretesting and administration

The primary data collection tool in the study will be the questionnaire. The questionnaire design will include identification of research aim and goals, the definition of the study participants and development of research questions. The questionnaire will comprise both closed-ended and open-ended questions. On one hand, open-ended questions will help to collect additional details from participants’ contributions as well as opinions of the study participants. On the other hand, closed-ended questions will help to collect data on questions that require brief answers such as yes or no questions. The questionnaires will be administered in two main ways; sending questionnaires directly through emails to study participants or administering them physically through the help of enumerators who will administer the questionnaires and provide clarification for unclear questions. Prior to the start of the study, the instrument will be retested for efficiency and ability to collect data on all variables required in the study (Stokes, 2017). Pretests will be administered on a random sample outside the study population. Pretesting the study instrument will help to make adjustments or corrections to the study questions and the entire questionnaire. Pretesting will also help to check the consistency of the study instruments against typos and grammar errors.

3.5 Anticipated difficulties in data analysis and data collection

There are several anticipated problems and difficulties in both data collection and data analysis. During the data collection activity, one of the challenges is refusal to take part in the study. Although study participants will be granted access to information on the need for research and confidentiality of their information, some study participants may drop from the study which will impact the sample size. Although refusal to participate in the study is expected, a high number of refusals will undermine the credibility and undermine study findings and results due to the limitation of the study sample. The other challenge is the inaccuracy of data based on responses from the study participants. Many responses are based on the ability of respondents to remember. The study participants memory capacity will impact the quality of data collected in the study. The other challenge is financial strains. Significantly high costs will be involved in the data collection activity. The high costs could undermine the efficiency of the study. To minimize the refusal cases, the consent will be clear and concise to ensure that all study participants can easily understand and interpret. Confidentiality will be emphasized on the respondent’s confidentiality and privacy.

3.6 Research plan

GANTT CHART

Weeks

Activity

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

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14

15

16

17

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19

20

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Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4

Task 5

Task 6

Task 7

Task 8

Task 9

Task 10

Task 11

Task 1: Research proposal accepted

Task 2: Communication with local representatives

Task 3: Development of research tools and equipment

Task 4: Recruitment of study population

Task 5: Selection of study participants

Task 6: Testing of study tools

Task 7: Enumerator training

Task 8: Pilot studies

Task 9: Validation of study equipment

Task 10: Data collection and data analysis

Task 11: Thesis writing and publishing of the report

References

Chandani, A., Mehta, M., Mall, A., & Khokhar, V. (2016). Employee engagement: A review paper on factors affecting employee engagement. Indian Journal of Science and Technology9(15), 1-7.

Eldor, L., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2017). The nature of employee engagement: Rethinking the employee–organization relationship. The International Journal of Human Resource Management28(3), 526-552.

Mann, A., & Harter, J. (2016). The worldwide employee engagement crisis. Gallup Business Journal7, 1-5.

Osborne, S., & Hammoud, M. S. (2017). Effective employee engagement in the workplace. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology16(1), 4.

Rothmann, S. (2016). Employee engagement. The Wiley Blackwell handbook of the psychology of positivity and strengths‐based approaches at work, 317-341.

Stokes, P. (2017). Research methods. Macmillan Education UK.

Sun, L., & Bunchapattanasakda, C. (2019). Employee engagement: A literature review. International Journal of Human Resource Studies9(1), 63-80.

Operations Management homework help

ASSESSMENT GUIDE

Methods for Evidence-Based Projects MMN225376

Summary Guidance

You are asked to write a research proposal for your future research project or business investigation report. This involves presenting, critiquing and justifying your proposed research design.

· Format: Research proposal

· Length: 3000 words

· Type: Summative

· Weighting: 100%

· Submission: Electronically via GCULearn

Research Proposal Formatting

The following requirements must be adhered to in the submitted proposal:

· Text should be ‘1.5 lines’ spaced except for appendices.

· Margins should be 25 mm (Top, Bottom, Left and Right)

· All pages should be numbered consecutively using Arabic (1, 2 …)

· Main text should be in Arial or Calibri, font size 12

· Section titles, headings and sub-heading should be appropriately and consistently formatted generally using font sizes larger than 12

· Quotations should be identified as a quotation with double quotation marks and the page number of the source given.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Formative assessment is ‘intended to help the learner identify the current standard of their work, and/or to identify need and potential for improvement’ (Cowan, 2000, p.80).

The formative assessment has been designed to provide you with an opportunity to receive feedback on your proposal. Please note this formative feedback provides you with an indication of your performance but will not be considered by the assessment board as part of the overall mark awarded for the module; for clarity,
no indicative grade will be provided.
Feedback will be provided through GCU Learn typically three weeks after your submission date, and you will have the opportunity to discuss it with your tutor. You should then develop this proposal into the final proposal (summative assignment).

Formative Task: Develop a Research Project Proposal that is both practical to complete and relevant to your workplace. Finalise Formative Assessment based on the Summative Assessment template so we can provide you advise on where/how to improve. The advised length is 1.500-2.000 word.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Requirements for Summative Assignment

Guidance

· This pro-forma must be used for your summative assignment (Research Proposal);

· You will also complete sections of this pro-forma for your formative work also, so this document will evolce as you progress through the module;

· Please delete this guidance page from your submission;

· Please complete the details on the coversheet (your name, student ID number, word count and date of submission);

· Ensure that your final submission looks professional, e.g. consider positioning of each section on a page;

· In the proposal there are a number of boxes for your answers.

· Within this pro-form, there are prompts/ guidance in italics – these are only prompts about key point to consider; these are not everything that you need to consider

· You must write the required information in all sections in well-formed paragraphs (with appropriate referencing where reuqired in sections);

· Please present your writing in normal font (not in italic font)

· Remember that the summative assignment 1 requirements you to upload:

· Complete Proposal Pro-forma;

· Project plan for your project;

Timescales are an important part of planning a project to ensure that you are able to complete it in the time available. When constructing your plan, you should take into account factors such as workload and holidays. Identify that tasks that you need to complete and allocate date to them. Manage your time, be realistic. Set milestones for each section of the report and allow for contingencies

Checklist for uploading

· Completed proposal with in text citations and references to Harvard style;

· Project plan with clear date for submission of ethics application identified in project plan;


Assessment Cover Sheet

Name:

Student ID Number:

Degree Programme:

Module Title:

Module/Seminar Tutor:

Date:

Word count (must be stated)

This is my own original work; it has not been submitted elsewhere in fulfilment of the requirements of this or any other award.

I agree that tutors can make this work (either original or on-line version) available to future student cohorts as an exemplar of this assignment, on the understanding it will be anonymised with no reference to myself or any case study organisation utilised.

Signed ………………………………………………………………………………


Summative Project Proposal Template

Proposed Project Title

A proposed title for the project (Should be meaningful, relevant and concise)

This should convey subject matter/ topic of your investigations and scope of focus of project

May also convey type of project (case study; feasibility; development)

Ideally, around 10 words (no more than 15 words)

Background, Context and Motivation/ Relevancy (including research aim and objectives)

(approximately 300 words)

Your research project must relate to a work based problem or business practice, and not purely “academic issue”. You need to, therefore, demonstrate and explain how conducting this research project may improve the workplace practice based on following consideration

1) where applied method for evidence based project bring improvements into your workplace

2) what type of business research would you focus on

3) how to manage change for positive impact and what the expected benefits would be.

For example, is it to demonstrate a need to change or introduce a new process within the selected organisation? Is it to evaluate the effectiveness of a particular process within the organisation? Is it to identify best practice or to prepare for change?

Requirements

1) Explain the background and context to the project, e.g. what opportunity have you seen? Which inefficiency are you concerned about? Outline any initial data to help show the current impact (and so scope for improvement) or missed opportunity (e.g. potential growth).

2) Be clear about particular business unit, geographic scope, operational scope.

Guidance

At the end of your report you want to have led the reader from some background, through logical steps that will make the need for a project clear; this section is to provide context and show need for the specific aim (next box);

Remember to provide references to support evidence (even to internal documents and other documents); this is a very strong explanation

Aim of your investigation/ key research questions

Requirements

State the overall project aim of your project
or
what is your key research question (you can seek to clarify this with one short supporting paragraph); only one of these 2 options required.

Guidance

• State aim as a single sentence starting with one appropriate verb; look at Bloom’s

taxonomy verbs for guidance and ensure at appropriate level for Honours;

• Or state one key research question;

• Remember that the aim/key research question is to show what the overall intent of

your project is

• Your aim/ research question can be more general and less specific than your objectives

Objectives (provide from 4 to 6)

List the objectives of the project.

Guidance

· Research objectives need to be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely) and states actions such as: to evaluate, to analyse, to examine, to investigate, or to identify.

· What tasks do you need to complete to achieve your overall aim? Objectives are stepping stones to achieving an aim, always directing developments towards the aim.

· List the objectives from earliest to latest (in terms of when these will happen chronologically)

· Being clear about time can be achieved in project plan (but make reference to this if you do so)

In this section you need to come up with 4-6 research objectives. Research objectives are the key areas of inquiry that also provides the sub-sections of the literature review. Thus, in literature review you are detailing the research objectives

Literature Review

(approximately 700 words).

Requirements

· Write a brief, contextualised and critical literature review that shows where your project sits within existing research and practice and show what you believe will be the interesting aspects. The literature review helps support your overall aim for the project and should reflect both theory and practice;

· Maximum of 3 themes of literature that are 1) contextualise your project in a wider body of knowledge and 2) bring out factors that are relevant to your project (i.e. will help inform your project;

Make sure that the main topics of literature review are align with the research objectives. Don’t forget to reference almost every statement. The same in literature review and methodology. Make sure that in Summative you support your writings with wide variety of sources, e.g. 4 books, 15 journal papers, 5 industry reports (at least). In terms of journal papers, the recommended databases are ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald. You will find them in GCU Library, under Databases  

· Required structure is as outline below

Introduction

Provide a brief introduction here:

· Link back to the aim;

· Discuss all areas of literature (literature themes; discipline areas) that are potentially relevant to your project;

· Select the most relevant 3 themes and justify clearly why these ae the most relevant;

· Outline the key questions that you are seeking to use literature to answer

Theme 1-3

· Change section heading from theme 1 to a section heading that conveys what this area of literature is about;

· You must read at least 1 high-quality academic text-book (if available in your project area) and 5 relevant, high quality sources (i.e. articles from academic journals)

· You must then write 2 paragraphs about the sources that you have read. These paragraphs must be written as proper paragraphs with good overall paragraph structure and sentence/ grammar:

· Paragraph 1: what are the similarities and common themes between the sources that you have read; what are the disagreements or nuances about concepts (and where further reading may be required)

· Paragraph 2: how does your reading help inform your project and how will you use this information to help structure primary and secondary data collection; note that this part you may write and rewrite as you write and improve your research design/ methodology section

Conclusions

Provide a brief conclusion that summarises the key points from the above literature review

What is your overall research design and methodology?

(approximately 300 words)

Requirements

Outline and briefly justify the intended design that you will use in your research (which philosophical stance that you are taking and why).

This section should cover the key layers contained in Saunder’s Onion (apart from the data collection layer which is dealt in the following section) showing your choice and justification for choice (why chosen this and why rejected others).

Guidance

· You need to readapt least one high-quality text-book on research design and methods;

· Remember that you need to demonstrate knowledge of the relevant concepts (those relevant to your research project and those that you have rejected);

· You need to justify your choices; justification can be that a choice fits within the definitions or that you have evidence that a similar approach has already been used in previous research. You need to cite/ reference for both cases;

· You must write this section in paragraphs (although tables with analysis/ justification in paragraphs is acceptable); it is suggested that you use the layers of Saunders/ phases of Wilson’s Honeycomb to provide structure;

· Remember that the design/ methodology forms a thread as you move from one layer/ stage to the next – ensure that your choices are coherent

In this section you need to detail the followings

· Research purpose: Exploratory or Explanatory or Combined (Mix). Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research

· Philosophical Stance: Positivism or Interpretivism or Pragmatism. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

· Research approach: Deduction or Induction or Abduction. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

· Methodological choice: Qualitative or Quantitative or Mix. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research

· Research strategy: Experiment or Survey or Case study or Action research or Grounded Theory. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

Which data collection methods do you intend to use?

(approximately 250 words)

Consider how best to gather data that you need to achieve each objective of your project that requires the gathering of data, reflecting your critical evaluation of possibilities and justifying clearly and with evidence (references) the proposed choices you are making.

You should clearly outline and justify the sampling strategy and desired sample size for each method as well as inclusion/ exclusion criteria (again support this with reference to relevant high- quality sources).

In this section you need to detail the followings:

Type and size of the data, target group, the number of expected completed questionnaire/interview

Additionally, you should be clear about whether you are using primary or secondary data within the chosen methods and why these are the most appropriate for your project.

How do you intent to analyse the primary data collected?

(approximately 250 words)

An important consideration in a proposal is how you will analyse the data that you gather – the choice has an implication on methodologically validity as well as on the amount of time required (so on feasibility and risk). In this section outline and justify how you intend to present and analyse your data (bar charts, histograms, descriptive statistics, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis etc); consider that your choices here have to fit within the philosophy, approaches and strategy that you have chosen above. For clarity, link the chosen methods also with the relevant objectives.

In this section you need to detail the followings:
The type of data analysis, method, software (if any). Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

What are the limitations of your research, and their implications?

(approximately 200 words)

Based on the considerations above, what are the methodologic and practical limitations of your research design?

See http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/limitations

The limitations of the study are those characteristics of design or methodology that impacted or influenced the interpretation of the findings from your research. They are the constraints on applications to practice, and/or utility of findings that are the result of the ways in which you initially chose to design the study and/or the method used to establish validity.

In a proposal, the emphasis of limitations can be on what you can achieve within the timeframe and availability of resources to achieve this. Acknowledgement of limitations also provides you with an opportunity to demonstrate that you have thought critically about the research problem, understood the relevant literature published about it, and correctly assessed the methods chosen for studying the problem.

Ethics

(200 words)

Ethical considerations:

How well you address key ethical requirements of integrity and quality of your research, informed and voluntary participation, confidentiality and anonymity, protection of you and participants from harm, managing conflicts of consent and research independence?

Indicate that you have read and understood the ethics guidance from the relevant professional bodies around conducting research

In this section you need to detail the followings:

· Voluntary participation

· Informed consent

· No risk of harm

· Confidentiality and anonymity

Voluntary participation means no participant is pressured or coerced into participating; informed consent means a consent from is created and each participant is informed of their right in participating; risk of harm means that individuals will not be harmed in any way through participating in this research; confidentiality is important to reassure participants that any responses will remain confidential from the employer and from the public; anonymity regards ensuring that participants identity is not revealed.

How to manage change for positive impact
(600 words)

Critically reflect on the Change Management aspect of your proposed research project based on the pertinent literature and critically discuss how you intent to implement and manage the proposed change management process to your workplace; having in mind how the change project will have a positive impact to your organisation. Remember that it is imperative to have a balanced discussion between planning the change and stakeholder management.

Specifically, targeting your work place situation, critically reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of different change management approach, explore some of the situational variables that need to be considered when shaping an implementation strategy and reflect on how and why a change strategy may need to change over time.

Also, critically reflect on organisational change in terms of support from key stakeholders as well as the concerns of meeting the stakeholder expectation, addressing issues, resolving conflict situations, and achieving the project goals. Identify which stakeholders are more or less important at each change project stage and what strategy will you implement in terms of selecting the most important stakeholders. Make sure you provide theoretical background to your discussion, e.g. you support your ideas with academic references

Conclusion

(200 words)

Conclude the research project. Briefly summarise all the planned activity for your research study

References

Please add all your references here; these must be formatted to GCU Harvard style

Appendices

Insert your Project Plan (Gantt chart) and Confirmation of module assessment form/Mentor Declaration to Appendices!

1

Operations Management homework help

This case was prepared by Anna Waldman Brown, Legatum Center Research Assistant, and Georgina Campbell Flatter, Legatum
Center Executive Director and Senior Lecturer at MIT Sloan.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view
a copy of this license visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second
Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

Scaling Sanergy: Growing a Promising Sanitation Startup

Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

No innovation in the past 200 years has done more to save lives and improve health

than the sanitation revolution triggered by the invention of the toilet. But it did not

go far enough. It only reached one-third of the world.

– Sylvia Mathews Burwell, Former U.S. Sec. of Health & Human Services1

Some poop here and there. Others do it in a special place.

– Taro Gomi, Author of children’s book Everyone Poops

In May 2018, at Sanergy’s headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, president and co-founder David

Auerbach stood in front of a satellite map of the city. He surveyed the irregular clusters of grey

and brown that characterized Nairobi’s slum communities, noting the highlighted areas indicating

the locations of Sanergy’s toilets.

In the seven years since Auerbach and his partners founded Sanergy, they had demonstrated not

only the effectiveness of a market-driven approach to sanitation infrastructure, but also a path to

profitability which Auerbach called “turning sh** into gold.” This path involved franchising toilets

to urban slums in Nairobi, then collecting the raw sanitation waste for conversion into fertilizer

and insect-based animal feed.

“The lesson is clear,” Auerbach said. “If we can provide the services they demand, residents of

slums will invest in hygienic sanitation.” The potential returns on such investment were enticing.

1 Sylvia Mathews Burwell, “Reinventing the Toilet,” Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, speech given on July 19,

2011, https://www.gatesfoundation.org/media-center/speeches/2011/07/sylvia-mathews-burwell-reinventing-the-

toilet (accessed June 18, 2018).

July 2018

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 2

Poor sanitation led to a global loss of $260 billion annually2 and more than 2 million preventable

deaths per year,3 most of them children. The World Bank estimated that every $1 invested in

sanitation generated a $5 return between the prevention of sanitation-related deaths, overall

savings on healthcare, and increases in productivity and working hours due to reduced illness.

Kenya’s urban slums alone lost $270 million dollars due to poor sanitation, which was why

Auerbach was especially excited about one particular metric: Sanergy could theoretically provide

sanitation services to slum residents at a cost to the government of less than $10 per person per

year, as compared to around $55 per person for the average running-water sewer system.4 This

theoretical cost was contingent upon Sanergy saturating the market in all of Nairobi’s slums, in

order to leverage economies of scale in both collecting waste and culturing fertilizer.

Auerbach stepped back from his satellite map, feeling overwhelmed by the sheer volume of

Nairobi slum-dwellers still lacking toilets. Sanergy was installing 100 new toilets per month, and

that rate was increasing fast, but Auerbach’s team still had a long way to go before reaching their

targeted economies of scale. Moreover, Sanergy’s success seemed a mere drop in the bucket

considering the 4.5 billion people worldwide (indeed, 61% of the world’s population) who lived

without adequate sanitation.5 Could Sanergy ever grow enough to seriously cut into that number?

Now that Sanergy’s for-profit arm was finally generating revenue, it was time to consider the next

steps to grow the company. Sanergy could sell much more fertilizer to farmers, but to reach

economies of scale they would have to significantly increase the amount of waste being collected.

Increasing waste collection would require installing more toilets, which meant that Auerbach

needed additional funds. Was it best for Sanergy to stay focused on growth in Nairobi, where the

team knew its local community and had a proven track-record? Or did it make more sense to pursue

large government infrastructure projects in other countries, where public funds for sanitation

projects might be more readily available?

Behind Auerbach, Sanergy’s main office was a bustling open workspace that felt like a modern

tech startup despite being a converted warehouse in the heart of Nairobi’s slums. On a blue wall

in large white letters was a quote from environmental activist and Nobel laureate Wangari Maathai:

“No matter who or where we are, or what our capabilities, we are called to do the best we can.”

How could Auerbach continue to do the best he could while scaling up his company?

2 “Global Costs and Benefits of Drinking-Water Supply and Sanitation Interventions to Reach the MDG Target and

Universal Coverage,” World Health Organization, 2012,

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/global_costs/en (accessed June 18, 2018).
3 “Clean Water and Sanitation: Why It Matters,” United Nations, 2016,

http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/6_Why-it-Matters_Sanitation_2p.pdf.
4 Sanergy calculated comparison estimates using figures from a cost analysis conducted in Dakar, Senegal (see cost

figures in table on page 4): Pierre-Henri Dodane, Mbaye Mbéguéré, Ousmane Sow, and Linda Strande, “Capital and

Operating Costs of Full-Scale Fecal Sludge Management and Wastewater Treatment Systems in Dakar, Senegal,”

Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 7, 2012: 3705-3711.
5 “Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines,” World Health

Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund, 2017,

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report-jmp-water-sanitation-hygiene.pdf

(accessed June 18, 2018).

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 3

Figure 1. From left to right: co-author Georgina Campbell-Flatter, Ani Vallabhaneni, Lindsay
Stradley, David Auerbach, and Megan Mitchell (Legatum Center Program Manager)

Source: Casewriters.

Finding a Profitable Pipeline

In 2004, after Auerbach graduated from Yale University in American Studies, he moved to Hunan

Province, China to teach English for two years. There, he became acutely aware that much of the

world lacked access to toilets and proper sanitation. Auerbach saw the consequences of daily

stress, disease, and childhood mortality and began wondering, why were there so many terrible

toilets? Isn’t this a solvable problem?

He kept these thoughts in mind when he moved back to the United States and settled in New York

City (a place that had historically struggled with its own share of sanitation challenges, including

dumping raw sewage into the Hudson River as late as the 1980s). Auerbach worked at the Clinton

Global Initiative and managed partnerships and outreach at Endeavor, a non-profit that supported

for-profit entrepreneurs in emerging markets. Working at Endeavor sparked his interest in using

market-based solutions to solve widespread social challenges. He soon realized that he wanted to

start his own initiative, though he wasn’t entirely sure what that should be.

In 2009, while on the lookout for exciting problems to tackle through market-based solutions,

Auerbach began his MBA program at MIT’s Sloan School of Management. Before school started,

he signed up for a pre-orientation trip in New Hampshire to connect with likeminded first-year

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 4

students. He chose hiking over the whitewater rafting option, hoping it would be easier to meet

like-minded folks while on a hike rather than screaming his way down the rapids.

This proved a fateful choice. While hiking through New Hampshire’s colorful fall foliage,

Auerbach bonded with his fellow classmates Lindsay Stradley and Ani Vallabhaneni. Auerbach

recalls that they immediately felt they were all “kindred spirits.” Stradley was an educator and

consultant from Georgia who had developed a charter school, taught in New Orleans after

Hurricane Katrina, and later worked at Google. Vallabhaneni was a computer scientist and

operations expert from Illinois, who had recently returned from a consulting project in the

Philippines to make a chain of clinics self-sufficient. When classes began, the trio decided to take

MIT’s Development Ventures course together with the explicit intention of cofounding a viable

startup that would help the planet.

The three had an interest in systems thinking and systems change, and they saw that the sanitation

crisis was in dire need of innovative solutions. Even in well-developed cities, sewage systems had

changed little since the Bronze Age; cities continued to use relatively fresh water to flush sewage

from buildings and households into massive holding tanks, where toxic and inefficient treatments

were not always successful in properly decontaminating the waste. The three co-founders all

agreed that sewage collection and treatment in the developing world could only become profitable

if they took a systems-level approach; governments in emerging markets were unlikely to be able

to afford traditional sewage infrastructure, so they would have to devise a company that could

somehow add enough value to the waste to subsidize collection and treatment.

After brainstorming various schemes for sewage conversion in Development Ventures, the team

decided to focus on biogas digestion. Turning waste into biogas initially seemed promising, partly

because funders and development experts seemed particularly excited about energy generation.

Auerbach and his co-founders combined “sanitation” and “energy” to get their company name

“Sanergy,” and then set about developing their business model.

By the end of the semester, however, it became apparent that biogas was not very profitable

without an enormous amount of sanitation waste from the outset. Given the difficulty in scaling

up a biogas endeavor, Sanergy’s co-founders decided to pivot to something that could give them

a faster return on their investment.

Looking over the list of viable products to make out of human waste, the co-founders found

fertilizer to be the most promising. For a company that would have to navigate a lot of risk

elsewhere, fertilizer seemed like a welcome safe bet. After all, humans had been converting stool

and urine into fertilizer since ancient times. This was a well-proven agriculture technology, and

conversion was mainly a natural process of decomposition. Agriculture was the backbone of most

developing economies, but few countries outside the United States and Europe actually

manufactured their own fertilizer, and even fewer used natural rather than chemical options. Thus,

Auerbach, Stradley, and Vallabhaneni developed a new business model around fertilizer

production. By then, despite their pivot away from energy, the name “Sanergy” had stuck and they

decided to keep it.

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 5

The team settled on Nairobi as their initial market, viewing it as an entrepreneurial hub of major

donors, like-minded businesses, non-profits, consultancies, and impact investors. Social initiatives

such as renewable energy provider M-KOPA and the agriculture non-profit One Acre Fund had

paved the way for future impact-driven business models in Nairobi. “It’s easy to learn from these

guys,” said Auerbach, emphasizing that fellow entrepreneurs often went out of their way to aid

like-minded businesses.

For the final part of their Development Ventures class, the Sanergy team travelled to Nairobi

together over the month of January to investigate sanitation companies. Their roles as students

conducting a research project opened doors for them to meet and interview potential competitors.

Instead of being overly guarded and uncooperative for fear of the Sanergy team stealing company

secrets or copying their methods, all the waste companies around Nairobi were actually happy to

share ideas with students. At the end of the month, Auerbach and his team wrote a white paper on

sewage collection in Nairobi, which they then shared with all their contacts. This report revealed

considerable fragmentation along the waste-collection supply chain and significant opportunity for

Sanergy to add value within slum communities rather than compete with incumbents. In addition

to gathering research, Sanergy’s co-founders realized that they especially enjoyed working

together in the field, outside of MIT’s air-conditioned classrooms and conference rooms. They

resolved to strengthen their commitment to Sanergy.

When Auerbach returned to MIT Sloan for his second semester, he made all of his classroom

projects about Sanergy. In his Pricing class, for example, he developed a model for how much

people would be willing to pay for sanitation services. His fellow classmates, many of whom were

far more experienced in the subject, were excited to help him out. Auerbach also met Kenyan Sloan

professor Tavneet Suri, and she put him in touch with several colleagues in Nairobi who helped
Sanergy sort out land acquisition and set up its first two toilets.

Sanergy also applied for MIT’s $100K business plan competition.6 Yet with only three co-

founders, the beginnings of a business plan, and no actual toilets built, the team did not yet have

enough evidence of success. They also didn’t yet have (in Auerbach’s words) that “insanely

inspiring story” that could really persuade judges. He admits Sanergy “bombed” the $100K

competition its first time around.

The following year, Auerbach and Vallabhaneni were awarded Legatum Fellowships7 through

MIT, which covered a significant portion of their tuition and left them with less debt and more

freedom upon graduation to pursue their entrepreneurial purpose. Auerbach and his co-founders

then resolved to recruit a larger, more robust team and reapply for the MIT $100K Competition

again in 2011. Since his original team was comprised of three MBA students with relatively similar

skills and no practical engineering abilities, Auerbach started attending interdisciplinary

6 The MIT $100K is a 29-year-old startup competition in which students and researchers from across MIT and

Greater Boston compete in three different contests (Pitch, Accelerate, and Launch) to win financial prizes for their

ventures.
7 The MIT Legatum Center for Development and Entrepreneurship awards a one-year fellowship to around 20 MIT

student-entrepreneurs who are developing enterprises in emerging markets. Fellowships provide tuition, mentorship

for project development, and a stipend for travel and other expenses.

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 6

networking events across MIT’s campus. Sanergy eventually recruited a civil engineer, a chemical

engineer, and a mechanical engineer and educator from MIT’s Development, Design, and

Dissemination Lab (D-Lab). This expanded team was able to prove that Sanergy’s two pilot toilets

were going strong, and all co-founders were determined to develop their company regardless of

whether they won the competition.

In its second attempt, the Sanergy team took first place in the $100K Competition, then went on

to win an additional $100,000 from MassChallenge.8 By the time they graduated in 2011,

Auerbach and his team had won a combined $350,000 in grants and social enterprise fellowships,

providing them with a runway of six months in Kenya while they honed their business strategy.

The three co-founders, along with several of the most committed people on Sanergy’s founding

team, all moved to Nairobi.

Auerbach continued fundraising after moving to Nairobi, though he found funders around Kenya

to be less interested in taking an unproven risk on sanitation than their counterparts in the United

States and Europe. Even so, by leveraging his track record in competitions, Auerbach was able to

raise a convertible note round that bought Sanergy an additional year of runway.

Auerbach preferred raising a convertible note round of funding to raising pure equity, since he

found this system friendlier toward entrepreneurs. Convertible notes initially get written up as

loans, and then convert into equity once a startup raises actual capital. For Sanergy, this equated

to a two-page legal document rather than the typical 50-page document (and the requisite lawyers)

needed to negotiate a full equity round. Sanergy’s convertible note enabled the team to delay major

discussions of valuation until later on, when the company would have greater proof of the viability

of its business model.

After a year of operations and the initial success of its business model, Sanergy raised its Series A

round from several impact investors in April 2013.

A Crappy System Full of Holes (and Plastic Bags)

Across Kenya in 2017, 8 million people lived in dense, informal housing settlements commonly

referred to as “urban slums.” Very few of these ramshackle slum houses had any form of hygienic

sanitation. Auerbach discovered that the government of Kenya paid $3 per person per year for its

official sewage system, but that system served only a small fraction of the population. Even in the

bustling metropolis of Nairobi, water constraints further limited the growth of a traditional pipeline

sewage system; only 40% of Nairobi residents had reliable access to running water in 2017, and

two-thirds of the city’s 4 million people had no access to proper sanitation facilities.9

8 Based in Boston, MassChallenge is an international acceleration and grant program that supports local startups by

bringing together corporates, policy-makers, and other stakeholders to provide mentorship and scholarships for

qualified entrepreneurs.
9 Cathy Watson, “Thirsty city: after months of water rationing Nairobi may run dry,” The Guardian, July 24, 2017,

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2017/jul/24/thirsty-city-after-months-of-

water-rationing-nairobi-may-run-dry (accessed May 7, 2018).

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 7

The few toilets that did exist were mostly holes in the ground, occasionally emptied out by

“frogmen” who physically jumped inside to shovel out the waste. They collected and transported

the waste in rickety wheelbarrows colloquially referred to as “ambulances” because everyone

rushed to get out of the way as the carts sloshed down residential paths.

For residents of urban slums who lacked sewage holes under their houses, there were three options:

1. They could use free public toilets on the outskirts of slums, which were often far away and
frequently backed-up. These public toilets were especially dangerous for women who

risked assault and even rape when seeking out a distant toilet after dark.

2. They could pay to use the private toilets, which were mostly pit latrines. These did receive
regular maintenance, but usually flowed directly into rivers and canals where they caused

disease and water pollution.

3. Finally, they could resort to the infamous “flying toilets,” which entailed pooping into a
plastic bag and throwing it as far away as possible. This option was often the cheapest and

easiest, but also the most detrimental to the local environment. Shopkeepers were

especially revolted by this practice, as poop-filled bags tended to stink up the vicinity and

drive away customers.

Toilet by toilet, Sanergy began to alter this landscape.

Pivoting Whenever Sh** Hit the Fan

Although Sanergy’s co-founders arrived in Nairobi with a solid business model, they shifted many

aspects of their company along the way. For instance, their original plan was to work primarily

with teenagers in youth groups as franchisees, rather than professional adults. But these youth

proved difficult to work with, Auerbach said, because they were unaccustomed to responsibility.

They also tended to band together which made them harder to influence constructively than if they

identified more strongly as individuals.

In its early days, Sanergy also struggled to deliver the right message about toilets to potential end

users. Initial marketing focused too squarely on the dangers of poor health and other negative

motivators. Potential customers occasionally expressed interest in asking about Sanergy’s bright

blue outhouses, but no one actually showed up to buy the toilets. Sanergy then hired a local

branding team, who suggested crafting a more positive message about the benefits of sanitary

toilets and what that meant for a healthy lifestyle. They suggested the brand name “Fresh Life” for

Sanergy’s toilets, which were then marketed through neighborhood block parties. Sanergy even

commissioned hip-hop songs to play on local radio about the joys of “fresh” toilets.

After operating for a few years, Sanergy began moving their toilets closer together. This facilitated

the servicing and guarding of the facilities, allowing the toilets to stay open after dark. It also cut

costs considerably.

A major business shift for Sanergy came in 2016 after five years of operation, when the founders

realized that they had been limiting their scale by charging franchisees for toilets up front rather

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 8

than recouping costs over time. Initially, Sanergy would sell toilets to franchisees at either an up-

front price of US$500, or through interest-free microfinancing schemes in partnership with Kiva

Microfunds. Sanergy tried lowering the price to $350, but even that proved too expensive for many

prospective franchise operators, who tended to be self-employed in various informal businesses

and had to plan for inconsistent cash-flows.

After carefully reconsidering customer needs and modeling alternative strategies, Sanergy decided

to offer its toilets for no cost up front, then compensate by raising its annual waste removal fee by

approximately $30. This equated to a sort of pay-per-service model in which Sanergy effectively

still owned all of its toilets, and franchisees paid for regular waste collection rather than for the

toilet itself. Just a few months after shifting to this new model, Sanergy tripled its rate of new toilet

installations.

Cultivating Success

Sanergy’s founders hired executive coaches to help build a company that would attract top talent.

In terms of workspace, Sanergy aimed to have its headquarters resemble a hip, friendly startup

from Silicon Valley or Boston. The unstructured, open office layout allowed for easy collaboration

across different teams. Inspirational quotes emblazoned the walls. To ensure regular Internet and

power during Nairobi’s often biweekly outages, Sanergy kept its own backup generator on-site.

These choices set Sanergy far apart from other Nairobi offices, most of which followed a more

traditional, individualistic layout with clusters of cubicles. Auerbach attested that his company’s

open culture helped with retention and increased productivity.

Sanergy recruited employees primarily through word-of-mouth marketing rather than by soliciting

applications from the general public. Only a few of their full-time employees had college degrees,

but Sanergy also recruited many fellows from top North American universities (e.g. MIT, Yale,

and Stanford) to intern for the summer and sometimes longer. Auerbach said that even three

months could provide enough time for interns to develop interesting projects and create value for

Sanergy, especially because they were embedded in local teams and managed by Kenyan team

leads.

Sanergy had strict moral guidelines for professional behavior, including a zero-tolerance policy

for corruption. Once, the company had an open tender for a construction project in which vying

companies were supposed to stay blind to each other’s bids. Yet a Sanergy employee shared

confidential information with a friend, enabling that friend’s company to drop their own bid price.

Although this employee thought he was doing the right thing—that is, by helping a qualified friend

get work and helping Sanergy get a lower price—Auerbach and his fellow executives were

compelled to let the employee go in order to set an anti-corruption precedent.

Sanergy’s Hybrid Model

To make quality sanitation profitable, Sanergy had to keep adding value everywhere it could. In

Auerbach’s words: “Sanergy takes a systems-based approach that engages the community at every

step and, in doing so, guarantees that residents of slums gain access to the hygienic sanitation

services they both need and want.”

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 9

Sanergy was structured according to this systemic approach. Officially, there were two

independent entities– a for-profit and a non-profit. Auerbach was the legal president of the for-

profit and a manager of the non-profit, and he only served on the for-profit’s board. Stradley ran

the non-profit and Vallabhaneni ran the for-profit. This hybrid business model enabled enhanced

participatory financing, so Sanergy could receive both donations and investment. Auerbach noted

that transitioning at a later stage from non-profit to for-profit, or vice versa (or even adding on a

new hybrid arm to one’s company) could be very challenging. By having two entities from the

beginning, Sanergy’s legal structure was fairly straightforward.

Sanergy’s for-profit arm, Farm Star, focused on clearly established market opportunities. It

collected waste and processed it into fertilizer and insect-based animal feed which it sold to farmers

– an established market. The non-profit arm raised funds mostly from family foundations who

sought measureable health, social, and environmental impacts in Nairobi’s slum communities; this

arm built the sanitation network and supported franchise operators. The for-profit arm off-took the

waste from the non-profit. Thus, both sides of the company were highly incentivized to work

together for mutual benefit.

Figure 2. Sanergy’s two-pronged business model

Source: Casewriters.

Non-profit: Fresh Life

Fresh Life’s model involved the distributed capture of waste: Fresh Life employees regularly went

Get professional nursing essay writing service and professional nursing term paper writing service

Operations Management homework help

MAR 3211, Consumer Behavior 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Discuss how the field of marketing is influenced by the actions of consumers.
1.1 Analyze how the actions of consumers impact an organization.

3. Explain how consumers interpret information about products and people.

3.1 Describe factors that will impact how consumers view and ultimately purchase products and
services.

7. Explain the steps of the consumer decision-making process.

7.1 Explain the steps in the consumer decision-making process and how they relate to consumer
behavior.

Course/Unit

Learning Outcomes
Learning Activity

1.1

Unit Lesson
PowerPoint Presentation
Foxall and Sigurdsson (2013) article
Article Review

3.1

Unit Lesson
PowerPoint Presentation
Shateri, Nayebzadeh, and Roknabadi (2016) article
Article Review

7.1
Unit Lesson
PowerPoint Presentation
Article Review

Reading Assignment

In order to access the following resources, click the links below.

Click here to access the Unit I PowerPoint presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the
presentation.)

Foxall, G. R., & Sigurdsson, V. (2013). Consumer behavior analysis: Behavioral economics meets the

marketplace. The Psychological Record, 63(2), 231–238.
\https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://search.ebscohost.com/logi
n.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=87083913&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Shateri, F., Nayebzadeh, S., & Roknabadi, A. D. (2016). Evaluating advertisement: The role of customer’s

decision-making style, innovativeness, and ideology. International Journal of Information, Business
and Management, 8(4), 159–177.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://search.proquest.com.library
resources.columbiasouthern.edu/docview/1814292332?accountid=33337

UNIT I STUDY GUIDE
Introduction to Consumer
Behavior and Decision-Making

MAR 3211, Consumer Behavior 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title

Unit Lesson

When you think of consumer behavior, what thoughts come to your mind? Why do you think that there is a
consumer behavior course included in most marketing degree programs? There are many definitions of
consumer behavior, but the main concepts involve studying how people choose goods and services to fulfill
any wants or needs they may experience. Consumer behavior is truly an ongoing process in which marketers
attempt to understand behaviors in order to fulfill the needs of the consumer. Another focus of consumer
behavior is the spending habits of consumers. There is a need for organizations to understand this behavior
as it relates to consumer buying. Identifying the stages of the consumption process provides a good
perspective on how organizations accomplish this, beginning with the pre-purchase stage where marketers
need to understand how a consumer begins the buying process. Providing valuable information on the
worthiness of the product or service might be effective during this stage. Subsequently, during the purchase
stage, the marketer should look to make the experience a pleasant one. Finally, during the post-purchase
stage, the consumer decides if the product or service has truly fulfilled his or her need. Think about a product
that you purchased recently. Was it a pleasant experience? Did the product fulfill your needs? Would you
recommend it to friends? These are all questions that the marketer is asking.

As marketers look to examine the
needs of consumers, it is
important to understand that the
most economical and effective
method for an organization to
meet consumer needs is to
identify a target market. The target
market is the group of people on
which marketers will focus their
marketing efforts. You are
probably wondering why
marketers would not prefer to
target everyone, which seemingly
would reach a larger market and
provide greater exposure. The
simple answer is that marketing
departments do not have
unlimited marketing budgets. It is
not financially feasible to attempt
to reach everyone. A better
method is to focus on a certain
group of individuals who would
most likely be interested in a
company’s product or service.
Understanding the needs and

wants of this group is paramount. The process of identifying the target market begins with segmentation. This
involves dividing a broad population into subsets of consumers based on several criteria. The first criterion we
will discuss is demographics, which involves looking at characteristics such as age, gender, family structure,
social class/income, and race/ethnicity. Another criterion could be geographic, which speaks to the region of
the country or world, region in a country, neighborhood, or even the size of the city in which the consumer
lives. The psychographic criterion relates to personal values that will drive perception and motivations. Finally,
the behavioral criterion utilizes the specific interests, rate of use, and brand familiarity of the consumer. Once
a marketer has completed this segmentation process, he or she can better identify a detailed description of
the target market.

Consumer at coffee shop
(Pexels, 2016)

MAR 3211, Consumer Behavior 3

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title

Criteria Characteristics Example
Demographic Age, gender, family structure,

social class/income, family
life cycle, race/ethnicity

Identifies who the
consumer is and where
he or she is in life

Geographic Region of the country or
world, region in a country,
neighborhood, size of city the
consumer resides

Location in world or
country in which the
consumer lives

Psychographic Personality, perceptions,
values, beliefs

Reflect for weeks on a
purchase or buy quickly

Behavioral Special interests, rate of use,
brand familiarity

Soccer player, traveler,
healthy living

Table 1.1: Segmentation criteria

Involvement refers to the relevance in the consumer decision-making process. What this suggests is that the
consumer’s perceived familiarity with the product, message, or situation will have an impact. Product
involvement is simply the consumer’s level of interest in a particular product; in contrast, message
involvement refers to the influence that media vehicles have on the consumer. Finally, situational involvement
refers to whether the consumer is in a store, on a website, or at a location where the product or service
is consumed.

Think about the theme stores and restaurants that we frequent and how that theme encourages us to stay
longer and enjoy the environment or situation. Through all of this, perceived risk is important—the greater the
risk, the less likely the consumer will be to make the purchase. Perceived risk refers to any negative
consequence associated with the decision. This can involve monetary risk, functional risk, physical risk, social
risk, or psychological risk. As expected, the monetary risk involves a poor choice associated with the
exchange of too much money. Functional risk relates to a situation when the product does not function as
expected, and physical risk is one that may physically harm the consumer. Social risk involves a results that
may affect the consumer’s self-esteem, confidence, or image. Finally, psychological risk reflects on the loss of
self-respect with a poor buying decision. The goal of the marketer is to reduce these perceived risks as much
as possible in order to encourage and influence the consumer. Employing the segmentation and target
marketing concepts allows the organization to most effectively position its organization and products/services.
Positioning refers to how the company would like to be perceived in the minds of the target market. It portrays
a distinct image that differentiates the organization and its product or service offerings from its competitors.
This is also referred to as unique selling proposition (USP), which encompasses why the consumer will
purchase one product over another.

The consumer decision-making process provides a model by which marketers can better understand the
process that a consumer moves through as he or she makes decisions to buy or not buy a product or service.
The process is complicated even more in today’s world as there are so many options for the consumer to
choose. Additionally, so many factors influence the process. Look at the consumer decision-making
process below.

MAR 3211, Consumer Behavior 4

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title

Generally, marketers apply a rational perspective in attempting to understand decision-making. This implies
that marketers gather, integrate, and interpret as much information about consumers as possible. The study
of the consumer decision-making process suggests that marketers are studying exactly how consumers are
making decisions that lead to buying.

Within this continuous attempt to understand consumer behavior, technology has played an important role.
These advances seem to be arriving at a faster pace every day. Technology has played a role in consumer
behavior throughout history from the advent of the telephone to the television and now to the 24/7 access to
the Internet. One thing that has not changed is the marketer’s need to understand and fulfill the consumer’s
value proposition. The value proposition is defined as the value perceived by the consumer—not the
marketer. Through observation and the use of sophisticated tracking system technology, marketers can now
view and record shoppers’ behavior and reactions to different products, displays, and situations.

In any business, the consumer is the most important person in the transaction. It is logical to assume that as
marketers increase their understanding of what makes the consumer tick, the better prepared they are to
meet the needs of that consumer. The fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology all play a role in this
level of understanding. Consumer behavior is continuously evolving, as human beings are extremely complex
beings. It is also important to remember that as consumers buy, not only the organization benefits, but also
the overall health of the economy benefits.

Reference

Pexels. (2016). Adult, bar, coffee machine [Photograph]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/en/adult-bar-coffee-

machine-1846748/

Table 1.2: Think of a recent purchase you made and how you might have proceeded through the consumer decision-
making process without even realizing it. Now, think about how a marketer might use this model in putting together
effective marketing strategies for an organization.

Problem recognition: This is the first step where a
consumer becomes aware of the need for a new
product/service.

Information search: The consumer is now actively
gathering information and facts about
products/services that might fulfill his or her needs.

Evaluation of alternatives: The consumer reviews and
evaluates, giving it a mental try.

Product choice: The consumer makes a decision to
purchase the product/service.

Operations Management homework help

Produced by Library and Learning Services
7th Edition, 2021

Harvard Referencing
Guide

1

Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
What is referencing? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

When do you need to reference? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

When is a reference not needed? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

Citing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Referring to sources within your work (citing)…………………………………………………………. 7
Citing a short quotation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Citing a long quotation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote…………………………………………………………………… 8

Making changes to quotations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Omitting part of a quotation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation. ………………………………………………. 8

Pointing out an error ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Adding your own emphasis……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Citing more than one source ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Citing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………………….. 9

Citing sources by same author in same year ……………………………………………………………… 9

Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in the same year …………………..10

Citing a corporate author ………………………………………………………………………………………10
How do I cite a source with missing publication details? ……………………………………………..10

Citing a source without a given author………………………………………………………………….10

Citing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………………….10

Updated versions…………………………………………………………………………………………………11

Abbreviating organisation names ……………………………………………………………………………11
Citing a source used within another source: secondary referencing ……………………………….11

Citing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………………12

Compiling your reference list …………………………………………………………………………………12

References list or bibliography? …………………………………………………………………………..12
Elements of a reference…………………………………………………………………………………………13

Publication information in the frontmatter of a book ………………………………………………….13

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

Reverse title page……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

How do I reference if publication details are missing? …………………………………………………14
Referencing a source without a given author………………………………………………………….14

2

Referencing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………….14

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary referencing ………………………………..15

Referencing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………….15
Referencing sources by the same author in the same year……………………………………………15

Referencing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………15

What is a DOI?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Referencing a source not listed in this guide……………………………………………………………..16
Example essay extract with citations and references list……………………………………………….16

Example reference formats for different source types………………………………………………….17

A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Act of Parliament………………………………………………………………………………………………18

App (Mobile) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………18
Archive material ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art or graffiti) ..19

Artwork (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Art installation/exhibition …………………………………………………………………………………..20
B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

Blog ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Book ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21

Book (translation) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..21

Book volume ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21
Book chapter (in an edited book) …………………………………………………………………………22

Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters) ……………………………………22

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables…………………………………………………………..23

British Standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………23

C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
Case Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Cochrane Review………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Command Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Computer game ……………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Computer program …………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Computer software code ……………………………………………………………………………………26

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students] ……………………………………………………26

Header [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………………………..26

Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students] ……………………………………………………..26

3

Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students] …………………………………………27

Method Referencing [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………27

Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students] …………………………………27
Conference paper……………………………………………………………………………………………..28

Conference poster…………………………………………………………………………………………….28

Conversation (in person)…………………………………………………………………………………….28

D………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Dance performance …………………………………………………………………………………………..29

Dance (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Dataset …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

E ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30

e-book (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
e-book (via e-book reader) …………………………………………………………………………………31

e-book chapter in an edited e-book …………………………………………………………………….31

Email………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions) ……………………………..32
F ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Facebook ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33

Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download) …………………………………………………………….33

Film (DVD: commentaries and special features) ………………………………………………………33

Film (streamed) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
G ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34

Government document ……………………………………………………………………………………..34

H………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35

Hansard ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers ……………………………………………………..35
I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (Creative Commons licensed) …………………………………………………………………….36

Informal or in-house publication………………………………………………………………………….36
International standards………………………………………………………………………………………37

Interview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………37

Instagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

J ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article…………………………………………………………………………………………………..38

4

Journal article (forthcoming) ……………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………….39

Journal article (no issue number; article number given)…………………………………………….39
L……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet (with no date)…………………………………………………………………………………………40

Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes……………………………………………………………………………………..40
Legislation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

M ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

Magazine article ……………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Magazine article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………41
Market report…………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (Digimap) …………………………………………………………………………………………………42

Map (Google Earth) …………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (printed) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
Map (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact ………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact (online)……………………………………………………………………………………44

Music (live performance/concert)…………………………………………………………………………44

Band concert: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Classical: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (lyrics) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (musical score/sheet music) ……………………………………………………………………….46

Music (recorded track)……………………………………………………………………………………….46

Music streaming……………………………………………………………………………………………….47
N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

Newspaper article …………………………………………………………………………………………….47

Newspaper article (online) ………………………………………………………………………………….47

O………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
Ofsted report …………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

Online discussion list or discussion forum ……………………………………………………………..48

Organisational documents/policies ………………………………………………………………………48

Organisational documents/policies (anonymised)……………………………………………………49

P ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49

5

Patent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49

PDFs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………50

Play ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
Podcast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50

Poem, short story or play in an anthology ……………………………………………………………..51

Poem in a collection ………………………………………………………………………………………….51

R ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
Radio broadcast ……………………………………………………………………………………………….51

Religious text …………………………………………………………………………………………………..52

S ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52

Self-citation …………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Skype……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Sound recording (based on recorded lectures) ……………………………………………………….53

Statutory Instrument …………………………………………………………………………………………53

T ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54

Telephone call………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
Television advertisement ……………………………………………………………………………………54

Television programme (broadcast) ……………………………………………………………………….55

Television programme (streamed content, e.g. Netflix, BBC iPlayer)…………………………….55

Theatre performance (live) ………………………………………………………………………………….55

Theatre programme (print) …………………………………………………………………………………56
Thesis or dissertation…………………………………………………………………………………………56

Translated material……………………………………………………………………………………………56

Twitter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

V ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

Video (online e.g. YouTube, TED) …………………………………………………………………………57
Video (subscribed content e.g. Anatomy TV, SAGE video) …………………………………………58

W ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58

Webinar ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58

Website or webpage …………………………………………………………………………………………59
Wiki ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….59

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….60

6

Introduction
This guide has been designed to provide examples and guidance on how to
use UON Harvard referencing in a consistent and accurate manner.

Library and Learning Services have also produced a two-page quick start to referencing, ‘The
Harvard Referencing – Quick Guide’. It is important to check with your tutor to see if they
have any specific referencing requirements.

What is referencing?
Referencing is a way of acknowledging other peoples’ ideas and work. You do this through
a citation (in the text of your work) and a reference at the end of your work.
References to other people’s ideas and work are an important part of academic writing as
they:

• provide support for arguments and claims that you make
• show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading

Remember to reference every source that you use:
• to avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and use them

as your own)
• to allow the reader of your work to refer to the original source to check and verify the

ideas presented
• to avoid losing marks!

When do you need to reference?
You need to reference when:
• you quote another person (or group of people) or copy images
• you write about an idea which another person (or group of people) has created.

For example:
There has been a tendency amongst health workers to diagnose women experiencing
domestic violence with a mental illness, rather than identifying the distress as a result
of violence (Harne and Radford, 2008, p.44).

When is a reference not needed?
You do not need to reference when:
• when you are writing about your own ideas (unless you have included them in a previous

assignment)
• when the information you are writing about is common knowledge, for example:
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire.

To decide whether a piece of information is common knowledge, ask yourself whether your
reader could be familiar with the information without needing to do any research and
whether the information is widely available. If the answer to both of these is ‘yes’, the
information is probably common knowledge; but it’s better to err on the side of caution and
include a reference if you are in any doubt.

7

Citing
Referring to sources within your work (citing)
The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you have
used for any of the reasons listed above. If you are using a direct quotation or are referring
to a specific idea or assertion by an author, you need to let your reader know where you
found the information by giving the author/creator’s surname, the year and the page
number, e.g. (Surname, Year, Page).

Example 1: Research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem (Jones,
2010, p.4)
Example 2: Jones’ research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem
(2010, p.4)

The page number is important, as one of the prime functions of referencing is to enable your
reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify the conclusions you
have drawn. By using the page number, your reader can do this without having to read the
entire work. If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to a work
by an author in its entirety or to a more general argument you only need to include the
author/creator’s surname and the year, e.g. (Surname, Year).
If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the year and
page number (if applicable), e.g. (Year, Page).

Example 1: Terry Eagleton (1983) created an essential guide to literary theory that still
resonates into the twenty first century…
Example 2: Nikki Gamble has created a set of activities to aid narrative thinking and
investigation (2013, p.70) …

Citing a short quotation
… whilst it is possible that “poor parenting has little effect on primary educational
development it more profoundly affects secondary or higher educational achievement”
(Healey, 2003, p.22).
Remember: it is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the
author’s words into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This
demonstrates more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Citing a long quotation
Note: There is no need to use quotation marks. Instead start a new line and indent the
quotation.

Example: The methodology required for a thorough literature search requires an
understanding of a number of different sources:

… it is important to be familiar with the tertiary sources (bibliographies of
bibliographies), which will help you to identify the secondary sources (such as
bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to primary sources for
your review (Pickard, 2013, p.27).

8

You do not need to include the page number from the quotation in your reference list. If you
are taking a quotation from a website you may not be able to find a page number, so you
will need to include an indication of where the quote can be found. Give a line or screen
number instead, e.g. use [45 lines] or [approx. 5 screens].

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote
It is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the author’s words
into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This demonstrates
more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Making changes to quotations
Making small changes to quotations can help you integrate them into your own writing.
Omitting part of a quotation or adding your own letters, words or phrases
can create a smooth transition between your ideas and those of the authors you are quoting.
However, make sure you do not change the original meaning.

Omitting part of a quotation
Indicate this by using three dots (an ellipsis):

Example: Bell (2014, p.105) states that the main purpose of a literature review is to “provide
the reader with a picture … of the state of knowledge and of major questions on the
subject”.

You do not need to begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already
assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation.
Indicate this with brackets [ ]:

Example:
Original quotation:
‘In this field, social workers are working very closely with families …’ (Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Quotation with an insertion:
‘In this field [crime prevention], social workers are working very closely with families …’
(Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Pointing out an error
Do not correct typographical or grammatical errors (such as a spelling mistake or incorrect
date); instead add [sic] after the original:
Gardner (2008, p.35) pointed out that ‘the government maid [sic] the wrong decision’.

Adding your own emphasis
If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay,
put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own.

9

Example: Bell (2014, p. 239) explains that in qualitative data analysis “it is not the words
themselves that matter, but their meaning” (emphasis added).

If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original.

Example: Bell (2014, p. 82) acknowledges that “all disciplines have a core of quality journals
that include nationally or even internationally refereed articles” (italics in original).

Citing more than one source
If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi colon.

Example: There are many factors relating to individuals’ perceived body image. Jones (2010,
p.4) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem, whereas others believe a more
complex relationship exists (Philips, 1995; Norton, 2005).

In your reference list at the end of your work, make sure you reference these separately.

Citing a source with more than one author
Some sources will have several authors. If there are two authors, write (Surname A and
Surname B, Year). In your text, your citation could look like this:

Example: A number of practitioners have tackled the issue of teaching information skills in
the university setting (Webb and Powis, 2004).
If there are more than two authors, you can use et al. which means ‘and others’ in Latin, e.g.
(Surname et al., Year). For three or more authors, don’t list all of them, just the first one
named: …There has been some debate amongst medical practitioners on the issue
(Williamson et al., 2008) …

However, in your reference list you must make sure you give credit to all the authors (don’t
use et al.). Instead, write all of the authors in the order that they appear on your source as
shown below:

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in contemporary
healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
Remember: et al. should be in italics with a full stop, as it is an abbreviation.

Citing sources by same author in same year
If you are referring to two sources by the same author, produced in the same year, you can
distinguish between them by adding letters to the end of the year for both your citation and
reference.

Example: Research into the importance of choco

Operations Management homework help

2

DO NOT SUBMIT ASSIGNMENT WITH RED TEXT


BLACK TEXT HEADERS/SUB-HEADERS SHOULD NOT BE DELETED

Evaluating a Corporate-Societal Relationship – Selected Company

Student Name

Class Name and Number

Professor Name

Month Date Year

TEMPLATE INSTRUCTIONS –


DELETE THIS PAGE BEFORE SUBMITTING FOR GRADING

Required:

1. Use of this template for Assignment 1.

2. The selection of a company from the Approved Company List.

3. Two source references – and the Textbook
MUST
be one of them.

4. Strayer Writing Standards are required

Instructional Notes:

·
Naming
:
Rename/save document: year, month, date, last name, first initial, course, assignment Number

· YYYYMMDD-LastName-Initial-BUS475-Assignment1

·
Prompts
: The assignment prompts are in Black text as headers.

· Do not delete, they are the document headings and subheadings.

·
Citations
: In-text citations and source list references are required.

· Use the Citation Generators to ensure proper SWS formatting.

· A standalone URL is not acceptable as a valid SWS formatted source reference

·
Delete Instructions
:
Remember to delete all red text instructions before submitting paper for grading.

· They are placed as a guide to support your success in writing and completing the assignment.


Introduction

Write your introduction here. Include one (1) paragraph (not more than 6 lines of text) that explains what your paper will discuss. Much of your introduction may be taken from the assignment instructions (in your own words). Read all assignment resources to understand what should be included in your paper. Be sure to review the assignment instructions in Blackboard, the grading rubric, and relevant course announcements to understand the requirements. Do not exceed 6 lines of text in this introduction. There should be no direct quotes in this section


Primary Products and or Services

In this section, you will provide a detailed summary of what your selected company does and/or offers to consumers.

· Remember to use in-text citations for quotations, paraphrased or summarized source information used as necessary to cite source/evidence referenced.


Three Ways the Primary Stakeholders can Influence Financial Performance.

In this section you will suggest three ways the primary stakeholders can influence your financial performance.

·
Hint: See Exhibit 1.B.
in the textbook for a deeper understanding of various stakeholder types, roles, and their interest and power/influence over company decisions.

·
Hint: Consider the ACE Method in responding:

· Answer the prompt

· Cite evidence/support your assertions.

· Explain connection

· Remember to use in-text citations for quotations, paraphrased or summarized source information used as necessary to cite source/evidence referenced.


Answer the following prompts in your response:

#1 way the primary stakeholder can influence financial performance.

· Provide evidence/support for response to #1

#2 way the primary stakeholder can influence financial performance.

· Provide evidence/support for response #2

#3 way the primary stakeholder can influence financial performance.

· Provide evidence/support for response


Two Critical Factors where the External Environment can Affect Success.

In this section, you will discuss two critical factors where the external environment can affect success.

·
Hint: See Chapter 3 and Figures 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3
in the textbook for a broader understanding of a business’s external environment.

· Consider the ACE Method in responding:

· Answer the prompt

· Cite evidence/support your assertions.

· Explain connection

· Remember to use in-text citations for quotations, paraphrase or summarized source information used as necessary to cite source/evidence referenced.


Answer the following prompts in your response:


Critical Factor #1

Specify the #1 critical factor where the external environment can affect success.

· Provide evidence/support for response


Critical Factor #2

Specify the #2 critical factor where the external environment can affect success.

· Provide evidence/support for response

·


Biggest Success or Missed Opportunity to Respond to a Recent or Current Social issue

In this section, you are making a connection business and the impact of societal issues can have on performance. You are to provide an assessment of your selected company’s biggest success or missed opportunity in its response to a recent or current social issue. You should identify the issue you are referencing, provide detail on the company’s response, then provide your analysis of whether or not it was a success or missed opportunity. You will also need to assess the impact of the success or missed opportunity on their performance. Remember to use in-text citation, quotations, paraphrased and summarized content as necessary to cite source/evidence referenced.


Answer the following prompts in your response:


Provide detail on the Recent or Current Social Issue

Explain the issue you are using/referring to.

· Provide evidence/support for response


What is the Company’s Response?

Explain how the company responded.

· Provide evidence/support for response


Was it a Biggest Success or Missed Opportunity?

Provide your analysis on if the company’s response was its biggest success or a missed opportunity, discuss why or why not?

· Provide evidence/support for response


What was the Impact on Performance?

Provide an assessment of the impact on the company’s performance

· Provide evidence/support for response

Note: you will reorder this list based on the order you used your sources in your paper

Sources

1. Anne Lawrence. 2020. Business and Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy. BUS475 McGraw-Hill Irwin 16th edition textbook.

2. Enter the second source entry here. (Reorder sources in the order used in your paper)

2

Operations Management homework help

ASSESSMENT GUIDE

Methods for Evidence-Based Projects MMN225376

Summary Guidance

You are asked to write a research proposal for your future research project or business investigation report. This involves presenting, critiquing and justifying your proposed research design.

· Format: Research proposal

· Length: 3000 words

· Type: Summative

· Weighting: 100%

· Submission: Electronically via GCULearn

Research Proposal Formatting

The following requirements must be adhered to in the submitted proposal:

· Text should be ‘1.5 lines’ spaced except for appendices.

· Margins should be 25 mm (Top, Bottom, Left and Right)

· All pages should be numbered consecutively using Arabic (1, 2 …)

· Main text should be in Arial or Calibri, font size 12

· Section titles, headings and sub-heading should be appropriately and consistently formatted generally using font sizes larger than 12

· Quotations should be identified as a quotation with double quotation marks and the page number of the source given.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Formative assessment is ‘intended to help the learner identify the current standard of their work, and/or to identify need and potential for improvement’ (Cowan, 2000, p.80).

The formative assessment has been designed to provide you with an opportunity to receive feedback on your proposal. Please note this formative feedback provides you with an indication of your performance but will not be considered by the assessment board as part of the overall mark awarded for the module; for clarity,
no indicative grade will be provided.
Feedback will be provided through GCU Learn typically three weeks after your submission date, and you will have the opportunity to discuss it with your tutor. You should then develop this proposal into the final proposal (summative assignment).

Formative Task: Develop a Research Project Proposal that is both practical to complete and relevant to your workplace. Finalise Formative Assessment based on the Summative Assessment template so we can provide you advise on where/how to improve. The advised length is 1.500-2.000 word.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Requirements for Summative Assignment

Guidance

· This pro-forma must be used for your summative assignment (Research Proposal);

· You will also complete sections of this pro-forma for your formative work also, so this document will evolce as you progress through the module;

· Please delete this guidance page from your submission;

· Please complete the details on the coversheet (your name, student ID number, word count and date of submission);

· Ensure that your final submission looks professional, e.g. consider positioning of each section on a page;

· In the proposal there are a number of boxes for your answers.

· Within this pro-form, there are prompts/ guidance in italics – these are only prompts about key point to consider; these are not everything that you need to consider

· You must write the required information in all sections in well-formed paragraphs (with appropriate referencing where reuqired in sections);

· Please present your writing in normal font (not in italic font)

· Remember that the summative assignment 1 requirements you to upload:

· Complete Proposal Pro-forma;

· Project plan for your project;

Timescales are an important part of planning a project to ensure that you are able to complete it in the time available. When constructing your plan, you should take into account factors such as workload and holidays. Identify that tasks that you need to complete and allocate date to them. Manage your time, be realistic. Set milestones for each section of the report and allow for contingencies

Checklist for uploading

· Completed proposal with in text citations and references to Harvard style;

· Project plan with clear date for submission of ethics application identified in project plan;


Assessment Cover Sheet

Name:

Student ID Number:

Degree Programme:

Module Title:

Module/Seminar Tutor:

Date:

Word count (must be stated)

This is my own original work; it has not been submitted elsewhere in fulfilment of the requirements of this or any other award.

I agree that tutors can make this work (either original or on-line version) available to future student cohorts as an exemplar of this assignment, on the understanding it will be anonymised with no reference to myself or any case study organisation utilised.

Signed ………………………………………………………………………………


Summative Project Proposal Template

Proposed Project Title

A proposed title for the project (Should be meaningful, relevant and concise)

This should convey subject matter/ topic of your investigations and scope of focus of project

May also convey type of project (case study; feasibility; development)

Ideally, around 10 words (no more than 15 words)

Background, Context and Motivation/ Relevancy (including research aim and objectives)

(approximately 300 words)

Your research project must relate to a work based problem or business practice, and not purely “academic issue”. You need to, therefore, demonstrate and explain how conducting this research project may improve the workplace practice based on following consideration

1) where applied method for evidence based project bring improvements into your workplace

2) what type of business research would you focus on

3) how to manage change for positive impact and what the expected benefits would be.

For example, is it to demonstrate a need to change or introduce a new process within the selected organisation? Is it to evaluate the effectiveness of a particular process within the organisation? Is it to identify best practice or to prepare for change?

Requirements

1) Explain the background and context to the project, e.g. what opportunity have you seen? Which inefficiency are you concerned about? Outline any initial data to help show the current impact (and so scope for improvement) or missed opportunity (e.g. potential growth).

2) Be clear about particular business unit, geographic scope, operational scope.

Guidance

At the end of your report you want to have led the reader from some background, through logical steps that will make the need for a project clear; this section is to provide context and show need for the specific aim (next box);

Remember to provide references to support evidence (even to internal documents and other documents); this is a very strong explanation

Aim of your investigation/ key research questions

Requirements

State the overall project aim of your project
or
what is your key research question (you can seek to clarify this with one short supporting paragraph); only one of these 2 options required.

Guidance

• State aim as a single sentence starting with one appropriate verb; look at Bloom’s

taxonomy verbs for guidance and ensure at appropriate level for Honours;

• Or state one key research question;

• Remember that the aim/key research question is to show what the overall intent of

your project is

• Your aim/ research question can be more general and less specific than your objectives

Objectives (provide from 4 to 6)

List the objectives of the project.

Guidance

· Research objectives need to be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely) and states actions such as: to evaluate, to analyse, to examine, to investigate, or to identify.

· What tasks do you need to complete to achieve your overall aim? Objectives are stepping stones to achieving an aim, always directing developments towards the aim.

· List the objectives from earliest to latest (in terms of when these will happen chronologically)

· Being clear about time can be achieved in project plan (but make reference to this if you do so)

In this section you need to come up with 4-6 research objectives. Research objectives are the key areas of inquiry that also provides the sub-sections of the literature review. Thus, in literature review you are detailing the research objectives

Literature Review

(approximately 700 words).

Requirements

· Write a brief, contextualised and critical literature review that shows where your project sits within existing research and practice and show what you believe will be the interesting aspects. The literature review helps support your overall aim for the project and should reflect both theory and practice;

· Maximum of 3 themes of literature that are 1) contextualise your project in a wider body of knowledge and 2) bring out factors that are relevant to your project (i.e. will help inform your project;

Make sure that the main topics of literature review are align with the research objectives. Don’t forget to reference almost every statement. The same in literature review and methodology. Make sure that in Summative you support your writings with wide variety of sources, e.g. 4 books, 15 journal papers, 5 industry reports (at least). In terms of journal papers, the recommended databases are ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald. You will find them in GCU Library, under Databases  

· Required structure is as outline below

Introduction

Provide a brief introduction here:

· Link back to the aim;

· Discuss all areas of literature (literature themes; discipline areas) that are potentially relevant to your project;

· Select the most relevant 3 themes and justify clearly why these ae the most relevant;

· Outline the key questions that you are seeking to use literature to answer

Theme 1-3

· Change section heading from theme 1 to a section heading that conveys what this area of literature is about;

· You must read at least 1 high-quality academic text-book (if available in your project area) and 5 relevant, high quality sources (i.e. articles from academic journals)

· You must then write 2 paragraphs about the sources that you have read. These paragraphs must be written as proper paragraphs with good overall paragraph structure and sentence/ grammar:

· Paragraph 1: what are the similarities and common themes between the sources that you have read; what are the disagreements or nuances about concepts (and where further reading may be required)

· Paragraph 2: how does your reading help inform your project and how will you use this information to help structure primary and secondary data collection; note that this part you may write and rewrite as you write and improve your research design/ methodology section

Conclusions

Provide a brief conclusion that summarises the key points from the above literature review

What is your overall research design and methodology?

(approximately 300 words)

Requirements

Outline and briefly justify the intended design that you will use in your research (which philosophical stance that you are taking and why).

This section should cover the key layers contained in Saunder’s Onion (apart from the data collection layer which is dealt in the following section) showing your choice and justification for choice (why chosen this and why rejected others).

Guidance

· You need to readapt least one high-quality text-book on research design and methods;

· Remember that you need to demonstrate knowledge of the relevant concepts (those relevant to your research project and those that you have rejected);

· You need to justify your choices; justification can be that a choice fits within the definitions or that you have evidence that a similar approach has already been used in previous research. You need to cite/ reference for both cases;

· You must write this section in paragraphs (although tables with analysis/ justification in paragraphs is acceptable); it is suggested that you use the layers of Saunders/ phases of Wilson’s Honeycomb to provide structure;

· Remember that the design/ methodology forms a thread as you move from one layer/ stage to the next – ensure that your choices are coherent

In this section you need to detail the followings

· Research purpose: Exploratory or Explanatory or Combined (Mix). Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research

· Philosophical Stance: Positivism or Interpretivism or Pragmatism. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

· Research approach: Deduction or Induction or Abduction. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

· Methodological choice: Qualitative or Quantitative or Mix. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research

· Research strategy: Experiment or Survey or Case study or Action research or Grounded Theory. Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

Which data collection methods do you intend to use?

(approximately 250 words)

Consider how best to gather data that you need to achieve each objective of your project that requires the gathering of data, reflecting your critical evaluation of possibilities and justifying clearly and with evidence (references) the proposed choices you are making.

You should clearly outline and justify the sampling strategy and desired sample size for each method as well as inclusion/ exclusion criteria (again support this with reference to relevant high- quality sources).

In this section you need to detail the followings:

Type and size of the data, target group, the number of expected completed questionnaire/interview

Additionally, you should be clear about whether you are using primary or secondary data within the chosen methods and why these are the most appropriate for your project.

How do you intent to analyse the primary data collected?

(approximately 250 words)

An important consideration in a proposal is how you will analyse the data that you gather – the choice has an implication on methodologically validity as well as on the amount of time required (so on feasibility and risk). In this section outline and justify how you intend to present and analyse your data (bar charts, histograms, descriptive statistics, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis etc); consider that your choices here have to fit within the philosophy, approaches and strategy that you have chosen above. For clarity, link the chosen methods also with the relevant objectives.

In this section you need to detail the followings:
The type of data analysis, method, software (if any). Why the selected one is the most suitable for this research.

What are the limitations of your research, and their implications?

(approximately 200 words)

Based on the considerations above, what are the methodologic and practical limitations of your research design?

See http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/limitations

The limitations of the study are those characteristics of design or methodology that impacted or influenced the interpretation of the findings from your research. They are the constraints on applications to practice, and/or utility of findings that are the result of the ways in which you initially chose to design the study and/or the method used to establish validity.

In a proposal, the emphasis of limitations can be on what you can achieve within the timeframe and availability of resources to achieve this. Acknowledgement of limitations also provides you with an opportunity to demonstrate that you have thought critically about the research problem, understood the relevant literature published about it, and correctly assessed the methods chosen for studying the problem.

Ethics

(200 words)

Ethical considerations:

How well you address key ethical requirements of integrity and quality of your research, informed and voluntary participation, confidentiality and anonymity, protection of you and participants from harm, managing conflicts of consent and research independence?

Indicate that you have read and understood the ethics guidance from the relevant professional bodies around conducting research

In this section you need to detail the followings:

· Voluntary participation

· Informed consent

· No risk of harm

· Confidentiality and anonymity

Voluntary participation means no participant is pressured or coerced into participating; informed consent means a consent from is created and each participant is informed of their right in participating; risk of harm means that individuals will not be harmed in any way through participating in this research; confidentiality is important to reassure participants that any responses will remain confidential from the employer and from the public; anonymity regards ensuring that participants identity is not revealed.

How to manage change for positive impact
(600 words)

Critically reflect on the Change Management aspect of your proposed research project based on the pertinent literature and critically discuss how you intent to implement and manage the proposed change management process to your workplace; having in mind how the change project will have a positive impact to your organisation. Remember that it is imperative to have a balanced discussion between planning the change and stakeholder management.

Specifically, targeting your work place situation, critically reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of different change management approach, explore some of the situational variables that need to be considered when shaping an implementation strategy and reflect on how and why a change strategy may need to change over time.

Also, critically reflect on organisational change in terms of support from key stakeholders as well as the concerns of meeting the stakeholder expectation, addressing issues, resolving conflict situations, and achieving the project goals. Identify which stakeholders are more or less important at each change project stage and what strategy will you implement in terms of selecting the most important stakeholders. Make sure you provide theoretical background to your discussion, e.g. you support your ideas with academic references

Conclusion

(200 words)

Conclude the research project. Briefly summarise all the planned activity for your research study

References

Please add all your references here; these must be formatted to GCU Harvard style

Appendices

Insert your Project Plan (Gantt chart) and Confirmation of module assessment form/Mentor Declaration to Appendices!

1

Operations Management homework help

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this textbook appear on the appropriate page within the text.

Original edition published by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Copyright ©
2015, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This edition is authorized for sale only in Canada.

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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 [WC]

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Manning, Gerald L., author
Selling today : partnering to create value / Gerald L. Manning , Michael
Ahearne, Barry L. Reece, H.F. (Herb) MacKenzie. — Seventh Canadian edition.

Includes index.
Revision of: Selling today : partnering to create value / Gerald L. Manning
… [et al.] 6th Canadian ed. Toronto : Pearson Canada, 2013.
ISBN 978-0-13-315685-0 (pbk.)

1. Selling—Textbooks. I. Ahearne, Michael, author II. Reece, Barry L.,
author III. MacKenzie, H. F., author IV. Title.

HF5438.25.M35 2015 658.85 C2014-904175-6

ISBN 978-0-13-315685-0

v

Part I Developing a Personal
Selling Philosophy 1

1 Relationship Selling Opportunities in
the Information Economy 1

2 Evolution of Selling Models That
Complement the Marketing Concept 29

Part II Developing a Relationship
Strategy 50

3 Ethics: The Foundation for Relationships
That Create Value 50

4 Creating Value with a Relationship
Strategy 76

5 Communication Styles: A Key to
Adaptive Selling Today 98

Part III Developing a Product
Strategy 124

6 Creating Product Solutions 124
7 Product-Selling Strategies That Add

Value 148

Part IV Developing a Customer
Strategy 169

8 The Buying Process and Buyer
Behaviour 169

9 Developing and Qualifying Prospects
and Accounts 195

Part V Developing
a Presentation
Strategy 225

10 Approaching the Customer with
Adaptive Selling 225

11 Determining Customer Needs with a
Consultative Questioning Strategy 252

12 Creating Value with the Consultative
Presentation 280

13 Negotiating Buyer Concerns 308
14 Adapting the Close and Confirming

the Partnership 334
15 Servicing the Sale and Building

the Partnership 356

Part VI Management of Self
and Others 380

16 Opportunity Management:
The Key to Greater Sales
Productivity 380

17 Management of the Sales
Force 402

Appendix 424
Endnotes 442
Name Index 461
Subject Index 465

Brief Contents

This page intentionally left blank

vii

Preface xv
About the Authors xxv

Part I Developing a Personal
Selling Philosophy 1

1 Relationship Selling Opportunities in
the Information Economy 1

Personal Selling Today—A Definition and a
Philosophy 2

Emergence of Relationship Selling in the
Information Economy 3

Considerations for a Future in Personal
Selling 6

Wide Range of Employment Opportunities 6
Activities Performed by Salespeople 7
Above-Average Income 9
Above-Average Psychic Income 10
Opportunity for Advancement 10
Opportunities for Women 11
Employment Settings in Selling Today 11
Selling through Channels 12
Career Opportunities in the Service Channel 12
Career Opportunities in the Business Goods Channel 15
Career Opportunities in the Consumer Goods

Channel 17
Selling Skills—One of the “Master Skills for

Success” in the Information Age 18
Knowledge Workers in the Information Economy 19
Managerial Personnel 20
Professionals 20
Entrepreneurs 21
Marketing Personnel and Customer Service

Representatives 21
Learning to Sell 22
Corporate-Sponsored Training 22
Training Provided by Commercial Vendors 22
Certification Programs 24
College and University Courses 24

Reviewing Key Concepts 25
Key Terms 26
Review Questions 26
Application Exercises 26

Role-Play Exercise 27
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 27
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 28

2 Evolution of Selling Models That
Complement the Marketing Concept 29

Marketing Concept Requires New Selling
Models 30

Evolution of the Marketing Concept 31
Marketing Concept Yields Marketing Mix 32
Important Role of Personal Selling 33
Evolution of Consultative Selling 33
Evolution of Strategic Selling 35
The Strategic/Consultative Selling Model 36
Evolution of Partnering 42
Strategic Selling Alliances—The Highest Form of

Partnering 43
Partnering Is Enhanced with High Ethical

Standards 44
Partnering Is Enhanced with Customer Relationship

Management 45
Value Creation—The New Selling

Imperative 45

Reviewing Key Concepts 46
Key Terms 47
Review Questions 47
Application Exercises 48
Role-Play Exercise 48
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 48
Part I Role-Play Exercise 49

Part II Developing a Relationship
Strategy 50

3 Ethics: The Foundation for Relationships
That Create Value 50

Developing a Relationship Strategy for
Partnering-Style Selling 51

Emotional Intelligence 51
Issues Challenging the Ethics of Salespeople 52
Factors Influencing Ethical Decision Making of

Salespeople 54
Influences in a Global Economy 55

Contents

viii C o n t e n t s

Influence of Company Policies and Practices 57
Influence of the Sales Manager 61
Influence of the Salesperson’s Personal Values 61
Influence of Laws, Contracts, and Agreements 63
Building Trust with The Transactional,

Consultative, and Strategic Alliance
Buyer 64

Making Ethical Decisions That Build Selling
Relationships 64

Influence of Character in Ethical Decision Making 66
The Erosion of Character on Ethical Decision

Making 66
Developing a Personal Code of Ethics

That Adds Value 69

Reviewing Key Concepts 70
Key Terms 71
Review Questions 72
Application Exercises 72
Role-Play Exercise 74
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 74

4 Creating Value with a Relationship
Strategy 76

Relationships Add Value 77
Partnering—The Highest-Quality Selling

Relationship 78
Relationship Strategies Focus on Four Key Groups 80
Adapting the Relationship Strategy 81
Thought Processes that Enhance Your Selling

Relationship Strategy 81
Self-Concept—An Important Dimension of the

Relationship Strategy 81
The Win-Win Philosophy 82
Empathy and Ego Drive 84
Verbal and Nonverbal Strategies that Add Value

to Your Selling Relationships 84
Adding Value with Nonverbal Messages 85
Impact of Appearance on Relationships 88
Effect of Voice Quality on Relationships 89
Effect of Etiquette on Your Relationships 90
Conversational Strategies that Enhance Selling

Relationships 91
Comments on Here and Now Observations 91
Compliments 92
Search for Mutual Acquaintances or Interests 92
Self-Improvement Strategies that

Add Value 92

Reviewing Key Concepts 94
Key Terms 94

Review Questions 95
Application Exercises 95
Role-Play Exercise 96
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 97

5 Communication Styles: A Key to
Adaptive Selling Today 98

Communication Styles—An Introduction to
Managing Selling Relationships 99

Communication-Style Bias 100
Communication-Style Principles 101
Improving Your Relationship Selling Skills 102
Communication-Style Model 102
Dominance Continuum 102
Sociability Continuum 104
Four Styles of Communication 105
Popularity of the Four-Style Model 112
Determining Your Communication Style 113
Minimizing Communication-Style Bias 113
How Communication-Style Bias Develops 114
Adaptive Selling Requires Versatility 114
Building Strong Relationships Through

Style Flexing 118
Building Relationships with Emotive Customers 118
Building Relationships with Directive Customers 119
Building Relationships with Reflective

Customers 119
Building Relationships with Supportive

Customers 119
Word of Caution 119

Reviewing Key Concepts 120
Key Terms 120
Review Questions 121
Application Exercises 121
Role-Play Exercise 122
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 122
Part II Role-Play Exercise 123

Part III Developing a Product
Strategy 124

6 Creating Product Solutions 124
Developing a Product Solution that Adds

Value 125
Selling Solutions 126
Explosion of Product Options 127
Creating Solutions with Product Configuration 128
Preparing Written Proposals 128

ixC o n t e n t s

Become a Product Expert 129
Product Development and Quality Improvement

Processes 131
Performance Data and Specifications 131
Maintenance and Service Contracts 132
Price and Delivery 133
Become a Company Expert 133
Company Culture and Organization 135
Company Support for Product 136
Become the Industry Expert—Know Your

Competition 137
Develop and Communicate a Healthy Attitude

toward Your Competition 137
Sources of Product, Company, and Industry

Information 138
Web-Based Sources, Catalogues, and Marketing-

Related Sales Support Information 138
Engage in Plant Tours 138
Build Strong Relationships with Internal Sales and

Sales Support Team Members 139
Today’s Wired Customers Have a Lot of Product,

Competitive, and Industry Knowledge 139
Researching and Using Products 140
Reading and Studying Publications 140
Word of Caution 140
Creating Value with a Feature–Benefit

Strategy 141
Distinguish between Features and Benefits 141
Use Bridge Statements 142
Identify Features and Benefits 142
Avoid Information Overload 143

Reviewing Key Concepts 144
Key Terms 144
Review Questions 145
Application Exercises 145
Role-Play Exercise 146
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 146
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 147

7 Product-Selling Strategies That Add
Value 148

Product Positioning—In a Competitive
Marketplace 149

Essentials of Product Positioning 150
Salesperson’s Role in Product Differentiation 150
Custom-Fitting and Communicating the Value

Proposition 151
The Three-Dimension (3-D) Product Solutions

Selling Model 151

Product-Positioning Strategies to Sell New
(Vs. Mature) and Low-Priced
(Vs. Value-Added) Products 155

Selling New Products versus Well-Established
Products 155

Selling Products with a Price Strategy 157
Selling Your Product with a Value-Added Strategy 159
Value Creation Investments for Transactional,

Consultative, and Strategic Alliance Buyers 163

Reviewing Key Concepts 164
Key Terms 165
Review Questions 165
Application Exercises 165
Role-Play Exercise 166
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 166
Part III Role-Play Exercise 167

Part IV Developing a Customer
Strategy 169

8 The Buying Process and Buyer
Behaviour 169

Developing a Customer Strategy 170
Adding Value with a Customer Strategy 171
Complex Nature of Customer Behaviour 172
Consumer Versus Business Buyers 173
Types of Business Buying Situations 173
Types of Consumer Buying Situations 175
Achieving Alignment with the Customer’s

Buying Process 176
Steps in the Typical Buying Process 176
Understanding the Buying Process of the

Transactional, Consultative, and Strategic
Alliance Buyer 179

Transactional Process Buyer 179
Consultative Process Buyer 179
Strategic Alliance Process Buyer 180
The Buyer Resolution Theory 180
Understanding Buyer Behaviour 182
Basic Needs That Influence Buyer Behaviour 182
Group Influences That Affect Buying Decisions 184
Perception—How Customer Needs Are Formed 187
Buying Motives 188

Reviewing Key Concepts 191
Key Terms 192
Review Questions 192
Application Exercises 192
Role-Play Exercise 193
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 193

x C o n t e n t s

9 Developing and Qualifying Prospects
and Accounts 195

Prospecting and Account Development—An
Introduction 196

Importance of Prospecting and Account
Development 198

Prospecting Requires Planning 198
Account Development and Prospecting Plans Must Be

Assessed Often 200
Sources of Prospects 200
Referrals 201
Centres of Influence, Friends, and Family

Members 202
Directories 202
Trade Publications 203
Trade Shows and Special Events 204
Telemarketing and Email 205
Direct-Response Advertising and Sales Letters 206
Websites 206
Computerized Databases 206
Cold Calling 208
Networking 209
Educational Seminars 211
Prospecting and Account Development

by Non-Sales Employees 211
Combination Approaches 212
Qualifying Prospects and Accounts 212
Collecting and Organizing Prospect

Information 213
Sales Intelligence 214
Managing the Prospect Base 216
Portfolio Models 217
Sales Process Models 218
Pipeline Management, Pipeline Analytics, and Pipeline

Dashboards 219

Reviewing Key Concepts 221
Key Terms 221
Review Questions 221
Application Exercises 222
Role-Play Exercise 222
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 223
Part IV Role-Play Exercise 224

Part V Developing a Presentation
Strategy 225

10 Approaching the Customer with
Adaptive Selling 225

Developing the Presentation Strategy 226

Presentation Strategy Adds Value 227
Planning the Preapproach 228
Establishing Presentation Objectives 229
Team Presentation Strategies 230
Strategies for Selling to a Buying Committee 231
Adaptive Selling: Builds on Four Strategic Areas of

Personal Selling 232
Developing the Six-Step Presentation Plan 233
Planning the Presentation 234
Adapting the Presentation Plan to the Customer’s

Buying Process 235
The Approach 235
The Telephone Contact 236
The Social Contact—Building Rapport 239
The Business Contact 241
Converting the Buyer’s Attention and Arousing

Interest 241
Coping with Sales Call Reluctance 246
Selling to the Gatekeeper 247

Reviewing Key Concepts 247
Key Terms 248
Review Questions 248
Application Exercises 249
Role-Play Exercise 249
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 250
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 250

11 Determining Customer Needs with a
Consultative Questioning
Strategy 252

The Consultative Sales Process Adds
Value 254

The Four-Part Need-Satisfaction Model 256
Part One—Need Discovery 256
Part Two—Selection of the Solution 256
Part Three—Need Satisfaction through Informing,

Persuading, and/or Reminding 257
Part Four—Servicing the Sale 258
Creating Value with Need Discovery 258
Need Discovery—Asking Questions 259
The Four-Part Consultative Questioning Strategy 261
Qualifying to Eliminate Unnecessary Questions 267
Need Discovery—Listening to and

Acknowledging the Customer’s Response 268
Need Discovery—Establishing Buying Motives 269
Selecting Solutions that Create Value 269
Selecting Solutions—Match Specific Benefits with

Buying Motives 270
Selecting Solutions—Product Configuration 271

xiC o n t e n t s

Selecting Solutions—Make Appropriate
Recommendations 272

Need Discovery and the Transactional Buyer 273
Involving the Prospect in the Need Discovery 273
Transitioning to the Presentation 273
Planning and Execution—Final Thoughts 274
Reviewing Key Concepts 275
Key Terms 276
Review Questions 276
Role-Play Application Exercises for the Questions,

Questions, Questions Video Series 276
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 277
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 278

12 Creating Value with the Consultative
Presentation 280

Need Satisfaction—Selecting a Presentation
Strategy 282

Need Satisfaction—The Informative Presentation
Strategy 283

Need Satisfaction—The Persuasive Presentation
Strategy 283

Need Satisfaction—The Reminder Presentation
Strategy 284

Guidelines for Creating a Presentation that
Adds Value 285

Adapt the Presentation to Meet the Unique Needs of
the Customer 285

Cover One Idea at a Time and Use an Appropriate
Amount of Detail 287

Use Proof Devices to Demonstrate Buyer Benefits 287
Appeal to As Many Senses as Appropriate 288
Balance Telling, Showing, and Involvement 289
Develop Creative Presentations 290
Consider the Use of Humour—in Moderation 290
Choose the Right Setting 290
Document the Value Proposition 290
Quantifying the Solution 291
Check Sales Tools 291
Summarize Major Points 291
Guidelines for a Persuasive Presentation Strategy

that Adds Value 292
Place Special Emphasis on the Relationship 292
Target Emotional Links and Use a Persuasive

Vocabulary 293
Sell Specific Benefits and Obtain Customer

Reactions 293
Use of Showmanship 294
Minimize the Negative Impact of Change 294
Place the Strongest Appeal at the Beginning or End 295

Use the Power of Association with Metaphors, Stories,
and Testimonials 295

Guidelines for a Group Sales Presentation 296
Enhancing the Group Presentation with Mental

Imagery 296
Audiovisual Presentation Fundamentals 297
Selling Tools for Effective Demonstrations 298
Product and Plant Tours 298
Models 298
Photos, Illustrations, and Brochures 299
Portfolios 299
Reprints 299
Catalogues 300
Graphs, Charts, and Test Results 300
Bound Paper Presentations 300
Laptop Computers and Demonstration Software 300
Rehearse the Presentation 302
Plan for the Dynamic Nature of Selling 302

Reviewing Key Concepts 304
Key Terms 304
Review Questions 305
Application Exercises 305
Role-Play Exercise 305
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 306
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 307

13 Negotiating Buyer Concerns 308
Negotiating Buyer Concerns and Problems 309
Formal Integrative Negotiation—Part of the

Win-Win Relationship Strategy 310
Negotiation Is a Process 311
Planning for Formal Negotiations 313
Conducting the Negotiation Session 316
Know When to Walk Away 317
Common Types of Buyer Concerns 318
Concerns Related to Need for the Product 318
Concerns about the Product or Service 318
Concerns Related to Source 319
Concerns Related to Time 320
Concerns Related to Price 320
Specific Methods of Negotiating Buyer

Concerns 320
Direct Denial 320
Indirect Denial 321
Questions 322
Superior Benefit 322
Demonstration 322
Trial Offer 322
Third-Party Testimony 323
Postpone Method 323

xii C o n t e n t s

Creating Value During Formal
Negotiations 324

How to Deal with Price Concerns 324
Negotiating Price with a Low-Price Strategy 326
Working with Buyers Who are Trained in

Negotiation 327
Budget Limitation Tactic 327
Take-It-or-Leave-It Tactic 328
Let-Us-Split-the-Difference Tactic 328
“If … Then” Tactic 328
“Sell Low Now, Make Profits Later” Tactic 329

Reviewing Key Concepts 329
Key Terms 330
Review Questions 330
Application Exercises 331
Role-Play Exercise 331
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 331
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 333

14 Adapting the Close and Confirming
the Partnership 334

Adapting the Close—An Attitude that Adds
Value 335

Review the Value Proposition from the Prospect’s
Point of View 337

Closing the Sale—The Beginning of the
Partnership 337

Guidelines for Closing the Sale 337
Focus on Dominant Buying Motives 337
Longer Selling Cycles and Incremental

Commitments 338
Negotiate the Tough Points before Attempting the

Close 339
Avoid Surprises at the Close 339
“Tough-Mindedness”—Display a High Degree of

Self-Confidence at the Close 340
Ask for the Order More Than Once 340
Recognize Closing Clues 340
Specific Methods for Closing the Sale 342
Trial Close 343
Direct Appeal Close 343
Assumptive Close 343
Summary-of-Benefits Close 345
Special Concession Close 346
Multiple Options Close 346
Balance Sheet Close 346
Management Close 347
Impending Event Close 347
Combination Closes 348

Adapting to the Customer’s Communication Style 348
Practise Closing 349
Confirming the Partnership when the Buyer Says

Yes 350
What to Do When the Buyer Says No 350

Reviewing Key Concepts 352
Key Terms 352
Review Questions 353
Application Exercises 353
Role-Play Exercise 354
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 354
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 355

15 Servicing the Sale and Building
the Partnership 356

Building Long-Term Partnerships with Customer
Service 357

Achieving Successive Sales 358
Responding to Increased Postsale Customer

Expectations 359
High Cost of Customer Attrition 360
Current Developments in Customer

Service 361
Computer-Based Systems 362
Customer Service Methods that Strengthen

the Partnership 362
Adding Value with Follow-Through 362
Preventing Postsale Problems 365
Adding Value with Customer Follow-Up 365
Adding Value with Expansion Selling 369
Preplan Your Service Strategy 371
Partnership-Building Strategies Should Encompass All

Key People 372
Partnering with an Unhappy Customer 372

Reviewing Key Concepts 374
Key Terms 375
Review Questions 375
Application Exercises 375
Role-Play Exercise 376
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 376
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 378
Part V Role-Play Exercise 378

Part VI Management of Self
and Others 380

16 Opportunity Management: The Key to
Greater Sales Productivity 380

xiiiC o n t e n t s

Opportunity Management—A Four-Dimensional
Process 381

Time Management 382
Time-Consuming Activities 382
Time Management Methods 384
Saving Time with Meetings in Cyberspace and Other

Methods of Communication 386
Territory Management 389
What Does Territory Management Involve? 389
Sales Call Plans 391
Records Management 392
Common Records Kept by Salespeople 393
Maintaining Perspective 395
Stress Management 395
Develop a Stress-Free Home Office 396
Maintain an Optimistic Outlook 397
Practise Healthy Emotional Expression 397
Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle 398

Reviewing Key Concepts 399
Key Terms 399
Review Questions 399
Application Exercises 400
Role-Play Exercise 400
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 400

17 Management of the Sales Force 402
Applying Leadership Skills to Sales

Management 403

Structure 405
Consideration 406
Situational Leadership 408
Coaching for Peak Performance 408
Recruitment and Selection of Salespeople 410
Determine Actual Job Requirements 410
Search Out Applicants from Several Sources 411
Select the Best-Qualified Applicant 412
Personality and Skills Testing 412
Orientation and Training 413
Sales Force Motivation 415
Effective Use of External Rewards 416
Compensation Plans 417
Strategic Compensation Planning 418
Assessing Sales Force Productivity 419

Reviewing Key Concepts 420
Key Terms 421
Review Questions 421
Application Exercises 422
Role-Play Exercise 422
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 422

Appendix 424
Endnotes 442
Name Index 461

Subject Index 465

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xv

Today, the profession of selling enjoys unprecedented growth in importance as the
western world completes its transition from a production-focused to a sales- and service-
focused economy. There are well over a million people employed in sales positions across
Canada: more than 10 percent of the workforce. This increasingly sales-oriented economy
calls for a more professional and customer-oriented selling attitude. This in turn neces-
sitates learning and teaching selling strategies and skills in a more systematic fashion. The
role of sales representative is predicted to be one of the occupations in greatest demand
over the next decade.

Surprisingly, those seeking a job in sales are not the only ones who will benefit from
learning how to sell. In fact, almost everyone these days uses traditional sales-related
activities in their professional and social lives. People use a whole assortment of selling
techniques in everyday life to persuade decision makers

Operations Management homework help

This case was prepared by Anna Waldman Brown, Legatum Center Research Assistant, and Georgina Campbell Flatter, Legatum
Center Executive Director and Senior Lecturer at MIT Sloan.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view
a copy of this license visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second
Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

Scaling Sanergy: Growing a Promising Sanitation Startup

Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

No innovation in the past 200 years has done more to save lives and improve health

than the sanitation revolution triggered by the invention of the toilet. But it did not

go far enough. It only reached one-third of the world.

– Sylvia Mathews Burwell, Former U.S. Sec. of Health & Human Services1

Some poop here and there. Others do it in a special place.

– Taro Gomi, Author of children’s book Everyone Poops

In May 2018, at Sanergy’s headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, president and co-founder David

Auerbach stood in front of a satellite map of the city. He surveyed the irregular clusters of grey

and brown that characterized Nairobi’s slum communities, noting the highlighted areas indicating

the locations of Sanergy’s toilets.

In the seven years since Auerbach and his partners founded Sanergy, they had demonstrated not

only the effectiveness of a market-driven approach to sanitation infrastructure, but also a path to

profitability which Auerbach called “turning sh** into gold.” This path involved franchising toilets

to urban slums in Nairobi, then collecting the raw sanitation waste for conversion into fertilizer

and insect-based animal feed.

“The lesson is clear,” Auerbach said. “If we can provide the services they demand, residents of

slums will invest in hygienic sanitation.” The potential returns on such investment were enticing.

1 Sylvia Mathews Burwell, “Reinventing the Toilet,” Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, speech given on July 19,

2011, https://www.gatesfoundation.org/media-center/speeches/2011/07/sylvia-mathews-burwell-reinventing-the-

toilet (accessed June 18, 2018).

July 2018

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 2

Poor sanitation led to a global loss of $260 billion annually2 and more than 2 million preventable

deaths per year,3 most of them children. The World Bank estimated that every $1 invested in

sanitation generated a $5 return between the prevention of sanitation-related deaths, overall

savings on healthcare, and increases in productivity and working hours due to reduced illness.

Kenya’s urban slums alone lost $270 million dollars due to poor sanitation, which was why

Auerbach was especially excited about one particular metric: Sanergy could theoretically provide

sanitation services to slum residents at a cost to the government of less than $10 per person per

year, as compared to around $55 per person for the average running-water sewer system.4 This

theoretical cost was contingent upon Sanergy saturating the market in all of Nairobi’s slums, in

order to leverage economies of scale in both collecting waste and culturing fertilizer.

Auerbach stepped back from his satellite map, feeling overwhelmed by the sheer volume of

Nairobi slum-dwellers still lacking toilets. Sanergy was installing 100 new toilets per month, and

that rate was increasing fast, but Auerbach’s team still had a long way to go before reaching their

targeted economies of scale. Moreover, Sanergy’s success seemed a mere drop in the bucket

considering the 4.5 billion people worldwide (indeed, 61% of the world’s population) who lived

without adequate sanitation.5 Could Sanergy ever grow enough to seriously cut into that number?

Now that Sanergy’s for-profit arm was finally generating revenue, it was time to consider the next

steps to grow the company. Sanergy could sell much more fertilizer to farmers, but to reach

economies of scale they would have to significantly increase the amount of waste being collected.

Increasing waste collection would require installing more toilets, which meant that Auerbach

needed additional funds. Was it best for Sanergy to stay focused on growth in Nairobi, where the

team knew its local community and had a proven track-record? Or did it make more sense to pursue

large government infrastructure projects in other countries, where public funds for sanitation

projects might be more readily available?

Behind Auerbach, Sanergy’s main office was a bustling open workspace that felt like a modern

tech startup despite being a converted warehouse in the heart of Nairobi’s slums. On a blue wall

in large white letters was a quote from environmental activist and Nobel laureate Wangari Maathai:

“No matter who or where we are, or what our capabilities, we are called to do the best we can.”

How could Auerbach continue to do the best he could while scaling up his company?

2 “Global Costs and Benefits of Drinking-Water Supply and Sanitation Interventions to Reach the MDG Target and

Universal Coverage,” World Health Organization, 2012,

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/global_costs/en (accessed June 18, 2018).
3 “Clean Water and Sanitation: Why It Matters,” United Nations, 2016,

http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/6_Why-it-Matters_Sanitation_2p.pdf.
4 Sanergy calculated comparison estimates using figures from a cost analysis conducted in Dakar, Senegal (see cost

figures in table on page 4): Pierre-Henri Dodane, Mbaye Mbéguéré, Ousmane Sow, and Linda Strande, “Capital and

Operating Costs of Full-Scale Fecal Sludge Management and Wastewater Treatment Systems in Dakar, Senegal,”

Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 7, 2012: 3705-3711.
5 “Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines,” World Health

Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund, 2017,

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report-jmp-water-sanitation-hygiene.pdf

(accessed June 18, 2018).

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 3

Figure 1. From left to right: co-author Georgina Campbell-Flatter, Ani Vallabhaneni, Lindsay
Stradley, David Auerbach, and Megan Mitchell (Legatum Center Program Manager)

Source: Casewriters.

Finding a Profitable Pipeline

In 2004, after Auerbach graduated from Yale University in American Studies, he moved to Hunan

Province, China to teach English for two years. There, he became acutely aware that much of the

world lacked access to toilets and proper sanitation. Auerbach saw the consequences of daily

stress, disease, and childhood mortality and began wondering, why were there so many terrible

toilets? Isn’t this a solvable problem?

He kept these thoughts in mind when he moved back to the United States and settled in New York

City (a place that had historically struggled with its own share of sanitation challenges, including

dumping raw sewage into the Hudson River as late as the 1980s). Auerbach worked at the Clinton

Global Initiative and managed partnerships and outreach at Endeavor, a non-profit that supported

for-profit entrepreneurs in emerging markets. Working at Endeavor sparked his interest in using

market-based solutions to solve widespread social challenges. He soon realized that he wanted to

start his own initiative, though he wasn’t entirely sure what that should be.

In 2009, while on the lookout for exciting problems to tackle through market-based solutions,

Auerbach began his MBA program at MIT’s Sloan School of Management. Before school started,

he signed up for a pre-orientation trip in New Hampshire to connect with likeminded first-year

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 4

students. He chose hiking over the whitewater rafting option, hoping it would be easier to meet

like-minded folks while on a hike rather than screaming his way down the rapids.

This proved a fateful choice. While hiking through New Hampshire’s colorful fall foliage,

Auerbach bonded with his fellow classmates Lindsay Stradley and Ani Vallabhaneni. Auerbach

recalls that they immediately felt they were all “kindred spirits.” Stradley was an educator and

consultant from Georgia who had developed a charter school, taught in New Orleans after

Hurricane Katrina, and later worked at Google. Vallabhaneni was a computer scientist and

operations expert from Illinois, who had recently returned from a consulting project in the

Philippines to make a chain of clinics self-sufficient. When classes began, the trio decided to take

MIT’s Development Ventures course together with the explicit intention of cofounding a viable

startup that would help the planet.

The three had an interest in systems thinking and systems change, and they saw that the sanitation

crisis was in dire need of innovative solutions. Even in well-developed cities, sewage systems had

changed little since the Bronze Age; cities continued to use relatively fresh water to flush sewage

from buildings and households into massive holding tanks, where toxic and inefficient treatments

were not always successful in properly decontaminating the waste. The three co-founders all

agreed that sewage collection and treatment in the developing world could only become profitable

if they took a systems-level approach; governments in emerging markets were unlikely to be able

to afford traditional sewage infrastructure, so they would have to devise a company that could

somehow add enough value to the waste to subsidize collection and treatment.

After brainstorming various schemes for sewage conversion in Development Ventures, the team

decided to focus on biogas digestion. Turning waste into biogas initially seemed promising, partly

because funders and development experts seemed particularly excited about energy generation.

Auerbach and his co-founders combined “sanitation” and “energy” to get their company name

“Sanergy,” and then set about developing their business model.

By the end of the semester, however, it became apparent that biogas was not very profitable

without an enormous amount of sanitation waste from the outset. Given the difficulty in scaling

up a biogas endeavor, Sanergy’s co-founders decided to pivot to something that could give them

a faster return on their investment.

Looking over the list of viable products to make out of human waste, the co-founders found

fertilizer to be the most promising. For a company that would have to navigate a lot of risk

elsewhere, fertilizer seemed like a welcome safe bet. After all, humans had been converting stool

and urine into fertilizer since ancient times. This was a well-proven agriculture technology, and

conversion was mainly a natural process of decomposition. Agriculture was the backbone of most

developing economies, but few countries outside the United States and Europe actually

manufactured their own fertilizer, and even fewer used natural rather than chemical options. Thus,

Auerbach, Stradley, and Vallabhaneni developed a new business model around fertilizer

production. By then, despite their pivot away from energy, the name “Sanergy” had stuck and they

decided to keep it.

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 5

The team settled on Nairobi as their initial market, viewing it as an entrepreneurial hub of major

donors, like-minded businesses, non-profits, consultancies, and impact investors. Social initiatives

such as renewable energy provider M-KOPA and the agriculture non-profit One Acre Fund had

paved the way for future impact-driven business models in Nairobi. “It’s easy to learn from these

guys,” said Auerbach, emphasizing that fellow entrepreneurs often went out of their way to aid

like-minded businesses.

For the final part of their Development Ventures class, the Sanergy team travelled to Nairobi

together over the month of January to investigate sanitation companies. Their roles as students

conducting a research project opened doors for them to meet and interview potential competitors.

Instead of being overly guarded and uncooperative for fear of the Sanergy team stealing company

secrets or copying their methods, all the waste companies around Nairobi were actually happy to

share ideas with students. At the end of the month, Auerbach and his team wrote a white paper on

sewage collection in Nairobi, which they then shared with all their contacts. This report revealed

considerable fragmentation along the waste-collection supply chain and significant opportunity for

Sanergy to add value within slum communities rather than compete with incumbents. In addition

to gathering research, Sanergy’s co-founders realized that they especially enjoyed working

together in the field, outside of MIT’s air-conditioned classrooms and conference rooms. They

resolved to strengthen their commitment to Sanergy.

When Auerbach returned to MIT Sloan for his second semester, he made all of his classroom

projects about Sanergy. In his Pricing class, for example, he developed a model for how much

people would be willing to pay for sanitation services. His fellow classmates, many of whom were

far more experienced in the subject, were excited to help him out. Auerbach also met Kenyan Sloan

professor Tavneet Suri, and she put him in touch with several colleagues in Nairobi who helped
Sanergy sort out land acquisition and set up its first two toilets.

Sanergy also applied for MIT’s $100K business plan competition.6 Yet with only three co-

founders, the beginnings of a business plan, and no actual toilets built, the team did not yet have

enough evidence of success. They also didn’t yet have (in Auerbach’s words) that “insanely

inspiring story” that could really persuade judges. He admits Sanergy “bombed” the $100K

competition its first time around.

The following year, Auerbach and Vallabhaneni were awarded Legatum Fellowships7 through

MIT, which covered a significant portion of their tuition and left them with less debt and more

freedom upon graduation to pursue their entrepreneurial purpose. Auerbach and his co-founders

then resolved to recruit a larger, more robust team and reapply for the MIT $100K Competition

again in 2011. Since his original team was comprised of three MBA students with relatively similar

skills and no practical engineering abilities, Auerbach started attending interdisciplinary

6 The MIT $100K is a 29-year-old startup competition in which students and researchers from across MIT and

Greater Boston compete in three different contests (Pitch, Accelerate, and Launch) to win financial prizes for their

ventures.
7 The MIT Legatum Center for Development and Entrepreneurship awards a one-year fellowship to around 20 MIT

student-entrepreneurs who are developing enterprises in emerging markets. Fellowships provide tuition, mentorship

for project development, and a stipend for travel and other expenses.

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 6

networking events across MIT’s campus. Sanergy eventually recruited a civil engineer, a chemical

engineer, and a mechanical engineer and educator from MIT’s Development, Design, and

Dissemination Lab (D-Lab). This expanded team was able to prove that Sanergy’s two pilot toilets

were going strong, and all co-founders were determined to develop their company regardless of

whether they won the competition.

In its second attempt, the Sanergy team took first place in the $100K Competition, then went on

to win an additional $100,000 from MassChallenge.8 By the time they graduated in 2011,

Auerbach and his team had won a combined $350,000 in grants and social enterprise fellowships,

providing them with a runway of six months in Kenya while they honed their business strategy.

The three co-founders, along with several of the most committed people on Sanergy’s founding

team, all moved to Nairobi.

Auerbach continued fundraising after moving to Nairobi, though he found funders around Kenya

to be less interested in taking an unproven risk on sanitation than their counterparts in the United

States and Europe. Even so, by leveraging his track record in competitions, Auerbach was able to

raise a convertible note round that bought Sanergy an additional year of runway.

Auerbach preferred raising a convertible note round of funding to raising pure equity, since he

found this system friendlier toward entrepreneurs. Convertible notes initially get written up as

loans, and then convert into equity once a startup raises actual capital. For Sanergy, this equated

to a two-page legal document rather than the typical 50-page document (and the requisite lawyers)

needed to negotiate a full equity round. Sanergy’s convertible note enabled the team to delay major

discussions of valuation until later on, when the company would have greater proof of the viability

of its business model.

After a year of operations and the initial success of its business model, Sanergy raised its Series A

round from several impact investors in April 2013.

A Crappy System Full of Holes (and Plastic Bags)

Across Kenya in 2017, 8 million people lived in dense, informal housing settlements commonly

referred to as “urban slums.” Very few of these ramshackle slum houses had any form of hygienic

sanitation. Auerbach discovered that the government of Kenya paid $3 per person per year for its

official sewage system, but that system served only a small fraction of the population. Even in the

bustling metropolis of Nairobi, water constraints further limited the growth of a traditional pipeline

sewage system; only 40% of Nairobi residents had reliable access to running water in 2017, and

two-thirds of the city’s 4 million people had no access to proper sanitation facilities.9

8 Based in Boston, MassChallenge is an international acceleration and grant program that supports local startups by

bringing together corporates, policy-makers, and other stakeholders to provide mentorship and scholarships for

qualified entrepreneurs.
9 Cathy Watson, “Thirsty city: after months of water rationing Nairobi may run dry,” The Guardian, July 24, 2017,

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2017/jul/24/thirsty-city-after-months-of-

water-rationing-nairobi-may-run-dry (accessed May 7, 2018).

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 7

The few toilets that did exist were mostly holes in the ground, occasionally emptied out by

“frogmen” who physically jumped inside to shovel out the waste. They collected and transported

the waste in rickety wheelbarrows colloquially referred to as “ambulances” because everyone

rushed to get out of the way as the carts sloshed down residential paths.

For residents of urban slums who lacked sewage holes under their houses, there were three options:

1. They could use free public toilets on the outskirts of slums, which were often far away and
frequently backed-up. These public toilets were especially dangerous for women who

risked assault and even rape when seeking out a distant toilet after dark.

2. They could pay to use the private toilets, which were mostly pit latrines. These did receive
regular maintenance, but usually flowed directly into rivers and canals where they caused

disease and water pollution.

3. Finally, they could resort to the infamous “flying toilets,” which entailed pooping into a
plastic bag and throwing it as far away as possible. This option was often the cheapest and

easiest, but also the most detrimental to the local environment. Shopkeepers were

especially revolted by this practice, as poop-filled bags tended to stink up the vicinity and

drive away customers.

Toilet by toilet, Sanergy began to alter this landscape.

Pivoting Whenever Sh** Hit the Fan

Although Sanergy’s co-founders arrived in Nairobi with a solid business model, they shifted many

aspects of their company along the way. For instance, their original plan was to work primarily

with teenagers in youth groups as franchisees, rather than professional adults. But these youth

proved difficult to work with, Auerbach said, because they were unaccustomed to responsibility.

They also tended to band together which made them harder to influence constructively than if they

identified more strongly as individuals.

In its early days, Sanergy also struggled to deliver the right message about toilets to potential end

users. Initial marketing focused too squarely on the dangers of poor health and other negative

motivators. Potential customers occasionally expressed interest in asking about Sanergy’s bright

blue outhouses, but no one actually showed up to buy the toilets. Sanergy then hired a local

branding team, who suggested crafting a more positive message about the benefits of sanitary

toilets and what that meant for a healthy lifestyle. They suggested the brand name “Fresh Life” for

Sanergy’s toilets, which were then marketed through neighborhood block parties. Sanergy even

commissioned hip-hop songs to play on local radio about the joys of “fresh” toilets.

After operating for a few years, Sanergy began moving their toilets closer together. This facilitated

the servicing and guarding of the facilities, allowing the toilets to stay open after dark. It also cut

costs considerably.

A major business shift for Sanergy came in 2016 after five years of operation, when the founders

realized that they had been limiting their scale by charging franchisees for toilets up front rather

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 8

than recouping costs over time. Initially, Sanergy would sell toilets to franchisees at either an up-

front price of US$500, or through interest-free microfinancing schemes in partnership with Kiva

Microfunds. Sanergy tried lowering the price to $350, but even that proved too expensive for many

prospective franchise operators, who tended to be self-employed in various informal businesses

and had to plan for inconsistent cash-flows.

After carefully reconsidering customer needs and modeling alternative strategies, Sanergy decided

to offer its toilets for no cost up front, then compensate by raising its annual waste removal fee by

approximately $30. This equated to a sort of pay-per-service model in which Sanergy effectively

still owned all of its toilets, and franchisees paid for regular waste collection rather than for the

toilet itself. Just a few months after shifting to this new model, Sanergy tripled its rate of new toilet

installations.

Cultivating Success

Sanergy’s founders hired executive coaches to help build a company that would attract top talent.

In terms of workspace, Sanergy aimed to have its headquarters resemble a hip, friendly startup

from Silicon Valley or Boston. The unstructured, open office layout allowed for easy collaboration

across different teams. Inspirational quotes emblazoned the walls. To ensure regular Internet and

power during Nairobi’s often biweekly outages, Sanergy kept its own backup generator on-site.

These choices set Sanergy far apart from other Nairobi offices, most of which followed a more

traditional, individualistic layout with clusters of cubicles. Auerbach attested that his company’s

open culture helped with retention and increased productivity.

Sanergy recruited employees primarily through word-of-mouth marketing rather than by soliciting

applications from the general public. Only a few of their full-time employees had college degrees,

but Sanergy also recruited many fellows from top North American universities (e.g. MIT, Yale,

and Stanford) to intern for the summer and sometimes longer. Auerbach said that even three

months could provide enough time for interns to develop interesting projects and create value for

Sanergy, especially because they were embedded in local teams and managed by Kenyan team

leads.

Sanergy had strict moral guidelines for professional behavior, including a zero-tolerance policy

for corruption. Once, the company had an open tender for a construction project in which vying

companies were supposed to stay blind to each other’s bids. Yet a Sanergy employee shared

confidential information with a friend, enabling that friend’s company to drop their own bid price.

Although this employee thought he was doing the right thing—that is, by helping a qualified friend

get work and helping Sanergy get a lower price—Auerbach and his fellow executives were

compelled to let the employee go in order to set an anti-corruption precedent.

Sanergy’s Hybrid Model

To make quality sanitation profitable, Sanergy had to keep adding value everywhere it could. In

Auerbach’s words: “Sanergy takes a systems-based approach that engages the community at every

step and, in doing so, guarantees that residents of slums gain access to the hygienic sanitation

services they both need and want.”

SCALING SANERGY: GROWING A PROMISING SANITATION STARTUP
Anna Waldman-Brown and Georgina Campbell Flatter

July 2018 9

Sanergy was structured according to this systemic approach. Officially, there were two

independent entities– a for-profit and a non-profit. Auerbach was the legal president of the for-

profit and a manager of the non-profit, and he only served on the for-profit’s board. Stradley ran

the non-profit and Vallabhaneni ran the for-profit. This hybrid business model enabled enhanced

participatory financing, so Sanergy could receive both donations and investment. Auerbach noted

that transitioning at a later stage from non-profit to for-profit, or vice versa (or even adding on a

new hybrid arm to one’s company) could be very challenging. By having two entities from the

beginning, Sanergy’s legal structure was fairly straightforward.

Sanergy’s for-profit arm, Farm Star, focused on clearly established market opportunities. It

collected waste and processed it into fertilizer and insect-based animal feed which it sold to farmers

– an established market. The non-profit arm raised funds mostly from family foundations who

sought measureable health, social, and environmental impacts in Nairobi’s slum communities; this

arm built the sanitation network and supported franchise operators. The for-profit arm off-took the

waste from the non-profit. Thus, both sides of the company were highly incentivized to work

together for mutual benefit.

Figure 2. Sanergy’s two-pronged business model

Source: Casewriters.

Non-profit: Fresh Life

Fresh Life’s model involved the distributed capture of waste: Fresh Life employees regularly went

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Operations Management homework help

MGT4070-Strategic Management

Week 1 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Overdue – 12 hours ago

Bottom of Form

For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.

To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use outside sources. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

An Organization: Its Mission and Strategic Intent

In this discussion, you will consider a company’s strategic intent, its mission, and the role of stakeholders in developing an organization’s strategy.

Select any two of the main questions and address all of their bullet points:

Question 1:

You have learned that stakeholders have profound impact on the direction and the success of a company. Based on your readings and learning, complete the following tasks:

· Define the various classifications of stakeholders in a company and their role in strategic management decisions.

· Explain the connection between stakeholders and competitive advantage.

Question 2:

You learned that strategic intent is an extension of a company’s organizational culture and the cornerstone of the firm. Based on your readings and learning, complete the following tasks:

· Discuss the importance of strategic intent and its impact on organizational success.

· Discuss why it is important and how an organization can move from intent to implementation.

Question 3:

Based on your readings and learning, complete the following tasks:

· Describe the attributes of an effective strategist.

· Explain how you would create and sell a strategic mission to stakeholders.

Question 4:

We cannot always control political, technological, economic, or cultural issues. Given that, answer the following questions:

· How often would you reevaluate your business strategy to maintain a competitive edge in the market place?

· What factors would you use to evaluate the need for change, and what tools would you use to make the changes?

· While performing an external environmental analysis, how important is it to use all four components and why?

Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.

Week 1 Project $15.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 3 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Case Study #14- Driving Innovation and Growth at Starbucks: From Howard Schultz to Kevin Johnson

Read the Starbucks case study located in the section titled Case Studies in your textbook concerning the following situation:

In 2017, Seattle-based global coffee chain Starbucks Corporation was named the third most admired company in the world and the number one company worldwide in the food service industry by Fortune. The magazine also ranked Starbucks as number one in the areas of innovation, people management, use of corporate assets, social responsibility, quality of management, financial soundness, long-term investment, and quality of products and services. Since inception, Starbucks had innovated in its business model. Starbucks’ passion to innovate manifested in the way the company sourced its coffee beans, developed new beverages, created unique store concepts, and achieved digital breakthroughs.

Your report and overview should address the following key strategic issues:

•    Describe the general environment that Starbucks faces. What are the segments in the general environment that relate to Starbucks’ situation? What are the opportunities and threats derived from the factors from the general environment? What are the possible future implications of some of the external factors?
•    Analyze the competitor environment and identify the competitors. Has Starbucks done enough to outperform its competitors?
•    Analyze Starbucks’ next move in terms of growth and expansion. Based on your analysis, what additional recommendations would you make to help Starbucks achieve its goals?

Submission Details:

· Based on your research, write succinct discussions of each of these items.

· Present your work as a 3–4-page report in a Microsoft Word document formatted in APA style.

Operations Management homework help

SFTY 350

Case Analysis Guidelines and Sample Format

By Dr. Dave Worrells and Mr. Scott Burgess, ERAU College of Aeronautics

Students will submit a case analysis that is a maximum of two pages, with a reference page

(three total), double spaced, in APA format, using Times New Roman, 12 point font. For these

activities, students read and review all module objectives and materials, consume the

information, and research the internet to produce a case analysis. Each case analysis is

directly related to the module learning objectives (LOs). Once all of the module material is

reviewed, find current (within the last six months), scholarly internet sources, that directly

relate to the case and module learning objectives and conduct your case analysis. In-text

citations serve to substantiate and validate your statements.

If a source is not scholarly, it must be supported with other scholarly references. As an

example; information may be pulled from an article in the New York Times (not a scholarly

source), which will need a supported scholarly source that can be greater than six months but

less than seven years, in support of the information from the New York Times; such as the

textbook. Tables (not shown) can go beyond the text and are highly encouraged and show an

understanding of research and how to find valid and reliable sources.

These activities promote scholarly research targeting topics specific to the learning objectives.

They also require critical thinking throughout the entire case analysis process. Writing skills are

enhanced over the conduct of the course (work is graded weekly using APA formatting and the

Case Analysis Rubric) as you write two pages (plus a reference page) every week. The result

is improved writing and research skills. This process also provides a glimpse at the real world

of organizational operations.

Case Analysis (sample) Format

Summary

The primary purpose of the summary is to develop the nature or the background from which the

issue/problem/situation evolved. What is the environment that enabled this problem to exist?

This section should be no less than one paragraph in length, and at least three to five

sentences.

SFTY 350

Problem

Begin this section with a clear problem statement, i.e., The problem is….Elaborate on what

caused the problem. Nothing but the problem statement and its contributing factors should

appear in this section. The problem should be specific and action oriented. The problem or

issue statement reflects a situation that must be addressed.

Do not confuse SYMPTOMS/RESULTS of the problem with the problem itself. This entire

section should be no less than one paragraph, and at least three to five sentences minimum.

However, this is the heart of the analysis. There must be a thread of consistency woven

throughout the remainder of the analysis. “Do not introduce more than one problem.” Your

statement is the foundation of your analysis; everything that follows must be linked back to your

problem statement.

Significance of the Problem

Identify what you consider to be the significance of the problem, not the cause of the problem.

The problem is significant because, if not addressed, it might cause a decline in one segment of

the industry, or result in a weak financial report/reduced revenue, or could have an impact on

safety, etc. The significance of the problem may be multi-faceted; this is fine, but do not lose

focus on the problem that you identified in Section II. Another aspect of this section is to validate

the problem and help determine what priority should be assigned to its resolution. This section

should be no less than one paragraph in length and at least three to five sentences minimum.

The significance of the problem is determined by what will happen if the problem is not

resolved.

Development of Alternative Actions (TWO)

Alternatives (two) should provide a feasible, realistic way to solve the problem. Provide rationale

for each alternative and then provide two advantages and two disadvantages for each

alternative. Be consistent with the problem and the related critical factors. Alternatives must be

derived directly from the source of the issue/problem/situation and/or the assigned

chapter(s)/learning objective(s). As you solve the problem be sure to consider the critical

factors as well. Use the information you found, the source document, and/or the assigned

chapter(s) from the textbook, to resolve the situation. You must have two alternatives, each

must have rationale, and each must have two advantages and two disadvantages. This

SFTY 350

section should be no less than two paragraphs in length. It is imperative that you do not use

any part of your recommendation (next section) in either alternative action.

Recommendation

Now, based on what you read in the source document, the assigned textbook chapter(s),

and/or your professional experiences, provide a recommendation, just one, completely

outside of what is identified in the source document and/or the chapter(s) readings that

will solve the problem. You may explain why your recommendation is superior and why the

advantage outweighs the disadvantage. You may discuss how the disadvantage might be

overcome or minimized. You may discuss what is involved in implementing this

recommendation. How long will it take? How much will it cost? What results do you anticipate?

BE CREATIVE! You may have to make assumptions in formulating your recommendation.

Assumptions are acceptable to the extent that they are clearly articulated. Use the information

you have and work with it. Rarely do decision makers have all the information they would like to

have. This is an opportunity to take a chance, to risk putting forth an idea or thought of your

own device; use your imagination. Be sure to provide rationale, one advantage, and one

disadvantage for it. Do not hesitate to go out on a limb. Innovation is highly desirable. The

recommendation should be at least one paragraph in length. Put your analysis into a concept of

what should be done to address the issue/problem/situation. It doesn’t have to be pretty but it

should work, theoretically.

News articles that meet the 6 month requirement but are not peer reviewed are okay if,

 You back up the article with other sources that can be older (within 7 years)

 These should be scholarly and/or peer reviewed

 The textbook is considered a scholarly source

The instructor will look for evidence that you reviewed sufficient literature which led to a

comprehensive analysis and applied knowledge to the chosen topic.

If you can honestly say that you have done what is expected in that requirement, then you’ve

probably done enough. Many students ask how many references meet the minimum

requirement. The answer is, as many as needed. If the work is very mathematical, then less

SFTY 350

would be expected than a management based work. Ask yourself if you have a good range of

sources. If not, more work needs to be done.

Referencing can be done wrong; reference your APA for advice, Chapters 6 and 7 will help.

Defeating bias (what is bias?)

 Look at the source

 Who reviews the source prior to publication?

 Are your sources valid and reliable? Need both.

 Reliability & Validity = (Web Center for Social Research Methods). The source is an

acceptable source within the context of the writing. Facts you draw on must fairly

represent the larger situation. Findings are repeatable!

Operations Management homework help

5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022673/viewContent/17803228/View 1/8

8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational
Capabilities (Part Two)

Rubrics

MBA 620 Multiweek Discussion Rubric

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MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4 TM

In Module Seven, you developed an argument based on the following statement: “The best-

performing companies worry less about performance and more about their organizational

capabilities” (Bititci, 2015).

You also shared your thoughts about Company A and Company B and their cultures and

capabilities.

This week, you will review and respond to your peers’ posts. Respond to at least two of your

peers (providing feedback for peers without any feedback first).

Review the posts by your peers and provide your feedback by answering the following questions:

Do you agree or disagree with your peers’ initial posts about the relationships between

organizational culture, capabilities, and performance? Explain.

What is different about their perspectives, and how do you think it will affect the overall

performance evaluation of these companies?

To complete this assignment, review the Multiweek Discussion Rubric.

All Threads

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Week 7 Discussion
Sam Strohl posted May 8, 2022 5:49 PM

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“The best-performing companies worry less about performance and more about their
organizational capabilities” (Bititci, 2015).

Do you agree with the statement above? Why or why not?

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Performance and Organizational Capabilities Week 7 & 8
Tyler Trowell posted May 8, 2022 5:32 PM Subscribe

Hello Team,

Considering the statement, I agree with the statement regarding the merit of value in focusing

on organizational capabilities. When a company relies on performance there are normally flaws

within their organizational capabilities. Just because they have financial performance does not

mean they have structure internally and externally. Now, both hold significance to the

company’s success but one is not more valuable.

An organization’s culture defines the proper way to behave within the organization. This

culture consists of shared beliefs and values established by leaders and then communicated

and reinforced through various methods, ultimately shaping employee perceptions, behaviors,

and understanding. When employees feel that bosses and managers care about their personal

happiness – and not only the company’s net revenues – loyalty develops. This helps build

employee buy-in to the vision of the company and set higher goals that have a wave of

positive energy behind them (Karagöz, & Akgün, 2015).

Looking at Company A and Company B, they are not focusing on their infrastructure to achieve

the desired success. Both companies are not taking advantage of technology and revamping

their workforce to be competitive in the market. Both must be open to change to be leaders in

the said market.

Regards,

Tyler

Reference

5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

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Karagöz, I. B., & Akgün, A.,E. (2015). THE ROLES OF IT CAPABILITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL

CULTURE ON LOGISTICS CAPABILITY AND FIRM PERFORMANCE. Journal of Business

Studies Quarterly, 7(2), 23-45. https://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?

qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Froles-capability-

organizational-culture-on%2Fdocview%2F1755031979%2Fse-2

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Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Edgar Romero posted May 8, 2022 3:26 PM Subscribe

Hello everyone,

I have been thinking about the first question and I must confess that it is a difficult one to
answer. In ‘most’ cases, I agree that highly-performance organizations emphasize their capabilities
more than actual performance. Organization capabilities are the expertise, strategic assets, and
collective skills that companies utilize to get work done and execute their business strategies
(Smallwood & Ulrich, 2014). In my opinion, all of these resources are vital in terms of a company’s
performance. However, there are successful entities that are result-driven and only care about the end
goal. For instance, Steve Jobs was an autocratic leader who encouraged employees to focus on the
company’s vision, regardless on how the job was done. We can argue whether his leadership style was
ethical or not, but not against the success of his companies. In short, I agree with the statement above,
but I believe it requires a minor modification. “In most cases, the best-performing companies care less
about performance and more about their organizational capabilities.”

An organization’s culture has a direct impact on capabilities and performance. leaders
influence a company’s culture by communicating goals, setting expectations, and stablishing the
business model. Culture is then transmitted to employees through the onboarding process, orientations,
and a series of trainings (Carabelli, n.d). These values influence companies’ daily operations in a
number of ways. For example, leaders who promote innovation tend to have a workforce that thinks
outside of the box. This philosophy leads to new ideas, improved processes, and enable companies to

5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

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adapt to the ever-changing business environment. On the other hand, there are organizations that are
more methodical and follow strict rules. The leaders of these companies tend to impose a set of
guidelines and procedures that all employees must obey.

Although Companies A and B are part of the airline industry, there are clear cultural
distinctions among the two. Company A’s sales are comprised by two-thirds of returning
customers. This figure illustrates an efficient customer service and a lack of advertisement. The
excellent client satisfaction is primarily driven by employees going the extra mile. The staff offers
special threats to passengers and assures that everyone has a pleasant experience. Furthermore, A
offers twice as many baggage handlers, check-in attendants, and customer service specialists. The
main concern with this company is the elevated cost of its services. Meanwhile, Company’s B culture
is driven by its new leader’s beliefs of moving forward through the adoption of an agile workforce,
empowering employees, and promoting innovation. B’s new president has a higher commitment
towards sustainability. She promotes environmental awareness and moving towards a net-zero carbon
footprint. As the organization is shifting to a more technological and integrated business model, there
is evident skepticism in some of the more tenured employees. Even though the company is currently in
a healthy financial state, the skeptisism may have a long-term negative impact on the company’s
performance.

References:

Carabelli, C. (2016, October 26). How is organizational culture passed to new employees? Small
Business – Chron.com. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-culture-passed-new-
employees-14078.html

Kassim, N. (2021, December 15). Steve Jobs’s leadership style and what we can learn from it. Idea
Drop | Idea Management Software. https://ideadrop.co/customer-success/steve-jobs-leadership-
style-what-we-can-learn/

Smallwood, N., & Ulrich, D. (2014, August 1). Capitalizing on capabilities. Harvard Business
Review. https://hbr.org/2004/06/capitalizing-on-capabilities

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Shreck Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Tony Shreck posted May 8, 2022 11:17 AM Subscribe

For your initial post, consider the following statement: “The best-performing companies worry

less about performance and more about their organizational capabilities” (Bititci, 2015).

5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

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Ana Reiss – Performance and Organizational Capabilties
Ana Reiss posted May 3, 2022 9:44 PM

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Last post 18 hours ago by Lydia

Beiter

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Hi Class,

When considering the statement “The best-performing companies worry less about

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Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Christina Bozeman posted May 1, 2022 7:30 PM

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Last post 18 hours ago by Lydia

Beiter

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Hello class,

“The best-performing companies worry less about performance and more about their

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Module 7/8 Discussion: Organizational Capabilities
Ryan Mullen posted May 7, 2022 5:36 PM

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“The best-performing companies worry less about performance and more about their

organizational capabilities” (Bititci, 2015).

more

5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

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Module 7/8 Discussion: Organizational Capabilities
Maureen Dionne posted May 6, 2022 1:18 PM

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I do not think it is possible to separate performance from organizational structure, culture, and

capabilities. I think there is certainly some merit to the statement, and examples of

i ti th t h t f th i biliti f hi h i t h l d
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Module 7 & Module 8 – Andre’a Alston
Andre’a Alston posted May 5, 2022 11:58 PM

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Good Evening Everyone,
I hope that your week has gone well. In relation to the statement “the best-performing
companies worry less about performance and more about their organizational capabilities

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Colton Brannon Mod7/8 Discussion
Colton Brannon posted May 5, 2022 10:05 AM

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Organizational capabilities are considered as things that an organization uses to get the job done while
satisfying customers and carrying out the vision. These capabilities resonate from inside of the
organization and can lead it to success. Examples of this may include innovation, the culture within the
organization the ability to adapt and more With that being said I do think that organization

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Drake Talles Module 7 Discussion
Drake Talles posted May 4, 2022 10:13 PM Subscribe

Do you agree with the statement above (“The best-performing companies worry less about
performance and more about their organizational capabilities”)? Why or why not?

I can get behind this statement to a certain extent, but don’t necessarily agree with it at face

5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

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Module 7-8 DQ Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Miranda Hric posted May 4, 2022 9:24 AM

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Do you agree with the statement above? Why or why not?

Yes I agree with the statement: “The best-performing companies worry less about

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DQ 7-1 Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Heather Rardin posted May 3, 2022 1:01 PM

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Hello, everyone…

In considering the phrase “The best-performing companies worry less about performance and more

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Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Terrell McGhee posted May 2, 2022 9:43 PM

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I agree that capabilities in an organization play a significant role compared to

performance. These capabilities include expertise in the firm, abilities, and skills. They

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5/8/22, 12:28 PM 8-1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities (Part Two) – MBA-620-X4689 Measuring Success in an Org 22TW4

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8:1 Discussion: Performance and Organizational Capabilities
Lydia Beiter posted May 2, 2022 8:12 PM

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I do agree with the statement, “The best-performing companies worry less about
performance and more about their organizational capabilities” (Bititci, 2015). By
i i fl d i ti l biliti d i t i i th th t

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Activity Details

Operations Management homework help

FIRST Individual Project – Unit 4 – Criminal activity and the illegal drug industry

Compare and contrast the organizational structure of the mafia with that of a motorcycle gang. Do you think that drugs are their main source of income? How do they distribute their goods?

Assignment Guidelines



Content/60% (28 points each):



Organization/15% (21 points):



APA Formatting/10% (14 points):



Verbatim Text/5% (7 points):



Mechanics/10% (14 points):

Address the following in 3–5 pages:

· Research mafia organizations within the United States.

· What is their involvement in the illegal drug industry? Explain.

· How are drugs transported and sold by mafia organizations within the United States? Explain.

· What criminal activities result from this drug trafficking? Explain.

· Research the Colombian drug cartel.

· What types of crimes are commonly committed by members of these types of organizations? Explain.

· Regarding criminal activities, how does international drug trafficking compare to drug trafficking within the United States?

· Compare being charged under RICO to being charged under IRS violations.

· What are the penalties of each, and is there any civil redress in either one?

· Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

· **Please note that you are required to support your views by citing your sources in all assignments. Even if the question asks for your opinion, you are still expected to support your opinion with in-text citations and references to published works and other materials. APA format is necessary for your assignments when citing references and assistance on using APA is available using the APA Citation Center.

Requirements: 3-5 pages

 here is the course textbook for references – Abadinsky, H. (2017). Drug Use and Abuse: A Comprehensive Introduction (9th Edition). Cengage Limited. My professor keeps stating that I am lacking ample in-text citations.

2nd Week 1 Project

Over the next four weeks, you will review and analyze a pre-intervention elementary school asthma database from a community that has four elementary schools. Each week, you will write a short paper describing the role of an informatician in regard to data capture and use within the Public Health Information Management Systems (PHIS) and Public Health Information Network (PHIN). You will explore the data elements, database technologies, analytics, and processes used by an information including data capture, scrubbing, coding, warehousing, managing, and reporting of public health information.

In Week 5, you will complete a comprehensive term paper and PowerPoint presentation that demonstrates a public health needs assessment using your primary asthma source data. Your paper and presentation should show why an asthma prevention intervention program is needed in the selected community and summarize how you came to your conclusions. The objective of this five-week project is for you to demonstrate the processes used in public health informatics through its application.

You will begin your course project by explaining how data is collected, scrubbed, coded, and stored within the PHIS. You will then explain how data is organized in databases, using the asthma data provided below. You will describe the data elements in the spreadsheet and the processes of an information by answering the questions below.Note: Use this Excel spreadsheet throughout the course to complete your weekly data analyses and prepare your written assignments as they relate to public health informatics. Your weekly assignments will provide data to support your final term paper to be submitted in Week 5.

Based on the data in the spreadsheet, prepare a 3–4-page paper addressing the following questions:

Introduction: How is information collected, organized, scrubbed, coded, and entered into the PHIS?

Asthma Database Analyses:

Describe the structural organization of your database.

What is the survey population description?

Define pre-intervention

Define a database record. How many records are in your database?

Define a database field. How many fields are in your database?

Define a database field data definition (DD). What is an example in this database of a DD?

Based on the data collected, what is the purpose and potential use of this asthma survey data?

Summary: From the perspective of an information, discuss the asthma database’s key structural components, its organization, and potential uses.Submit a 3–4-page paper in a Microsoft Word document.

Requirements: 3-4

3rd grading assignments attached ZIP called Z1

4th this-course-has-focused-on-the-beginning-phase-of-social-work

This course has focused on the Beginning Phase of Social Work Practice. For this paper, choose one or more client systems that you have had a meaningful beginning with. Using the two required texts (Shulman and Kirst-Ashman & Hull), select four practice concepts relevant to the beginning phase of Social Work Practice and compose your paper. Practice concepts mean the applied social work skills you have utilized. Please see additional sheet attached to this assignment for some examples.

Your paper will need to reflect the following:

1. Offer a definition, from the text, followed by an explanation in your own words of each of the four concepts you have selected.

2. For each concept, submit a process vignette that provides an example of how you did or did not utilize the concept in your work with the particular client system. You will need to do this for each of the four concepts identified.

3. After each example, critically analyze your work by commenting on the strengths and weaknesses of the exchange. Through self-reflection offer ideas as to how you might have improved your use of the practice concept. Be specific.

4.Select a particular client system you interacted with during your internship and discuss any obstacles or challenges that occurred in your practice with this client system. Be sure to provide a clear example of the challenge or obstacle you encountered. Be specific as to how this impacted the nature of the work. Be particularly attentive to issues around diversity and difference including: age, class, race, culture, ability, gender, gender identity and expression, immigration status, mental health status, political ideology, religion, sexual orientation.

5. Discuss in what way your personal feelings did or did not impact on developing the working relationship with the client system you identified in number four. Comment on any challenges between your personal and professional value systems.

Develop your thinking by utilizing additional literature sources from inside and outside the course syllabus. The suggested length of the paper is 10 – 12 pages. Please ensure 12 point font double spaced, 1 inch margins and APA format.

Requirements: 10-12 pages

5TH RES7400 Factorial Designs

factorial designs, in a sense, allow us to research more than one study at the same time. Factorial designs allow researchers to study several independent variables at once, as well as the interactive effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable

FILE name RES7400 Factorial Designs

Operations Management homework help

: Operating Budget Q1

[Prior Quarter]

Budget Projection Next Q

Var +/-

 

Var %

 

Revenue

Sales Revenue

 

 

 

 

Interest Income

 

 

 

 

Investment Income

 

 

 

 

Other Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL INCOME

[Prior Quarter]

Budget Projection Next Q

Var +/-

Var %

Costs and Expenses

Advertising

 

 

 

 

Health Insurance

 

 

 

 

Installation/Repair of Equipment

 

 

 

 

Inventory Purchases

 

 

 

 

Salaries

 

 

 

 

Supplies

 

 

 

 

Insurance

 

 

 

 

Rent/Lease Payments

 

 

 

 

Other Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL EXPENSES

 

 

 

 

NET PROFIT/LOSS

Net Earnings Before Taxes (Gain or Loss)

 

 

 

 

Income Tax Expense

 

 

 

 

Net Earnings After Taxes

 

 

 

 

[Prior Q]

Proj. Q.

Change

Ratio Analysis (Choose a minimum of two)

Profitability Ratio

 

 

 

Liquidity Ratio

 

 

 

Solvency Ratio

 

 

 

Valuation Ratio

 

 

 

Leverage Ratio

 

 

 


Operations Management homework help

Organizational BehaviorOrganizational Behavior

Organizational BehaviorOrganizational Behavior

[AUTHOR REMOVED AT REQUEST OF ORIGINAL PUBLISHER]

U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I N N E S O T A L I B R A R I E S P U B L I S H I N G E D I T I O N , 2 0 1 7 . T H I S E D I T I O N A D A P T E D F R O M A
W O R K O R I G I N A L L Y P R O D U C E D I N 2 0 1 0 B Y A P U B L I S H E R W H O H A S R E Q U E S T E D T H A T I T N O T R E C E I V E

A T T R I B U T I O N .
M I N N E A P O L I S , M N

Organizational Behavior by [Author removed at request of original publisher] is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Contents

Publisher Information x

Chapter 1: Organizational Behavior

1.1 College Textbook Revolution 2
1.2 Understanding Organizational Behavior 4
1.3 Understanding Your Learning Style 14
1.4 Understanding How OB Research Is Done 17
1.5 Trends and Changes 22
1.6 Maintaining Core Values: The Case of Nau 31
1.7 Conclusion 33
1.8 Exercises 34

Chapter 2: Managing Demographic and Cultural Diversity

2.1 Doing Good as a Core Business Strategy: The Case of Goodwill Industries 37
2.2 Demographic Diversity 40
2.3 Cultural Diversity 64
2.4 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 75
2.5 Managing Diversity for Success: The Case of IBM 79
2.6 Conclusion 82
2.7 Exercises 83

Chapter 3: Understanding People at Work: Individual Differences and Perception

3.1 Advice for Hiring Successful Employees: The Case of Guy Kawasaki 86
3.2 The Interactionist Perspective: The Role of Fit 89
3.3 Individual Differences: Values and Personality 92
3.4 Perception 112
3.5 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 122
3.6 Using Science to Match Candidates to Jobs: The Case of Kronos 127
3.7 Conclusion 130
3.8 Exercises 131

Chapter 4: Individual Attitudes and Behaviors

4.1 People Come First: The Case of SAS 134
4.2 Work Attitudes 136
4.3 Work Behaviors 147
4.4 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 160
4.5 Rebounding from Defeat: The Case of Jeffrey Katzenberg 163
4.6 Conclusion 165
4.7 Exercises 166

Chapter 5: Theories of Motivation

5.1 A Motivating Place to Work: The Case of Zappos 170
5.2 Need-Based Theories of Motivation 172
5.3 Process-Based Theories 183
5.4 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 199
5.5 Motivation in Action: The Case of Trader Joe’s 202
5.6 Conclusion 204
5.7 Exercises 205

Chapter 6: Designing a Motivating Work Environment

6.1 Motivating Steel Workers Works: The Case of Nucor 208
6.2 Motivating Employees Through Job Design 210
6.3 Motivating Employees Through Goal Setting 223
6.4 Motivating Employees Through Performance Appraisals 232
6.5 Motivating Employees Through Performance Incentives 241
6.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 248
6.7 Motivation Key for Success: The Case of Xerox 251
6.8 Conclusion 253
6.9 Exercises 254

Chapter 7: Managing Stress and Emotions

7.1 Facing Foreclosure: The Case of Camden Property Trust 256
7.2 What Is Stress? 258
7.3 Avoiding and Managing Stress 272
7.4 What Are Emotions? 284
7.5 Emotions at Work 289
7.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 297
7.7 Getting Emotional: The Case of American Express 300
7.8 Conclusion 302

7.9 Exercises 303

Chapter 8: Communication

8.1 You’ve Got Mail…and You’re Fired! The Case of RadioShack 307
8.2 Understanding Communication 310
8.3 Communication Barriers 315
8.4 Different Types of Communication and Channels 328
8.5 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 345
8.6 Employee Satisfaction Translates to Success: The Case of Edward Jones 350
8.7 Conclusion 352
8.8 Exercises 353

Chapter 9: Managing Groups and Teams

9.1 Teamwork Takes to the Sky: The Case of General Electric 356
9.2 Group Dynamics 358
9.3 Understanding Team Design Characteristics 368
9.4 Management of Teams 384
9.5 Barriers to Effective Teams 390
9.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 392
9.7 Green Teams at Work: The Case of New Seasons Market 395
9.8 Conclusion 397
9.9 Exercises 398

Chapter 10: Conflict and Negotiations

10.1 Negotiation Failure: The Case of the PointCast 400
10.2 Understanding Conflict 402
10.3 Causes and Outcomes of Conflict 408
10.4 Conflict Management 413
10.5 Negotiations 420
10.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 435
10.7 Avoiding Conflict at WorldCom: The Case of Bernard Ebbers 438
10.8 Conclusion 441
10.9 Exercises 442

Chapter 11: Making Decisions

11.1 Decision-Making Culture: The Case of Google 446
11.2 Understanding Decision Making 449
11.3 Faulty Decision Making 461

11.4 Decision Making in Groups 466
11.5 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 475
11.6 Empowered Decision Making: The Case of Ingar Skaug 478
11.7 Conclusion 480
11.8 Exercises 481

Chapter 12: Leading People Within Organizations

12.1 Taking on the Pepsi Challenge: The Case of Indra Nooyi 486
12.2 Who Is a Leader? Trait Approaches to Leadership 489
12.3 What Do Leaders Do? Behavioral Approaches to Leadership 497
12.4 What Is the Role of the Context? Contingency Approaches to Leadership 503
12.5 What’s New? Contemporary Approaches to Leadership 513
12.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 529
12.7 Leadership Development: The Case of Starbucks 534
12.8 Conclusion 536
12.9 Exercises 537

Chapter 13: Power and Politics

13.1 Focus on Power: The Case of Steve Jobs 541
13.2 The Basics of Power 544
13.3 The Power to Influence 552
13.4 Organizational Politics 566
13.5 Understanding Social Networks 572
13.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 577
13.7 Getting Connected: The Case of Social Networking 581
13.8 Conclusion 583
13.9 Exercises 584

Chapter 14: Organizational Structure and Change

14.1 Organizational Structure: The Case of Toyota 590
14.2 Organizational Structure 592
14.3 Organizational Change 605
14.4 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 624
14.5 Changing for Good: The Case of Hanna Andersson Corporation 627
14.6 Conclusion 630
14.7 Exercises 631

Chapter 15: Organizational Culture

15.1 Building a Customer Service Culture: The Case of Nordstrom 634
15.2 Understanding Organizational Culture 636
15.3 Characteristics of Organizational Culture 641
15.4 Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture 653
15.5 Creating Culture Change 671
15.6 The Role of Ethics and National Culture 676
15.7 Clash of the Cultures: The Case of Newell Rubbermaid 679
15.8 Conclusion 681
15.9 Exercises 682

Please share your supplementary material! 685

Publisher Information

Organizational Behavior is adapted from a work produced and distributed under a Creative

Commons license (CC BY-NC-SA) in 2010 by a publisher who has requested that they and

the original author not receive attribution. This adapted edition is produced by the University

of Minnesota Libraries Publishing through the eLearning Support Initiative.

This adaptation has reformatted the original text, and replaced some images and figures to make the resulting

whole more shareable. This adaptation has not significantly altered or updated the original 2010 text. This work

is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

Chapter 1: Organizational Behavior

Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to understand and articulate answers to the following questions:

1. What is organizational behavior (OB)?

2. Why does organizational behavior matter?

3. How can I maximize my learning in this course?

4. What research methods are used to study organizational behavior?

5. What challenges and opportunities exist for OB?

1.1 College Textbook Revolution

The traditional textbook publishing model no longer serves the interests of students,

educators, and authors. Textbooks are too expensive for students and too inflexible

for instructors. And authors, the major, initial source of value in the industry, are

increasingly confused by faster revision demands and their compensation for those

revisions. Flat World addresses all these industry pain points.

Jeff Shelstad

In 2007, two textbook publishing industry veterans, Jeff Shelstad and Eric Frank, started a privately held
company, to be a new and disruptive model for the college textbook market. Traditional business textbook
publishers carry a portfolio of 5 to 10 titles per subject and charge premium prices for new textbooks, an
average of $1,000 in textbooks for a college student’s first year, according to a recent General Accounting
Office (GAO) report. FWK’s strategy aims to turn the traditional model on its head by providing online
textbook access free to students. FWK earns revenues by selling students the digital textbooks in alternate
formats, print and audio initially, and also by selling highly efficient and mobile study aids. Despite the
fact that professors have rated the academic quality of FWK textbooks as equal to or higher than that of
textbooks from traditional publishers, the cost to students is a fraction of current market prices due to the
efficiencies of the FWK business model. Moreover, with FWK’s platform, instructors who adopt FWK
books for their classes are able to pick and choose the material provided to their students, even if it is from
earlier versions of textbooks that have since been revised.

Shelstad and Frank previously served as the editorial director and the marketing director, respectively,
at Prentice Hall, a major U.S. publisher of educational materials and a division of Pearson PLC. They
resigned from Prentice Hall in January 2007 with plans to start a higher education publishing business
together. During the first several months, they met with many students, professors, authors, advisors, and
potential angel investors. Shelstad became the CEO; Frank was the chief marketing officer. They also
added David Wiley as the chief openness officer.

Asked why he started FWK, Shelstad said, “I was convinced the college textbook publishing industry
model was broken.” He added, “When more and more students are running from your core product, you
have a problem. For example, many leading business school textbooks sell in the college bookstore or on
various Internet sites for $150 or more. Students by and large don’t see that value. So they search franti-
cally for substitutes, and the Internet has made the availability and pricing of substitutes very obvious.” In
its first term (fall of 2009), FWK had 40,000 students using its textbooks. This steadily continued to rise
as faculty discovered the low-priced alternative that combined quality and affordability for their students.
As of January 2013, FWK has published more than 100 books, with faculty customers at more than 2000
institutions in 44 countries. As a result, more than 600,000 students have benefited from affordable text-
book choices that lower costs, increase access, and personalize learning.

Media attention regarding the fledgling FWK was generally very favorable. Social media experts also gave
the company accolades. For example, Chris Anderson devoted a page to the FWK business model in his

bestselling book ”Free: The Future of a Radical Price.” Moreover, early user reviews of the product were
also very positive. For instance, an instructor who adopted an early FWK text, Principles of Management,
noted, “I highly recommend this book as a primary textbook for…business majors. The overall context is
quite appropriate and the search capability within the context is useful. I have been quite impressed [with]
how they have highlighted the key areas.” At the same time, opportunities to improve the Web interface
still existed, with the same reviewer noting, “The navigation could be a bit more user friendly, however.”
FWK uses user input like this to better adjust the strategy and delivery of its model. This type of feedback
led the FWK design squad to improve its custom Web interface, so that instructors can more easily change
the book.

Further changes occurred in late 2012, when the company announced it would no longer offer free online
access to its textbooks. Moving from “free to fair” (the entry point for students is now $19.95) was a diffi-
cult but necessary decision. On its website, the company explained:

“As the transition to digital has changed student buying trends, the free format has become a barrier to our
long-term growth and ability to offer a fair and affordable model that works for all our customers, from
individual students and instructors to our institutional partners.”

In December 2012, the company announced the appointment of Christopher Etesse as CEO. Etesse is a
former senior executive and Chief Technology Officer with Blackboard Inc. Shelstad will remain with the
company in a strategic role as Founder.

Only time will tell if the $30 million invested in FWK by 2012 will result in the establishment of a new
titan in textbook publishing or will be an entrepreneurial miss.

Based on information from United States Government Accountability Office. (2005, July). College text-
books: Enhanced offering appear to drive recent price increases (GAO-05-806). Retrieved April 22, 2010,
from http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-806; Community College Open Textbook Collaborative.
(2009). Business reviews. Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http://www.collegeopentextbooks.org/reviews/
business.html; Personal interviews with Jeff Shelstad and Eric Frank.

Discussion Questions

1. Which competitive advantages do open textbooks seem to possess?

2. Which learning styles might be most effective for individuals in entrepreneurial firms? Explain
your answer.

3. How might the extensive textbook industry experience that open textbook founders possess help
or hinder the company’s ultimate success or failure?

4. If you were one of the founders, how would you prioritize how you spent your time in the first
weeks on the job after getting the venture capital funding?

1.2 Understanding Organizational Behavior

Learning Objectives

1. Learn about the layout of this book.

2. Understand what organizational behavior is.

3. Understand why organizational behavior matters.

4. Learn about OB Toolboxes in this book.

About This BookAbout This Book

The people make the place.

Benjamin Schneider, Fellow of the Academy of Management

This book is all about people, especially people at work. As evidenced in the opening case, we will share many

examples of people making their workplaces work. People can make work an exciting, fun, and productive place

to be, or they can make it a routine, boring, and ineffective place where everyone dreads to go. Steve Jobs,

cofounder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. attributes the innovations at Apple, which include the iPod, Mac-

Book, and iPhone, to people, noting, “Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have.…It’s

not about money. It’s about the people you have, how you’re led, and how much you get it” (Kirkpatrick, 1998).

This became a sore point with investors in early 2009 when Jobs took a medical leave of absence. Many wonder

if Apple will be as successful without him at the helm, and Apple stock plunged upon worries about his health

(Parloff, 2008).

Figure 1.2

Steve Jobs is known for developing innovative products by hiring the right people for the job and fostering a culture of hard work and creativ-

ity.

Wikimedia Commons – CC BY 3.0.

Mary Kay Ash, founder of Mary Kay Inc., a billion-dollar cosmetics company, makes a similar point, saying,

“People are definitely a company’s greatest asset. It doesn’t make any difference whether the product is cars or

cosmetics. A company is only as good as the people it keeps”
1

Just like people, organizations come in many shapes and sizes. We understand that the career path you will take

may include a variety of different organizations. In addition, we know that each student reading this book has a

unique set of personal and work-related experiences, capabilities, and career goals. On average, a person working

in the United States will change jobs 10 times in 20 years (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005). In order to suc-

ceed in this type of career situation, individuals need to be armed with the tools necessary to be lifelong learners.

So, this book will not be about giving you all the answers to every situation you may encounter when you start

your first job or as you continue up the career ladder. Instead, this book will give you the vocabulary, framework,

and critical thinking skills necessary for you to diagnose situations, ask tough questions, evaluate the answers you

receive, and act in an effective and ethical manner regardless of situational characteristics.

Throughout this book, when we refer to organizations, we will include examples that may apply to diverse orga-

nizations such as publicly held, for-profit organizations like Google and American Airlines, privately owned busi-

nesses such as S. C. Johnson & Son Inc. (makers of Windex glass cleaner) and Mars Inc. (makers of Snickers

and M&Ms), and not-for-profit organizations such as the Sierra Club or Mercy Corps, and nongovernmental orga-

nizations (NGOs) such as Doctors Without Borders and the International Red Cross. We will also refer to both

small and large corporations. You will see examples from Fortune 500 organizations such as Intel Corporation or

Home Depot Inc., as well as small start-up organizations. Keep in mind that some of the small organizations of

today may become large organizations in the future. For example, in 1998, eBay Inc. had only 29 employees and

$47.4 million in income, but by 2008 they had grown to 11,000 employees and over $7 billion in revenue (Gibson,

2008). Regardless of the size or type of organization you may work for, people are the common denominator of

how work is accomplished within organizations.

Together, we will examine people at work both as individuals and within work groups and how they impact and

are impacted by the organizations where they work. Before we can understand these three levels of organizational

behavior, we need to agree on a definition of organizational behavior.

What Is Organizational Behavior?What Is Organizational Behavior?

Organizational behavior (OB) is defined as the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individ-

uals and groups act within the organizations where they work. As you will see throughout this book, definitions

are important. They are important because they tell us what something is as well as what it is not. For example, we

will not be addressing childhood development in this course—that concept is often covered in psychology—but

we might draw on research about twins raised apart to understand whether job attitudes are affected by genetics.

OB draws from other disciplines to create a unique field. As you read this book, you will most likely recognize

OB’s roots in other disciplines. For example, when we review topics such as personality and motivation, we will

again review studies from the field of psychology. The topic of team processes relies heavily on the field of soci-

ology. In the chapter relating to decision making, you will come across the influence of economics. When we

1. Retrieved June 4, 2008, from http://www.litera.co.uk/t/NDk1MDA/.

study power and influence in organizations, we borrow heavily from political sciences. Even medical science con-

tributes to the field of organizational behavior, particularly to the study of stress and its effects on individuals.

Figure 1.3

OB spans topics related from the individual to the organization.

Those who study organizational behavior—which now includes you—are interested in several outcomes such as

work attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) as well as job performance (e.g., customer

service and counterproductive work behaviors). A distinction is made in OB regarding which level of the organi-

zation is being studied at any given time. There are three key levels of analysis in OB. They are examining the

individual, the group, and the organization. For example, if I want to understand my boss’s personality, I would

be examining the individual level of analysis. If we want to know about how my manager’s personality affects my

team, I am examining things at the team level. But, if I want to understand how my organization’s culture affects

my boss’s behavior, I would be interested in the organizational level of analysis.

Why Organizational Behavior MattersWhy Organizational Behavior Matters

OB matters at three critical levels. It matters because it is all about things you care about. OB can help you

become a more engaged organizational member. Getting along with others, getting a great job, lowering your

stress level, making more effective decisions, and working effectively within a team…these are all great things,

and OB addresses them!

It matters because employers care about OB. A recent survey by the National Association of Colleges and

Employers (NACE) asked employers which skills are the most important for them when evaluating job candi-

dates, and OB topics topped the list (NACE 2007 Job Outlook Survey, 2008).

The following were the top five personal qualities/skills:

1. Communication skills (verbal and written)

2. Honesty/integrity

3. Interpersonal skills (relates well to others)

4. Motivation/initiative

5. Strong work ethic

These are all things we will cover in OB.

Finally, it matters because organizations care about OB. The best companies in the world understand that the

people make the place. How do we know this? Well, we know that organizations that value their employees

are more profitable than those that do not (Huselid, 1995; Pfeffer, 1998; Pfeffer & Veiga, 1999; Welbourne &

Andrews, 1996). Research shows that successful organizations have a number of things in common, such as pro-

viding employment security, engaging in selective hiring, utilizing self-managed teams, being decentralized, pay-

ing well, training employees, reducing status differences, and sharing information (Pfeffer & Veiga, 1999). For

example, every Whole Foods store has an open compensation policy in which salaries (including bonuses) are

listed for all employees. There is also a salary cap that limits the maximum cash compensation paid to anyone

in the organization, such as a CEO, in a given year to 19 times the companywide annual average salary of all

full-time employees. What this means is that if the average employee makes $30,000 per year, the highest poten-

tial pay for their CEO would be $570,000, which is a lot of money but pales in comparison to salaries such as

Steve Jobs of Apple at $14.6 million or the highest paid CEO in 2007, Larry Ellison of Oracle, at $192.9 million

(Elmer-DeWitt, 2008). Research shows that organizations that are considered healthier and more effective have

strong OB characteristics throughout them such as role clarity, information sharing, and performance feedback.

Unfortunately, research shows that most organizations are unhealthy, with 50% of respondents saying that their

organizations do not engage in effective OB practices (Aguirre et al., 2005).

In the rest of this chapter, we will build on how you can use this book by adding tools to your OB Toolbox in

each section of the book as well as assessing your own learning style. In addition, it is important to understand

the research methods used to define OB, so we will also review those. Finally, you will see what challenges and

opportunities businesses are facing and how OB can help overcome these challenges.

Adding to Your OB ToolboxAdding to Your OB Toolbox

Your OB ToolboxYour OB Toolbox

OB Toolboxes appear throughout this book. They indicate a tool that you can try out today to help you
develop your OB skills.

Throughout the book, you will see many OB Toolbox features. Our goal in writing this book is to create something

useful for you to use now and as you progress through your career. Sometimes we will focus on tools you can use

today. Other times we will focus on things you may want to think about that may help you later. As you progress,

you may discover some OB tools that are particularly relevant to you while others are not as appropriate at the

moment. That’s great—keep those that have value to you. You can always go back and pick up tools later on if

they don’t seem applicable right now.

The important thing to keep in mind is that the more tools and skills you have, the higher the quality of your inter-

actions with others will be and the more valuable you will become to organizations that compete for top talent

(Michaels, Handfield-Jones, & Axelrod, 2001). It is not surprising that, on average, the greater the level of educa-

tion you have, the more money you will make. In 2006, those who had a college degree made 62% more money

than those who had a high school degree (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). Organizations value and pay for skills

as the next figure shows.

Figure 1.4

Education and training have financial payoffs as illustrated by these unemployment and earnings for work-

ers 25 and older.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov.

Tom Peters is a management expert who talks about the concept of individuals thinking of themselves as a brand

to be managed. Further, he recommends that individuals manage themselves like free agents (Peters, 1997; Peters,

2004). The following OB Toolbox includes several ideas for being effective in keeping up your skill set.

Your OB Toolbox: Skill Survival KitYour OB Toolbox: Skill Survival Kit

• Keep your skills fresh. Consider revolutionizing your portfolio of skills at least every 6 years.

• Master something. Competence in many skills is important, but excelling at something will set you
apart.

• Embrace ambiguity. Many people fear the unknown. They like things to be predictable. Unfortu-
nately, the only certainty in life is that things will change. Instead of running from this truth,
embrace the situation as a great opportunity.

• Network. The term has been overused to the point of sounding like a cliché, but networking works.
This doesn’t mean that having 200 connections on MySpace, LinkedIn, or Facebook makes you
more effective than someone who has 50, but it does mean that getting to know people is a good
thing in ways you can’t even imagine now.

• Appreciate new technology. This doesn’t mean you should get and use every new gadget that comes
out on the market, but it does mean you need to keep up on what the new technologies are and how
they may affect you and the business you are in.

Source: Adapted from ideas in Peters, T. (2007). Brand you survival kit. Fast Company. Retrieved July 1,
2008, from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/83/playbook.html.

A key step in building your OB skills

Operations Management homework help

Team Discussion: Apply Your Skills – Medical Industry

IntroductionDis

Throughout this course, you will be participating with your peers on an operations management task force team.  For your initial task, your team will meet to create an idea for your business and decide who will work in your self-selected industry. But first, let’s learn more about the company.  Nanotechnology Solutions is a large corporation that owns several subsidiaries in these fields:

Medical Industry

Nanotechnology Solutions not only owns your branch; but is the main supplier of your product line. For further information about the company, read the document, Nanotechnology Solutions, Inc., About Us.

Instructions

Your first step is to select a team that you would like to be a part of.  Each team is listed above, so please select your team based on your interest.  You are to make your team decision by Wednesday of this week.  Once your team is full, decide on who will be the team leader. This person will be responsible for submitting your team’s work throughout the course.

Before we begin, please read the following documents that will walk you through how to self-select your team and how to access your team in the future:

How to Self-Select My Group [PDF, 259 KB]

Accessing My Team [PDF, 235 KB]

Let’s Begin

Think about what you do in your job or what you aspire to do. Get to know one another in your task force and discuss the following keeping in mind the possible role you may take on in your group:

How would you fit into Nanotechnology Solutions as a problem solver?

How are you going to take what you know and apply it to the skills in this course? 

Identify your skill-set and explain how they are transferrable and will contribute to the success of your branch company. (ie. How do you envision your current skill set playing a role on the task force for the project for this course?)

You will collaborate with your team in this discussion forum. 

This assignment is due by the end of the module, so please visit often and contribute.

Operations Management homework help

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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 [WC]

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Manning, Gerald L., author
Selling today : partnering to create value / Gerald L. Manning , Michael
Ahearne, Barry L. Reece, H.F. (Herb) MacKenzie. — Seventh Canadian edition.

Includes index.
Revision of: Selling today : partnering to create value / Gerald L. Manning
… [et al.] 6th Canadian ed. Toronto : Pearson Canada, 2013.
ISBN 978-0-13-315685-0 (pbk.)

1. Selling—Textbooks. I. Ahearne, Michael, author II. Reece, Barry L.,
author III. MacKenzie, H. F., author IV. Title.

HF5438.25.M35 2015 658.85 C2014-904175-6

ISBN 978-0-13-315685-0

v

Part I Developing a Personal
Selling Philosophy 1

1 Relationship Selling Opportunities in
the Information Economy 1

2 Evolution of Selling Models That
Complement the Marketing Concept 29

Part II Developing a Relationship
Strategy 50

3 Ethics: The Foundation for Relationships
That Create Value 50

4 Creating Value with a Relationship
Strategy 76

5 Communication Styles: A Key to
Adaptive Selling Today 98

Part III Developing a Product
Strategy 124

6 Creating Product Solutions 124
7 Product-Selling Strategies That Add

Value 148

Part IV Developing a Customer
Strategy 169

8 The Buying Process and Buyer
Behaviour 169

9 Developing and Qualifying Prospects
and Accounts 195

Part V Developing
a Presentation
Strategy 225

10 Approaching the Customer with
Adaptive Selling 225

11 Determining Customer Needs with a
Consultative Questioning Strategy 252

12 Creating Value with the Consultative
Presentation 280

13 Negotiating Buyer Concerns 308
14 Adapting the Close and Confirming

the Partnership 334
15 Servicing the Sale and Building

the Partnership 356

Part VI Management of Self
and Others 380

16 Opportunity Management:
The Key to Greater Sales
Productivity 380

17 Management of the Sales
Force 402

Appendix 424
Endnotes 442
Name Index 461
Subject Index 465

Brief Contents

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vii

Preface xv
About the Authors xxv

Part I Developing a Personal
Selling Philosophy 1

1 Relationship Selling Opportunities in
the Information Economy 1

Personal Selling Today—A Definition and a
Philosophy 2

Emergence of Relationship Selling in the
Information Economy 3

Considerations for a Future in Personal
Selling 6

Wide Range of Employment Opportunities 6
Activities Performed by Salespeople 7
Above-Average Income 9
Above-Average Psychic Income 10
Opportunity for Advancement 10
Opportunities for Women 11
Employment Settings in Selling Today 11
Selling through Channels 12
Career Opportunities in the Service Channel 12
Career Opportunities in the Business Goods Channel 15
Career Opportunities in the Consumer Goods

Channel 17
Selling Skills—One of the “Master Skills for

Success” in the Information Age 18
Knowledge Workers in the Information Economy 19
Managerial Personnel 20
Professionals 20
Entrepreneurs 21
Marketing Personnel and Customer Service

Representatives 21
Learning to Sell 22
Corporate-Sponsored Training 22
Training Provided by Commercial Vendors 22
Certification Programs 24
College and University Courses 24

Reviewing Key Concepts 25
Key Terms 26
Review Questions 26
Application Exercises 26

Role-Play Exercise 27
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 27
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 28

2 Evolution of Selling Models That
Complement the Marketing Concept 29

Marketing Concept Requires New Selling
Models 30

Evolution of the Marketing Concept 31
Marketing Concept Yields Marketing Mix 32
Important Role of Personal Selling 33
Evolution of Consultative Selling 33
Evolution of Strategic Selling 35
The Strategic/Consultative Selling Model 36
Evolution of Partnering 42
Strategic Selling Alliances—The Highest Form of

Partnering 43
Partnering Is Enhanced with High Ethical

Standards 44
Partnering Is Enhanced with Customer Relationship

Management 45
Value Creation—The New Selling

Imperative 45

Reviewing Key Concepts 46
Key Terms 47
Review Questions 47
Application Exercises 48
Role-Play Exercise 48
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 48
Part I Role-Play Exercise 49

Part II Developing a Relationship
Strategy 50

3 Ethics: The Foundation for Relationships
That Create Value 50

Developing a Relationship Strategy for
Partnering-Style Selling 51

Emotional Intelligence 51
Issues Challenging the Ethics of Salespeople 52
Factors Influencing Ethical Decision Making of

Salespeople 54
Influences in a Global Economy 55

Contents

viii C o n t e n t s

Influence of Company Policies and Practices 57
Influence of the Sales Manager 61
Influence of the Salesperson’s Personal Values 61
Influence of Laws, Contracts, and Agreements 63
Building Trust with The Transactional,

Consultative, and Strategic Alliance
Buyer 64

Making Ethical Decisions That Build Selling
Relationships 64

Influence of Character in Ethical Decision Making 66
The Erosion of Character on Ethical Decision

Making 66
Developing a Personal Code of Ethics

That Adds Value 69

Reviewing Key Concepts 70
Key Terms 71
Review Questions 72
Application Exercises 72
Role-Play Exercise 74
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 74

4 Creating Value with a Relationship
Strategy 76

Relationships Add Value 77
Partnering—The Highest-Quality Selling

Relationship 78
Relationship Strategies Focus on Four Key Groups 80
Adapting the Relationship Strategy 81
Thought Processes that Enhance Your Selling

Relationship Strategy 81
Self-Concept—An Important Dimension of the

Relationship Strategy 81
The Win-Win Philosophy 82
Empathy and Ego Drive 84
Verbal and Nonverbal Strategies that Add Value

to Your Selling Relationships 84
Adding Value with Nonverbal Messages 85
Impact of Appearance on Relationships 88
Effect of Voice Quality on Relationships 89
Effect of Etiquette on Your Relationships 90
Conversational Strategies that Enhance Selling

Relationships 91
Comments on Here and Now Observations 91
Compliments 92
Search for Mutual Acquaintances or Interests 92
Self-Improvement Strategies that

Add Value 92

Reviewing Key Concepts 94
Key Terms 94

Review Questions 95
Application Exercises 95
Role-Play Exercise 96
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 97

5 Communication Styles: A Key to
Adaptive Selling Today 98

Communication Styles—An Introduction to
Managing Selling Relationships 99

Communication-Style Bias 100
Communication-Style Principles 101
Improving Your Relationship Selling Skills 102
Communication-Style Model 102
Dominance Continuum 102
Sociability Continuum 104
Four Styles of Communication 105
Popularity of the Four-Style Model 112
Determining Your Communication Style 113
Minimizing Communication-Style Bias 113
How Communication-Style Bias Develops 114
Adaptive Selling Requires Versatility 114
Building Strong Relationships Through

Style Flexing 118
Building Relationships with Emotive Customers 118
Building Relationships with Directive Customers 119
Building Relationships with Reflective

Customers 119
Building Relationships with Supportive

Customers 119
Word of Caution 119

Reviewing Key Concepts 120
Key Terms 120
Review Questions 121
Application Exercises 121
Role-Play Exercise 122
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 122
Part II Role-Play Exercise 123

Part III Developing a Product
Strategy 124

6 Creating Product Solutions 124
Developing a Product Solution that Adds

Value 125
Selling Solutions 126
Explosion of Product Options 127
Creating Solutions with Product Configuration 128
Preparing Written Proposals 128

ixC o n t e n t s

Become a Product Expert 129
Product Development and Quality Improvement

Processes 131
Performance Data and Specifications 131
Maintenance and Service Contracts 132
Price and Delivery 133
Become a Company Expert 133
Company Culture and Organization 135
Company Support for Product 136
Become the Industry Expert—Know Your

Competition 137
Develop and Communicate a Healthy Attitude

toward Your Competition 137
Sources of Product, Company, and Industry

Information 138
Web-Based Sources, Catalogues, and Marketing-

Related Sales Support Information 138
Engage in Plant Tours 138
Build Strong Relationships with Internal Sales and

Sales Support Team Members 139
Today’s Wired Customers Have a Lot of Product,

Competitive, and Industry Knowledge 139
Researching and Using Products 140
Reading and Studying Publications 140
Word of Caution 140
Creating Value with a Feature–Benefit

Strategy 141
Distinguish between Features and Benefits 141
Use Bridge Statements 142
Identify Features and Benefits 142
Avoid Information Overload 143

Reviewing Key Concepts 144
Key Terms 144
Review Questions 145
Application Exercises 145
Role-Play Exercise 146
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 146
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 147

7 Product-Selling Strategies That Add
Value 148

Product Positioning—In a Competitive
Marketplace 149

Essentials of Product Positioning 150
Salesperson’s Role in Product Differentiation 150
Custom-Fitting and Communicating the Value

Proposition 151
The Three-Dimension (3-D) Product Solutions

Selling Model 151

Product-Positioning Strategies to Sell New
(Vs. Mature) and Low-Priced
(Vs. Value-Added) Products 155

Selling New Products versus Well-Established
Products 155

Selling Products with a Price Strategy 157
Selling Your Product with a Value-Added Strategy 159
Value Creation Investments for Transactional,

Consultative, and Strategic Alliance Buyers 163

Reviewing Key Concepts 164
Key Terms 165
Review Questions 165
Application Exercises 165
Role-Play Exercise 166
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 166
Part III Role-Play Exercise 167

Part IV Developing a Customer
Strategy 169

8 The Buying Process and Buyer
Behaviour 169

Developing a Customer Strategy 170
Adding Value with a Customer Strategy 171
Complex Nature of Customer Behaviour 172
Consumer Versus Business Buyers 173
Types of Business Buying Situations 173
Types of Consumer Buying Situations 175
Achieving Alignment with the Customer’s

Buying Process 176
Steps in the Typical Buying Process 176
Understanding the Buying Process of the

Transactional, Consultative, and Strategic
Alliance Buyer 179

Transactional Process Buyer 179
Consultative Process Buyer 179
Strategic Alliance Process Buyer 180
The Buyer Resolution Theory 180
Understanding Buyer Behaviour 182
Basic Needs That Influence Buyer Behaviour 182
Group Influences That Affect Buying Decisions 184
Perception—How Customer Needs Are Formed 187
Buying Motives 188

Reviewing Key Concepts 191
Key Terms 192
Review Questions 192
Application Exercises 192
Role-Play Exercise 193
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 193

x C o n t e n t s

9 Developing and Qualifying Prospects
and Accounts 195

Prospecting and Account Development—An
Introduction 196

Importance of Prospecting and Account
Development 198

Prospecting Requires Planning 198
Account Development and Prospecting Plans Must Be

Assessed Often 200
Sources of Prospects 200
Referrals 201
Centres of Influence, Friends, and Family

Members 202
Directories 202
Trade Publications 203
Trade Shows and Special Events 204
Telemarketing and Email 205
Direct-Response Advertising and Sales Letters 206
Websites 206
Computerized Databases 206
Cold Calling 208
Networking 209
Educational Seminars 211
Prospecting and Account Development

by Non-Sales Employees 211
Combination Approaches 212
Qualifying Prospects and Accounts 212
Collecting and Organizing Prospect

Information 213
Sales Intelligence 214
Managing the Prospect Base 216
Portfolio Models 217
Sales Process Models 218
Pipeline Management, Pipeline Analytics, and Pipeline

Dashboards 219

Reviewing Key Concepts 221
Key Terms 221
Review Questions 221
Application Exercises 222
Role-Play Exercise 222
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 223
Part IV Role-Play Exercise 224

Part V Developing a Presentation
Strategy 225

10 Approaching the Customer with
Adaptive Selling 225

Developing the Presentation Strategy 226

Presentation Strategy Adds Value 227
Planning the Preapproach 228
Establishing Presentation Objectives 229
Team Presentation Strategies 230
Strategies for Selling to a Buying Committee 231
Adaptive Selling: Builds on Four Strategic Areas of

Personal Selling 232
Developing the Six-Step Presentation Plan 233
Planning the Presentation 234
Adapting the Presentation Plan to the Customer’s

Buying Process 235
The Approach 235
The Telephone Contact 236
The Social Contact—Building Rapport 239
The Business Contact 241
Converting the Buyer’s Attention and Arousing

Interest 241
Coping with Sales Call Reluctance 246
Selling to the Gatekeeper 247

Reviewing Key Concepts 247
Key Terms 248
Review Questions 248
Application Exercises 249
Role-Play Exercise 249
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 250
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 250

11 Determining Customer Needs with a
Consultative Questioning
Strategy 252

The Consultative Sales Process Adds
Value 254

The Four-Part Need-Satisfaction Model 256
Part One—Need Discovery 256
Part Two—Selection of the Solution 256
Part Three—Need Satisfaction through Informing,

Persuading, and/or Reminding 257
Part Four—Servicing the Sale 258
Creating Value with Need Discovery 258
Need Discovery—Asking Questions 259
The Four-Part Consultative Questioning Strategy 261
Qualifying to Eliminate Unnecessary Questions 267
Need Discovery—Listening to and

Acknowledging the Customer’s Response 268
Need Discovery—Establishing Buying Motives 269
Selecting Solutions that Create Value 269
Selecting Solutions—Match Specific Benefits with

Buying Motives 270
Selecting Solutions—Product Configuration 271

xiC o n t e n t s

Selecting Solutions—Make Appropriate
Recommendations 272

Need Discovery and the Transactional Buyer 273
Involving the Prospect in the Need Discovery 273
Transitioning to the Presentation 273
Planning and Execution—Final Thoughts 274
Reviewing Key Concepts 275
Key Terms 276
Review Questions 276
Role-Play Application Exercises for the Questions,

Questions, Questions Video Series 276
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 277
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 278

12 Creating Value with the Consultative
Presentation 280

Need Satisfaction—Selecting a Presentation
Strategy 282

Need Satisfaction—The Informative Presentation
Strategy 283

Need Satisfaction—The Persuasive Presentation
Strategy 283

Need Satisfaction—The Reminder Presentation
Strategy 284

Guidelines for Creating a Presentation that
Adds Value 285

Adapt the Presentation to Meet the Unique Needs of
the Customer 285

Cover One Idea at a Time and Use an Appropriate
Amount of Detail 287

Use Proof Devices to Demonstrate Buyer Benefits 287
Appeal to As Many Senses as Appropriate 288
Balance Telling, Showing, and Involvement 289
Develop Creative Presentations 290
Consider the Use of Humour—in Moderation 290
Choose the Right Setting 290
Document the Value Proposition 290
Quantifying the Solution 291
Check Sales Tools 291
Summarize Major Points 291
Guidelines for a Persuasive Presentation Strategy

that Adds Value 292
Place Special Emphasis on the Relationship 292
Target Emotional Links and Use a Persuasive

Vocabulary 293
Sell Specific Benefits and Obtain Customer

Reactions 293
Use of Showmanship 294
Minimize the Negative Impact of Change 294
Place the Strongest Appeal at the Beginning or End 295

Use the Power of Association with Metaphors, Stories,
and Testimonials 295

Guidelines for a Group Sales Presentation 296
Enhancing the Group Presentation with Mental

Imagery 296
Audiovisual Presentation Fundamentals 297
Selling Tools for Effective Demonstrations 298
Product and Plant Tours 298
Models 298
Photos, Illustrations, and Brochures 299
Portfolios 299
Reprints 299
Catalogues 300
Graphs, Charts, and Test Results 300
Bound Paper Presentations 300
Laptop Computers and Demonstration Software 300
Rehearse the Presentation 302
Plan for the Dynamic Nature of Selling 302

Reviewing Key Concepts 304
Key Terms 304
Review Questions 305
Application Exercises 305
Role-Play Exercise 305
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 306
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 307

13 Negotiating Buyer Concerns 308
Negotiating Buyer Concerns and Problems 309
Formal Integrative Negotiation—Part of the

Win-Win Relationship Strategy 310
Negotiation Is a Process 311
Planning for Formal Negotiations 313
Conducting the Negotiation Session 316
Know When to Walk Away 317
Common Types of Buyer Concerns 318
Concerns Related to Need for the Product 318
Concerns about the Product or Service 318
Concerns Related to Source 319
Concerns Related to Time 320
Concerns Related to Price 320
Specific Methods of Negotiating Buyer

Concerns 320
Direct Denial 320
Indirect Denial 321
Questions 322
Superior Benefit 322
Demonstration 322
Trial Offer 322
Third-Party Testimony 323
Postpone Method 323

xii C o n t e n t s

Creating Value During Formal
Negotiations 324

How to Deal with Price Concerns 324
Negotiating Price with a Low-Price Strategy 326
Working with Buyers Who are Trained in

Negotiation 327
Budget Limitation Tactic 327
Take-It-or-Leave-It Tactic 328
Let-Us-Split-the-Difference Tactic 328
“If … Then” Tactic 328
“Sell Low Now, Make Profits Later” Tactic 329

Reviewing Key Concepts 329
Key Terms 330
Review Questions 330
Application Exercises 331
Role-Play Exercise 331
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 331
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 333

14 Adapting the Close and Confirming
the Partnership 334

Adapting the Close—An Attitude that Adds
Value 335

Review the Value Proposition from the Prospect’s
Point of View 337

Closing the Sale—The Beginning of the
Partnership 337

Guidelines for Closing the Sale 337
Focus on Dominant Buying Motives 337
Longer Selling Cycles and Incremental

Commitments 338
Negotiate the Tough Points before Attempting the

Close 339
Avoid Surprises at the Close 339
“Tough-Mindedness”—Display a High Degree of

Self-Confidence at the Close 340
Ask for the Order More Than Once 340
Recognize Closing Clues 340
Specific Methods for Closing the Sale 342
Trial Close 343
Direct Appeal Close 343
Assumptive Close 343
Summary-of-Benefits Close 345
Special Concession Close 346
Multiple Options Close 346
Balance Sheet Close 346
Management Close 347
Impending Event Close 347
Combination Closes 348

Adapting to the Customer’s Communication Style 348
Practise Closing 349
Confirming the Partnership when the Buyer Says

Yes 350
What to Do When the Buyer Says No 350

Reviewing Key Concepts 352
Key Terms 352
Review Questions 353
Application Exercises 353
Role-Play Exercise 354
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 354
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 355

15 Servicing the Sale and Building
the Partnership 356

Building Long-Term Partnerships with Customer
Service 357

Achieving Successive Sales 358
Responding to Increased Postsale Customer

Expectations 359
High Cost of Customer Attrition 360
Current Developments in Customer

Service 361
Computer-Based Systems 362
Customer Service Methods that Strengthen

the Partnership 362
Adding Value with Follow-Through 362
Preventing Postsale Problems 365
Adding Value with Customer Follow-Up 365
Adding Value with Expansion Selling 369
Preplan Your Service Strategy 371
Partnership-Building Strategies Should Encompass All

Key People 372
Partnering with an Unhappy Customer 372

Reviewing Key Concepts 374
Key Terms 375
Review Questions 375
Application Exercises 375
Role-Play Exercise 376
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 376
Partnership Selling: A Role Play/Simulation 378
Part V Role-Play Exercise 378

Part VI Management of Self
and Others 380

16 Opportunity Management: The Key to
Greater Sales Productivity 380

xiiiC o n t e n t s

Opportunity Management—A Four-Dimensional
Process 381

Time Management 382
Time-Consuming Activities 382
Time Management Methods 384
Saving Time with Meetings in Cyberspace and Other

Methods of Communication 386
Territory Management 389
What Does Territory Management Involve? 389
Sales Call Plans 391
Records Management 392
Common Records Kept by Salespeople 393
Maintaining Perspective 395
Stress Management 395
Develop a Stress-Free Home Office 396
Maintain an Optimistic Outlook 397
Practise Healthy Emotional Expression 397
Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle 398

Reviewing Key Concepts 399
Key Terms 399
Review Questions 399
Application Exercises 400
Role-Play Exercise 400
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 400

17 Management of the Sales Force 402
Applying Leadership Skills to Sales

Management 403

Structure 405
Consideration 406
Situational Leadership 408
Coaching for Peak Performance 408
Recruitment and Selection of Salespeople 410
Determine Actual Job Requirements 410
Search Out Applicants from Several Sources 411
Select the Best-Qualified Applicant 412
Personality and Skills Testing 412
Orientation and Training 413
Sales Force Motivation 415
Effective Use of External Rewards 416
Compensation Plans 417
Strategic Compensation Planning 418
Assessing Sales Force Productivity 419

Reviewing Key Concepts 420
Key Terms 421
Review Questions 421
Application Exercises 422
Role-Play Exercise 422
Reality Selling Video Case Problem 422

Appendix 424
Endnotes 442
Name Index 461

Subject Index 465

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xv

Today, the profession of selling enjoys unprecedented growth in importance as the
western world completes its transition from a production-focused to a sales- and service-
focused economy. There are well over a million people employed in sales positions across
Canada: more than 10 percent of the workforce. This increasingly sales-oriented economy
calls for a more professional and customer-oriented selling attitude. This in turn neces-
sitates learning and teaching selling strategies and skills in a more systematic fashion. The
role of sales representative is predicted to be one of the occupations in greatest demand
over the next decade.

Surprisingly, those seeking a job in sales are not the only ones who will benefit from
learning how to sell. In fact, almost everyone these days uses traditional sales-related
activities in their professional and social lives. People use a whole assortment of selling
techniques in everyday life to persuade decision makers

Operations Management homework help

: Operating Budget Q1

[Prior Quarter]

Budget Projection Next Q

Var +/-

 

Var %

 

Revenue

Sales Revenue

 

 

 

 

Interest Income

 

 

 

 

Investment Income

 

 

 

 

Other Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL INCOME

[Prior Quarter]

Budget Projection Next Q

Var +/-

Var %

Costs and Expenses

Advertising

 

 

 

 

Health Insurance

 

 

 

 

Installation/Repair of Equipment

 

 

 

 

Inventory Purchases

 

 

 

 

Salaries

 

 

 

 

Supplies

 

 

 

 

Insurance

 

 

 

 

Rent/Lease Payments

 

 

 

 

Other Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL EXPENSES

 

 

 

 

NET PROFIT/LOSS

Net Earnings Before Taxes (Gain or Loss)

 

 

 

 

Income Tax Expense

 

 

 

 

Net Earnings After Taxes

 

 

 

 

[Prior Q]

Proj. Q.

Change

Ratio Analysis (Choose a minimum of two)

Profitability Ratio

 

 

 

Liquidity Ratio

 

 

 

Solvency Ratio

 

 

 

Valuation Ratio

 

 

 

Leverage Ratio

 

 

 


Operations Management homework help

C H A P T E R 5 | D E S I G N O F G O O D S A N D S E R V I C E S

CASE STUDIES
De Mar’s Product Strategy

De Mar, a plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning company

located in Fresno, California, has a simple but powerful prod-

uct strategy: Solve the customer’s problem no matter what, solve
the problem when the customer needs it solved, and make sure the
customer feels good when you leave . De Mar offers guaranteed,
same-day service for customers requiring it. The company pro-

vides 24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week service at no extra charge for

customers whose air conditioning dies on a hot summer Sunday

or whose toilet overflows at 2:30 A.M. As assistant service coor-

dinator Janie Walter puts it: “We will be there to fix your A/C on

the fourth of July, and it’s not a penny extra. When our competi-

tors won’t get out of bed, we’ll be there!”

De Mar guarantees the price of a job to the penny before the

work begins. Whereas most competitors guarantee their work for

30 days, De Mar guarantees all parts and labor for one year. The

company assesses no travel charge because “it’s not fair to charge

customers for driving out.” Owner Larry Harmon says: “We are

in an industry that doesn’t have the best reputation. If we start

making money our main goal, we are in trouble. So I stress cus-

tomer satisfaction; money is the by-product.”

De Mar uses selective hiring, ongoing training and education,

performance measures, and compensation that incorporate cus-

tomer satisfaction, strong teamwork, peer pressure, empower-

ment, and aggressive promotion to implement its strategy. Says

credit manager Anne Semrick: “The person who wants a nine-to-

five job needs to go somewhere else.”

De Mar is a premium pricer. Yet customers respond because

De Mar delivers value—that is, benefits for costs. In 8 years,

annual sales increased from about $200,000 to more than

$3.3 million.

Discussion Questions

1. What is De Mar’s product? Identify the tangible parts of this
product and its service components.

2. How should other areas of De Mar (marketing, finance, per-
sonnel) support its product strategy?

3. Even though De Mar’s product is primarily a service product,
how should each of the 10 strategic OM decisions in the text be

managed to ensure that the product is successful?

Source: Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, from On Great Service: A Framework for Action by Leonard L. Berry.

M05_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C05.indd 189 20/11/15 2:56 PM

Operations Management homework help

(DEA Application)
Conduct a DEA study for an application that you are personally familiar with.
(Pick one for which data is readily available but something that you are passionate about. It can have
scrubbed or anonymized data. Examples might include your favorite sports league, team salaries,
coaching salaries, wins, etc. or it can be USAF related.)

a. Describe the application.
b. Describe and justify the data including the inputs and outputs used as well as items explicitly not used.
c. Select an appropriate DEA model and conduct the analysis. d. Discuss the results.
d. Discuss the results.

Operations Management homework help



Aligning Agile Methodologies

STORY PROBLEM

METHODOLOGY OR COMBINATION OF METHODOLOGIES

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE METHODOLOGY OR COMBINATION OF METHODOLOGIES

A specialized contracting company recently experienced rapid growth and decided to implement a project/job tracking system. Dissatisfied with the available software programs and the cost, the company decided to write its own application. The owner’s daughter, who recently graduated from college with an IT degree, has been hired as a developer and is eager to work on the project. The company’s one other developer has only one year of experience as a developer. The construction project manager (CPM) has been with the company for more than 15 years and will be the primary user of this new application. He is well known for being sensitive to requests from the owner and is prone to changing requirements often. He hired a junior CPM a few years prior and feels comfortable stepping away from his usual responsibilities to assist with this new project.

A law firm with three partners is considering going completely paperless and to a cloud solution. This is being pushed primarily by one partner, and his challenge, now that he has been given the green light by his partners to begin this initiative, is to quickly show a strong ROI. The partners have agreed to this transition for their western region, and if he can successfully show a rapid ROI, the project will be expanded to the other 3 regions. The application they currently use is on premise (using servers located at their office) and only recently became available in the cloud. The project manager assigned to this project is very process-centric and has identified that there are two current groups of users within the law firm that would like modest updates to their application and one additional group of users who will be new to the system.

A spring/summer intern has been hired by a small liberal arts college in the Pacific Northwest to coordinate and facilitate a sustainability conference the last weekend in September. The intern’s budget is modest, but she has one additional fund-raising opportunity during the summer, when all items left behind by students at the school year’s end are sold in a yard sale. She will be responsible for all aspects, including recruiting volunteers, establishing registration fees, creating a conference theme, hiring main speaker/VIPs, making hotel/rental car reservations for VIPs, arranging for press releases, determining food and beverage requirements, arranging for all audio-visual needs, securing on-site staffing needs, etc. The scheduled conference date cannot slip and she already has been successful in gathering 3 students to assist her.


A small educational software company that produces educational programs for young children has decided to launch a new division focused on the middle school-aged market. The development team is located in India. The local team at the main office consists of a project manager, a business analyst, a marketing rep, and a customer liaison that represents the customer team. One of the challenges this particular customer team has had with past projects is dealing with the amount of scope creep that tends to slide in, which causes projects to blow up and deadlines to be missed, creating a tremendous amount of stress for the rest of the team. Fortunately, the seasoned project manager is an excellent communicator, is PMI-ACP certified, and has been given the opportunity to select the project management methodology he deems best.

The Healthcare.gov website was launched in 2013 and was wrought with issues. According to McKinsey & Co, the site suffered from poor planning from the beginning. Rather than calling for a phased approach that would have been rolled out in a weekly or biweekly fashion, the government issued a massive list of requirements and let developers work until they came back with a “finished” product. You and your company, United Skilled Modelers, with distributed developer teams all across the globe, have been tasked with replacing the website. Because this will replace the current site, the requirements are very well known and are considered quite stable. You have a team of 50 developers and more than a dozen OMG Certified UML professionals, and have heavily invested in training developers to become skilled modelers.

© 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

Operations Management homework help

Instructions: Assume you are given the task of developing retail packaging for a new product. The product and package will be produced in a small town in China and then shipped and sold in the United States.

The product will be small runs at first and the package will be a folding carton with a three color print. What print methods might you consider for the first smaller runs? Would you change to a different method if the product does well and goes into larger production runs? Justify your reasoning and considerations.

Your assignment will be in APA format and must include a properly formatted reference list. Your paper must be 1000-1200 words, excluding title page and reference page.

Operations Management homework help

Summary
Even though the tech industry is the most competitive industry on the planet, Google
has continued to outperform all its competitors. In just 18 years, it has grown from a
two-man startup to 57,000 employees in 40 countries. Google has successfully
implemented its mission “to create the happiest, most productive workplace in the
world.” Google continues to adapt, change, and restructure itself to meet the challenges
of an ever-developing industry.

Analysis
To attract and retain the best possible employees throughout the world, Google offers
above-average compensation packages and accommodation allowances. Although it
attempts to be globally consistent, at times it has needed to change how it compensates
employees in certain markets, for example, in Dubai. To minimize resistance to change,
Google implements new changes every day, effectively forcing employees to adapt.
Google strives to maintain its positive workplace culture and to be a different type of
company.

Case Questions
1. Why might Google’s tactics for employee compensation need to vary in different places in
the world?

2. Why do companies often run into resistance when trying to implement new organizational
development and changes?

Submit in APA format.

Operations Management homework help

1

Week 2 Apply: Strategic Plan Research

Jeannette Stanley

University of Phoenix

April 11, 2022

2

Week 2 Apply: Strategic Plan Research

Procter and Gamble (P&G) is the chosen organization for investigation in this course. P&G

is well-known across many global markets as they are a billion-dollar organization. They are part

of the consumer goods industry that produces and sells many household goods. This brief analysis

will describe their strategic growth plan.

Where P&G is Going

From an integrated growth perspective, P&G focuses their attention on performance

changes that makes consumers choose their company (Procter and Gamble, 2022). P&G wants

their growth to be balanced and create values for their consumers. One way they accomplish this is

by providing global access to their services and products.

External and Internal Environments

P&G boasts having a positive and empowering internal and external environment. One of

their motto’s is to “lead with love.” They have a group of valued partners that help to create acts of

goods in as many communities as possible. P&G also offers several opportunities for career growth

with their current employees, and they offer tuition reimbursement programs. They create love

both within and outside.

People Plan

P&G has a diverse work organization that is agile, empowers employees, and holds

everyone accountable for their actions. They pride themselves as being unique and united as they

are an inclusive workplace (Procter and Gamble, 2022). Additionally, they feel that creating a

diverse workforce helps them to better serve their communities. This includes having equal

representation among gender and being multicultural.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Sustainability

3

P&G is involved with several projects related to social responsibility and environment

sustainability. They specifically deal in climate, forestry, plastic packaging, and water. They

provide clean water to residents of Zimbabwe, and this started when that country was experiencing

a lack of clean water. P&G works to preserve many forests around the country to ensure they are

available to future generations (Procter and Gamble, 2022). Furthermore, they work to provide

sustainable packaging and engage in regular recycling and waste management processes.

References

4

Procter and Gamble. (2022). What Do We Mean by Strategy? Retrieved from:

https://prod.reader-ui.prod.mheducation.com/epub/sn_4e83/data-uuid-

d4267f5b73bc4f6581906e00f0446b5b

Operations Management homework help

3.5 -4 pages in APA format; 12pt Times New Roman font.

Topic: Anything regarding Logistics Analytics

This assignment involves writing two or three sentences on the topic for your paper.

Once you have chosen a topic, you must then find at least fifteen references that you plan to use in your paper. At least five (5) of those fifteen (15) references must come from refereed academic journal articles.

To learn how to find refereed academic journals articles, please go to the  YouTube  video  below. Keep in mind three things to help you with the refereed journal articles: 1) if the article has no references at the end, it isn’t a refereed academic journal article; 2) if it is a textbook, it is not a refereed journal article; and 3) if it ends in ‘link’ like Marketlink, then it is not a refereed academic journal article.  

Total number of references in correct form: 15

Out of those 15 references, refereed academic journal articles: 5/15–minimum. You can use more than five academic articles and more than 15 references. 

The topic must be some aspect of logistics analytics. That’s not a very limiting requirement.  Be sure to follow the example.

Link

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7RcV_nr-Gk&t=9s

Criteria

Topic

Topic choice: should be on logistics analytics, broad enough to need 15 or more references, but narrow enough to cover in 3.5-4 pages.

Academical Journal References (at least 5 of the 15 must be)

Has at least 5 references from academic journals in APA format or some other format that allows the reader to identify the source.

Operations Management homework help

MGT4070-Strategic Management

Week 1 Discussion

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Overdue – 12 hours ago

Bottom of Form

For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.

To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use outside sources. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

An Organization: Its Mission and Strategic Intent

In this discussion, you will consider a company’s strategic intent, its mission, and the role of stakeholders in developing an organization’s strategy.

Select any two of the main questions and address all of their bullet points:

Question 1:

You have learned that stakeholders have profound impact on the direction and the success of a company. Based on your readings and learning, complete the following tasks:

· Define the various classifications of stakeholders in a company and their role in strategic management decisions.

· Explain the connection between stakeholders and competitive advantage.

Question 2:

You learned that strategic intent is an extension of a company’s organizational culture and the cornerstone of the firm. Based on your readings and learning, complete the following tasks:

· Discuss the importance of strategic intent and its impact on organizational success.

· Discuss why it is important and how an organization can move from intent to implementation.

Question 3:

Based on your readings and learning, complete the following tasks:

· Describe the attributes of an effective strategist.

· Explain how you would create and sell a strategic mission to stakeholders.

Question 4:

We cannot always control political, technological, economic, or cultural issues. Given that, answer the following questions:

· How often would you reevaluate your business strategy to maintain a competitive edge in the market place?

· What factors would you use to evaluate the need for change, and what tools would you use to make the changes?

· While performing an external environmental analysis, how important is it to use all four components and why?

Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.

Week 1 Project

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 3 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Case Study #14- Driving Innovation and Growth at Starbucks: From Howard Schultz to Kevin Johnson

Read the Starbucks case study located in the section titled Case Studies in your textbook concerning the following situation:

In 2017, Seattle-based global coffee chain Starbucks Corporation was named the third most admired company in the world and the number one company worldwide in the food service industry by Fortune. The magazine also ranked Starbucks as number one in the areas of innovation, people management, use of corporate assets, social responsibility, quality of management, financial soundness, long-term investment, and quality of products and services. Since inception, Starbucks had innovated in its business model. Starbucks’ passion to innovate manifested in the way the company sourced its coffee beans, developed new beverages, created unique store concepts, and achieved digital breakthroughs.

Your report and overview should address the following key strategic issues:

•    Describe the general environment that Starbucks faces. What are the segments in the general environment that relate to Starbucks’ situation? What are the opportunities and threats derived from the factors from the general environment? What are the possible future implications of some of the external factors?
•    Analyze the competitor environment and identify the competitors. Has Starbucks done enough to outperform its competitors?
•    Analyze Starbucks’ next move in terms of growth and expansion. Based on your analysis, what additional recommendations would you make to help Starbucks achieve its goals?

Submission Details:

· Based on your research, write succinct discussions of each of these items.

· Present your work as a 3–4-page report in a Microsoft Word document formatted in APA style.

Operations Management homework help

MKT4106 ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION


Week 1 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

 Top of Form

Due April 29 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “
Doing Discussion Questions Right
,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Advertising and Promotion

Assume you work in marketing for a firm in one of the following scenarios:

1. An upscale clothing line which is geared for children ages newborn to 12 years of age

2. A non-profit organization which helps women who have been victims of domestic violence

3. A firm which markets outdoor equipment for activities such as camping, fishing, hunting, etc.

4. Pick a firm of your choice and include the link to the web site or provide description of the brand. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Identify six promotional methods you will use to reach the target market for your selected scenario. Provide your justification in terms of why this method is appropriate for your target audience.

· How should your firm utilize social media to position your brand?

· Pick two firms which compete in the product category you selected. What promotional methods do they use to market their brand?  Do you agree with their approach? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Cite any sources you use in APA format.


Week 1 Project
$15.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 3 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Targeting and Positioning

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Consider a product which you have recently purchased and answer the following questions:

· Assess how advertising influenced your recent purchase. How did it make you aware of the product? (include the advertisement or link to the brand’s web site)

· Based on your knowledge of the brand, who is the target market? In your analysis, consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Evaluate how the brand is positioned in the marketplace. What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· How can three different brands be positioned relative to each other in a target market? For example, as a part of the fast-food industry, compare McDonald’s, Wendy’s, and Burger King. What variables do you feel are the most important for positioning and differentiating these fast-food restaurants in the market? Why do you feel these variables are so important? 

Submission Details:

· Submit your plan in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.


Week 2 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 6 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area.

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible 

AIDA Model

AIDA is the most common model used for designing advertisements. Select a full-page advertisement from a recent national magazine edition and analyze the design using the AIDA model. Include a scanned copy of the advertisement or a link to the advertising campaign for discussion purposes. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Which elements of the advertisement work well? What could you do differently? How do the different elements relate to each other?

· Provide an example of how marketers are integrating social media tools such as Twitter, blogs, and Facebook into an advertisement. Discuss how successful these efforts have been. What could be the learning for marketers from these efforts in applying social media to marcom? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?


Week 2 Project
$20.00

Assignment

 Top of Form

Due May 10 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Measuring Advertising Message Effectiveness

Measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns has always been a challenge. Conduct online research to find five Super Bowl advertisements to analyze and answer the following questions (include links to the advertisements):

· Summarize the television advertisements selected and analyze the target audience and the objective(s) of the advertisements.

· Based on your research and assigned weekly readings, propose methods a marketer can use to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising message for the advertisements you selected.

· What are the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods?

· What are the situations or circumstances where a method would be most effective? 

Be sure to conclude your paper with a summary of the key points of learning from your work. 

Include a minimum of three peer reviewed articles for your paper. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your analysis in a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document.

Week 3 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic 

Top of Form

Due May 13 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Online Advertising

Traditional advertising such as print and television has decreased, while online or Internet advertising has continued to increase. This week you have learned that online advertising can take place in many different formats. 

Create a 300 – 400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Pick three types of online advertising formats and describe each in detail. Include an example for each. (Select from: blogs, podcasts, social networks, e-zines, email, video advertisements, banner advertisements, and pop-ups)

· You know from your reading that search engine advertising is one of the fastest forms of online advertising. Assume that you sell cowboy boots and want to advertise your retail firm through Google. Describe how search engine advertising works. What are some major concerns with search engine advertising?

· What is behavioral marketing and why may a marketer be interested in this approach? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 3 Project $35.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 17 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Course Project Part 1

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Based on research conducted on the South University online library or via the Internet, identify a brand which is struggling in the marketplace. In this project, you will assume the role of the brand manager who has been hired reposition the brand in the marketplace and increase sales through an integrated marketing communications (IMC) plan. 

Complete the following activities:                                               

· Summarize the brand you selected. Why is the brand struggling and how will you revitalize the brand?

· Conduct a market segmentation analysis. Who is your target market and why? Be sure to consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Determine how your brand is positioned in the marketplace. Who are your competitors? What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· Determine the objective of your advertising campaign and provide justification.

· Create your marcom budget. Determine if you will utilize the percentage of sales method, the task method, or the competitive method.

· Create the advertising message for your campaign. How will you create effective advertising and get the message to stick in the minds of your target audience? What message strategy will you use?

· Propose how you will measure the effectiveness of your advertising message. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 6- to 9-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 4 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Due May 20 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Consumer Sales Promotion

We know from our lecture that the function of consumer sales promotions is to increase the sales of the firm’s products. This is accomplished by increasing the product’s exposure to the public. The desirability of the product to consumers is also increased by sales promotions, with the goal being an increase in demand for the product. 

Conduct research and find examples of each of the following consumer sales promotions and answer the following questions in 300-400-word response:

· Coupons are a common tool of integrated marketing communication (IMC). How have coupons influenced your purchase of a product or service? What are the features of the coupon that were most influential in your purchase decision?

· Many firms use contests or sweepstakes to promote their product. How does a contest or a sweepstake impact or influence your decision to purchase? Did you win any of the prizes as a result? Did this influence your view of the product? Why or why not?

· Samples are often given out at supermarkets or can be sent through the mail. Has tasting a sample resulted in your buying the product? If so, did you become brand loyal to the product? If not, why not? What is your opinion on the sample’s effectiveness as a promotional tool? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 4 Project $15.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 24 at 12:59 AM

Project: Trade Allowances

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

Trade Allowances

Trade allowances are a common promotional practice. The most common are slotting allowances at supermarkets. Slotting allowances are fees that supermarkets charge brands to place their products on the supermarket’s shelves. Discuss and evaluate the practice of slotting at supermarkets.

· What are the criticisms of the practice of slotting at supermarkets?

· What are the advantages of the practice of slotting?

· Assess some efforts that some retailers, including P&G, have taken to rectify trade allowance problems. Have they been successful?

· Evaluate the pros and cons of pay-for-performance programs. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 5 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 27 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Ethics Advertising

Advertising is a key element of IMC, but also, it is the element most likely to create ethical issues. Create a 300-400-word response answering the following:

· Describe a recent advertisement you have seen that you considered to be unethical. What were the elements that made it unethical? Was it also illegal? Why? Discuss the difference between an illegal and an unethical advertisement. Also, discuss why a company should avoid running an unethical advertisement even if it is legal.

· The fast-food industry invests heavily in the promotion of its products aimed at children. Select one of the major fast-food chains and describe how they market to children. Is it ethical to target kids using toys to promote fast food? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 5 Project $40.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 31 at 12:59 AM

Course Project Part 2

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

This week, you will finalize your integrated marketing communications plan for your selected brand. Incorporate your instructor’s feedback from Week 3 into this final submission. 

Complete the following activities:

· Summarize your integrated marketing communication plan for your selected brand.

· Prepare a proposal which includes your advertising media plan. Include both traditional and non-traditional forms of advertising, including online. Be sure to include your social media strategy in your proposal.

· Evaluated how the media selected is matched to the media habits of the target market.

· Explain how consumer promotions should be integrated into your integrated marketing communications strategy.

· Many brands use cause marketing to promote interest in their products. Analyze how your brand can utilize cause marketing to promote brand loyalty.

· Develop a public relations plan for your brand. Discuss the key elements of the public relations strategy and provide justification. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your case study analysis in a 7- to 10-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Operations Management homework help

C H A P T E R 5 | D E S I G N O F G O O D S A N D S E R V I C E S

CASE STUDIES
De Mar’s Product Strategy

De Mar, a plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning company

located in Fresno, California, has a simple but powerful prod-

uct strategy: Solve the customer’s problem no matter what, solve
the problem when the customer needs it solved, and make sure the
customer feels good when you leave . De Mar offers guaranteed,
same-day service for customers requiring it. The company pro-

vides 24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week service at no extra charge for

customers whose air conditioning dies on a hot summer Sunday

or whose toilet overflows at 2:30 A.M. As assistant service coor-

dinator Janie Walter puts it: “We will be there to fix your A/C on

the fourth of July, and it’s not a penny extra. When our competi-

tors won’t get out of bed, we’ll be there!”

De Mar guarantees the price of a job to the penny before the

work begins. Whereas most competitors guarantee their work for

30 days, De Mar guarantees all parts and labor for one year. The

company assesses no travel charge because “it’s not fair to charge

customers for driving out.” Owner Larry Harmon says: “We are

in an industry that doesn’t have the best reputation. If we start

making money our main goal, we are in trouble. So I stress cus-

tomer satisfaction; money is the by-product.”

De Mar uses selective hiring, ongoing training and education,

performance measures, and compensation that incorporate cus-

tomer satisfaction, strong teamwork, peer pressure, empower-

ment, and aggressive promotion to implement its strategy. Says

credit manager Anne Semrick: “The person who wants a nine-to-

five job needs to go somewhere else.”

De Mar is a premium pricer. Yet customers respond because

De Mar delivers value—that is, benefits for costs. In 8 years,

annual sales increased from about $200,000 to more than

$3.3 million.

Discussion Questions

1. What is De Mar’s product? Identify the tangible parts of this
product and its service components.

2. How should other areas of De Mar (marketing, finance, per-
sonnel) support its product strategy?

3. Even though De Mar’s product is primarily a service product,
how should each of the 10 strategic OM decisions in the text be

managed to ensure that the product is successful?

Source: Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, from On Great Service: A Framework for Action by Leonard L. Berry.

M05_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C05.indd 189 20/11/15 2:56 PM

Operations Management homework help

(DEA Application)
Conduct a DEA study for an application that you are personally familiar with.
(Pick one for which data is readily available but something that you are passionate about. It can have
scrubbed or anonymized data. Examples might include your favorite sports league, team salaries,
coaching salaries, wins, etc. or it can be USAF related.)

a. Describe the application.
b. Describe and justify the data including the inputs and outputs used as well as items explicitly not used.
c. Select an appropriate DEA model and conduct the analysis. d. Discuss the results.
d. Discuss the results.

Operations Management homework help



Aligning Agile Methodologies

STORY PROBLEM

METHODOLOGY OR COMBINATION OF METHODOLOGIES

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE METHODOLOGY OR COMBINATION OF METHODOLOGIES

A specialized contracting company recently experienced rapid growth and decided to implement a project/job tracking system. Dissatisfied with the available software programs and the cost, the company decided to write its own application. The owner’s daughter, who recently graduated from college with an IT degree, has been hired as a developer and is eager to work on the project. The company’s one other developer has only one year of experience as a developer. The construction project manager (CPM) has been with the company for more than 15 years and will be the primary user of this new application. He is well known for being sensitive to requests from the owner and is prone to changing requirements often. He hired a junior CPM a few years prior and feels comfortable stepping away from his usual responsibilities to assist with this new project.

A law firm with three partners is considering going completely paperless and to a cloud solution. This is being pushed primarily by one partner, and his challenge, now that he has been given the green light by his partners to begin this initiative, is to quickly show a strong ROI. The partners have agreed to this transition for their western region, and if he can successfully show a rapid ROI, the project will be expanded to the other 3 regions. The application they currently use is on premise (using servers located at their office) and only recently became available in the cloud. The project manager assigned to this project is very process-centric and has identified that there are two current groups of users within the law firm that would like modest updates to their application and one additional group of users who will be new to the system.

A spring/summer intern has been hired by a small liberal arts college in the Pacific Northwest to coordinate and facilitate a sustainability conference the last weekend in September. The intern’s budget is modest, but she has one additional fund-raising opportunity during the summer, when all items left behind by students at the school year’s end are sold in a yard sale. She will be responsible for all aspects, including recruiting volunteers, establishing registration fees, creating a conference theme, hiring main speaker/VIPs, making hotel/rental car reservations for VIPs, arranging for press releases, determining food and beverage requirements, arranging for all audio-visual needs, securing on-site staffing needs, etc. The scheduled conference date cannot slip and she already has been successful in gathering 3 students to assist her.


A small educational software company that produces educational programs for young children has decided to launch a new division focused on the middle school-aged market. The development team is located in India. The local team at the main office consists of a project manager, a business analyst, a marketing rep, and a customer liaison that represents the customer team. One of the challenges this particular customer team has had with past projects is dealing with the amount of scope creep that tends to slide in, which causes projects to blow up and deadlines to be missed, creating a tremendous amount of stress for the rest of the team. Fortunately, the seasoned project manager is an excellent communicator, is PMI-ACP certified, and has been given the opportunity to select the project management methodology he deems best.

The Healthcare.gov website was launched in 2013 and was wrought with issues. According to McKinsey & Co, the site suffered from poor planning from the beginning. Rather than calling for a phased approach that would have been rolled out in a weekly or biweekly fashion, the government issued a massive list of requirements and let developers work until they came back with a “finished” product. You and your company, United Skilled Modelers, with distributed developer teams all across the globe, have been tasked with replacing the website. Because this will replace the current site, the requirements are very well known and are considered quite stable. You have a team of 50 developers and more than a dozen OMG Certified UML professionals, and have heavily invested in training developers to become skilled modelers.

© 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

Operations Management homework help

Organizational
Behaviour

David A.
Buchanan

Andrzej A.
Huczynski

Ed
it

io
n

Organizational
Behaviour

At Pearson, we have a simple mission: to help people
make more of their lives through learning.

We combine innovative learning technology with trusted
content and educational expertise to provide engaging
and effective learning experiences that serve people

wherever and whenever they are learning.

From classroom to boardroom, our curriculum materials, digital
learning tools and testing programmes help to educate millions
of people worldwide – more than any other private enterprise.

Every day our work helps learning flourish, and
wherever learning flourishes, so do people.

To learn more, please visit us at www.pearson.com/uk

Organizational
Behaviour

David A.
Buchanan

Andrzej A.
Huczynski

Ed
it

io
n

Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore • Hong Kong
Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei • New Delhi • Cape Town • São Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam • Munich • Paris • Milan

PEARSON EDUCATION LIMITED
KAO Two
KAO Park
Harlow CM17 9SR
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1279 623623
Web: www.pearson.com/uk

First edition published by Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd 1985 (print)
econd edition published by Prentice Hall International ( K) td 1991 (print)

Third edition published by Prentice Hall Europe 1997 (print)
Fourth edition published by Pearson Education Ltd 2001 (print)
Fifth edition published in 2004 (print)
Sixth edition published in 2007 (print)
Seventh edition published in 2010 (print)
Eighth edition published in 2013 (print and electronic)
Ninth edition published in 2017 (print and electronic)
Tenth edition 2019 (print and electronic)

© David A. Buchanan and Andrzej A. Huczynski 1985, 2010 (print)
© Andrzej A. Huczynski and David A. Buchanan 2013, 2017, 2019 (print and electronic)

The rights of David A. Buchanan and Andrzej A. Huczynski to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them
in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

The print publication is protected by copyright. Prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, distribution
or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, permission should be obtained
from the publisher or, where applicable, a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom should be obtained from
the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Barnard’s Inn, 86 Fetter Lane, London EC4A 1EN.

The ePublication is protected by copyright and must not be copied, reproduced, transferred, distributed, leased, licensed or pub-
licly performed or used in any way except as specifically permitted in writing by the publishers, as allowed
under the terms and conditions under which it was purchased, or as strictly permitted by applicable copyright law.
Any unauthorised distribution or use of this text may be a direct infringement of the authors’ and the publisher’s rights and
those responsible may be liable in law accordingly.

All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in
the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any
affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.

Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence (OGL) v3.0. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.
uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/.

The screenshots in this book are reprinted by permission of Microsoft Corporation.

Pearson Education is not responsible for the content of third-party internet sites.

ISBN: 978-1-292-25157-8 (print)
978-1-292-25158-5 (PDF)
978-1-292-25159-2 (ePub)

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for the print edition is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Buchanan, David, author. | Huczynski, Andrzej, author.
Title: Organizational behaviour / David A. Buchanan, Andrzej A. Huczynski.
Description: 10 edition. | Harlow, England ; New York : Pearson, 2019. |
Includes bibliographical references and index. | Summary: “Our target
readers are students who are new to the social sciences and to the study
of organizational behaviour. This is a core subject on most business and
management degree, diploma and masters programmes. Accountants,
architects, bankers, computer scientists, doctors, engineers, hoteliers,
nurses, surveyors, teachers and other specialists, who have no
background in social science, may find themselves studying
organizational behaviour as part of their professional examination
schemes”— Provided by publisher.
Identifiers: LCCN 2019025259 | ISBN 9781292251578 (print) |
ISBN 9781292251585 (PDF) | ISBN 9781292251592 (ePub)
Subjects: LCSH: Organizational behavior.
Classification: LCC HD58.7 .H83 2019 | DDC 302.3/5—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019025259

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
23 22 21 20 19

Front cover image © Shutterstock Premier/IM_Photo

Print edition typeset in 9/12pt ITC Slimbach Std by SPi Global
Print edition printed in Slovakia by Neografia

NOTE THAT ANY PAGE CROSS REFERENCES REFER TO THE PRINT EDITION

From David

To Lesley, Andrew, Mairi, Rachel,
Séan, Charlie, Ciara, Archie, Leila,
Harry and Hudson

From Andrzej

To Janet, Sophie, Gregory, Tom,
Magnus, Freya, Rosa, Leo and Ivy

Preface

Why study organizational behaviour?
Let’s put it this way: if you have a limited understanding of organizational behaviour
(OB), then you have a limited understanding of one of the main sets of forces that
affect you personally, that affect the society and the culture in which you live, and
which shape the world around you. Think about it: organizations are involved in every-
thing that you do – sleeping, waking, dressing, eating, travelling, working, relaxing,
studying – everything. This book explores how organizations influence our views and
our actions, and how we can explain the behaviour of people in organizations.

What is our approach?
Our target readers are students who are new to the social sciences and to the study
of organizational behaviour. This is a core subject on most business and management
degree, diploma and masters programmes. Accountants, architects, bankers, computer
scientists, doctors, engineers, hoteliers, nurses, surveyors, teachers and other specialists,
who have no background in social science, may find themselves studying organizational
behaviour as part of their professional examination schemes.

Social science perspective We draw on a range of social science disciplines. Other texts
adopt managerial, psychological or sociological perspectives.

Critical approach Many OB issues are controversial. But we don’t identify the ‘correct
answers’ or ‘best practices’. We want to challenge assumptions, and to stimulate criti-
cal thinking. In a world flooded with information, some of which is ‘fake news’, critical
thinking is critically important.

Self-contained chapters The understanding of one chapter does not rely on others.
You can study the chapters in any sequence. Designed for introductory-level courses,
our Springboard feature suggests advanced reading. Many chapters are also relevant
to courses in human resource management.

viii Preface

Let’s pull it together
If you are new to OB, the subject can seem to be wide ranging and fragmented. To
show how it all fits together, here is our ‘field map’. First, organizations function over
time and in a context. Second, individual, group, management and leadership factors
influence organizational effectiveness, and quality of working life. You can easily locate
the book’s parts and chapters on this map.

Individual factors
Group factors
Management and organization
factors
Leadership process factors

PE T E: The Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Ecological Context

organizational effectiveness
quality of working life

the organization’s past, present, and future

What’s new in this edition?

New features
Critical thinking Invitations to question, challenge assumptions, consider other

options

Cutting edge Summaries of recent key research findings

What did they find? Descriptions of research studies, asking you to predict the results

Employability check Relating chapter content to employability competencies

Audio box Short podcasts exploring topical issues

Video box Brief videos exploring chapter themes in more depth

Stop and search Suggestions for YouTube content exploring key topics

Preface ix

New content (a selection)
Big data and human capital analytics: How will the human resource management
function be operating in 2030?

Multigenerational workforce: Why are age-diverse teams more satisfied and
productive?

Ageing workforce: What are the benefits of employing older ‘unretired’ people?

Agile working and holacracy: Who needs managers, leaders, and hierarchies?

Artificial intelligence: Will it steal your job?

Future-proof your career: Skills that are still going to be in demand in a digital world

Gastronomic bonding: Team building by members preparing and eating food together

Learning to learn: An indispensable skill in a rapidly changing world

Neurodiversity: The extraordinarily valuable, but underutilized skills of employees with
autism spectrum disorders, dyspraxia, and dyslexia

Neuroplasticity: How we are able to go on learning throughout our lives

Multicultural brokers: Their role in making diverse team members effective

Tattoo or not tattoo: How attitudes towards body art are changing

Social networks: How they affect team creativity and company performance

Do women make better leaders than men? Do women have the right personality
traits?

Cybervetting: How potential employers now screen you without your knowledge

Dark personality traits: How these can damage your career

HEXACO: The Big Six model of personality

Introverts: Can they become effective and successful senior leaders?

Self-determination theory (SDT): A new way to understand, and manage, work
motivation

We need to talk about organizational change: Why do 75 per cent of programmes fail?

Detroit, Estée Lauder, McDonald’s,Thai Union: Case studies of successful organizational
change

Political skill: Why are politically skilled women are more successful in male-dominated
organizations?

Outline contents

PART 1 The organizational context 1

Chapter 1 Explaining organizational behaviour 2
Chapter 2 Environment 37
Chapter 3 Technology 72
Chapter 4 Culture 105

PART 2 Individuals in the organization 145

Chapter 5 Learning 146
Chapter 6 Personality 176
Chapter 7 Communication 211
Chapter 8 Perception 247
Chapter 9 Motivation 275

PART 3 Groups and teams in the organization 313

Chapter 10 Group formation 314
Chapter 11 Group structure 345
Chapter 12 Individuals in groups 380
Chapter 13 Teamworking 416

PART 4 Management and organization 451

Chapter 14 Work design 452
Chapter 15 Elements of structure 490

xii Outline contents

Chapter 16 Organization design 528
Chapter 17 Organizational architecture 563

PART 5 Leadership processes 607

Chapter 18 Leadership 608
Chapter 19 Change 644
Chapter 20 Decision making 680
Chapter 21 Conflict 718
Chapter 22 Power and politics 756

Glossary 790
Name index 804
Subject index 816

Full contents

Acknowledgements xxi

Introductory briefing xxxi

PART 1 The organizational context 1

Chapter 1 Explaining organizational behaviour 2

Key terms and learning outcomes 2
What is organizational behaviour? 3
If we destroy this planet 7
The organizational behaviour field map 11
The problem with social science 14
Explaining organizational behaviour 19
Research and practice: evidence-based management 22
Human resource management: OB in action 25
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 31
Springboard, OB cinema 33
Chapter exercises, References 34

Chapter 2 Environment 37

Key terms and learning outcomes 37
Why study an organization’s environment? 38
The search for environmental ‘fit’ 39
Environment analysis tools 43
The wider business context 46
Demographic trends 48
Ethical behaviour 57
Corporate social responsibility 61
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 65
Springboard, OB cinema 67
Chapter exercises, References 68

xiv Full contents

Chapter 3 Technology 72

Key terms and learning outcomes 72
Why study technology? 73
Determinism or choice 74
The second machine age 76
Will new technology steal our jobs? 85
The social matrix 92
In future 96
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 97
Springboard, OB cinema 100
Chapter exercises, References 100

Chapter 4 Culture 105

Key terms and learning outcomes 105
Why study organizational culture? 106
Organizational cultures 107
Culture: surface manifestations, values and basic
assumptions 108
Organizational socialization 114
Perspectives on culture contrasted 117
Types and traits of organizational cultures 123
Strong, weak and appropriate cultures 127
National cultures 129
Cultural disintegration 133
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 136
Springboard, OB cinema 138
Chapter exercises, References 139

PART 2 Individuals in the organization 145

Chapter 5 Learning 146

Key terms and learning outcomes 146
Why study learning? 147
The learning process 148
The behaviourist approach to learning 152
Behaviourism in practice 157
The cognitive approach to learning 159
Cognitive perspectives in practice 162
Neuroscience and learning 166
Behaviour modification versus socialization 168
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 170
Springboard, OB cinema 172
Chapter exercises, References 173

Full contents xv

Chapter 6 Personality 176

Key terms and learning outcomes 176
Why study personality? 177
Defining personality 177
Types and traits 179
Personality types A and B 183
Stress and stress management 184
The Big Five (or six) 187
The development of the self 192
Selection methods 197
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 204
Springboard, OB cinema 205
Chapter exercises, References 206

Chapter 7 Communication 211

Key terms and learning outcomes 211
Why study communication? 212
Interpersonal communication 214
Verbal communication 219
Non-verbal behaviour 223
Cultural differences in communication style 228
Impression management 230
Emotional intelligence 233
Organizational communication 235
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 239
Springboard, OB cinema 241
Chapter exercises, References 242

Chapter 8 Perception 247

Key terms and learning outcomes 247
Why study perception? 248
Selectivity and organization 250
Perceptual sets and perceptual worlds 256
Do we see to know or know to see? 258
Perceptual sets and assumptions 260
Appearance, age and attributions 262
Perceptual errors and how to avoid them 266
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 268
Springboard, OB cinema 270
Chapter exercises, References 271

Chapter 9 Motivation 275

Key terms and learning outcomes 275
Why study motivation? 276
Presenteeism and the gig economy 278

xvi Full contents

Drives, motives and motivation 281
Content theories 283
Process theories 288
The social process of motivating others 294
Engagement and high performance 300
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 304
Springboard, OB cinema 306
Chapter exercises, References 307

PART 3 Groups and teams in the organization 313

Chapter 10 Group formation 314

Key terms and learning outcomes 314
Why study groups? 315
Team players in organizations 316
Definitions of groups 320
Types of group tasks 324
The Hawthorne studies 326
Group-oriented view of organizations 329
Formal and informal groups 332
Group formation 334
Group development 337
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 339
Springboard, OB cinema 341
Chapter exercises, References 341

Chapter 11 Group structure 345

Key terms and learning outcomes 345
Why study group structure? 346
Group structure and process 346
Power structure 348
Status structure 348
Liking structure 351
Communication structure 353
Role structure 362
Leadership structure 368
Networked individualism 371
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 372
Springboard, OB cinema 373
Chapter exercises, References 375

Full contents xvii

Chapter 12 Individuals in groups 380

Key terms and learning outcomes 380
Why study individuals in groups? 381
The individual and the group 381
Group influences on individuals’ perceptions 384
Group influences on individuals’ performance 385
Group influences on individuals’ behaviour 391
Deindividuation 402
Individual influences on group attitudes and behaviour 404
Team building 406
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 407
Springboard, OB cinema 409
Chapter exercises, References 410

Chapter 13 Teamworking 416

Key terms and learning outcomes 416
Why study teamworking? 417
The T-word and team work design 418
Types of team tasks 420
Advice teams 421
Action teams 422
Project teams 424
Production teams 428
Team activities 429
Team autonomy and self-managing teams 431
Ecological framework for analysing work team
effectiveness 435
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 443
Springboard, OB cinema 444
Chapter exercises, References 445

PART 4 Management and organization 451

Chapter 14 Work design 452

Key terms and learning outcomes 452
Why study work design? 453
Influences on work design 453
Scientific management 456
Fordism 461

xviii Full contents

Lean working 465
McDonaldization 466
Jobs, tasks, skills and technology 470
Back to the future? 480
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 483
Springboard, OB cinema 484
Chapter exercises, References 485

Chapter 15 Elements of structure 490

Key terms and learning outcomes 490
Why study elements of structure? 491
Organization structuring 492
Types of jobs 495
Line, staff and functional relationships 503
Sexuality and the informal organization 511
Roles in organizations 516
Formalization 520
Centralization versus decentralization 521
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 522
Springboard, OB cinema 523
Chapter exercises, References 524

Chapter 16 Organization design 528

Key terms and learning outcomes 528
Why study organization design? 529
Max Weber and bureaucracy 530
Henri Fayol and managerial activities 535
Henry Mintzberg’s management roles 538
Contingency approach 541
Contingency and technological determinism 543
Contingency and environmental determinism 549
Strategic choice 552
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 556
Springboard, OB cinema 557
Chapter exercises, References 558

Chapter 17 Organizational architecture 563

Key terms and learning outcomes 563
Why study organizational architecture? 564
Era of self-contained organization structures 566
Era of horizontal organization structures 570
Era of boundaryless organization structures 575
Collaborative organization structures 581
Experiments with agility and holacracy 585
Distributed innovation systems 596

Full contents xix

Recap, Revision, Research assignment 598
Springboard, OB cinema 600
Chapter exercises, References 601

PART 5 Leadership processes 607

Chapter 18 Leadership 608

Key terms and learning outcomes 608
Why study leadership? 609
Leadership versus management 612
Trait-spotting 614
Do women have the wrong traits? 616
Style-counselling 624
Context-fitting 627
New leadership 631
Distributed leadership 633
Who needs leaders? 636
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 637
Springboard, OB cinema 639
Chapter exercises, References 640

Chapter 19 Change 644

Key terms and learning outcomes 644
Why study change? 645
Making change happen 646
Change and the individual 651
Readiness and resistance 654
Participation and dictatorship 660
Why change, when you can innovate? 663
To be an innovator and lead change 669
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 673
Springboard, OB cinema 675
Chapter exercises, References 676

Chapter 20 Decision making 680

Key terms and learning outcomes 680
Why study decision making? 681
Models of decision making 682
Decision conditions: risk and programmability 692
Individual and group decision making 694
Problems with group decision making 697
Organizational decision making 704
Decision making and evidence 708

xx Full contents

Recap, Revision, Research assignment 709
Springboard, OB cinema 711
Chapter exercises, References 712

Chapter 21 Conflict 718

Key terms and learning outcomes 718
Why study conflict? 719
Contrasting conflict frames of reference 719
Conflict levels and causes 723
Conflict management 735
Organizational justice 743
Organizational work behaviours 746
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 749
Springboard, OB cinema 751
Chapter exercises, References 752

Chapter 22 Power and politics 756

Key terms and learning outcomes 756
Why study power and politics? 757
Power in organizations 760
Power and influence 769
Organization politics and political skill 772
Is it different for women? 779
Recap, Revision, Research assignment 783
Springboard, OB cinema 784
Chapter exercises, References 785

Glossary 790
Name index 804
Subject index 816

Acknowledgements

A large number of friends, colleagues, students, and staff at Pearson have contrib-
uted their ideas, criticism, advice and support to the development of this new edition.
Special thanks in this regard are extended to Vinay Agnihotri, Lesley Buchanan, Janet
Huczynska, Antonia Maxwell, Andrew Müller, Suzanne Ross, and Vicky Tubbs. We would
also like to thank the many researchers and authors who have allowed us to use their
portrait photographs alongside our descriptions of their work.

Publisher’s acknowledgements
We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Front Matter
Creators Syndicate Inc.: Rubes By Leigh Rubin xxxii.

Part Opener 1 (Chapter 1 to 4): Dizanna/123RF 1, Part Opener 2 (Chapter 5 to 9):
Elenabsl/123RF 145, Part Opener 3 (Chapter 10 to 13): Rawpixel/123RF 313, Part Opener 4
(Chapter 14 to 17): PopTika/Shutterstock 451, Part Opener 5 (Chapter 18 to 22): Dusit/
Shutterstock 607.

Portraits
Ed Hess xxxiv, Andrew Scott 49, Lynda Gratton 49, Annie McKee 60, Christopher
McLaverty 60, Frank Yu 63, Henrik Cronqvist 63, Melanie Arntz 88, Carl Frey 89, Michael
Osborne: Oxford Martin School 89, Amir Goldberg: Nancy Rothstein 117, Sameer
Srivastava 117, Vicki Taylor: Bill Smith 119, André Spicer 122, Sujin Jang 134, Monika
Hamori: Kerry Parker 148, Jie Cao 148, Carol Dweck 151, Marie-Hélène Budworth 160,
Songqi Liu 164, Stephane Kasriel 181, Todd Buchholz 187, Youyou Wu 190, Tomas
Chamorro-Premuzic 192, Herminia Ibarra 195, Natalie Shefer 196t, Ethan Bernstein 218t,
Stephen Turban 218b, Alison Wood Brooks 220t, Leslie John 220b, Elizabeth McClean
222, Chad Murphy 236t, Jonathan Clark 236b, Andrew DuBrin 248t, Laura Little 248b,
Andrew Timming 265, Michele Kaufmann 266, Chia-Jung Tsay: Neal Hamberg 268,
Edward Deci 283t, Richard Ryan 283b, Erik Gonzalez-Mulé 285t, Bethany Cockburn
285b, Todd Bridgman 287, Steven Kramer 293t, Teresa Amabile 293t, David Guest
299b, Gudela Grote 299t, Min-Ho Joo 317t, Vanessa Dennen 317b, Mark Mortensen
331b, Heidi Gardner 332l, Sunken Lee 336, Bret Scanner: Josephine Cardin 350l, Stuart
Bunderson 350r, Martine Haas 355, Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic 357r, Erica Dhawan
357l, Selma van der Haar 360, Stefan Volk 365, Michael Watkins 368c, Chris Lam 390t,

xxii Acknowledgements

Wayne Neu 391, Giada Di Stefano 393l, Deanna Paulin 396t, Barbara Griffin 396b,
Kevin Kniffin: JesseWinter 407t, Laura Jones 423l, Amy Edmondson: Evgenia Elseeva
424, Soo Jeoung Han 427, Nina Magpili 433t, Pilar Pazos 433b,Trevor Young-Hyman
437, Christa Gibson 439r, Sharon parker 453b, Douglas Martin 465, David Graeber 469l,
Harry Pits 469r, Paul Thompson 469c, Peter Ikeler 473b, Knut Laaser 481, Peter Gloor:
David Sella 509, David Garvin: Russ Campbell 538, Samina Karim 542b, Stéphanie Girod
542t, Marcia Lensges 555, James Harter 570, Michael Lee 589, Martin Kornberger 596tl,
Raffaella Sadun 613, Elena Lytkina Botelho: Matt Mendelsohn 615, Herman Aguinis
616, Lars Glaso: Linn de Lange 618b, Oyvind Martinsen 618c, Dame Vivian Hunt 619b,
Laura Morgan Roberts 621, Alexander Haslam 622b, Michelle Ryan 622t, Jasmine
Vergauwe 632, Karina Nielsen 633l, Kevin Daniels 633r, Mansour Javidan 635, Peter
Gronn 634, Jeroen Stouten 648, Rene Weidner 654, Alannah Rafferty 655t, Charis Rice
656b, Rosalind Searle: Adam Scoll 656t, Amy Edmondson: Evgenia Elseeva 669, Joaquin
Navajas 696t, Marcia Hagen, Alan Bernard, Eric Grube: 701, Lindred Greer 727t, Ginka
Toegel 728t, Jean-Louis Barsoux 728b, Michele Gelfand 738b, Dacher Keltner 758,
Janneke Oostrom 759t, Richard Ronay 759b, Jeremy Heimans: Michael Creagh 768b,
Henry Timms: Michael Creagh 768b, Susan Ashford 771l, James Detert: Tom Cogill 771r,
Gerald Ferris 773l.

Photographs
(Key: T-top; B-bottom; C-Center; L-left; R-right)

123RF: Bloomua 15, Keith Bell 111, Lightwise 128, Rommel Canlas 161, John Takai
180t, Jörg Schiemann 212, Andrew grossman 214, Wang Tom 228t, Imagehit Limited
234tl, Dmitriy Shironosov 294, Mark Bowden 333, Yomogi 366, Sergey Ilin 383, HONGQI
ZHANG 385, Adamson 429, Mark Bowden 502, Alena Saklakova 507, Racorn 552, lculig
719, Dirk ercken 735t, Kzenon 667, Vitaliy Vodolazskyy 672, Lightwise 692. Andrews
McMeel Syndication: © Betty, United Feature Syndicate 224, © Dilbert United Features
Syndicate 279. Alamy Stock Photo: US Coast Guard Photo 8, Charles Robertson 52, 360b
111tl, Chris Hennessy 111tr, Ian Paterson 256, ITAR-TASS News Agency 319b, David R.
Frazier Photolibrary, Inc. 464b, Matthew Horwood 477l, Mint Photography 583, PAUL
J. RICHARDS/AFP 579, Media World Images 671. Anna Gordon: Used with permission
of Anna Gordon 57. AT&T Archives and History Center: Courtesy of AT&T Archives
and History Center 327, 328. Cartoon Stock: Bob Eckstein 11, Fran 47, 611, mbcn1358
166, Seddon Mike 226b. Craig Swanson: Used with permission of Craig Swanson 154.
Dr Haze: Used with permission of Dr Haze 630. Getty Images: T3 Magazine/Future 75,
Fabrice Dimier/Bloomberg 326, JUAN MABROMATA/AFP/Stringer 418, IPC Magazines.
Picture Post 459, Bettmann 463l, Bloomberg 477r, Robin Marchant 513, DEA/ICAS94 646,
Mansell/The LIFE Picture Collection 768t. Geek Culture: Used with permission of Geek
Culture 780. Glasbergen Cartoon Service: Used with permission of Glasbergen Cartoon
Service 127, 707. Jens Pagotta: Used with permission of Jens Pagotta and Diala Ghassan
612. Jim Haas: Used with permission of Jim Haas 92. Joe Mirachi: © Joseph Mirachi,
reproduced with permission 626. Mark Weinstein: Used with permission of Mark
Weinstein 200. National Museum of American History: Used with permission of The
University of National Museum of American History 460. Pearson Education, Inc.: Naki
Kouyioumtzis 91, JOHANNES EISELE /AFP 227l, Mandel Ngan-Pool/Getty Images News
227r, Bettmann 231l, Library of Congress/Handout/Archive Photos 231r, Rob Lewine
234bl, HL Studios 359. Rethink Robotics, Inc. Used with permission of Rethink Robotics,
Inc 77. Reuters: Edgar Su/REUTERS 76. Roger Beale: Used with permission of Roger Beale
623t. Royal Brunei Airlines: Used with permission of Captain Czarena Hashim 618t.
Shutterstock: Alphaspirit 6, KlektaDarya 16, Poznyakov 23, 28, Rawpixel.com 30, Robert
paul van beets 41, Sean K 45, JuliaGrin 48, Levent Konuk 74t, Karen Roach 74b, Sundry
Photography 77, Zapp2Photo 83, SS_FOTO 86, Cartoon Resource 93, Brian A Jackson
96, Mypokcik 106, Casimiro PT 112l, 360b 112r, Joycolor 114, Hadrian 116, Deborah
Kolb 122, Cartoon Resource 123t, Dennis Cox 123b, Paolo Bona 129, Stuart Jenner 134,
Marekuliasz 151, Amir Ridhwan 180b, Tomasz Trojanowski 196b, Jason Batterham 199,

Acknowledgements xxiii

Christophe BOISSON 215t, Iqoncept 215b, Antonio Guillem 221, Paul Vasarhelyi 225,
M-SUR 226t, Viorel Sima 228b, Pathdoc 233, DenisProduction.com 234tr, Gornostay 237,
Christos Georghiou 250, Kathy Hutchins 257, Ilin Sergey 259, Sanyalux Srisurin 261,
YAKOBCHUK VIACHESLAV 262, CoraMax 263, Eldirector77 264l, Daxiao Productions
264r, TierneyMJ 277, Goodluz 278, Daisy Daisy 280, Dusit 281, Kheng Guan Toh 284,
Fotovika 293b, Erwinova 298, Marekuliasz 300, Arka38 301, Cartoon Resource 315,318,
Jesadaphorn 319t, Ivanko80 322, Sirtravelalot 325, Dmitry Kalinovsky 330, TarikVision
331c, Hobbit 332r, Graphic farm 334, Tyler Olson 335, America365 346, Cartoonresource
348, Carlos E. Santa Maria 349, ESB Professional 352, Milles Studio 354, Denis Cristo
358, ESB Professional 362, Kom_Pornnarong 367, Fred Ho 368t, 368b, Kent Weakley
370,Stokk 371, America365 374, Bruce Rolff 381, Angela Waye 384, Trueffelpix 386, Iurii
387, Nejron Photo 389, Cartoon Resource 390b, Artesania Digital 393r, Wavebreakmedia
397, Cartoon Resource 402, Photographee.eu 403, 407b, Cartoon Resource 419, Vaju
Ariel 422t, Shahjehan 422b, Wavebreakmedia 423r, Yulia Glam 425, MSSA 428, Arsel
Ozgurdal 438, Justaa 439l, Radu Razvan 440, Cartoon Resource 442, Poznyakov 453t,
Everett Collection 455,457,474t, Everett Historical 456, Rick Ray 462, Vladimir salman
463r, Zdenek Sasek 464t, TotallyBlond 467, Pressmaster 471, Chesky 477c, Zelena 491t,
Michael D Brown 491b, Nito 496, Pixsooz 497t, John T Takai 497b, Cartoon Resource
498,500,520, Pressmaster 508t, Sergey Nivens 508b, Mert Toker 510, Adam Gregor 511,
Lisa S 512, Kaspars Grinvalds 515, Ondrej Schaumann 519, John Dory 529, CREATISTA
531, Theerasak Namkampa 536, Media_works 537, Phipatbig 539, Dusit 541, Pixelbliss
543,549, Wally Stemberger 546t, Melinda Nagy 546b, 547t, Cartoon Resource 547b,
Ksenica 566, Cartoon Resource 567, Brian A Jackson 571, StockLite 572t, Robuart 572b,
Darren Brode 574, Iqoncept 576, AlesiaKan 585, Teguh Jati Prasetyo 586, Sari Oneal
590t, Fotosenmeer 590b, 360b 591, OpturaDesign 592, Tanuha2001 596tc, Hilch 596b,
Bakhtiar Zein 597t, PLRANG ART 597b,

Operations Management homework help

Summary
Even though the tech industry is the most competitive industry on the planet, Google
has continued to outperform all its competitors. In just 18 years, it has grown from a
two-man startup to 57,000 employees in 40 countries. Google has successfully
implemented its mission “to create the happiest, most productive workplace in the
world.” Google continues to adapt, change, and restructure itself to meet the challenges
of an ever-developing industry.

Analysis
To attract and retain the best possible employees throughout the world, Google offers
above-average compensation packages and accommodation allowances. Although it
attempts to be globally consistent, at times it has needed to change how it compensates
employees in certain markets, for example, in Dubai. To minimize resistance to change,
Google implements new changes every day, effectively forcing employees to adapt.
Google strives to maintain its positive workplace culture and to be a different type of
company.

Case Questions
1. Why might Google’s tactics for employee compensation need to vary in different places in
the world?

2. Why do companies often run into resistance when trying to implement new organizational
development and changes?

Submit in APA format.

Operations Management homework help

1

Week 2 Apply: Strategic Plan Research

Jeannette Stanley

University of Phoenix

April 11, 2022

2

Week 2 Apply: Strategic Plan Research

Procter and Gamble (P&G) is the chosen organization for investigation in this course. P&G

is well-known across many global markets as they are a billion-dollar organization. They are part

of the consumer goods industry that produces and sells many household goods. This brief analysis

will describe their strategic growth plan.

Where P&G is Going

From an integrated growth perspective, P&G focuses their attention on performance

changes that makes consumers choose their company (Procter and Gamble, 2022). P&G wants

their growth to be balanced and create values for their consumers. One way they accomplish this is

by providing global access to their services and products.

External and Internal Environments

P&G boasts having a positive and empowering internal and external environment. One of

their motto’s is to “lead with love.” They have a group of valued partners that help to create acts of

goods in as many communities as possible. P&G also offers several opportunities for career growth

with their current employees, and they offer tuition reimbursement programs. They create love

both within and outside.

People Plan

P&G has a diverse work organization that is agile, empowers employees, and holds

everyone accountable for their actions. They pride themselves as being unique and united as they

are an inclusive workplace (Procter and Gamble, 2022). Additionally, they feel that creating a

diverse workforce helps them to better serve their communities. This includes having equal

representation among gender and being multicultural.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Sustainability

3

P&G is involved with several projects related to social responsibility and environment

sustainability. They specifically deal in climate, forestry, plastic packaging, and water. They

provide clean water to residents of Zimbabwe, and this started when that country was experiencing

a lack of clean water. P&G works to preserve many forests around the country to ensure they are

available to future generations (Procter and Gamble, 2022). Furthermore, they work to provide

sustainable packaging and engage in regular recycling and waste management processes.

References

4

Procter and Gamble. (2022). What Do We Mean by Strategy? Retrieved from:

https://prod.reader-ui.prod.mheducation.com/epub/sn_4e83/data-uuid-

d4267f5b73bc4f6581906e00f0446b5b

Operations Management homework help

Technology

Technology – Year 9 – Firm A
Technology
Interior Styling Safety Quality Total
Maximum 11 14 14 14
Firm Maximum 5 5 6 7
Cost to Increase by 1 (mill.) $198 $207 $302 $310 $1,017
Est. cost savings of increase (mill.) $7 $9 $21 $6 $43
Increase Attribute: No No No No
Curr. Expenditure (mill.) $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Note: Investing in technology does not automatically increase the specifications of your vehicles.

Product Development

Product Development – Year 9 – Firm A
Product Development
Dev.
Center
Project Class Size HP Interior Styling Safety Quality *Est.
Base
Cost
Current
Expense
(mill.)
Maximum: 5 5 6 7
1 no project
2 no project
3 no project
Total Expense:
* Base cost only; use the Pro-Forma for a projection of the unit cost when you launch the upgrade.
Concepts
Concept Class Size HP Interior Styling Safety Quality *Est.
Base
Cost
Devel.
Cost
(mill.)
Devel.
Time
* Estimated Base Cost is for 100,000 units.

Marketing

Marketing – Year 9 – Firm A
Contracts
Corporate Advertising (mill.) Ad Themes
$28 Safety
$28
$28
$28 Segment Targets
Social Media $8 Value Seekers (1), Families (2)
Direct Marketing $3
Total $123
Product Marketing
Vehicle Class MSRP Dealer
Discount
Advertising
(millions)
Advertising
Theme
Promotion
(millions)
Sales
Forecast
(000’s)
Alec E $25,780 10.0% $80 Performance $28 176
Alfa F $35,550 15.0% $80 Safety $48 73
Awesome U $26,990 12.0% $80 Performance $38 157
Totals $240 $114 406

Distribution

Distribution – Year 9 – Firm A
Dealers
Total North South East West
Full Coverage 800 200 250 150 200
Established 518 150 98 150 120
Sched. Change 0 0 0 0 0
Coverage 64.8% 75.0% 39.2% 100.0% 60.0%
Dealer Inc./Dec. (0% limit: ±0) 0 0 0 0 0
Coverage with Current Decisions 64.8% 75.0% 39.2% 100.0% 60.0%
Training and Support (mill.) $30 $9 $6 $9 $7
Per Dealer $57,915
Note: The estimated cost of opening or closing a dealership is $2 million. Average overhead per dealer is estimated at $343 thousand.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing – Year 9 – Firm A
Production & Capacity Decisions
Prev.
Sales
(000’s)
Current
Inventory
(000’s)
Scheduled
Production
(000’s)
Flex Retooling
Costs
Mill. $
Alec 176 164 340 Yes $0
Alfa 73 140 213 Yes $0
Awesome 157 43 200 Yes $0
Total
Capacity (000’s) 1,200
Scheduled Production 753
Capacity Change (000’s) 0
Est. Plant Cost for Add’l 100k Mill. $ $828

Financing

Financing – Year 9 – Firm A
Cash
Current Cash Balance (mill.) $11,588
Purchase 1 Year CD @ 0.0% (mill.) $0
Stock
Current Stock Price $21.84
Current Shares Outstanding (mill.) 365
Current Market Value (mill.) $7,972
Issue Stock (Negative value is repurchasing.) $0
Dividends Paid (mill.) $100
Debt
Short-Term Debt
Loan Balance @ 11.5% (mill.) $10,539
Loan Repayment (mill.) $0
Long-Term Debt (mill.)
Current Bond Rating D
Issue Bonds @ 9.5% (mill.) $0
Total Debt (mill.) $10,539

Special Decisions

Special Decisions – Year 9 – Firm A
Green Vehicle Incentives
National elections are coming up, and the legislature plans to consider a new law governing energy policy after the election. Among the items that might be included in the law is a tax credit for buyers of alternative energy vehicles (AEVs). A tax credit would make the vehicles more affordable, and should stimulate demand for them. While the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers plans to support the measure, they have been seeking extra funds to help lobby for the bill. They are also encouraging members to lobby lawmakers directly, and to contribute to candidates who will support the tax credit. If the effort succeeds, the credits are expected to be available in two years. Choose none, one, or more of the following options to support the legislation.
No Contribute to the efforts of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. (Cost: $1.0 million)
No Engage a lobbying firm to promote tax credits for AEVs. (Cost: $2.0 million)
No Contribute to the campaigns of candidates who support the tax credit. (Cost: $1.5 million)
Yes Encourage parts suppliers to lobby for the legislation. (Cost: none)

Operations Management homework help

MKT4106 ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION


Week 1 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

 Top of Form

Due April 29 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “
Doing Discussion Questions Right
,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Advertising and Promotion

Assume you work in marketing for a firm in one of the following scenarios:

1. An upscale clothing line which is geared for children ages newborn to 12 years of age

2. A non-profit organization which helps women who have been victims of domestic violence

3. A firm which markets outdoor equipment for activities such as camping, fishing, hunting, etc.

4. Pick a firm of your choice and include the link to the web site or provide description of the brand. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Identify six promotional methods you will use to reach the target market for your selected scenario. Provide your justification in terms of why this method is appropriate for your target audience.

· How should your firm utilize social media to position your brand?

· Pick two firms which compete in the product category you selected. What promotional methods do they use to market their brand?  Do you agree with their approach? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Cite any sources you use in APA format.


Week 1 Project
$15.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 3 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Targeting and Positioning

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Consider a product which you have recently purchased and answer the following questions:

· Assess how advertising influenced your recent purchase. How did it make you aware of the product? (include the advertisement or link to the brand’s web site)

· Based on your knowledge of the brand, who is the target market? In your analysis, consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Evaluate how the brand is positioned in the marketplace. What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· How can three different brands be positioned relative to each other in a target market? For example, as a part of the fast-food industry, compare McDonald’s, Wendy’s, and Burger King. What variables do you feel are the most important for positioning and differentiating these fast-food restaurants in the market? Why do you feel these variables are so important? 

Submission Details:

· Submit your plan in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.


Week 2 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 6 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area.

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible 

AIDA Model

AIDA is the most common model used for designing advertisements. Select a full-page advertisement from a recent national magazine edition and analyze the design using the AIDA model. Include a scanned copy of the advertisement or a link to the advertising campaign for discussion purposes. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Which elements of the advertisement work well? What could you do differently? How do the different elements relate to each other?

· Provide an example of how marketers are integrating social media tools such as Twitter, blogs, and Facebook into an advertisement. Discuss how successful these efforts have been. What could be the learning for marketers from these efforts in applying social media to marcom? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?


Week 2 Project
$20.00

Assignment

 Top of Form

Due May 10 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Measuring Advertising Message Effectiveness

Measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns has always been a challenge. Conduct online research to find five Super Bowl advertisements to analyze and answer the following questions (include links to the advertisements):

· Summarize the television advertisements selected and analyze the target audience and the objective(s) of the advertisements.

· Based on your research and assigned weekly readings, propose methods a marketer can use to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising message for the advertisements you selected.

· What are the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods?

· What are the situations or circumstances where a method would be most effective? 

Be sure to conclude your paper with a summary of the key points of learning from your work. 

Include a minimum of three peer reviewed articles for your paper. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your analysis in a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document.

Week 3 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic 

Top of Form

Due May 13 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Online Advertising

Traditional advertising such as print and television has decreased, while online or Internet advertising has continued to increase. This week you have learned that online advertising can take place in many different formats. 

Create a 300 – 400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Pick three types of online advertising formats and describe each in detail. Include an example for each. (Select from: blogs, podcasts, social networks, e-zines, email, video advertisements, banner advertisements, and pop-ups)

· You know from your reading that search engine advertising is one of the fastest forms of online advertising. Assume that you sell cowboy boots and want to advertise your retail firm through Google. Describe how search engine advertising works. What are some major concerns with search engine advertising?

· What is behavioral marketing and why may a marketer be interested in this approach? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 3 Project $35.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 17 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Course Project Part 1

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Based on research conducted on the South University online library or via the Internet, identify a brand which is struggling in the marketplace. In this project, you will assume the role of the brand manager who has been hired reposition the brand in the marketplace and increase sales through an integrated marketing communications (IMC) plan. 

Complete the following activities:                                               

· Summarize the brand you selected. Why is the brand struggling and how will you revitalize the brand?

· Conduct a market segmentation analysis. Who is your target market and why? Be sure to consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Determine how your brand is positioned in the marketplace. Who are your competitors? What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· Determine the objective of your advertising campaign and provide justification.

· Create your marcom budget. Determine if you will utilize the percentage of sales method, the task method, or the competitive method.

· Create the advertising message for your campaign. How will you create effective advertising and get the message to stick in the minds of your target audience? What message strategy will you use?

· Propose how you will measure the effectiveness of your advertising message. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 6- to 9-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 4 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Due May 20 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Consumer Sales Promotion

We know from our lecture that the function of consumer sales promotions is to increase the sales of the firm’s products. This is accomplished by increasing the product’s exposure to the public. The desirability of the product to consumers is also increased by sales promotions, with the goal being an increase in demand for the product. 

Conduct research and find examples of each of the following consumer sales promotions and answer the following questions in 300-400-word response:

· Coupons are a common tool of integrated marketing communication (IMC). How have coupons influenced your purchase of a product or service? What are the features of the coupon that were most influential in your purchase decision?

· Many firms use contests or sweepstakes to promote their product. How does a contest or a sweepstake impact or influence your decision to purchase? Did you win any of the prizes as a result? Did this influence your view of the product? Why or why not?

· Samples are often given out at supermarkets or can be sent through the mail. Has tasting a sample resulted in your buying the product? If so, did you become brand loyal to the product? If not, why not? What is your opinion on the sample’s effectiveness as a promotional tool? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 4 Project $15.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 24 at 12:59 AM

Project: Trade Allowances

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

Trade Allowances

Trade allowances are a common promotional practice. The most common are slotting allowances at supermarkets. Slotting allowances are fees that supermarkets charge brands to place their products on the supermarket’s shelves. Discuss and evaluate the practice of slotting at supermarkets.

· What are the criticisms of the practice of slotting at supermarkets?

· What are the advantages of the practice of slotting?

· Assess some efforts that some retailers, including P&G, have taken to rectify trade allowance problems. Have they been successful?

· Evaluate the pros and cons of pay-for-performance programs. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 5 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 27 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Ethics Advertising

Advertising is a key element of IMC, but also, it is the element most likely to create ethical issues. Create a 300-400-word response answering the following:

· Describe a recent advertisement you have seen that you considered to be unethical. What were the elements that made it unethical? Was it also illegal? Why? Discuss the difference between an illegal and an unethical advertisement. Also, discuss why a company should avoid running an unethical advertisement even if it is legal.

· The fast-food industry invests heavily in the promotion of its products aimed at children. Select one of the major fast-food chains and describe how they market to children. Is it ethical to target kids using toys to promote fast food? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 5 Project $40.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 31 at 12:59 AM

Course Project Part 2

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

This week, you will finalize your integrated marketing communications plan for your selected brand. Incorporate your instructor’s feedback from Week 3 into this final submission. 

Complete the following activities:

· Summarize your integrated marketing communication plan for your selected brand.

· Prepare a proposal which includes your advertising media plan. Include both traditional and non-traditional forms of advertising, including online. Be sure to include your social media strategy in your proposal.

· Evaluated how the media selected is matched to the media habits of the target market.

· Explain how consumer promotions should be integrated into your integrated marketing communications strategy.

· Many brands use cause marketing to promote interest in their products. Analyze how your brand can utilize cause marketing to promote brand loyalty.

· Develop a public relations plan for your brand. Discuss the key elements of the public relations strategy and provide justification. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your case study analysis in a 7- to 10-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Operations Management homework help

PM-P1

Course Project Part 1: Project Charter and Requirements Collection Document

Throughout this course, you will develop a project plan for a custom homebuilding course project. Each unit builds on the previous unit, thereby resulting in a project plan for a home. You will determine the style of home and use this to develop the project scope and requirements. The plan begins with the project charter and the collection of initial requirements. For those unfamiliar with the homebuilding process, research the homebuilding process on external websites for further information. 

Part A: The Project Charter

Once you have familiarized yourself with the homebuilding process, the next step is to charter the project. Populating the project charter requires at least a general idea of the home that you intend to build (e.g., brick, stucco, tiny home). You may use a template to create the charter. Some templates are provided below, but many others may be found on the internet through a search. 

See the charter template examples below.

·

Project Charter Toolkit
 webpage

·

Project Charter Template
 webpage

Part B: Requirements Collection Spreadsheet

For this step, you may interview a friend, family member, colleague, or use your own requirements for a homebuilding project. As in the case of the charter, you may use project requirements templates by searching on the internet. Include at least 25 requirements for your home.

Your completed assignment, project charter (Part A) and requirements collection spreadsheet (Part B) should be at least three pages. Part A and Part B components of the assignment should be submitted as ONE document into Blackboard for grading. 

Operations Management homework help

Project Planner

[Project Planner]

Vineetha P: This Project Planner uses
periods for intervals. Start = 1 is period 1 and duration = 5 means project spans 5 periods starting from the start period.
Data in row 5 shows an example of how to use this table.
Select a period to highlight at right. A legend describing the charting follows. Period Highlight: 1 Plan Duration Actual Start % Complete Actual (beyond plan) % Complete (beyond plan)
ACTIVITY PLAN START PLAN DURATION ACTUAL START ACTUAL DURATION PERCENT COMPLETE PERIODS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
[Example: Form Strategic Planning Team] 1 1 1 2 75%
[Activity 01] x x x x x%
[Activity 02] x x x x x%
[Activity 03] x x x x x%
[Activity 04] x x x x x%
[Activity 05] x x x x x%
[Activity 06] x x x x x%
[Activity 07] x x x x x%
[Activity 08] x x x x x%
[Activity 09] x x x x x%
[Activity 10] x x x x x%
[Activity 11] x x x x x%
[Activity 12] x x x x x%
[Activity 13] x x x x x%
[Activity 14] x x x x x%
[Activity 15] x x x x x%
[Activity 16] x x x x x%
[Activity 17] x x x x x%
[Activity 18] x x x x x%
[Activity 19] x x x x x%
[Activity 20] x x x x x%
[Activity 21] x x x x x%
[Activity 22] x x x x x%
[Activity 23] x x x x x%
[Activity 24] x x x x x%
[Activity 25] x x x x x%
[Activity 26] x x x x x%

Operations Management homework help

Continue with the CITI training. This week’s readings and activities were introspective: you had to evaluate how your choice of a degree path and your worldview will affect your research. Now you will appraise the merits of qualitative research designs.

Begin your paper with an overview of the value of qualitative research (1-2 cited paragraphs). Be sure to make the connection between the research problem and the qualitative approach.

Determine if there is the potential to employ a mixed methods approach (1-2 cited paragraphs).

Explain how your degree path informs your research approach (1-2 cited paragraphs).

Based on your discovery of your worldview, share your thoughts about how this will affect your research (1-2 cited paragraphs).

Justify and construct a theoretical or conceptual framework for the research problem; this section must be clearly written to ensure that the reader is seeing the proposed research through your framework.

Include a brief discussion on how your degree type affected your framework selection.

Length: 3-5 pages.

References: Include a minimum of 5 scholarly sources; find 3 additional sources to support your framework.

Your written assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Operations Management homework help

Technology

Technology – Year 9 – Firm A
Technology
Interior Styling Safety Quality Total
Maximum 11 14 14 14
Firm Maximum 5 5 6 7
Cost to Increase by 1 (mill.) $198 $207 $302 $310 $1,017
Est. cost savings of increase (mill.) $7 $9 $21 $6 $43
Increase Attribute: No No No No
Curr. Expenditure (mill.) $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Note: Investing in technology does not automatically increase the specifications of your vehicles.

Product Development

Product Development – Year 9 – Firm A
Product Development
Dev.
Center
Project Class Size HP Interior Styling Safety Quality *Est.
Base
Cost
Current
Expense
(mill.)
Maximum: 5 5 6 7
1 no project
2 no project
3 no project
Total Expense:
* Base cost only; use the Pro-Forma for a projection of the unit cost when you launch the upgrade.
Concepts
Concept Class Size HP Interior Styling Safety Quality *Est.
Base
Cost
Devel.
Cost
(mill.)
Devel.
Time
* Estimated Base Cost is for 100,000 units.

Marketing

Marketing – Year 9 – Firm A
Contracts
Corporate Advertising (mill.) Ad Themes
$28 Safety
$28
$28
$28 Segment Targets
Social Media $8 Value Seekers (1), Families (2)
Direct Marketing $3
Total $123
Product Marketing
Vehicle Class MSRP Dealer
Discount
Advertising
(millions)
Advertising
Theme
Promotion
(millions)
Sales
Forecast
(000’s)
Alec E $25,780 10.0% $80 Performance $28 176
Alfa F $35,550 15.0% $80 Safety $48 73
Awesome U $26,990 12.0% $80 Performance $38 157
Totals $240 $114 406

Distribution

Distribution – Year 9 – Firm A
Dealers
Total North South East West
Full Coverage 800 200 250 150 200
Established 518 150 98 150 120
Sched. Change 0 0 0 0 0
Coverage 64.8% 75.0% 39.2% 100.0% 60.0%
Dealer Inc./Dec. (0% limit: ±0) 0 0 0 0 0
Coverage with Current Decisions 64.8% 75.0% 39.2% 100.0% 60.0%
Training and Support (mill.) $30 $9 $6 $9 $7
Per Dealer $57,915
Note: The estimated cost of opening or closing a dealership is $2 million. Average overhead per dealer is estimated at $343 thousand.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing – Year 9 – Firm A
Production & Capacity Decisions
Prev.
Sales
(000’s)
Current
Inventory
(000’s)
Scheduled
Production
(000’s)
Flex Retooling
Costs
Mill. $
Alec 176 164 340 Yes $0
Alfa 73 140 213 Yes $0
Awesome 157 43 200 Yes $0
Total
Capacity (000’s) 1,200
Scheduled Production 753
Capacity Change (000’s) 0
Est. Plant Cost for Add’l 100k Mill. $ $828

Financing

Financing – Year 9 – Firm A
Cash
Current Cash Balance (mill.) $11,588
Purchase 1 Year CD @ 0.0% (mill.) $0
Stock
Current Stock Price $21.84
Current Shares Outstanding (mill.) 365
Current Market Value (mill.) $7,972
Issue Stock (Negative value is repurchasing.) $0
Dividends Paid (mill.) $100
Debt
Short-Term Debt
Loan Balance @ 11.5% (mill.) $10,539
Loan Repayment (mill.) $0
Long-Term Debt (mill.)
Current Bond Rating D
Issue Bonds @ 9.5% (mill.) $0
Total Debt (mill.) $10,539

Special Decisions

Special Decisions – Year 9 – Firm A
Green Vehicle Incentives
National elections are coming up, and the legislature plans to consider a new law governing energy policy after the election. Among the items that might be included in the law is a tax credit for buyers of alternative energy vehicles (AEVs). A tax credit would make the vehicles more affordable, and should stimulate demand for them. While the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers plans to support the measure, they have been seeking extra funds to help lobby for the bill. They are also encouraging members to lobby lawmakers directly, and to contribute to candidates who will support the tax credit. If the effort succeeds, the credits are expected to be available in two years. Choose none, one, or more of the following options to support the legislation.
No Contribute to the efforts of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. (Cost: $1.0 million)
No Engage a lobbying firm to promote tax credits for AEVs. (Cost: $2.0 million)
No Contribute to the campaigns of candidates who support the tax credit. (Cost: $1.5 million)
Yes Encourage parts suppliers to lobby for the legislation. (Cost: none)

Operations Management homework help

Rosa King

MGT-342-OL01

Professor Irvin

April 24, 2022

MGT-342 Homework# 3

Short Answer–

1. The most widely known case of drugs and/or alcohol resulting in a transportation disaster is?

Alcohol, narcotics, and large equipment can cause catastrophic disasters. In some cases, alcohol and medicines indirectly caused accidents.

2. What was the passenger fatality rate for autos versus airlines in 2006?

Over the course of the year 2006, the Aviation Safety Network recorded an aggregate of 27 lethal Carrie accidents, bringing about 888 fatalities and 4 ground fatalities. This is fundamentally below the ten-year normal of 36 mishaps and 1005 fatalities eleven deadly traveler flight mishaps in 2004 were an untouched low. After a short spike in 2005, the number of mishaps in 2006 diminished to 15, which is underneath the five-year normal of 17 mishaps. Where in 2004 freight planes was justification for concern, 2006 showed a proceeding decline in freight plane collides with an outstanding figure in 2006 was the big number of ‘loss of control’ mishaps. Seventeen airplanes crashed because of a deficiency of control, killing north of 800. Six mishaps were ascribed to loss of control on landing or departure.

3. How many ports are there in the U.S.?

The United States’ 926 ports are fundamental for the country’s seriousness, filling in as the entryway through which most abroad exchange passes. Ports are answerable for $4.6 trillion in the monetary movement generally 26% of the U.S. economy.

Essay—

1. Discuss and describe the competition as it relates to the water carriers.

Water transporter (additionally water dealer) is a calling that existed before the appearance of incorporated water supply frameworks. A water transporter gathered water from a source (a stream, a well, water siphons, and so on) and shipped or conveyed holders with water to individuals’ homes. Domestic water transporters contend straightforwardly with rail transporters for the development of mass items like coal. E. Water constrained rates to result from the extraordinary contest among water and pipelines for the development of oil-based commodities (Geere, 2018).

The significant water transporter rivalry is with two different modes, in particular rail and pipelines. Water transporters contend with rail lines for the development of dry mass items like grain, coal, and minerals. Since the expense of the water-rail mix is lower than the all-rail course, transporters keep on mentioning the joined water-rail service. To an extremely restricted degree, water transporters rival trucks. Nonetheless, trucks are generally used to defeat the openness requirements of water transporters since trucks attach inland regions to the streams for pickup or potentially conveyance.

Decreases in profit rates during the principal quarter of 1931 by driving rail line frameworks whose stocks are broadly appropriated have brought pointedly to public consideration the impacts of eighteen months of declining incomes upon the monetary state of American railroads.1 The transitory impacts of the overall business wretchedness have tended, in any case, to darken the more long-lasting impacts of the “new contest” which has been created during the last 10 years and is currently held in quarters to compromise the transcendence of the railways in the field of transportation (Angelakis, Mays., & Koutsoyiannis, 2012).

2. What is are at least two of the unique aspects of the pipeline industry?

The pipeline industry moves an assortment of substances like raw petroleum, refined oil-based goods, and flammable gas inside a huge number of miles of pipelines that are for the most part underground. This industry has an excellent record of well-being, emergency courses of action, and the ability to fix or sidestep confined interruptions. Nonetheless, assurance is a significant issue on account of the unpredictable idea of the items that pipelines convey. Pipelines cross nearby, state, and global purviews, and various organizations and different substances rely upon a dependable progression of fuel.

America is delivering more petroleum gas and raw petroleum than any other time. The capacity of our pipeline organization to rapidly and moderately convey it to showcase helps keep our energy costs down. The productivity given by pipelines converts into a more reasonable power age, giving American customers cost investment funds on their family energy bills. Reasonable and plentiful energy shipped by pipelines additionally means lower fuel costs, giving Americans more decisions on where to take up residence since driving whether by transport or vehicle is more reasonable.

Pipelines conveying American energy decrease our reliance on unsteady and at times antagonistic abroad sources. Pipelines assist us with staying away from expensive imports and product cost swings. Pipelines straightforwardly and by implication animate many family-supporting positions through their backing of the whole energy esteem tie — from makers to purifiers and wholesalers. Pipelines and their related foundation give yearly expense incomes to the networks through which they pass, helping support schools, libraries, parks, and other nearby drives.

Pipelines support our transportation choices, from individual vehicles and ride-share programs to planes and transports, by securely shipping the petrol and refined items that we depend on for fuel. Each time you fill your vehicle with gas, you are utilizing energy that, sooner or later, was shipped by a pipeline. Many families in colder environments rely upon oil and petroleum gas results to warm their homes. These items as a rule navigate various states in huge pipelines before at last arriving at the networks that need them (Bullock & Jane, 2021).

Pipelines supplant more carbon-serious vehicle techniques like truck and rail, making them the greenest method for moving energy supplies like flammable gas, propane, and fuel. Pipelines lessen blockage across our streets, rail, and delivery transportation organizations. Pipelines are a lot more secure than rail or truck for moving flammable gas and oil-based goods

The pipeline framework supplements the utilization and advancement of sun-powered and wind energy by giving flammable gas to power age when the breeze isn’t blowing, and the sun is not sparkling. Pipelines convey the feedstocks to the assembling plants that form the breeze turbines and sunlight-based chargers. Pipelines supply the diesel fuel expected to ship sun-powered chargers and wind turbines (Dev, 2019).

References:

Angelakis, Mays., & Koutsoyiannis. (2012). . Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing, 209.

Bullock, & Jane. (2021). Types Of Pipeline Every Oil and Gas Engineer Should Know About. Security and Loss Prevention.

Dev. (2019). Features & Benefits of Pipeline Transportation – Why Pipelines Are Needed. ifsolutions.

Geere, J.-A. (2018). Is water carriage associated with the water carrier’s health? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. BMJ Glob Health.

Operations Management homework help

Data Cleaning Assignment

Data scientists spend a large amount of their time cleaning datasets and getting them down to a form with which they can work. In fact, a lot of data scientists argue that the initial steps of obtaining and cleaning data constitute 80% of the job.

Therefore, if you are just stepping into this field or planning to step into this field, it is important to be able to deal with messy data, whether that means missing values, inconsistent formatting, malformed records, or nonsensical outliers.

In this tutorial, we’ll leverage Python’s Pandas and NumPy libraries to clean data.

We’ll cover the following:

· Dropping unnecessary columns in a DataFrame

· Changing the index of a DataFrame

· Using .str() methods to clean columns

· Using the DataFrame.applymap() function to clean the entire dataset, element-wise

· Renaming columns to a more recognizable set of labels

· Skipping unnecessary rows in a CSV file

Here are the datasets that we will be using:

· BL-Flickr-Images-Book.csv – A CSV file containing information about books from the British Library

· university_towns.txt – A text file containing names of college towns in every US state

· olympics.csv – A CSV file summarizing the participation of all countries in the Summer and Winter Olympics

You can download the datasets from Real Python’s GitHub repository in order to follow the examples here.

Note: I recommend using Jupyter Notebooks to follow along.

This tutorial assumes a basic understanding of the Pandas and NumPy libraries, including Panda’s workhorse Series and DataFrame objects, common methods that can be applied to these objects, and familiarity with NumPy’s NaN values.

Let’s import the required modules and get started!

>>>

>>> import pandas as pd

>>> import numpy as np

Dropping Columns in a DataFrame

Often, you’ll find that not all the categories of data in a dataset are useful to you. For example, you might have a dataset containing student information (name, grade, standard, parents’ names, and address) but want to focus on analyzing student grades.

In this case, the address or parents’ names categories are not important to you. Retaining these unneeded categories will take up unnecessary space and potentially also bog down runtime.

Pandas provides a handy way of removing unwanted columns or rows from a DataFrame with the drop() function. Let’s look at a simple example where we drop a number of columns from a DataFrame.

First, let’s create a DataFrame out of the CSV file ‘BL-Flickr-Images-Book.csv’. In the examples below, we pass a relative path to pd.read_csv, meaning that all of the datasets are in a folder named Datasets in our current working directory:

>>>

>>> df = pd.read_csv(‘Datasets/BL-Flickr-Images-Book.csv’)

>>> df.head()

(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)

When we look at the first five entries using the head() method, we can see that a handful of columns provide ancillary information that would be helpful to the library but isn’t very descriptive of the books themselves: Edition Statement, Corporate Author, Corporate Contributors, Former owner, Engraver, Issuance type and Shelfmarks.

We can drop these columns in the following way:

>>>

>>> to_drop = [‘Edition Statement’,

… ‘Corporate Author’,

… ‘Corporate Contributors’,

… ‘Former owner’,

… ‘Engraver’,

… ‘Contributors’,

… ‘Issuance type’,

… ‘Shelfmarks’]

>>> df.drop(to_drop, inplace=True, axis=1)

Above, we defined a list that contains the names of all the columns we want to drop. Next, we call the drop() function on our object, passing in the inplace parameter as True and the axis parameter as 1. This tells Pandas that we want the changes to be made directly in our object and that it should look for the values to be dropped in the columns of the object.

When we inspect the DataFrame again, we’ll see that the unwanted columns have been removed:

>>>

>>> df.head()


(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)

Alternatively, we could also remove the columns by passing them to the columns parameter directly instead of separately specifying the labels to be removed and the axis where Pandas should look for the labels:

>>>

>>> df.drop(columns=to_drop, inplace=True)

This syntax is more intuitive and readable. What we’re trying to do here is directly apparent.

If you know in advance which columns you’d like to retain, another option is to pass them to the usecols argument of pd.read_csv.

Changing the Index of a DataFrame

A Pandas Index extends the functionality of NumPy arrays to allow for more versatile slicing and labeling. In many cases, it is helpful to use a uniquely valued identifying field of the data as its index.

For example, in the dataset used in the previous section, it can be expected that when a librarian searches for a record, they may input the unique identifier (values in the Identifier column) for a book:

>>>

>>> df[‘Identifier’].is_unique

True

Let’s replace the existing index with this column using set_index:

>>>

>>> df = df.set_index(‘Identifier’)

>>> df.head()


(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)


Technical Detail: Unlike primary keys in 

SQL
, a Pandas Index doesn’t make any guarantee of being unique, although many indexing and merging operations will notice a speedup in runtime if it is.

We can access each record in a straightforward way with loc[]. Although loc[] may not have all that intuitive of a name, it allows us to do label-based indexing, which is the labeling of a row or record without regard to its position:

>>>

>>> df.loc[206]

(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)

In other words, 206 is the first label of the index. To access it by position, we could use df.iloc[0], which does position-based indexing.

Technical Detail: .loc[] is technically a 
class instance
 and has some special 
syntax
 that doesn’t conform exactly to most plain-vanilla Python instance methods.

Previously, our index was a RangeIndex: integers starting from 0, analogous to Python’s built-in range. By passing a column name to set_index, we have changed the index to the values in Identifier.

You may have noticed that we reassigned the 
variable
 to the object returned by the method with df = df.set_index(…). This is because, by default, the method returns a modified copy of our object and does not make the changes directly to the object. We can avoid this by setting the inplace parameter:

df.set_index(‘Identifier’, inplace=True)

Operations Management homework help

MKT4106 ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION


Week 1 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

 Top of Form

Due April 29 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “
Doing Discussion Questions Right
,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Advertising and Promotion

Assume you work in marketing for a firm in one of the following scenarios:

1. An upscale clothing line which is geared for children ages newborn to 12 years of age

2. A non-profit organization which helps women who have been victims of domestic violence

3. A firm which markets outdoor equipment for activities such as camping, fishing, hunting, etc.

4. Pick a firm of your choice and include the link to the web site or provide description of the brand. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Identify six promotional methods you will use to reach the target market for your selected scenario. Provide your justification in terms of why this method is appropriate for your target audience.

· How should your firm utilize social media to position your brand?

· Pick two firms which compete in the product category you selected. What promotional methods do they use to market their brand?  Do you agree with their approach? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Cite any sources you use in APA format.


Week 1 Project
$15.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 3 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Targeting and Positioning

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Consider a product which you have recently purchased and answer the following questions:

· Assess how advertising influenced your recent purchase. How did it make you aware of the product? (include the advertisement or link to the brand’s web site)

· Based on your knowledge of the brand, who is the target market? In your analysis, consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Evaluate how the brand is positioned in the marketplace. What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· How can three different brands be positioned relative to each other in a target market? For example, as a part of the fast-food industry, compare McDonald’s, Wendy’s, and Burger King. What variables do you feel are the most important for positioning and differentiating these fast-food restaurants in the market? Why do you feel these variables are so important? 

Submission Details:

· Submit your plan in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.


Week 2 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 6 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area.

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible 

AIDA Model

AIDA is the most common model used for designing advertisements. Select a full-page advertisement from a recent national magazine edition and analyze the design using the AIDA model. Include a scanned copy of the advertisement or a link to the advertising campaign for discussion purposes. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Which elements of the advertisement work well? What could you do differently? How do the different elements relate to each other?

· Provide an example of how marketers are integrating social media tools such as Twitter, blogs, and Facebook into an advertisement. Discuss how successful these efforts have been. What could be the learning for marketers from these efforts in applying social media to marcom? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?


Week 2 Project
$15.00

Assignment

 Top of Form

Due May 10 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Measuring Advertising Message Effectiveness

Measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns has always been a challenge. Conduct online research to find five Super Bowl advertisements to analyze and answer the following questions (include links to the advertisements):

· Summarize the television advertisements selected and analyze the target audience and the objective(s) of the advertisements.

· Based on your research and assigned weekly readings, propose methods a marketer can use to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising message for the advertisements you selected.

· What are the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods?

· What are the situations or circumstances where a method would be most effective? 

Be sure to conclude your paper with a summary of the key points of learning from your work. 

Include a minimum of three peer reviewed articles for your paper. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your analysis in a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document.

Week 3 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic 

Top of Form

Due May 13 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Online Advertising

Traditional advertising such as print and television has decreased, while online or Internet advertising has continued to increase. This week you have learned that online advertising can take place in many different formats. 

Create a 300 – 400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Pick three types of online advertising formats and describe each in detail. Include an example for each. (Select from: blogs, podcasts, social networks, e-zines, email, video advertisements, banner advertisements, and pop-ups)

· You know from your reading that search engine advertising is one of the fastest forms of online advertising. Assume that you sell cowboy boots and want to advertise your retail firm through Google. Describe how search engine advertising works. What are some major concerns with search engine advertising?

· What is behavioral marketing and why may a marketer be interested in this approach? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 3 Project $35.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 17 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Course Project Part 1

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Based on research conducted on the South University online library or via the Internet, identify a brand which is struggling in the marketplace. In this project, you will assume the role of the brand manager who has been hired reposition the brand in the marketplace and increase sales through an integrated marketing communications (IMC) plan. 

Complete the following activities:                                               

· Summarize the brand you selected. Why is the brand struggling and how will you revitalize the brand?

· Conduct a market segmentation analysis. Who is your target market and why? Be sure to consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Determine how your brand is positioned in the marketplace. Who are your competitors? What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· Determine the objective of your advertising campaign and provide justification.

· Create your marcom budget. Determine if you will utilize the percentage of sales method, the task method, or the competitive method.

· Create the advertising message for your campaign. How will you create effective advertising and get the message to stick in the minds of your target audience? What message strategy will you use?

· Propose how you will measure the effectiveness of your advertising message. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 6- to 9-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 4 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Due May 20 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Consumer Sales Promotion

We know from our lecture that the function of consumer sales promotions is to increase the sales of the firm’s products. This is accomplished by increasing the product’s exposure to the public. The desirability of the product to consumers is also increased by sales promotions, with the goal being an increase in demand for the product. 

Conduct research and find examples of each of the following consumer sales promotions and answer the following questions in 300-400-word response:

· Coupons are a common tool of integrated marketing communication (IMC). How have coupons influenced your purchase of a product or service? What are the features of the coupon that were most influential in your purchase decision?

· Many firms use contests or sweepstakes to promote their product. How does a contest or a sweepstake impact or influence your decision to purchase? Did you win any of the prizes as a result? Did this influence your view of the product? Why or why not?

· Samples are often given out at supermarkets or can be sent through the mail. Has tasting a sample resulted in your buying the product? If so, did you become brand loyal to the product? If not, why not? What is your opinion on the sample’s effectiveness as a promotional tool? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 4 Project $15.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 24 at 12:59 AM

Project: Trade Allowances

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

Trade Allowances

Trade allowances are a common promotional practice. The most common are slotting allowances at supermarkets. Slotting allowances are fees that supermarkets charge brands to place their products on the supermarket’s shelves. Discuss and evaluate the practice of slotting at supermarkets.

· What are the criticisms of the practice of slotting at supermarkets?

· What are the advantages of the practice of slotting?

· Assess some efforts that some retailers, including P&G, have taken to rectify trade allowance problems. Have they been successful?

· Evaluate the pros and cons of pay-for-performance programs. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 5 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 27 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Ethics Advertising

Advertising is a key element of IMC, but also, it is the element most likely to create ethical issues. Create a 300-400-word response answering the following:

· Describe a recent advertisement you have seen that you considered to be unethical. What were the elements that made it unethical? Was it also illegal? Why? Discuss the difference between an illegal and an unethical advertisement. Also, discuss why a company should avoid running an unethical advertisement even if it is legal.

· The fast-food industry invests heavily in the promotion of its products aimed at children. Select one of the major fast-food chains and describe how they market to children. Is it ethical to target kids using toys to promote fast food? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 5 Project $40.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 31 at 12:59 AM

Course Project Part 2

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

This week, you will finalize your integrated marketing communications plan for your selected brand. Incorporate your instructor’s feedback from Week 3 into this final submission. 

Complete the following activities:

· Summarize your integrated marketing communication plan for your selected brand.

· Prepare a proposal which includes your advertising media plan. Include both traditional and non-traditional forms of advertising, including online. Be sure to include your social media strategy in your proposal.

· Evaluated how the media selected is matched to the media habits of the target market.

· Explain how consumer promotions should be integrated into your integrated marketing communications strategy.

· Many brands use cause marketing to promote interest in their products. Analyze how your brand can utilize cause marketing to promote brand loyalty.

· Develop a public relations plan for your brand. Discuss the key elements of the public relations strategy and provide justification. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your case study analysis in a 7- to 10-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Operations Management homework help

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE INFLUENTIAL FACTORS OF PACKAGING,

PRICE SENSITIVITYAND BRAND IMAGE ON FROZEN FOOD CONSUMER

BUYING BEHAVIOR IN BANGKOK, THAILAND

Thiendej, Peeraput
Graduate School of Business, Assumption University of Thailand

massivemonkeys@hotmail.com

Chaipoopirutana, Sirion
Graduate School of Business, Assumption University of Thailand

sirionc@gmail.com

Abstract

Packaging has been gradually taking on an important role as a way to serve consumers by

providing information and delivering functions. The role of packaging is observed as a

strategic tool to influence consumer buying behavior. The main purpose of this research

was to identify the influences of the visual elements of packaging in terms of graphics and

size/shape and the informational elements of packaging in terms of product information

and technology, brand image, price sensitivity on consumer buying behavior of CP ready-

to-eat frozen food in Bangkok, Thailand. This study exclusively made use of survey

methods to collect the data from 399 respondents. Descriptive statistics were used in

describing parameters of the respondents and inferential statistics was used to test the

hypotheses. The results of the Multiple Regression Model have shown that the independent

variables, such as the visual elements of packaging in terms of graphics and size/shape and

the informational elements of packaging in terms of product information and technology

were significantly influenced on both brand image and consumer buying behavior. In

addition, brand image was significantly influenced on consumer buying behavior.

However, price sensitivity was not influenced on consumer buying behavior. While the

result of Simple Regression Model showed that price sensitivity had a significant influence

on brand image. Based on the results of the study, it is supposed to be beneficial to the

ready-to-eat frozen food businesses in order to improve their packaging design in terms of

graphics as well as their brand image. Packaging can make a product stand out, and can be

a silent sale man on a shelf because it is growing in a competitive market and has become

an important tool for communication with consumers.

Key words: – Consumer buying behavior, packaging, price sensitivity and brand image.

Introduction

Food packaging is likely to grow in competitive market conditions, as packages turn into a

tool for communication and branding, and there are many factors affecting the consumer buying

behavior process through food packaging, therefore the communication functions of the package,

such as the graphics of the packaging, the size and shape of the packaging, the information on the

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package, and innovative packaging must inform and assist consumers in making their purchase

decision carefully (Ahmed et al, 2014).

Consumers are becoming more and more demanding and packaging has been gradually taking

on an important role as a way to serve consumers by providing information and delivering functions

to communicate with consumers. It is no wonder that the important role of packaging is observed

as a strategic tool to influence consumer buying behavior. Likewise, in Thailand, currently, the

lifestyle of people is being rushed. There are time constraints and the need for speed in the activities

of everyday life and they are more likely to need more convenience cookings (Silayoi and Speece,

2007). Convenience cookings could be considered as the ease of use of consumption of the food

which indicates time reducing and less effort to prepare (Luning, 2001). Consumers who need

convenience cookings, agree that ready-to-eat frozen foods are convenient (Darian, 1995).

Moreover, packaging concepts of ready-to-eat frozen food are designed more and more to fulfill

the consumers need for more convenience (Luning, 2001). Packaging concepts, such as graphics,

size/shape, information, technology definitely could give consumers more convenience (Ahmed et

al, 2014). For example, graphics on the packages, such as their color and design, trend to have an

impact on consumer buying behavior because graphics are necessary when consumers do not have

time for much consideration and decision making; therefore, graphics could draw their attention to

the product (Ahmed et al, 2014).

Moreover, according to Jinkarn and Suwannaporn (2015), the size and shape of packaging is

more likely to play an important role in consumer buying behavior because the proper size and

shape of the package could offer convenience to the consumers for storing and preparing or

grabbing and holding. In addition, information on the packaging could also have an impact on

consumer buying behavior because it can connect consumers with the product and it is very

important for the consumers to consider information on a package in order to compare quality and

value (Deliya and Parmar, 2012). Similarly, some consumers might pay more attention to the

information on the package, especially the consumers who are concerned about health (Silayoi and

Speece, 2004). In addition, consumer buying behavior is also likely to be influenced by the

technology of packaging, such as its recyclability, microwavable, easy-to-open, easy-to-store, easy-

to-carry, and preventing breakages (Silayoi and Speece, 2007). However, in this case, the consumer

buying behavior is influenced not only by the convenience of the ready-to-eat frozen food

packaging. Price and brand of the ready-to-eat frozen food could have an impact on consumer

buying behavior as well. For example, price could refer to the perceived value of goods and service,

and the different perception of the goods or service leads to a difference in identifying the price,

especially the importance of food price often has its effect on consumer’s income (Walters and

Bergiel, 1989). On the other hand, brand names could create important information and key benefits

of the product, and help consumers remember it (Parry, 2001).

Literature Review

Consumer buying behavior: Consumer buying behavior involves the selection, purchase and

consumption of goods and services in order to satisfy their needs and wants. Basically, there are

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different processes involved in consumer buying behavior. Firstly, the consumers would try to find

what product and service they would like to consume, then they choose only those products or

services that give them greater benefits, and after selecting the product and service, the consumer

tends to make an estimate of the available money which they can spend. Lastly, the consumers tend

to identify the price of the product and make a decision (Kotler and Keller, 2011). Moreover, there

are other factors influencing buying behavior of the consumer such as social class, culture, personal

aspect and psychological factors. For example, firstly, culture is critical when it comes to

understanding the needs, wants and behaviors of an individual. Basically, culture is part of society

and the influence of culture on buying behavior varies from country to country. Therefore,

analyzing the culture of different groups is very important in terms of consumer buying behavior

(Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007). Visual elements of packaging in terms of graphics: Nancarrow et

al (1998) stated that graphics is the methodology of visual communication and a combination of

visual arts and typography. Mostly, the graphics is developed by marketers.

Basically, graphics contain image, layout, color and the total presentation of image communicated

to consumers. However, different consumers may observe different packaging in different ways

because when consumers learn graphics associations, it could lead the consumers to prefer a certain

graphic for certain product categories. In addition, according to Herrington & Capella (1995), when

consumers examine packages in the supermarket, the differential perception and the positioning of

the graphics can be the difference between identifying and missing the product because eye-

catching graphics could make the product stand out on the shelf and attract the consumers.

Therefore, graphics can affect through the colors and printed lines on the package on which

different signs and symbols are located. Moreover, in many situations graphics could create a

positive mood and also an important role of packaging graphics is that they could gain the attention

of consumers to the product (Silayoi & Speece, 2004).Visual elements of packaging in terms of

size/shape: Raghubir and Krishna (1999) conceptualized that size and shape combined with a

dimension and consumers trends to use it to make judgments about volume. Basically, consumers

could respond to different sizes and shapes in different ways because the effect of packaging size

and shape is stronger when product quality is hard to be clarified. Silayoi and Speece (2007) also

stated that different packaging sizes attract consumers from different involvement. For example,

some consumers find products in larger packaging as a good offer with great value for money and

this indicates that when the quality of the product is difficult to judge, the impact of packaging size

is greater because bigger packages of food products are more likely to be chosen. For example, if

consumers are not familiar with the brand of the product, the larger packaging size and shape could

be also noticed easily.Informational elements of packaging in terms of product information:

Coulson (2000) mentioned that one of the functions of packaging is to communicate product

information to consumers, which can help them in their purchase decisions carefully because

communication of information is one of the important functions of packaging. For example, it could

help consumers to make the right decision in the purchasing process and also provide the consumer

the opportunity to consider alternative products and make a choice by reading the information on

the package or product. Moreover, Ahmed and Salman (2005) conceptualized that in the food

industry, packaging is considered as a communication tool providing information on the product

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about ingredients, contents, price, cooking directions and the expiry date. Basically, the objective

of the information functions of packaging is to inform consumers about the product’s contents and

help the consumers in making their decisions carefully.

Informational elements of packaging in terms of technology: Mcllveen (1994) stated that the

informational elements of packaging in terms of technology is a combination between research

development and innovation that are more effectively packaged for the product. Basically, the

development of packaging technologies is concerned with food safety, and these technologies

could be related to improving the quality, expiration date, safety, and components of the package.

Silayoi and Speece (2004) also mentioned that the technology developed for packaging comes

from consumer behaviors. For example, working people often purchase microwavable food

packaging which is convenient and suits their lifestyle; therefore, consumers are more likely to

pay attention to packaging materials which have an impact on convenience as well as the product

itself because it could help them with their food preparation. For example, microwavable

packaging could be a good solution for consumers when they do not have enough time to prepare

their meal.

Price sensitivity: Kim et al. (1999) mentioned that price is the value of purchasing goods or

services and might be involved in consumer buying behavior and price could be an important

factor for some consumers because they are more likely to feel price sensitivity when purchasing

the product at a lower or higher price. Monroe (1971) also stated that price sensitivity is an

individual difference variable describing how individual consumers show their reactions to

changes in price levels. In addition, Kanghyun and Thanh (2011) conceptualized that price

sensitivity occurs when each consumer shows their reactions to changes in price levels. Basically,

it is the awareness of the consumers to what they observe about the cost when purchasing a

particular product or service. Normally, each customer will have a certain price acceptability

range in their mind. When customers are satisfied with the products or services, they are more

likely to buy the product again.

Brand image: Keller (2008) stated that a brand may include a symbol, name, design, or

experience that help consumers identify products and services, in addition branding could also

help consumers to reduce risk by ensuring a certain level of product quality and brand image

could create values for the product in many ways, such as by helping consumers to process

information, differentiate brands, generate reasons to buy, give positive feelings, and increase the

reliability of the product. Keller and Lehman (2006) also mentioned that a good brand image

provides important benefits to the product and company. For example, a good brand image could

help the company to reduce the costs of advertising and help the company to be ahead of the

competitors in terms of recognition. Lassar et al. (1995) also mentioned that consumer confidence

could occur with a good brand image because loyalty and trust of the consumers are more likely

to be developed through a good brand image and these lead to confidence in the consumers and

the greater the confidence they have in the brand, the more likely they are willing to pay a high

price for it. Therefore, a good brand image may give buyers confidence that it performs better

than a brand which is unknown and the feeling of confidence communicated by the brand can be

an important additional benefit to the buyer.

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Visual elements of packaging in terms of graphics, size/shape and consumer buying

behavior.

Ahmed et al. (2014) conceptualized that graphics on the package, such as color and design

play an important role in consumer buying behavior because graphics are necessary when

consumers do not have time for much consideration and the decision making process for a product.

Abdullah et al. (2013) concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between the

graphics on packaging and consumer buying behavior. Moreover, Adam and Ali (2014) stated that

consumer consumption trends increased when packages are available in larger sizes. For example,

a larger package is considered by consumers of larger families, and a smaller package for them

could be considered as a waste. Jinkarn and Suwannaporn (2015) also revealed there is a positive

relationship between the size and shape of packaging and consumer buying behavior.

Visual elements of packaging in terms of graphics, size/shape and brand image

Underwood et al. (2001) stated graphics could help consumers find the brand of their choice

and if they do not have any strong preference for a brand then graphics at least gain their attention

to consider a particular product for evaluation. Edward (2013) summarized that graphics used in

packaging have a significant relationship with brand image. According to Agariya et al.

(2013), a proper size and shape packaging can help brands in a good position in the market place

and set a brand apart from its competitors in order to get consumers’ attention easier and also can

represent an image of the brand. Orth and Malkewitz (2006) also concluded that there is a

significant positive relationship between size and shape of packaging, and brand image.

Informational elements of packaging in terms of product information, technology and brand

image.

Sial et al. (2011) stated that packaging information, such as labeling which is written on the

package or a product could contain the brand name of the product as well as the ingredients.

Moreover, a company uses packaging and labeling as a tool to attract consumers because the

consumers tend to pay more for the product which has a good brand name, compared to those

products which do not have a good brand image. Machado et al. (2012) concluded that there is

statistically significant relationship between product information and brand image. In addition,

Danaei et al. (2014) conceptualized that companies tend to create a strong brand image by

improving the quality of products as well as establishing strong brands through the packaging

technology of the product, such as ease of use, ease of handling and safety. Mahajan et al. (2013)

also mentioned that there is a significant relationship between packaging technology and brand

image.

Informational elements of packaging in terms of product information, technology and

consumer buying behavior.

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According to Deliya and Parmar (2012), the information elements on packaging include

the label indicating the brand name of the product, and information could connect consumers with

the product because the consumers feel that it is very important to consider information on a

package in order to compare quality and value. Mutsikiwa et al. (2013) concluded that there is a

significant relationship between the information on the package and consumer buying behavior.

Mahajan et al. (2013) conceptualized that packaging technology, such as innovative packaging

could add value to the product in the eyes of consumers, such as portion control, recyclability,

child-proofing, easy-open, easy-store, easy-to-carry, and non-breakability. Silayoi and Speece

(2007) also stated that there is a positive relationship between the technology of packaging and

consumer buying behavior.

Price sensitivity and brand image.

Soba and Aydin (2012) stated that when consumers have a high income level, it means that

price sensitivity of the consumers is low because consumers with a higher income prefer to buy

products at higher prices and they also think that a higher price means higher quality. Moreover,

price sensitivity of the consumers also has an impact on brand image. For example, the consumer

with a high income is more likely to purchase any product which has a good brand image. Dhurup

et al. (2013) studied about price sensitivity and brand image and found that there is an impact of

price sensitivity on brand image.

Price sensitivity, brand image and consumer buying behavior.

Diaz (2003) conceptualized that consumers’ knowledge of prices was found to be dependent

on how much importance they placed on price. For example, if the consumer comes from lower-

income households, they tend to spend less because their sensitivity to price is influenced by their

income level. Kanghyun and Thanh (2011) also mentioned that when consumers do an evaluation

on the price of the product, price sensitivity will occur. Brucks et al. (2000) summarized that there

is a relationship between price and consumer buying behavior. Sial et al. (2011) mentioned that a

good brand image enhances the value of the brand in the consumer’s mind because a good image

could increase the likeability and desirability of the product. Fianto et al. (2014) also concluded

that that brand image has a positive and significant influence on consumer buying behavior.

Research Framework

Based on three previous studies conducted by Sial et al. (2011), Karampour and

Ahnmadinejad (2014) and Silayoi and Speece (2004), the researcher developed a conceptual

framework consisting of six independent variables which are the visual elements of CP ready-to-

eat frozen food packaging in terms of graphics, the visual elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen

food packaging in terms of size/shape, the informational elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food

packaging in terms of product information, the informational elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen

food packaging in terms of technology, price sensitivity of CP ready-to-eat frozen food, brand

image of CP ready-to-eat frozen food and consumer buying behavior as dependent variable. The

conceptual framework is shown in Figure.1.

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Figure: 1 Conceptual framework

hhhhh

Research Hypotheses

H1: Visual elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of graphics and size/shape

are significantly influenced on consumer buying behavior.

H2: Visual elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of graphic and size/shape

are significantly influenced on brand image.

H3: Informational elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of product

information and technology are significantly influenced on brand image.

Packaging Elements of CP

Ready-to-eat Frozen food

Visual Elements

Graphics

Size/Shape

Informational Elements

Product Information

Technology

Brand Image of CP

ready-to-eat frozen

food

Consumer

Buying

Behavior

H1

H2

H3

Price sensitivity of CP ready-

to-eat frozen food

H5

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ASBBS PROCEEDINGS OF THE 23RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE

H4: Informational elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of product

information and technology are significantly influenced on consumer buying behavior.

H5: Price sensitivity of CP ready-to-eat frozen food is significantly influenced on brand image.

H6: Price sensitivity of CP ready-to-eat frozen food and Brand image are significantly influenced

on consumer buying behavior.

Research methodology

The researcher applied descriptive research by using survey techniques, and also the

researcher distributed the questionnaire using a self-administered techniques to collect the data

from 399 respondents in Bangkok, Thailand. The target of this study is males or females who have

experience purchasing CP ready-to-eat frozen food. The researcher collected data from CP Fresh

mart stores from three main target areas which are Fortune town, Silom and Phayathai. These three

areas are crowded because they are close to the BTS sky train and MRT subway train where many

people use as transportation during rush hours (www.google.co.th/maps/place/CP+Freshmart,

accessed the data on 22/06/2015). The questionnaire for this study was separated into two parts –

Sections A and B. Section A of the questionnaire contains questions on the demographic profile,

such as the respondents’ age, gender, education level, marital status and monthly income. Section

B of the questionnaire was based on the researcher’s conceptual framework, and the five point

Likert scale was applied for the questionnaires, and the meaning of each scale is 1 indicates

“strongly disagree”, 2 indicating “disagree”, 3 indicating “moderate”, 4 indicating “agree”, and 5

indicating “strongly agree”.

The result of this study will represent specific areas in Bangkok only. The researchers will

not be able to collect data from all the population who have purchased CP ready-to-eat frozen foods

from every CP fresh mart branches in Thailand, due to limitations of money, time and personnel;

also, the researcher used purposive sampling, quota sampling and convenience sampling to gather

the data, therefore it may not cover all answer of CP ready-to eat frozen food consumers in

Thailand. The data collection for this study took place in the month of September 2015; therefore,

the result of this study is limited to this particular time frame. In this research, the Cronbach’s Alpha

test was also done to see the reliability and consistency of variables of this research. The collected

data were treated using Descriptive and Inferential statistics. Moreover, descriptive statistics were

used in describing the parameters of the respondents and inferential statistics were used to test the

hypotheses. Multiple Regression Model and Simple Regression Model were used find out the

influences of the independent variables on the dependent variable.

Research Findings

According to the descriptive analysis of the demographic factors among 399 respondents,

it showed that a majority of respondents were mostly female, which is equal to 62.2% (248). The

highest percentage of respondents’ age mostly is between 21 to 30 years old which is equal to

48.1% (192). Most of respondents are single which is equal to 65.9%. The highest education level

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of the respondents is a Bachelor’s Degree which is equal to 84.2% (336), and the highest percentage

of respondents’ monthly income is the range of 20,000-40,000 Baht which represents 82.0% (327).

Moreover, the result of descriptive analysis of the variables revealed that the price sensitivity of CP

ready-to-eat frozen food has the lowest mean which is equal to 2.87. It means that the price

sensitivity of CP ready-to-eat frozen food does not have much influence on the buying decision of

the consumers, and it means that the consumers are not concerned with the price of CP ready-to-

eat frozen food. On the other hand, the highest mean belongs to the informational elements of CP

ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of product information which is equal to 3.42, and it

means that most of the consumers mainly focus on the packaging information when making a

buying decision. For this study, the researcher made use of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and

Simple Linear Regression (SLR) to test the influences of the hypotheses. The research results of

Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Simple Linear Regression (SLR) showed that all the null

hypotheses were rejected as the following table 1 shows the results of the hypotheses testing.

Table 1: Summary results of hypotheses testing

Variables (H1) Beta Significance Result

Visual elements of CP

ready-to-eat frozen food

packaging in terms of

Graphics and Size/shape

0.456

0.296

.000

.000

Rejected

Variables (H2) Beta Significance Result

Visual elements of CP

ready-to-eat frozen food

packaging in terms of

Graphics and Size/shape

0.147

0.423

.014

.000

Rejected

Variables (H3) Beta Significance Result

Informational elements of

CP ready-to-eat frozen

food packaging in terms of

product information and

technology

0.239

0.418

.000

.000

Rejected

Variables (H4) Beta Significance Result

Informational elements of

CP ready-to-eat frozen

food packaging in terms of

product information and

technology

0.397

0.145

.000

.000

Rejected

Variable (H5) Beta Significance Result

Price sensitivity of CP

ready-to-eat frozen food

0.382 .000 Rejected

Variables (H6) Beta Significance Result

Price sensitivity of CP

ready-to-eat frozen food

and brand image

-0.051

0.422

.142

.000

Rejected

As stated in Table 1, the visual elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms

of graphics had the strongest influence on consumer buying behavior at 0.456 of beta, followed by

the brand image of CP-ready-to-eat frozen food which is influenced on consumer buying behavior

with at 0.422 of beta. In addition, the visual elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in

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terms of size/shape had the strongest influence on brand image at 0.423 of beta, followed by the

informational elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of technology which is

influenced on brand image at 0.418 of beta. However, the price sensitivity of CP ready-to-eat frozen

food is not influenced on consumer buying behavior at -0.051 of beta respectively. Therefore, it

implies the visual elements of CP ready-to-eat frozen food packaging in terms of graphics had a

stronger influence on consumer buying behavior than the other variables.

Conclusions

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors of

Operations Management homework help

You will be using the Management Consulting Template.

Here is some helpful information:
The Management Consulting Template (MCT) is a tool used by consultants to track their thinking and analysis in

order to come up with strong/best recommendations for the client based on the diagnostic tools/facts/critical

analysis/logic. The goal in MCT is to pick one of three options for the client and work it through the MCT and to

therefore have a persuasive argument in place. (Later when finished using the MCT the consultant would then use

the information within the template to write up a professional report. However. for this assignment we only

complete/deliver the MCT template itself). Send Individual Assignment 2 to brent.ramsay@myucwest.ca

Note some of the important aspects/pointers I typically expect/review/explain for this assignment:

i. What are the steps one should consider in Individual Assignment 2 of BUSI640- using the Management Consulting
Template (MCT)?
a. review the Case Study documents to understand the situation
b. select the diagnostic tools that will help you with diagnosis of the situation
c. think through b. with the help of those tools
d. come up with three options (Table 2) that you as the consultant decide are the best three options for the consultant
to overcome/improve the situation the client is facing
e. select only one of those three options as your preferred option
f. from that point on only answer the remaining tables in terms of the one preferred/selected option you chose.

Having done the above you would have now arrived now at Table 3

ii. What about critical issues and WNTBA?
For each of 3.1, 3.2 etc you now need to think through the question “what are the critical issues (problems or barriers,
etc) that will need to be addressed in order to achieve the one option I have selected/chosen? For each of the
sections (3.1, 3.2 etc) answer the questions for each of the critical issues you find for that section.

a. Table 3B
– Table 3b is closely connected to Table 3.1; 3.2; 3.3 etc

– the box in Table 3B that states “What Needs to Be Addressed” can be understood as a question “What needs to be
addressed in order to overcome/resolve the critical issue(s) that were found in Table 3.1; 3.2; 3.3 etc

b. Table 4
– Table 4.1; 4.2; 4.3 etc are closely connected to Tables 3B
– WNTBA is What Needs to Be Addressed
– the WNTBA Statements come from Table 3.1; 3.2; 3.3 etc
– having filled in the statements you now need to then find/decide on two solutions/ideas/alternatives (i.e. Alternative
#1; Alternative #2) for the client that best address/help solve each WNTBA
– having come up with two alternatives for each WNTBA, you now need to select one of the two alternatives as your
recommendation for each WNTBA and give the rationale as to why you chose that alternative (bottom box of 4.1; 4.2,
4.3 etc.)

c. The section of Table 5 is where the final recommendations and outcomes are written that result from the critical
analysis work you did in the earlier sections/tables leading up to Table 5.

d. Only the reference page is APA; type directly into the boxes; no other paper/documents etc are necessary beyond
the template other than the reference page and any appendices you decide to add; it is ok to use professional point
form but preferably in Tables 2 (the three options) use full sentences/paragraphs and give good detail as Tables 2 will
likely contain the most information and the other tables will be sentences and smaller sections/answers typically. This
is a critical analysis assignment where you show you have tracked your thinking, analysis, and recommendations
AND that they fit together.

Operations Management homework help

Individual Assignment: Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods Paper

Introduction

In this paper, you will conduct a business analysis of a business of your choice. You will develop a research question and demonstrate how you could use qualitative and quantitative research methods to arrive at the best answers for the business. After creating your operations management or global supply chain research question, demonstrate how to apply quantitative and qualitative research methods to determine the solution. The goals of the research could be to identify, analyze, and mitigate risk in the organization. For example, for quantitative issues, you could locate global supply chain threats, vulnerabilities, and countermeasures; compliance laws; risk assessment, mitigation and continuity, and disaster recovery planning or other business or global supply chain problems you decide to choose. You could also analyze statistical issues and pricing issues. For example, you could research global risk issues and geopolitical issues involving operations management and the global supply chain for qualitative topics. Start with how what, or why and look at connections or relations between phenomena. Provide a summary of qualitative and quantitative research tools most often used techniques and determine the best tools to use. Keep in mind how you will use the knowledge gained from the research to help the organization.

In preparation for this activity, please be sure to have read and viewed the following:

Orau.gov. Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods (Links to an external site.)
.

QuestionPro. Qualitative Research: Definition, Types, Methods and Examples (Links to an external site.)
.

Pickell, D. (2021). Qualitative vs Quantitative Data – What’s the Difference? (Links to an external site.)

Mr. Sinn. (2019). Qualitative and Quantitative Research. [Video, 04:29]. YouTube.

Wade, T. (2017). Qualitative & Quantitative Research – An Introduction (Links to an external site.)
. [Video, 08:52]. YouTube.

Instructions

Choose a company of interest to you or one that you have had experience with, and respond to the following questions:

Provide a brief summary of the company’s history of operations management.

Develop a research question and demonstrate how you could use qualitative and quantitative research methods to arrive at the best answers for the business.

Provide a summary of qualitative and quantitative research tools most often used techniques and determine the best tools to use.

Describe how you will use the conclusions from your research to help the company.

Your body of the paper should be 2-3 pages and written in APA format. Reference your required readings for the module as well as outside resources. Your paper should include a minimum of two references.

Evaluation

Individual assignments are worth 25% of your final grade. This assignment is due Sunday by 11:59 PM ET and will be assessed using the Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods Paper Rubric  

Download Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods Paper Rubric

[PDF, 173 KB].

Operations Management homework help

American Apparel: Drowning in debt is the case study of a company passing through a critical juncture because of the debt burden. The company faced an immense crisis in the form of debt repayments and corruption scandals of its leaders that have engulfed its prosperity prospects.

TOWS Analysis

Threats to the organization

American Apparel is facing multiple threats that are detrimental to its prosperity. In this regard, the increased cost of production owing to hikes in environmental taxes is one of the major threats. Additionally, the over-dependence on credits has posed severe threats to the company’s progress. It has led the company towards bankruptcy and has posed financial distress. The ongoing trade war between America and China is also a major threat to American Apparel that is hampering its supplies to many markets, including China (Mehta, 2019).

Opportunities for American Apparel

Many ongoing trends in the external environment can be used as opportunities for the company’s future growth. In this context, the global world order is one of the great opportunities for American Apparel that can expand its sales and maximize its financial gains (Noel, 2015). Simultaneously, the trend of standardization in the market is another opportunity that can be used to limit the number of offerings and can produce the most refined products (Mehta, 2019). Likewise, the technological interventions and amalgamation of Artificial intelligence in businesses can also maximize the gains and minimize the losses for American Apparel.

 

 

Weaknesses of American Apparel: Drowning in Debt

American Apparel has some weaknesses as well that are hindering its prosperity. The absence of diversity in its workforce is one of the major deficiencies of the company. It relies mostly on domestic workers, limiting its access to international markets. American Apparel is also getting low returns on investment that needs to be replaced with a return on an equity basis (Mehta, 2019). The company’s tarnished image of its unhealthy environmental policies is also a weakness that needs to be improved.

Strengths of American Apparel

There are many skills and capabilities of American Apparel that can boost the productivity of the company and can provide a competitive advantage to the organization. The policy of no compromise on the quality of products is the strength of American Apparel that grabs consumers’ attention (Mehta, 2019). A diverse products portfolio is another attribute of American Apparel that serves the choices of multiple domestic market segments. The strong bonding of American Apparel with its existing suppliers is the company’s strength that is catering to the company’s financial needs.

Operations Management homework help

Data Cleaning Assignment

Data scientists spend a large amount of their time cleaning datasets and getting them down to a form with which they can work. In fact, a lot of data scientists argue that the initial steps of obtaining and cleaning data constitute 80% of the job.

Therefore, if you are just stepping into this field or planning to step into this field, it is important to be able to deal with messy data, whether that means missing values, inconsistent formatting, malformed records, or nonsensical outliers.

In this tutorial, we’ll leverage Python’s Pandas and NumPy libraries to clean data.

We’ll cover the following:

· Dropping unnecessary columns in a DataFrame

· Changing the index of a DataFrame

· Using .str() methods to clean columns

· Using the DataFrame.applymap() function to clean the entire dataset, element-wise

· Renaming columns to a more recognizable set of labels

· Skipping unnecessary rows in a CSV file

Here are the datasets that we will be using:

· BL-Flickr-Images-Book.csv – A CSV file containing information about books from the British Library

· university_towns.txt – A text file containing names of college towns in every US state

· olympics.csv – A CSV file summarizing the participation of all countries in the Summer and Winter Olympics

You can download the datasets from Real Python’s GitHub repository in order to follow the examples here.

Note: I recommend using Jupyter Notebooks to follow along.

This tutorial assumes a basic understanding of the Pandas and NumPy libraries, including Panda’s workhorse Series and DataFrame objects, common methods that can be applied to these objects, and familiarity with NumPy’s NaN values.

Let’s import the required modules and get started!

>>>

>>> import pandas as pd

>>> import numpy as np

Dropping Columns in a DataFrame

Often, you’ll find that not all the categories of data in a dataset are useful to you. For example, you might have a dataset containing student information (name, grade, standard, parents’ names, and address) but want to focus on analyzing student grades.

In this case, the address or parents’ names categories are not important to you. Retaining these unneeded categories will take up unnecessary space and potentially also bog down runtime.

Pandas provides a handy way of removing unwanted columns or rows from a DataFrame with the drop() function. Let’s look at a simple example where we drop a number of columns from a DataFrame.

First, let’s create a DataFrame out of the CSV file ‘BL-Flickr-Images-Book.csv’. In the examples below, we pass a relative path to pd.read_csv, meaning that all of the datasets are in a folder named Datasets in our current working directory:

>>>

>>> df = pd.read_csv(‘Datasets/BL-Flickr-Images-Book.csv’)

>>> df.head()

(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)

When we look at the first five entries using the head() method, we can see that a handful of columns provide ancillary information that would be helpful to the library but isn’t very descriptive of the books themselves: Edition Statement, Corporate Author, Corporate Contributors, Former owner, Engraver, Issuance type and Shelfmarks.

We can drop these columns in the following way:

>>>

>>> to_drop = [‘Edition Statement’,

… ‘Corporate Author’,

… ‘Corporate Contributors’,

… ‘Former owner’,

… ‘Engraver’,

… ‘Contributors’,

… ‘Issuance type’,

… ‘Shelfmarks’]

>>> df.drop(to_drop, inplace=True, axis=1)

Above, we defined a list that contains the names of all the columns we want to drop. Next, we call the drop() function on our object, passing in the inplace parameter as True and the axis parameter as 1. This tells Pandas that we want the changes to be made directly in our object and that it should look for the values to be dropped in the columns of the object.

When we inspect the DataFrame again, we’ll see that the unwanted columns have been removed:

>>>

>>> df.head()


(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)

Alternatively, we could also remove the columns by passing them to the columns parameter directly instead of separately specifying the labels to be removed and the axis where Pandas should look for the labels:

>>>

>>> df.drop(columns=to_drop, inplace=True)

This syntax is more intuitive and readable. What we’re trying to do here is directly apparent.

If you know in advance which columns you’d like to retain, another option is to pass them to the usecols argument of pd.read_csv.

Changing the Index of a DataFrame

A Pandas Index extends the functionality of NumPy arrays to allow for more versatile slicing and labeling. In many cases, it is helpful to use a uniquely valued identifying field of the data as its index.

For example, in the dataset used in the previous section, it can be expected that when a librarian searches for a record, they may input the unique identifier (values in the Identifier column) for a book:

>>>

>>> df[‘Identifier’].is_unique

True

Let’s replace the existing index with this column using set_index:

>>>

>>> df = df.set_index(‘Identifier’)

>>> df.head()


(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)


Technical Detail: Unlike primary keys in 

SQL
, a Pandas Index doesn’t make any guarantee of being unique, although many indexing and merging operations will notice a speedup in runtime if it is.

We can access each record in a straightforward way with loc[]. Although loc[] may not have all that intuitive of a name, it allows us to do label-based indexing, which is the labeling of a row or record without regard to its position:

>>>

>>> df.loc[206]

(Insert full-screen snapshot of results)

In other words, 206 is the first label of the index. To access it by position, we could use df.iloc[0], which does position-based indexing.

Technical Detail: .loc[] is technically a 
class instance
 and has some special 
syntax
 that doesn’t conform exactly to most plain-vanilla Python instance methods.

Previously, our index was a RangeIndex: integers starting from 0, analogous to Python’s built-in range. By passing a column name to set_index, we have changed the index to the values in Identifier.

You may have noticed that we reassigned the 
variable
 to the object returned by the method with df = df.set_index(…). This is because, by default, the method returns a modified copy of our object and does not make the changes directly to the object. We can avoid this by setting the inplace parameter:

df.set_index(‘Identifier’, inplace=True)

Operations Management homework help

MKT4106 ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION


Week 1 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

 Top of Form

Due April 29 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “
Doing Discussion Questions Right
,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Advertising and Promotion

Assume you work in marketing for a firm in one of the following scenarios:

1. An upscale clothing line which is geared for children ages newborn to 12 years of age

2. A non-profit organization which helps women who have been victims of domestic violence

3. A firm which markets outdoor equipment for activities such as camping, fishing, hunting, etc.

4. Pick a firm of your choice and include the link to the web site or provide description of the brand. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Identify six promotional methods you will use to reach the target market for your selected scenario. Provide your justification in terms of why this method is appropriate for your target audience.

· How should your firm utilize social media to position your brand?

· Pick two firms which compete in the product category you selected. What promotional methods do they use to market their brand?  Do you agree with their approach? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Cite any sources you use in APA format.


Week 1 Project
$15.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 3 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Targeting and Positioning

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Consider a product which you have recently purchased and answer the following questions:

· Assess how advertising influenced your recent purchase. How did it make you aware of the product? (include the advertisement or link to the brand’s web site)

· Based on your knowledge of the brand, who is the target market? In your analysis, consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Evaluate how the brand is positioned in the marketplace. What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· How can three different brands be positioned relative to each other in a target market? For example, as a part of the fast-food industry, compare McDonald’s, Wendy’s, and Burger King. What variables do you feel are the most important for positioning and differentiating these fast-food restaurants in the market? Why do you feel these variables are so important? 

Submission Details:

· Submit your plan in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.


Week 2 Discussion
$6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 6 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Discussion

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area.

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible 

AIDA Model

AIDA is the most common model used for designing advertisements. Select a full-page advertisement from a recent national magazine edition and analyze the design using the AIDA model. Include a scanned copy of the advertisement or a link to the advertising campaign for discussion purposes. 

Create a 300-400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Which elements of the advertisement work well? What could you do differently? How do the different elements relate to each other?

· Provide an example of how marketers are integrating social media tools such as Twitter, blogs, and Facebook into an advertisement. Discuss how successful these efforts have been. What could be the learning for marketers from these efforts in applying social media to marcom? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?


Week 2 Project
$15.00

Assignment

 Top of Form

Due May 10 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Measuring Advertising Message Effectiveness

Measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns has always been a challenge. Conduct online research to find five Super Bowl advertisements to analyze and answer the following questions (include links to the advertisements):

· Summarize the television advertisements selected and analyze the target audience and the objective(s) of the advertisements.

· Based on your research and assigned weekly readings, propose methods a marketer can use to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising message for the advertisements you selected.

· What are the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods?

· What are the situations or circumstances where a method would be most effective? 

Be sure to conclude your paper with a summary of the key points of learning from your work. 

Include a minimum of three peer reviewed articles for your paper. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your analysis in a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document.

Week 3 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic 

Top of Form

Due May 13 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Online Advertising

Traditional advertising such as print and television has decreased, while online or Internet advertising has continued to increase. This week you have learned that online advertising can take place in many different formats. 

Create a 300 – 400-word response discussing the following questions:

· Pick three types of online advertising formats and describe each in detail. Include an example for each. (Select from: blogs, podcasts, social networks, e-zines, email, video advertisements, banner advertisements, and pop-ups)

· You know from your reading that search engine advertising is one of the fastest forms of online advertising. Assume that you sell cowboy boots and want to advertise your retail firm through Google. Describe how search engine advertising works. What are some major concerns with search engine advertising?

· What is behavioral marketing and why may a marketer be interested in this approach? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 3 Project $35.00

Assignment

Top of Form

Due May 17 at 12:59 AM

Bottom of Form

Course Project Part 1

This course has major project assignments due in Week 3 and Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete them. Plan time to start the research and work on those assignments earlier than the week in which they are due. 

Based on research conducted on the South University online library or via the Internet, identify a brand which is struggling in the marketplace. In this project, you will assume the role of the brand manager who has been hired reposition the brand in the marketplace and increase sales through an integrated marketing communications (IMC) plan. 

Complete the following activities:                                               

· Summarize the brand you selected. Why is the brand struggling and how will you revitalize the brand?

· Conduct a market segmentation analysis. Who is your target market and why? Be sure to consider the four sets of consumer characteristics which influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.

· Determine how your brand is positioned in the marketplace. Who are your competitors? What benefits and attributes are associated with the brand?

· Determine the objective of your advertising campaign and provide justification.

· Create your marcom budget. Determine if you will utilize the percentage of sales method, the task method, or the competitive method.

· Create the advertising message for your campaign. How will you create effective advertising and get the message to stick in the minds of your target audience? What message strategy will you use?

· Propose how you will measure the effectiveness of your advertising message. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 6- to 9-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 4 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Due May 20 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Consumer Sales Promotion

We know from our lecture that the function of consumer sales promotions is to increase the sales of the firm’s products. This is accomplished by increasing the product’s exposure to the public. The desirability of the product to consumers is also increased by sales promotions, with the goal being an increase in demand for the product. 

Conduct research and find examples of each of the following consumer sales promotions and answer the following questions in 300-400-word response:

· Coupons are a common tool of integrated marketing communication (IMC). How have coupons influenced your purchase of a product or service? What are the features of the coupon that were most influential in your purchase decision?

· Many firms use contests or sweepstakes to promote their product. How does a contest or a sweepstake impact or influence your decision to purchase? Did you win any of the prizes as a result? Did this influence your view of the product? Why or why not?

· Samples are often given out at supermarkets or can be sent through the mail. Has tasting a sample resulted in your buying the product? If so, did you become brand loyal to the product? If not, why not? What is your opinion on the sample’s effectiveness as a promotional tool? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 4 Project $15.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 24 at 12:59 AM

Project: Trade Allowances

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

Trade Allowances

Trade allowances are a common promotional practice. The most common are slotting allowances at supermarkets. Slotting allowances are fees that supermarkets charge brands to place their products on the supermarket’s shelves. Discuss and evaluate the practice of slotting at supermarkets.

· What are the criticisms of the practice of slotting at supermarkets?

· What are the advantages of the practice of slotting?

· Assess some efforts that some retailers, including P&G, have taken to rectify trade allowance problems. Have they been successful?

· Evaluate the pros and cons of pay-for-performance programs. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your answers in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Week 5 Discussion $6.00

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Due May 27 at 12:59 AM

Discussion

Before beginning work on this week’s discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic. 

By the due date assigned, respond to the assigned discussion questions and submit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. 

· Respond to the assigned questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading.

· Support your answers with examples and research and cite your research using the APA format.

· Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. 

Ethics Advertising

Advertising is a key element of IMC, but also, it is the element most likely to create ethical issues. Create a 300-400-word response answering the following:

· Describe a recent advertisement you have seen that you considered to be unethical. What were the elements that made it unethical? Was it also illegal? Why? Discuss the difference between an illegal and an unethical advertisement. Also, discuss why a company should avoid running an unethical advertisement even if it is legal.

· The fast-food industry invests heavily in the promotion of its products aimed at children. Select one of the major fast-food chains and describe how they market to children. Is it ethical to target kids using toys to promote fast food? Why or why not? 

Be sure to properly cite your sources using APA; include your references and in-text citations. 

Comment on the postings of your classmates. Do you agree with their position? Why or why not?

Week 5 Project $40.00

Assignment 

Top of Form

Due May 31 at 12:59 AM

Course Project Part 2

This course has a major project assignment due in Week 5. It will take more than a week’s effort to adequately complete it. Plan time to start the research and work on the assignment earlier than the week in which it is due. 

This week, you will finalize your integrated marketing communications plan for your selected brand. Incorporate your instructor’s feedback from Week 3 into this final submission. 

Complete the following activities:

· Summarize your integrated marketing communication plan for your selected brand.

· Prepare a proposal which includes your advertising media plan. Include both traditional and non-traditional forms of advertising, including online. Be sure to include your social media strategy in your proposal.

· Evaluated how the media selected is matched to the media habits of the target market.

· Explain how consumer promotions should be integrated into your integrated marketing communications strategy.

· Many brands use cause marketing to promote interest in their products. Analyze how your brand can utilize cause marketing to promote brand loyalty.

· Develop a public relations plan for your brand. Discuss the key elements of the public relations strategy and provide justification. 

Submission Details:

· Submit your case study analysis in a 7- to 10-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.

Operations Management homework help

Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital

The Arnold Palmer Hospital (APH) in Orlando, Florida, is one of
the busiest and most respected hospitals for the medical treatment
of children and women in the U.S. Since its opening on golfing
legend Arnold Palmer’s birthday September 10, 1989, more than
1.6 million children and women have passed through its doors. It
is the fourth busiest labor and delivery hospital in the U.S. and
one of the largest neonatal intensive care units in the Southeast.
APH ranks in the top 10% of hospitals nationwide in patient sat-
isfaction.
“Part of the reason for APH’s success,” says Executive
Director Kathy Swanson, “is our continuous improvement pro-
cess. Our goal is 100% patient satisfaction. But getting there
means constantly examining and reexamining everything we
do, from patient flow, to cleanliness, to layout space, to a work-
friendly environment, to speed of medication delivery from the
pharmacy to a patient. Continuous improvement is a huge and
never-ending task.”
One of the tools the hospital uses consistently is process charts.
Staffer Diane Bowles, who carries the title “clini-cal practice
improvement consultant,” charts scores of processes. Bowles’s
flowcharts help study ways to improve the turnaround of a
vacated room (especially important in a hospital that has
pushed capacity for years), speed up the admission process, and
deliver warm meals warm.
Lately, APH has been examining the flow of maternity patients
(and their paperwork) from the moment they enter the hospital
until they are discharged, hopefully with their healthy baby, a day
or two later. The flow of maternity patients follows these steps:

1. Enter APH’s Labor & Delivery (L&D) check-in desk
entrance.

2. If the baby is born en route or if birth is imminent, the mother
and baby are taken directly to Labor & Delivery on the sec-
ond floor and registered and admitted directly at the bedside.
If there are no complications, the mother and baby go to
Step 6.

3. If the baby is not yet born, the front desk asks if the mother
is pre-registered. (Most do preregister at the 28- to 30-week
pregnancy mark.) If she is not, she goes to the registration
office on the first floor.

4. The pregnant woman is then taken to L&D Triage on the 8th
floor for assessment. If she is in active labor, she is taken to
an L&D room on the 2nd floor until the baby is born. If she is
not ready, she goes to Step 5.

5. Pregnant women not ready to deliver (i.e., no contractions
or false alarms) are either sent home to return on a later date
and reenter the system at that time, or if contractions are not
yet close enough, they are sent to walk around the hospital
grounds (to encourage progress) and then return to L&D
Triage at a prescribed time.

6. When the baby is born, if there are no complications, after
2 hours the mother and baby are transferred to a “mother–
baby care unit” room on floors 3, 4, or 5 for an average of
40–44 hours.

7. If there are complications with the mother, she goes to an
operating room and/or intensive care unit. From there, she
goes back to a mother–baby care room upon stabilization—or
is discharged at another time if not stabilized. Complications
for the baby may result in a stay in the neonatal intensive
care unit (NICU) before transfer to the baby nursery near the
mother’s room. If the baby is not stable enough for discharge
with the mother, the baby is discharged later.

8. Mother and/or baby, when ready, are discharged and taken
by wheelchair to the discharge exit for pickup to travel home.

Discussion Questions *

1. As Diane’s new assistant, you need to flowchart this process.
Explain how the process might be improved once you have
completed the chart.

2. If a mother is scheduled for a Caesarean-section birth (i.e., the
baby is removed from the womb surgically), how would this
flowchart change?

3. If all mothers were electronically (or manually) preregistered,
how would the flowchart change? Redraw the chart to show
your changes.

4. Describe in detail a process that the hospital could analyze,
besides the ones mentioned in this case.

M09_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C07.indd 304M09_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C07.indd 304 20/11/15 4:35 PM20/11/15 4:35 PM

Operations Management homework help

American Apparel: Drowning in debt is the case study of a company passing through a critical juncture because of the debt burden. The company faced an immense crisis in the form of debt repayments and corruption scandals of its leaders that have engulfed its prosperity prospects.

TOWS Analysis

Threats to the organization

American Apparel is facing multiple threats that are detrimental to its prosperity. In this regard, the increased cost of production owing to hikes in environmental taxes is one of the major threats. Additionally, the over-dependence on credits has posed severe threats to the company’s progress. It has led the company towards bankruptcy and has posed financial distress. The ongoing trade war between America and China is also a major threat to American Apparel that is hampering its supplies to many markets, including China (Mehta, 2019).

Opportunities for American Apparel

Many ongoing trends in the external environment can be used as opportunities for the company’s future growth. In this context, the global world order is one of the great opportunities for American Apparel that can expand its sales and maximize its financial gains (Noel, 2015). Simultaneously, the trend of standardization in the market is another opportunity that can be used to limit the number of offerings and can produce the most refined products (Mehta, 2019). Likewise, the technological interventions and amalgamation of Artificial intelligence in businesses can also maximize the gains and minimize the losses for American Apparel.

 

 

Weaknesses of American Apparel: Drowning in Debt

American Apparel has some weaknesses as well that are hindering its prosperity. The absence of diversity in its workforce is one of the major deficiencies of the company. It relies mostly on domestic workers, limiting its access to international markets. American Apparel is also getting low returns on investment that needs to be replaced with a return on an equity basis (Mehta, 2019). The company’s tarnished image of its unhealthy environmental policies is also a weakness that needs to be improved.

Strengths of American Apparel

There are many skills and capabilities of American Apparel that can boost the productivity of the company and can provide a competitive advantage to the organization. The policy of no compromise on the quality of products is the strength of American Apparel that grabs consumers’ attention (Mehta, 2019). A diverse products portfolio is another attribute of American Apparel that serves the choices of multiple domestic market segments. The strong bonding of American Apparel with its existing suppliers is the company’s strength that is catering to the company’s financial needs.

Operations Management homework help

COURSE CODE: BC0226 COURSE NAME: SALES & PURCHASING MANAGEMENT Task brief & rubrics

Final assignment

Task

The students are supposed to answer the following questions individually in essay format. All answers must be supported by B2B examples.

The topics covered in final assignment are Sales organization structure, salespeople management, sales indicators and measurement.

Questions:

1. “Sales is all about effort.” Discuss this statement and the factors which might influence the implication of this for the direction and
management of the sales teams.

2. Describe and discuss the relevant metrics that a senior manager would be interested in in terms of sales force efficiency with
respect to Total Quality Management in sales.

3. Explain the importance of recruitment and selection in the sales department.

Formalities:

• Wordcount: 2000 words

• Cover, Table of Contents, References and Appendix are excluded of the total wordcount.

• Font: Arial 12,5 pts.

• Text alignment: Justified.

• The in-text References and the Bibliography have to be in Harvard’s citation style.

Submission: Week 13, Sunday 8th May 23:59 – Via Moodle (Turnitin).

Weight: This task is a 35% of your total grade for this subject.

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

• Outcome 1: assess different sales organization structures and to design them. according to company strategy and competitive environment

• Outcome 2: evaluate the sales operations management functions and its role in salesforce effectiveness and productivity

• Outcome 3: apply procurement strategies to effective account management

Rubrics

Exceptional 90-100 Good 80-89 Fair 70-79 Marginal fail 60-69

Knowledge &
Understanding

(30%)

Student demonstrates
excellent understanding
of key concepts and uses
vocabulary in an entirely
appropriate manner.

Student demonstrates
good understanding of
the task and mentions
some relevant concepts
and demonstrates use of
the relevant vocabulary.

Student understands the
task and provides
minimum theory and/or
some use of vocabulary.

Student understands the
task and attempts to
answer the question but
does not mention key
concepts or uses minimum
amount of relevant
vocabulary.

Application (30%) Student applies fully
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.

Student applies mostly
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.

Student applies some
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class. Misunderstanding
may be evident.

Student applies little
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class. Misunderstands are
evident.

Critical Thinking
(20%)

Student critically
assesses in excellent
ways, drawing
outstanding conclusions
from relevant authors.

Student critically
assesses in good ways,
drawing conclusions from
relevant authors and
references.

Student provides some
insights but stays on the
surface of the topic.
References may not be
relevant.

Student makes little or
none critical thinking
insights, does not quote
appropriate authors, and
does not provide valid
sources.

Communication
(20%)

Student communicates
their ideas extremely
clearly and concisely,
respecting word count,
grammar and spellcheck

Student communicates
their ideas clearly and
concisely, respecting
word count, grammar
and spellcheck

Student communicates
their ideas with some
clarity and concision. It
may be slightly over or
under the wordcount
limit. Some misspelling
errors may be evident.

Student communicates
their ideas in a somewhat
unclear and unconcise way.
Does not reach or does
exceed wordcount
excessively and misspelling
errors are evident.

Operations Management homework help

Organizational Behaviour and Work

Organizational
Behaviour and
Work
A critical introduction

F I F T H E D I T I O N

Fiona M. Wilson

1

1
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP,

United Kingdom

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship,

and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of
Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries

© Fiona M. Wilson 2018

The moral rights of the author have been asserted

Second edition 2004
Third edition 2010

Fourth edition 2014

Impression: 1

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the

prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted
by law, by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics

rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the
above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the

address above

You must not circulate this work in any other form
and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer

Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press
198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

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Library of Congress Control Number: 2017959734

ISBN 978–0–19–251097–6

Printed in Great Britain by
Bell & Bain Ltd., Glasgow

Links to third party websites are provided by Oxford in good faith and
for information only. Oxford disclaims any responsibility for the materials

contained in any third party website referenced in this work.

Brief contents

About the Author xvii

Acknowledgements xvii

How to Use the Book xviii

How to Use the Online Resources xx

Introduction 1

PART 1 Approaching management critically

1 Setting the scene 13

2 Employees’ views of work 38

3 Managerial views of work 69

4 The rationality of management 90

5 Sexuality, sex typing, and gender 113

PART 2 Classic organizational behaviour and the critique

6 Motivation 135

7 Leadership 158

8 Perception 181

9 Personality 203

10 Organizational learning 222

11 Culture 239

12 Teams and teamworking 266

13 Structure 284

14 All change? 306

PART 3 The core of critical approaches

15 Managerial power and control 333

16 Organizational misbehaviour 356

B r I E f C O n T E n T S vi

17 Voluntary, not-for-profit, and alternative organizations 379

18 Health, well-being, emotion, and stress 396

Glossary 419

Index 423

Detailed contents

About the Author xvii

Acknowledgements xvii

How to Use the Book xviii

How to Use the Online Resources xx

Introduction 1

Further Reading 8

Research Questions 8

References 9

PART 1 Approaching management critically

1 Setting the scene 13

Introduction 13

Scene setting 14

Globalization 14

Human trafficking and modern-day slavery 16

Corporate social responsibility and ethical behaviour 16

The growth of the enterprise economy 17

Trends in the working population 17

Income and social mobility 21

Men and women working 23

Men, women, and management 25

Mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes to work and family 26

Working hours 27

Part-time working 28

Homeworking 28

More scene-setting issues 29

Key Points 30

Case Study 30

Further Reading 31

Links to Films and Novels 31

Research Questions 31

References 32

D E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S viii

2 Employees’ views of work 38

Introduction 38

Alienation 39

The experience of the assembly line 40

Making work manageable 42

The experience of work in the call centre 43

Class and orientation to work 44

What work means 47

Measuring the meaning of work 49

Job redesign to improve the intrinsic meaning of work 50

Class, gender, and the meaning of work 52

More ‘not so good’ and ‘unskilled’ low-paid jobs 54

The experience of catering work 57

Working-class kids, working-class jobs, and the case of care assistants 58

The experience of homeworking 59

Conclusion 60

Key Points 61

Case Study 61

Further Reading 62

Links to Films and Novels 62

Research Questions 63

References 63

3 Managerial views of work 69

Introduction 69

The definition of ‘management’ 70

Research on the role of the manager 70

Management as a profession 78

Middle management 79

Success in management 80

Management and gender 80

The reality for the woman manager 81

‘Double jeopardy’: the reality for the ethnic minority woman manager 81

Surprises in managerial work 82

Standing back from managerial work 83

Conclusion 84

Key Points 84

Case Study 85

ixD E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S

Further Reading 85

Links to Films and Novels 86

Research Questions 86

References 86

4 The rationality of management 90

Introduction 90

Early management thinkers and rationality 91

The rationale of scientific management and Taylorism 91

Henry Ford 94

Routinization, the detailed division of labour, and modern-day Taylorism 95

The rationale of the human relations movement 98

Job redesign 101

The rationale of fitting workers to jobs 102

Eugenics 103

Intelligence testing 104

Vocational guidance: testing, then fitting people to jobs 106

Conclusion 107

Key Points 107

Case Study 108

Further Reading 108

Links to Films and Novels 109

Research Questions 109

References 109

5 Sexuality, sex typing, and gender 113

Introduction 113

Sexuality in organizations 114

The sex typing of male and female jobs 115

The sex stereotype and emotional labour 117

Masculinity and managing feelings 119

Feeling in control 121

Accounting for emotion 122

Organizational romance 123

Sexual harassment 124

Conclusion 126

Key Points 126

Case Study 126

Further Reading 127

D E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S x

Links to Films and Novels 127

Research Questions 127

References 127

PART 2 Classic organizational behaviour and the critique

6 Motivation 135

Introduction 135

Motivation as a problem 135

Content theories of motivation 137

Process theories of motivation 146

Further considerations on motivation 150

Job satisfaction and positive outcomes for organizations 151

Conclusion 151

Key Points 152

Case Study 152

Further Reading 152

Links to Films and Novels 153

Research Questions 153

References 154

7 Leadership 158

Introduction 158

Thinking about leadership 158

A trait theory of leadership 161

Style theories and democratic leadership 162

Task- versus relations-oriented leadership 164

Consideration versus initiating structure 166

Transactional versus transformational leadership 167

Situational leadership 168

Emotion and leadership 169

Gender and leadership 170

Spirituality and leadership 172

Race and leadership 173

Class and leadership 173

Conclusion 174

Key Points 175

Case Study 175

xiD E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S

Further Reading 175

Links to Films and Novels 176

Research Questions 176

References 177

8 Perception 181

Introduction 181

The study of perception 182

Gestalt psychology and perception 183

Attribution theory 183

Conformity 184

Implicit personality theory 186

The logical error 187

Stereotypes and prejudice 188

The distortion of perception 191

The halo effect 192

Frames and their effect on perception 193

Classifications and their consequences 194

Perceptions of employers by employees and the psychological contract 194

Self-perception 195

Further ways in which perception can be shaped 196

Conclusion 197

Key Points 197

Case Study 198

Further Reading 198

Links to Films and Novels 199

Research Questions 199

References 199

9 Personality 203

Introduction 203

Personality theory 203

Personality traits and tests 205

Intelligence testing and personality 207

Emotional intelligence and psychometric testing 208

Some difficulties with measuring and testing personality 209

Personality theory and problematic behaviour 211

Personality, integrity, and dishonesty at work 212

Judging competence at work 214

D E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S xii

Personality and leadership 214

Is looking at personality traits enough? 215

Conclusion 215

Key Points 216

Case Study 216

Further Reading 217

Links to Films and Novels 217

Research Questions 218

References 218

10 Organizational learning 222

Introduction 222

The concept of organizational learning 222

Individual learning 223

Group learning 227

Organizational learning 228

Learning about language in organizations 233

Developing a critical consciousness 234

Conclusion 234

Key Points 234

Case Study 235

Further Reading 235

Links to Films and Novels 236

Research Questions 236

References 236

11 Culture 239

Introduction 239

The concept of culture 239

Understanding culture 240

Do the ‘best’ cultures lead to ‘best’ performance? 241

Critically assessing whether culture can be managed 243

National and organizational cultures 245

Problems with trying to manage culture 246

Describing (rather than prescribing) culture 247

Culture and change 252

Culture and gender 253

Culture and race 257

xiiiD E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S

Further aspects of culture 258

Conclusion 259

Key Points 259

Case Study 259

Further Reading 260

Links to Films and Novels 261

Research Questions 261

References 261

12 Teams and teamworking 266

Introduction 266

Teamwork and teamworking 266

Popular views of teamworking 267

A historical view of teamworking 271

Making claims about teamworking 274

Teamworking and gender 277

Conclusion 278

Key Points 278

Case Study 279

Further Reading 279

Links to Films and Novels 280

Research Questions 280

References 280

13 Structure 284

Introduction 284

Weber on bureaucracy 285

The advantages of bureaucracy 287

The unintended consequences and dysfunctions of bureaucracy 287

Bureaucracy, emotion, and gender 289

Rationality and the service sector 290

The case of McDonald’s 292

McDonaldization 294

Organizational variation in structure 297

Conclusion 299

Key Points 300

Case Study 300

Further Reading 301

D E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S xiv

Links to Films and Novels 302

Research Questions 302

References 303

14 All change? 306

Introduction 306

New forms of organization 306

Change in organizations 308

Technology and change 313

The knowledge economy and knowledge workers 314

New organizations? 316

The Japanese model 318

Change—or continuity? 324

Conclusion 324

Key Points 325

Case Study 325

Further Reading 326

Links to Films and Novels 326

Research Questions 327

References 327

PART 3 The core of critical approaches

15 Managerial power and control 333

Introduction 333

The sources and definition of ‘power’ 333

Managerial prerogative 336

Workers’ power 336

Managing to empower 339

Control and surveillance 343

Technology 345

Technology and surveillance 347

Business process re-engineering 348

Conclusion 349

Key Points 349

Case Study 350

Further Reading 351

Links to Films and Novels 351

xvD E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S

Research Questions 351

References 352

16 Organizational misbehaviour 356

Introduction 356

Resistance and organizational misbehaviour 357

Cheating, fraud, and theft 358

Virtual crime 360

Swearing and abusive language 361

Swindling 362

Lying 362

Denial 364

Rudeness and bullying 365

Sabotage 366

Struggles relating to time 367

Gossip 368

Fun and humour 369

Managing organizational misbehaviour 371

Conclusion 372

Key Points 372

Case Study 372

Further Reading 373

Links to Films and Novels 374

Research Questions 374

References 374

17 Voluntary, not-for-profit, and alternative organizations 379

Introduction 379

Voluntary work 380

Not-for-profit 381

Cooperatives 381

The Israeli kibbutz 386

Yugoslav self-management 387

Employee involvement: profit sharing and share ownership 388

Conclusion 390

Key Points 391

Case Study 392

Further Reading 392

Links to Films and Novels 392

D E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S xvi

Research Questions 393

References 393

18 Health, well-being, emotion, and stress 396

Introduction 396

Violence and abuse 396

Stress 397

The management of emotions 403

Being unemployed 405

Being ‘on the fiddle’ or working ‘on the side’ 409

‘Non-work’ 410

Conclusion 411

Key Points 411

Case Study 411

Further Reading 412

Links to Films and Novels 413

Research Questions 413

References 413

Glossary 419

Index 423

About the Author

Fiona Wilson is Professor of Organizational Behaviour in the Adam Smith Business School
at the University of Glasgow. Before moving to Glasgow, she worked at the University of
St Andrews: first as a Lecturer, then as a Senior Lecturer. Previously, Fiona had been
employed as a researcher at Manchester Business School and University of Bradford
Management Centre. Fiona completed a PhD at Manchester Business School in 1986. She
is a Fellow of the British Academy of Management, an Academic Fellow of the CIPD, and an
Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge the enormous assistance provided by Kate Gilks,
Publishing Editor, Oxford University Press, in the development of this fifth edition. The
author would like to thank her for her support, understanding, encouragement, and
detailed comment. She would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their very
constructive comments.

How to Use the Book

Each chapter contains a range of learning features to help you to reflect upon your
reading, reinforcing your study of organizational behaviour, and encouraging you to
question and critique what you have learnt. This guided tour shows you how to get the
most out of the book.

Example boxes

Provided throughout each chapter, these examples
present the scenarios and challenges found in
organizational life to illustrate a theory or concept in
practice.

Example

Fair organizational behaviour: paying fair wages in a fair tr

Fair trade is not about paying developed world wages in a developing
are determined by a number of factors, including the amount of time
production, minimum and living wages in the local context, the purc
area, and other costs of living in the local context. Wages are determ
structures in developed countries and are designed to provide fair co
cost of production.

Stop and think boxes

Pause your reading and reflect on a question,
implication, or consequence relating to the material
being discussed. This feature will help you develop
your reflection and critical thinking skills, and
encourage you to draw on your own experiences.

Case studies

Varied, real-world, end-of-chapter case studies
illustrate the main concepts discussed in the chapter.
Accompanying questions then prompt you to analyse
the organizational practices at play to see how the
theories apply in reality.

Key points

Each chapter concludes with a set of key points that
draw out the most important arguments developed
within that chapter, to help consolidate your learning
and aid revision.

Stop and Think

Is the gap between the best- and worst-paid too large?

The chief executive of the largest catering firm, employing almost 43
school dinner ladies, was recently paid £4.4 million, including a £1.3
pay of his staff is £12,480. His pay deal is then worth 350 times that o
company. Is this gap too big?

Source: Adapted from a case study—see Allen and Ball (2011)

Key Points

● Scene-setting issues—that is, context issues—may include
such as who is employed (including gender, parental resp
what terms, and how organizations contribute or act to i
counter inequality for individuals or groups in society.

● Prejudice and discrimination are common behaviours in

● Managing might mean exploiting labour; more positively

Case Study Organizing against injustice

This case study focuses on an unusual organization that has been s
organize against injustices such as the following.

Those who stay in expensive hotel rooms and leave a disgusting
night; those who clean it up can work six days a week and yet take
the yawning gap between rich and poor in Britain.

An organization has been set up to revolt and organize against in
registered charity called the Citizen Organizing Foundation and ha

xixH O W T O U S E T H E B O O k

Research questions

A set of probing research questions at the end of every
chapter provide the opportunity to engage with the
chapter content and test your understanding. They can
also be used as the basis of seminar discussion and
coursework.

Glossary terms

Glossary terms are highlighted in chapters and collated
at the end of the book, defining subject specific terms
and concepts to aid your understanding.

Further reading

Take your learning further and locate the key
academic literature associated with a topic by using
the annotated further reading lists at the end of every
chapter. They will also guide you towards other sources
which will help you prepare for exams and essays.

Links to films and novels

Providing further illustrations of organizational
behaviour in differing contexts, an annotated list of
well-known films and novels closes each chapter and
facilitates group discussion and debate.

Further Reading

Bradley, H. and Heal, G. (2008) Ethnicity and Gender at Work: Ine
Employment Relations, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan This b
disadvantages and discrimination faced by ethnic minorities.

Erikson, M., Stephenson, C., Bradley, H., and Williams, S. (2009) B
Polity Press Includes chapters on the debates about business a
globalization.

Grint, K. (2005) The Sociology of Work, 3rd edn, Cambridge: Polit

Links to Films and Novels

Blue Collar (1978) dir. Paul Schrader Film about a trio of Detroit c
Pryor), who are living at the mercy of a heartless corporation a

Titanic (1997) dir. James Cameron This film uses class as a centra

Lee, H. (1960) To Kill a Mockingbird, J. B. Lippincott & Co; To Kill a
Mulligan Both the book and its screen adaptation focus on cla

Lewycka, M. (2007) Two Caravans, Penguin A novel depicting t

Research Questions

1. How accessible and affordable is childcare for working paren
found that in 2017 the cost of full-time childcare in Britain w
This was a 4 per cent rise from 2016 (Daycare Trust, 2017). Ch
in recent years, leading to some parents being ‘priced out of

2. Should chief executives and managers of charities be paid wa
other organizations? Would those who give to charity be ‘pu

p p y
work, what they are paid, how fair that payment is, and ho
moted. Management is enmeshed in moral relations, dec
growth, globalization, and the terms under which people ar
is involved in trafficking and exploitation, while some brings
Organizations such as schools and universities play their par
wise—of social mobility.

By the end of the chapter, you will have learned more abou
to people and work. In particular, you will learn about the c
decisions that affect people and their work. You will also be

How to Use the Online Resources

The online resources that accompany this book provide students and lecturers with
ready-to-use teaching and learning resources. Students can benefit from web links,
critical thinking exercises, and a glossary; whereas lecturers can make use of PowerPoint
slides, questions, additional case studies, and group exercises.

Visit www.oup.com/uk/wilson_ob5e/ to find out more.

Introduction

Work occupies a substantial proportion of most of our lives. Work is a fundamental driver for
enhancing human development (UNDP, 2015). It can be a symbol of personal value, and it
can provide status, economic reward, and a potential for the future. Work can be a provider
of friends, gossip, networks, fun, creativity, identity, and even love. It can also be regarded as a
punishment or as an addiction. Work, people, and employment structure our lives and shape
the inequalities that we face. Employers—and, in particular, managers—have the hierarchical
power to influence, if not to determine, the shape and degree of those inequalities in their
organizations.

If you are, want to be, or were a practising manager, what would you want to know about
people, work, and organizational behaviour (OB)? You might want to know how to motivate
or lead employees. You might want to know how to manage a team. This book discusses some
functionalist management ideas—that is, ideas of management as a function, serving a pur-
pose, and managing a consensus. A good deal of what is known about management, people,
and work comes from studies that aim to contribute to the effectiveness of managerial prac-
tice, or to build a better model or gain a better understanding of management. Research has
tried to answer questions that practising managers might pose. For example, those studying
management might want to know what a manager does, or what are the causes and conse-
quences of stress. There are answers, from research, to those questions in this book.

The book does not, however, take a functionalist approach. A functionalist approach to
people management would treat employees as reactive players pursuing objectives that are
congruent with those of the organization. From this perspective, the employee is seen as a
functionary who is selected, trained, and developed in accordance with organizational ob-
jectives that are clearly defined and unproblematic. Organizations are assumed to be unitary
wholes, characterized by order and consensus. The functionalist view is evident in classical
management theory. For example, the work of scientific management believes that there is
one best way in which to organize work, and prescribes the careful selection and training of
employees. We also find the functionalist view in leadership theory and among those advo-
cating the management of culture (for example, Deal and Kennedy, 1982).

The book does not take a managerialist approach or accept managerialism as unques-
tioned common sense. A managerialist approach would look at OB from the exclusive per-
spective of the manager, within which managers are the functional agents who ensure the
survival, growth, and prosperity of an organization by deploying scientific management tech-
niques. Managerialism is the ‘ideology which assumes the need for one occupational group
to coordinate the aims and activities of organizations, usually in return for higher pay and
status than their subordinates’ (Parker, 2011: 155). This book also does not accept the assump-
tion that the performance of all organizations can be optimized by the application of generic
management skills and theory; nor does it accept that there is one best way in which to

2 I n T r O D U C T I O n

manage in all situations. Academic knowledge does not tell us how to act or what to do next
(Prichard, 2009). Management textbooks might lead you to believe that this is possible—that
all you need to do is learn about how to manage, and then go off and do it. However if this
were the case, there would be no organizations that were poorly managed, all organizations
would demonstrate continual improvement, and there would be no competing theories of
leadership or motivation. A critical approach aims to help you understand more effectively
what is going on around you so that you will then be in a position to respond creatively.

One of the purposes of this book is to help you to question just how realistic the manage-
rialist or functionalist approach might prove to be, by generating doubt and helping you to
frame a number of questions. For example, what does ‘greater organizational efficiency and
effectiveness’ really mean? Whose interests might it serve? Can greater efficiency and effec-
tiveness always be achieved?

The following example illustrates the kind of managerial problem that an organization
might face and shows why management skills that fit every situation cannot be taught.

The book is sympathetic to an interpretive perspective, which regards the employee as a
creative individual whose commitment must be earned and who is capable of—and able to
exercise—choices and actions that influence the organization. There is no single way of de-
marcating a critical approach (Fournier and Grey, 2000; Parker, 2002; Tadajewski et al., 2011;
Parker and Thomas, 2011), though there are those from business schools who argue that
managers and leaders should think critically, that critical skills can be developed, and that
they should lay out what they think they are (e.g. Baldoni, 2010); it is also thought that they
can be assessed. This book might be considered critical in its approach—that is, critical in that
it views organizations as places of struggle, domination, and inequality. The emphasis in the
critical approach is on power, exploitation, and subordination (Prichard, 2009). The approach
questions how effectively managers can manage. It asks you to stand back from manage-
ment, work, and organizations, and to look with a critical eye and reflect on what you see. It
needs you to be aware of how the social, political, and historical circumstances of the times
in which we live condition our ideas and assumptions. It highlights where there is ambiguity
and debate about behaviour and organizations.

Example

A problem of conflict of belief

Lillian Ladele, a registrar (who presides over wedding ceremonies), refused to perform civil partnership
ceremonies. As a result, her employer—a borough council—took disciplinary action against her,
concluding that she was in breach of its ‘Dignity for All’ policy. Lillian took her case to an employment
tribunal alleging religious discrimination; she won (although the decision was later appealed and
reversed).

In this case, the management faced a situation in which there was a conflict of the interests, rights,
and freedoms of the gay community, who want civil partnership ceremonies, and the interests and
rights of Lillian Ladele and her religious beliefs (Koster, 2008; Williams, 2008). The organization found it
impossible then to tell the individual what to do and preserve her rights as an employee. A similar case
arose in a Belfast bakery where the owners refused to make a cake with a pro-gay marriage slogan in
the icing (Telegraph, 2016).

3 I n T r O D U C T I O n

This book is designed to encourage you to appreciate why there are no simple answers to
the questions that practising managers might pose, and why there is no single ‘best’ way in
which to manage, predict, or control a variety of organizational and social phenomena. It is
designed to encourage critical thinking and reflection on your part. What kind of organiza-
tions do you usually consider in management courses: manufacturing companies, and those
from the service industry such as banks and call centres? Why do you not also consider credit
unions, farms, cooperatives, voluntary groups, charities, and work councils? Nearly a billion
people work in agriculture and more than 500 million families produce more than 80 per cent
of the world’s food (UNDP, 2015) yet we rarely discuss farmers or how they are organized. Are
all organizations necessarily structured in a hierarchy? You will be encouraged to question
whether managers are ‘saviours’ within organizations (Parker, 2002). And is it possible for
managers to pursue objectives that are in everyone’s interests—and can they be trusted to
do so?

This book also asks you to look outside what are normally thought of as organizations and
how we usually think of work. (In management textbooks, work is often conceived of in very
narrow terms.) In fact, work can be divided into four types.

1. Recognized and rewarded work, which is paid, takes the individual into a labour market
to sell his or her skills, time, and energy to an employer, such as a university, a private or
public company, or his or her family, if the individual works in the family business.

2. Reproductive labour concerns the efforts involved in raising one or more children to
adulthood.

3. Maintenance labour refers to the chores that are necessary to maintain yourself and
other members of your family by cooking, paying the bills, food shopping, gardening,
laundry, housework, and so on.

4. Unpaid work includes voluntary work for charities, churches and other religious groups,
hospitals, and political parties. Guy Standing (2011) would also include work-for-labour
in this category. This includes work that is done searching for jobs, for example form
filling, answering questions, and networking.

Stop and Think

How much have managers been trusted in history?

As Adam Smith, moral philosopher and

Operations Management homework help

Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital

The Arnold Palmer Hospital (APH) in Orlando, Florida, is one of
the busiest and most respected hospitals for the medical treatment
of children and women in the U.S. Since its opening on golfing
legend Arnold Palmer’s birthday September 10, 1989, more than
1.6 million children and women have passed through its doors. It
is the fourth busiest labor and delivery hospital in the U.S. and
one of the largest neonatal intensive care units in the Southeast.
APH ranks in the top 10% of hospitals nationwide in patient sat-
isfaction.
“Part of the reason for APH’s success,” says Executive
Director Kathy Swanson, “is our continuous improvement pro-
cess. Our goal is 100% patient satisfaction. But getting there
means constantly examining and reexamining everything we
do, from patient flow, to cleanliness, to layout space, to a work-
friendly environment, to speed of medication delivery from the
pharmacy to a patient. Continuous improvement is a huge and
never-ending task.”
One of the tools the hospital uses consistently is process charts.
Staffer Diane Bowles, who carries the title “clini-cal practice
improvement consultant,” charts scores of processes. Bowles’s
flowcharts help study ways to improve the turnaround of a
vacated room (especially important in a hospital that has
pushed capacity for years), speed up the admission process, and
deliver warm meals warm.
Lately, APH has been examining the flow of maternity patients
(and their paperwork) from the moment they enter the hospital
until they are discharged, hopefully with their healthy baby, a day
or two later. The flow of maternity patients follows these steps:

1. Enter APH’s Labor & Delivery (L&D) check-in desk
entrance.

2. If the baby is born en route or if birth is imminent, the mother
and baby are taken directly to Labor & Delivery on the sec-
ond floor and registered and admitted directly at the bedside.
If there are no complications, the mother and baby go to
Step 6.

3. If the baby is not yet born, the front desk asks if the mother
is pre-registered. (Most do preregister at the 28- to 30-week
pregnancy mark.) If she is not, she goes to the registration
office on the first floor.

4. The pregnant woman is then taken to L&D Triage on the 8th
floor for assessment. If she is in active labor, she is taken to
an L&D room on the 2nd floor until the baby is born. If she is
not ready, she goes to Step 5.

5. Pregnant women not ready to deliver (i.e., no contractions
or false alarms) are either sent home to return on a later date
and reenter the system at that time, or if contractions are not
yet close enough, they are sent to walk around the hospital
grounds (to encourage progress) and then return to L&D
Triage at a prescribed time.

6. When the baby is born, if there are no complications, after
2 hours the mother and baby are transferred to a “mother–
baby care unit” room on floors 3, 4, or 5 for an average of
40–44 hours.

7. If there are complications with the mother, she goes to an
operating room and/or intensive care unit. From there, she
goes back to a mother–baby care room upon stabilization—or
is discharged at another time if not stabilized. Complications
for the baby may result in a stay in the neonatal intensive
care unit (NICU) before transfer to the baby nursery near the
mother’s room. If the baby is not stable enough for discharge
with the mother, the baby is discharged later.

8. Mother and/or baby, when ready, are discharged and taken
by wheelchair to the discharge exit for pickup to travel home.

Discussion Questions *

1. As Diane’s new assistant, you need to flowchart this process.
Explain how the process might be improved once you have
completed the chart.

2. If a mother is scheduled for a Caesarean-section birth (i.e., the
baby is removed from the womb surgically), how would this
flowchart change?

3. If all mothers were electronically (or manually) preregistered,
how would the flowchart change? Redraw the chart to show
your changes.

4. Describe in detail a process that the hospital could analyze,
besides the ones mentioned in this case.

M09_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C07.indd 304M09_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C07.indd 304 20/11/15 4:35 PM20/11/15 4:35 PM

Operations Management homework help

Alabama[edit]
Auburn (Auburn University)[1]
Florence (University of North Alabama)
Jacksonville (Jacksonville State University)[2]
Livingston (University of West Alabama)[2]
Montevallo (University of Montevallo)[2]
Troy (Troy University)[2]
Tuscaloosa (University of Alabama, Stillman College, Shelton State)[3][4]
Tuskegee (Tuskegee University)[5]
Alaska[edit]
Fairbanks (University of Alaska Fairbanks)[2]
Arizona[edit]
Flagstaff (Northern Arizona University)[6]
Tempe (Arizona State University)
Tucson (University of Arizona)
Arkansas[edit]
Arkadelphia (Henderson State University, Ouachita Baptist University)[2]
Conway (Central Baptist College, Hendrix College, University of Central Arkansas)[2]
Fayetteville (University of Arkansas)[7]
Jonesboro (Arkansas State University)[8]
Magnolia (Southern Arkansas University)[2]
Monticello (University of Arkansas at Monticello)[2]
Russellville (Arkansas Tech University)[2]
Searcy (Harding University)[5]
California[edit]
Angwin (Pacific Union College)[2]
Arcata (Humboldt State University)[5]
Berkeley (University of California, Berkeley)[5]
Chico (California State University, Chico)[2]
Claremont (Claremont McKenna College, Pomona College, Harvey Mudd College, Scripps College, Pitzer College, Keck Graduate Institute, Claremont Graduate University)[5]
Cotati (California State University, Sonoma)[2]
Davis (University of California, Davis)[1]
Irvine (University of California, Irvine)
Isla Vista (University of California, Santa Barbara)[2]
University Park, Los Angeles (University of Southern California)
Merced (University of California, Merced)
Orange (Chapman University)
Palo Alto (Stanford University)
Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona, WesternU)[9][10][11] and formerly Pomona College
Redlands (University of Redlands)
Riverside (University of California, Riverside, California Baptist University, La Sierra University)
Sacramento (California State University, Sacramento)
University District, San Bernardino (California State University, San Bernardino, American Sports University)
San Diego (University of California, San Diego, San Diego State University)
San Luis Obispo (California Polytechnic State University)[2]
Santa Barbara (Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara City College, University of California, Santa Barbara, Westmont College)[2]
Santa Cruz (University of California, Santa Cruz)[2]
Turlock (California State University, Stanislaus)
Westwood, Los Angeles (University of California, Los Angeles)[2]
Whittier (Whittier CollegeRio Hondo College)
Colorado[edit]
Alamosa (Adams State College)[2]
Boulder (University of Colorado at Boulder)[12]
Durango (Fort Lewis College)[2]
Fort Collins (Colorado State University)[13]
Golden (Colorado School of Mines)
Grand Junction (Colorado Mesa University)
Greeley (University of Northern Colorado)
Gunnison (Western State College)[2]
Pueblo, Colorado (Colorado State University-Pueblo)
Connecticut[edit]
Fairfield (Fairfield University, Sacred Heart University)
Middletown (Wesleyan University)
New Britain (Central Connecticut State University)
New Haven (Yale University, University of New Haven, Southern Connecticut State University, Albertus Magnus College, Quinnipiac University)[14]
New London (Connecticut College, US Coast Guard Academy, Mitchell College)[2]
Storrs (University of Connecticut)[2]
Willimantic (Eastern Connecticut State University)[2]
Delaware[edit]
Dover (Delaware State University)[1]
Newark (University of Delaware)[1]
Florida[edit]
Ave Maria (Ave Maria University)
Boca Raton (Florida Atlantic University)
Coral Gables (University of Miami)
DeLand (Stetson University)[5]
Estero (Florida Gulf Coast University)
Gainesville (University of Florida, Santa Fe College)
Orlando (University of Central Florida)
Sarasota (New College of Florida, Ringling College of Art and Design, State College of Florida, Manatee-Sarasota, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee)
St. Augustine (Flagler College)
St. Leo (St. Leo University)
Tallahassee (Florida State University, Florida A&M University)
Tampa (University of South Florida)
Georgia[edit]
Albany (Albany State University)
Athens (University of Georgia)[15]
Atlanta (Georgia State University, Georgia Tech, Emory)[2]
Carrollton (University of West Georgia)[2]*Dahlonega (North Georgia College & State University)[2]
Demorest (Piedmont College)[2]
Fort Valley (Fort Valley State University)[2]
Kennesaw (Kennesaw State University)
Milledgeville (Georgia College & State University)[2]
Mount Vernon (Brewton-Parker College)[2]
Oxford (Oxford College)
Rome (Berry College, Shorter University)
Savannah (Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah State University, Savannah College of Art and Design)
Statesboro (Georgia Southern University)[5]
Valdosta (Valdosta State University)[2]
Waleska (Reinhardt College)[2]
Young Harris (Young Harris College)[2]
Hawaii[edit]
Manoa (University of Hawaii at Manoa)[2]
Idaho[edit]
Moscow (University of Idaho)[2]
Pocatello (Idaho State University)[2]
Rexburg (BYU-Idaho)[2]
Illinois[edit]
Carbondale (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)[5]
Champaign–Urbana (University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)[5]
Charleston (Eastern Illinois University)[2]
DeKalb (Northern Illinois University)[2]
Edwardsville (Southern Illinois University Edwardsville)[2]
Evanston (Northwestern University)[2]
Lebanon (McKendree University)[2]
Macomb (Western Illinois University)[2]
Normal (Illinois State University)[2]
Peoria (Bradley University)
Indiana[edit]
Bloomington (Indiana University Bloomington)[5]
Crawfordsville (Wabash College)
Greencastle (DePauw University)[5]
Hanover (Hanover College)[2]
Marion (Indiana Wesleyan University)[2]
Muncie (Ball State University)[2]
Oakland City (Oakland City University)[2]
Richmond (Earlham College)[2]
South Bend (Notre Dame University[2])
Terre Haute (Indiana State University, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology)[2]
Upland (Taylor University)[2]
Valparaiso (Valparaiso University)
West Lafayette (Purdue University)[2]
Iowa[edit]
Ames (Iowa State University)[2]
Cedar Falls (University of Northern Iowa)[2]
Cedar Rapids, Iowa (Coe College )
Decorah (Luther College)[5]
Fayette (Upper Iowa University)[2]
Grinnell (Grinnell College)[15]
Iowa City (University of Iowa)[15]
Lamoni (Graceland University)[2]
Mount Vernon, (Cornell College)
Orange City (Northwestern College)[2]
Sioux Center (Dordt College)[2]
Storm Lake (Buena Vista University)[2]
Waverly (Wartburg College)[2]
Kansas[edit]
Baldwin City (Baker University)[5]
Emporia (Emporia State University)[2]
Hays (Fort Hays State University)[2]
Lawrence (University of Kansas, Haskell Indian Nations University)[15]
Manhattan (Kansas State University, Manhattan Christian College)[15]
Pittsburg (Pittsburg State University)[2]
Kentucky[edit]
Bowling Green (Western Kentucky University)[2]
Columbia (Lindsey Wilson College)[2]
Georgetown (Georgetown College)
Highland Heights (Northern Kentucky University)
Lexington (University of Kentucky, Transylvania University[5]
Louisville (University of Louisville)
Morehead (Morehead State University)[2]
Murray (Murray State University)[5]
Richmond (Eastern Kentucky University)[2]
Williamsburg (University of the Cumberlands)[2]
Wilmore (Asbury University, Asbury Theological Seminary)[2]
Louisiana[edit]
Baton Rouge (Louisiana State University, Southern University)
Grambling (Grambling State University)[5]
Hammond (Southeastern Louisiana University)[2]
Lafayette (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Monroe (University of Louisiana at Monroe)[2]
Natchitoches (Northwestern State University)[2]
Ruston (Louisiana Tech University)[2]
Thibodaux (Nicholls State University)[2]
Maine[edit]
Augusta (University of Maine at Augusta)[2]
Bar Harbor (College of the Atlantic)
Brunswick (Bowdoin College)
Farmington (University of Maine at Farmington)[2]
Fort Kent (University of Maine at Fort Kent)
Gorham (University of Southern Maine)[2]
Lewiston, Maine (Bates College)
Orono (University of Maine)[2]
Waterville (Thomas College, Colby College)
Maryland[edit]
Annapolis (United States Naval Academy, St. John’s College)
Chestertown (Washington College)[2]
College Park (University of Maryland, College Park)[16]
Cumberland (Allegany College of Maryland)
Emmitsburg (Mount St. Mary’s University)[2]
Frostburg (Frostburg State University)[5]
Princess Anne (University of Maryland Eastern Shore)[5]
Towson (Towson University, Goucher College)[2]
Salisbury (Salisbury University)[2]
Westminster (McDaniel College)
Massachusetts[edit]
Boston (Boston University, Boston College, Boston Conservatory, New England Conservatory, Brandeis University, Northeastern University, UMass Boston, Emmanuel College, Bunker Hill Community College, Roxbury Community College, Suffolk University, Simmons College, among many others)
Bridgewater (Bridgewater State College)[2]
Cambridge (Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)(Lesley University, Cambridge College, Longy School of Music)[15]
Chestnut Hill (Boston College)
The Colleges of Worcester Consortium:
Dudley (Nichols College)
North Grafton (Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University)
Paxton (Anna Maria College)
Worcester (Assumption, Becker, Clark University, Holy Cross, Mass. College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Quinsigamond Community College, UMass Medical School, Worcester State University, Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
The Five College Region of Western Massachusetts:
Amherst (Amherst College, Hampshire College, University of Massachusetts Amherst)[15]
Northampton (Smith College)
South Hadley (Mount Holyoke College)
Fitchburg (Fitchburg State College)
North Adams (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Springfield (American International College), (Springfield College), and (Western New England College)
Waltham (Bentley University), (Brandeis University)
Williamstown (Williams College)
Framingham (Framingham State University)
Michigan[edit]
Adrian (Adrian College, Siena Heights University)
Albion (Albion College)[17]
Allendale (Grand Valley State University)
Alma (Alma College)
Ann Arbor (University of Michigan)[1]
Berrien Springs (Andrews University)[2]
Big Rapids (Ferris State University)[2]
East Lansing (Michigan State University)[2]
Flint (Kettering University, University of Michigan-Flint)
Hillsdale (Hillsdale College)
Houghton (Michigan Technological University)[5]
Kalamazoo (Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo College)[2]
Marquette (Northern Michigan University)[2]
Midland (Northwood University)
Mount Pleasant (Central Michigan University)[2]
Olivet (Olivet College)[2]
Saginaw (Saginaw Valley State University)
Sault Ste. Marie (Lake Superior State University)
Spring Arbor (Spring Arbor University)[2]
Ypsilanti (Eastern Michigan University)[2]
Minnesota[edit]
Bemidji (Bemidji State University)[2]
Crookston (University of Minnesota Crookston)[2]
Duluth (University of Minnesota Duluth, Lake Superior College, The College of St. Scholastica, University of Wisconsin–Superior, Duluth Business University
Faribault, South Central College
Mankato (Minnesota State University, Mankato),[2] Bethany Lutheran College
Marshall (Southwest Minnesota State University)[2]
Moorhead (Minnesota State University, Moorhead, Concordia College)[18]
Morris (University of Minnesota Morris)[2]
Northfield (Carleton College, St. Olaf College)[5]
North Mankato, South Central College
St. Cloud (St. Cloud State University, The College of St. Scholastica)[2]
St. Joseph (College of Saint Benedict)[2]
St. Peter (Gustavus Adolphus College)[2]
Winona (Winona State University, St. Mary’s University of Minnesota)[19]
Mississippi[edit]
Cleveland (Delta State University)[2]
Hattiesburg (University of Southern Mississippi)[20]
Itta Bena (Mississippi Valley State University)[2]
Oxford (University of Mississippi)[2]
Starkville (Mississippi State University)[2]
Missouri[edit]
Bolivar (Southwest Baptist University)[2]
Cape Girardeau (Southeast Missouri State University)[2]
Columbia (University of Missouri, Stephens College, Columbia College)[20]
Fayette (Central Methodist University)[2]
Fulton (Westminster College and William Woods University).
Kirksville (Truman State University, A. T. Still University)[2]
Maryville (Northwest Missouri State University)[2]
Rolla (Missouri University of Science and Technology)[2]
Warrensburg (University of Central Missouri)[5]
Montana[edit]
Bozeman (Montana State University)[2]
Dillon (University of Montana Western)[2]
Missoula (University of Montana)[5]
Nebraska[edit]
Chadron (Chadron State College)[5]
Crete (Doane College)[2]
Kearney (University of Nebraska at Kearney)[2]
Lincoln (University of Nebraska at Lincoln)[5]
Peru (Peru State College)[2]
Seward (Concordia University)[2]
Wayne (Wayne State College)[2]
Nevada[edit]
Las Vegas (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Reno (University of Nevada, Reno)
New Hampshire[edit]
New London, New Hampshire (Colby-Sawyer College)
Durham (University of New Hampshire)[2]
Hanover (Dartmouth College)[5]
Henniker (New England College)
Keene (Keene State College)[2]
Plymouth (Plymouth State University)[2]
Rindge (Franklin Pierce University)
New Jersey[edit]
Ewing (The College of New Jersey), (Rider University)
Jersey City (New Jersey City University), (Saint Peter’s University)
Glassboro (Rowan University)[2]
Hoboken (Stevens Institute of Technology)
Madison (Drew University), (Fairleigh Dickinson University), (College of Saint Elizabeth)
Newark (Rutgers University), (New Jersey Institute of Technology), (UMDNJ)
New Brunswick (Rutgers University)[5]
Princeton (Princeton University)[5]
Union (Kean University)
West Long Branch (Monmouth University)
New Mexico[edit]
Hobbs (University of the Southwest)[2]
Las Cruces (New Mexico State University)[2]
Las Vegas (New Mexico Highlands University)[2]
Portales (Eastern New Mexico University)[2]
Silver City (Western New Mexico University)[2]
New York[edit]
Alfred (Alfred University, Alfred State College)[2]
Albany (SUNY Albany, Siena College, Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany Law School, Albany Medical College, College of Saint Rose, Excelsior College, Maria College of Albany, Mildred Elley, Sage College of Albany)
Aurora (Wells College)[21]
Binghamton (Binghamton University)[2]
Brockport (SUNY Brockport)[5]
Buffalo (University at Buffalo)
Canton (St. Lawrence University, SUNY Canton)[2]
Clinton (Hamilton College)[2]
Cobleskill (SUNY Cobleskill)[2]
Delhi (SUNY Delhi)[2]
Fredonia (SUNY Fredonia)[2]
Geneseo (SUNY Geneseo)[2]
Geneva (Hobart and William Smith Colleges)
Hamilton (Colgate University)[2]
Ithaca (Cornell University, Ithaca College)[1]
Morningside Heights, Manhattan (Columbia University, Barnard College, Teachers College, Manhattan School of Music, Jewish Theological Seminary, Union Theological Seminary, Bank Street College of Education)
New Paltz (SUNY New Paltz)[2]
Oneonta (SUNY Oneonta, Hartwick College)[2]
Oswego (SUNY Oswego)[2]
Plattsburgh (SUNY Plattsburgh)[2]
Potsdam (SUNY Potsdam, Clarkson University)[2]
Poughkeepsie (Vassar College, Marist College)[2]
Purchase (Purchase College, Manhattanville College)[2]
Rochester (University of Rochester, Rochester Institute of Technology, Nazareth College, St. John Fisher College, Monroe Community College, Roberts Wesleyan College, SUNY Brockport, SUNY Empire State College)[2]
Saratoga Springs (Skidmore College)[2]
Seneca Falls (New York Chiropractic College)
Stony Brook (Stony Brook University)
Syracuse (Syracuse University, SUNY ESF, Upstate Medical University)
Tivoli (Bard College)
Troy (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Russell Sage College, Hudson Valley Community College)
West Point (United States Military Academy)
North Carolina[edit]
Banner Elk (Lees-McRae College)
Boiling Springs (Gardner-Webb University)[2]
Boone (Appalachian State University)[2]
Buies Creek (Campbell University)[2]
Chapel Hill (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)[20]
Cullowhee (Western Carolina University)[2]
Davidson (Davidson College)[5]
Durham (Duke University, North Carolina Central University)[5]
Elon (Elon University)[2]
Greensboro (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro College, Guilford College, North Carolina A & T State University, Bennett College)
Greenville (East Carolina University)[2]
Hickory (Lenoir-Rhyne University)[2]
Mars Hill (Mars Hill College)[2]
Mount Olive (Mount Olive College)[2]
Pembroke (University of North Carolina at Pembroke)[2]
Wilmington, North Carolina (University of North Carolina at Wilmington)
Wingate (Wingate University)[2]
Winston-Salem (Wake Forest University, University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Salem College, Winston-Salem State University)
North Dakota[edit]
Fargo (North Dakota State University)[18]
Grand Forks (University of North Dakota)[5]
Ohio[edit]
Ada (Ohio Northern University)[2]
Alliance (University of Mount Union)
Ashland (Ashland University)[2]
Athens (Ohio University)[2]
Berea (Baldwin Wallace College)
Bluffton (Bluffton University)[2]
Bowling Green (Bowling Green State University)[2]
Cedarville (Cedarville University)[2]
Columbus (Ohio State University)
Delaware (Ohio Wesleyan University)
Fairborn (Wright State University)
Findlay (University of Findlay)
Gambier (Kenyon College)[2]
Granville (Denison University)[2]
Hiram (Hiram College)[2]
Kent (Kent State University)[2]
Nelsonville (Hocking College)[2]
New Concord (Muskingum College)[2]
Oberlin (Oberlin College)[5]
Oxford (Miami University)[5]
Rio Grande (University of Rio Grande)[2]
Wilberforce (Wilberforce University, Central State University)[2]
Oklahoma[edit]
Ada (East Central University)[2]
Alva (Northwestern Oklahoma State University)[2]
Durant (Southeastern Oklahoma State University)[2]
Edmond (University of Central Oklahoma, Oklahoma Christian University)[2]
Goodwell (Oklahoma Panhandle State University)[2]
Langston (Langston University)[5]
Norman (University of Oklahoma)[1]
Stillwater (Oklahoma State University)[5]
Tahlequah (Northeastern State University)[2]
Tulsa (The University of Tulsa)
Weatherford (Southwestern Oklahoma State University)
Oregon[edit]
Ashland (Southern Oregon University)[2]
Corvallis (Oregon State University)[20]
Eugene (Lane Community College, Northwest Christian University, University of Oregon)[20]
Forest Grove (Pacific University)
Klamath Falls (Klamath Community College, Oregon Institute of Technology)
La Grande (Eastern Oregon University)[2]
Marylhurst (Marylhurst University)
McMinnville (Linfield College)
Monmouth (Western Oregon University)[2]
Newberg (George Fox University)
Pennsylvania[edit]
Altoona (Penn State Altoona)
Annville (Lebanon Valley College)[2]
Bethlehem (Lehigh University, Moravian College)
Bloomsburg (Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Bradford (University of Pittsburgh at Bradford)
California (California University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Carlisle (Dickinson College)
Cecil B. Moore, Philadelphia, also known as “Templetown” (Temple University)
Clarion (Clarion University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Collegeville (Ursinus College)
Cresson (Mount Aloysius College)[2]
East Stroudsburg (East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Edinboro (Edinboro University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Erie (Gannon University, Mercyhurst College, Penn State Erie)
Gettysburg (Gettysburg College)[2]
Greensburg (Seton Hill University, University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg)
Grove City (Grove City College)[2]
Huntingdon (Juniata College)[2]
Indiana (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Johnstown (University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown)
Kutztown (Kutztown University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Lancaster (Franklin & Marshall)
Lewisburg (Bucknell University)[5]
Lock Haven (Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Loretto (St. Francis University)[2]
Mansfield (Mansfield University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Meadville (Allegheny College)
Mont Alto (Penn State Mont Alto)
Millersville (Millersville University of Pennsylvania)[2]
New Wilmington (Westminster College)[2]
North East (Mercyhurst North East)
University City, Philadelphia (Drexel University, University of Pennsylvania, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia)
Oakland, Pittsburgh (Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh, Carlow University)
Reading (Albright College, Alvernia University, Penn State Berks)
Selinsgrove (Susquehanna University)[2]
Shippensburg (Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania)[2]
Slippery Rock (Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania)[2]
State College (Pennsylvania State University)[22]
Villanova (Villanova University)
Waynesburg (Waynesburg University)
West Chester (West Chester University of Pennsylvania)
Wilkes-Barre (King’s College, Wilkes University)
Williamsport (Lycoming College, Pennsylvania College of Technology)[2]
Rhode Island[edit]
Kingston (University of Rhode Island)[2]
Providence (Brown University, (University of Rhode Island), Rhode Island School of Design, Johnson and Wales University, Providence College, Community College of Rhode Island, Rhode Island College, and Roger Williams University.)
South Carolina[edit]
Central (Southern Wesleyan University)[2]
Charleston (College of Charleston, The Citadel, MUSC)
Clemson (Clemson University)[2]
Clinton (Presbyterian College)
Columbia (University of South Carolina)[14]
Due West (Erskine College)
Florence (Francis Marion University)
Greenwood (Lander University)
Orangeburg (South Carolina State University, Claflin University)[2]
Rock Hill (Winthrop University)
Spartanburg (Wofford College, Converse College, University of South Carolina Upstate, Spartanburg Methodist College, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Spartanburg Community College, Virginia College, Sherman College of Chiropractic)
South Dakota[edit]
Brookings (South Dakota State University)[2]
Madison (Dakota State University)
Spearfish (Black Hills State University)
Vermillion (University of South Dakota)[5]
Tennessee[edit]
Chattanooga (University of Tennessee at Chattanooga)
Collegedale (Southern Adventist University)
Cookeville (Tennessee Technological University)[2]
Harrogate (Lincoln Memorial University)[2]
Henderson (Freed-Hardeman University)[2]
Johnson City (East Tennessee State University)
Knoxville (University of Tennessee)
Martin (University of Tennessee at Martin)[2]
McKenzie (Bethel University)[2]
Memphis (Christian Brothers University, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis College of Art, Memphis Theological Seminary, Rhodes College, Southern College of Optometry, Southwest Tennessee Community College, University of Memphis, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Visible Music College)
Murfreesboro (Middle Tennessee State University)[2]
Nashville (Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Tennessee State University, Lipscomb University, Fisk University, Aquinas College, Trevecca Nazarene University)
Sewanee (Sewanee: the University of the South)[2]
Texas[edit]
Abilene (Abilene Christian University, Hardin-Simmons University, McMurry University)
Alpine (Sul Ross State University)[2]
Austin (University of Texas at Austin, St. Edwards University, Huston-Tillotson University)[2]
Beaumont (Lamar University)
Canyon (West Texas A&M University)[2]
College Station (Texas A&M University)[5]
Commerce (Texas A&M University–Commerce)[2]
Dallas (Southern Methodist University)
Denton (University of North Texas, Texas Woman’s University)[2]
Fort Worth (Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan University)
Georgetown (Southwestern University)
Huntsville (Sam Houston State University)[2]
Houston (University of Houston, Texas Southern University, Rice University, Houston Baptist University)
Keene (Southwestern Adventist University)[2]
Kingsville (Texas A&M University–Kingsville)[2]
Lubbock (Texas Tech University, Lubbock Christian University)
Nacogdoches (Stephen F. Austin State University)[2]
Plainview (Wayland Baptist University)[2]
Prairie View (Prairie View A&M University)[2]
San Marcos (Texas State University)[5]
Stephenville (Tarleton State University)[2]
Waco (Baylor University)
Utah[edit]
Cedar City (Southern Utah University)[2]
Logan (Utah State University)[2]
Provo (Brigham Young University)[5]
Orem (Utah Valley University)
Salt Lake City (University of Utah)
Ephraim (Snow College)
Vermont[edit]
Burlington (University of Vermont, Champlain College and Saint Michael’s College)[2]
Castleton (Castleton State College)[2]
Johnson (Johnson State College)[2]
Lyndonville (Lyndon State College)[2]
Middlebury (Middlebury College)[2]
Northfield (Norwich University)[2]
Virginia[edit]
Blacksburg (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)[5]
Bridgewater (Bridgewater College)[2]
Charlottesville (University of Virginia)[23]
Farmville (Longwood University, Hampden-Sydney College)[2]
Fredericksburg (University of Mary Washington)[2]
Harrisonburg (James Madison University, Eastern Mennonite University)[2]
Lexington (Washington and Lee University, Virginia Military Institute)[2]
Lynchburg (Lynchburg College, Randolph College, Liberty University, Central Virginia Community College)
Radford (Radford University)[2]
Williamsburg (The College of William & Mary)[2]
Wise (University of Virginia’s College at Wise)[2]
Chesapeake (Averett University, DeVry University, Troy University, Tidewater Community College, Strayer University, Everest University, Sentera College of Health Sciences, St Leo University)[2]
Washington[edit]
Bellingham (Western Washington University)
Cheney (Eastern Washington University)[2]
Ellensburg (Central Washington University)[5]
Pullman (Washington State University)[5]
University District, Seattle (University of Washington)[5]
West Virginia[edit]
Athens (Concord University)[2]
Buckhannon (West Virginia Wesleyan College)[2]
Fairmont (Fairmont State University)[2]
Glenville (Glenville State College)[2]
Huntington (Marshall University)[2]
Montgomery (West Virginia University Institute of Technology)[2]
Morgantown (West Virginia University)[2]
Shepherdstown (Shepherd University)[2]
West Liberty (West Liberty University)[2]
Wisconsin[edit]
Appleton (Lawrence University)
Eau Claire (University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire)
Green Bay (University of Wisconsin-Green Bay)
La Crosse (University of Wisconsin–La Crosse, Western Technical College, Viterbo University)[2]
Madison (University of Wisconsin–Madison)[2]
Menomonie (University of Wisconsin–Stout)[2]
Milwaukee (Marquette University, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee)
Oshkosh (University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh)
Platteville (University of Wisconsin–Platteville)[2]
River Falls (University of Wisconsin–River Falls)[2]
Stevens Point (University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point)[2]
Waukesha (Carroll University)
Whitewater (University of Wisconsin–Whitewater)[2]
Wyoming[edit]
Laramie (University of Wyoming)[5]

Operations Management homework help

Discussion: Who do I go to?

introduction

Organizations are often complex, as can be evidenced by many organization charts that show the hierarchy of leadership and the structure of the organization. Sometimes titles in large organizations can be misleading or unclear. Most of us have our “go-to” coworkers that we depend upon to help us get things done. Networking with our peers is an integral skill, especially in operations, where there are likely to be many moving pieces and parts. Consider your current position or one you have had in the past.  

Who do/did you need to talk to in your current position in order to get things done? ( position: healthcare)

Was there a process/protocol that is/was followed?

Does this align with your company’s organizational chart? Explain why or why not?

Evaluation

The following materials will outline the structure of a discussion, how to submit and reply to a discussion posting, and how your work will be evaluated using the rubric grading tool. Please review them carefully and post any questions you have in the module Q&A discussion forum. Review the rubric carefully and contact your instructor if anything is unclear to you.

Discussion Posting Guide

Rubric

Discussions are worth 20% of your final grade. Your assignment is due Sunday by 11:59 PM E

Operations Management homework help

Your FLIGBY® Profile
Flow-Leadership Report

’s

This Report was prepared for

Jamin Trinidad
Using “Flow is Good Business” Gaming Analytics
Developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and ALEAS Simulations, California

2 May 2022

Report for Jamin Trinidad 1

FLIGBY® is the official Flow Program for decision-makers by Professor Mihaly

Csikszentmihalyi and ALEAS Simulations. FLIGBY’s leadership development

program combines videogame learning experience with benchmark-based

competence assessment.

FLIGBY has won the Gold Medal of the “International Serious Play Awards” in the

category of Corporate Games. A global panel of experts selected FLIGBY as the

best digital game for managers of the year 2012. FLIGBY also gained the

Certification of the American Serious Games Association, which draws the

attention of the corporate decision-makers to innovative and forward-looking

training solutions.

©2017 ALEAS Simulations, Inc., California, All Rights Reserved

“FLIGBY”, “FLOW is Good Business for You”, “Turul Winery”; “Spirit of the Wine Award”

and all logos, characters, artwork, stories, information, names, gameplay, feedback

mechanisms and other elements associated thereto are the sole and exclusive property

of ALEAS.

www.fligby.com, www.flowleadership.org

Report design & layout by Robert Fekete – www.behance.net/robtmc

Report for Jamin Trinidad 2

1. Welcome

1.1. GREETINGS BY PROF. CSIKSZENTMIHALYI

Dear Jamin,

On behalf of our FLIGBY team, I would like to thank you for having invested your

time and effort into playing the Game. I sincerely hope that you have been

enlightened and enriched by the experience.

Being a manager or a leader is never easy. Our decisions shape not only our

organization’s competitive performance but also the fate of our colleagues. This is

a huge responsibility, whether one is managing a small California winery, a giant

multinational, an NGO, or a government bureau.

We have attempted to weave into the Turul Winery story many of the dilemmas

typically encountered in managing an organization: strategy, competition,

technology, profitability, and environmental sustainability. The main emphasis,

however, is on people management. One aspect of it is creating the conditions and

advancing the trust in others that are preconditions for experiencing Flow.

It was 50 years ago that I started to study people who loved what they were doing

1. Welcome

Report for Jamin Trinidad 3

– chess players, mountain climbers, actors, and business persons – trying to

understand what made them do those things, and to do them well. Most said that

experiencing the activity itself was the main reward. I labeled this experience

“Flow”.

There has been growing recognition in recent years that getting into Flow is one of

the most important factors in improving individual, group, and community

performance. The problem we have been working on with the FLIGBY team is this:

“Why is it that so few jobs and workplaces are designed to make Flow possible?”

This is a fact even though it is in the power of managers/leaders to take many easy

steps to facilitate Flow.

FLIGBY is an innovative extension of my Good Business book, published in 2003.

Our aim is to help every decision-maker – a role we often play even as individuals

without fancy titles – to have attitudes and to make choices that will improve not

only our own well-being and the effectiveness of our organizations, but also that of

the community and of society at large.

It is my sincere hope that this personal report will assist you in your lifelong

personal development journey. This Report shows your apparent strengths to build

upon and seeming weaknesses to overcome so that you can be an ever-more-

successful manager/leader.

May you experience Flow often! And may you have the wisdom to help others to

experience it, too.

P.S. Please check p. 8, inviting you to help us, with a few simple steps, to disseminate

the idea of Flow-promoting leadership.

1. Welcome

Report for Jamin Trinidad 4

1.2. HOW TO GET THE MOST OUT OF THIS REPORT?

The time you spent playing FLIGBY was a valuable investment. This detailed

Report is built on the basis of those decisions you have taken throughout the

Game. The Report consists of four sections:

WELCOME

Summarizes the main messages and key values of the FLIGBY

Simulation. Invites you to join our network to benefit yourself and

others by spreading the idea of a value-driven and Flow-promoting

workplace.

YOUR GAMEPLAY RESULTS

This part of your Report lists the “key performance indicators” (KPIs) and

the virtual characters’ subjective feedback

on your performance, given your Game results.

YOUR LEADERSHIP SKILLS PROFILE

This part of your Report is an unbiased analysis

of your 29 Flow Leadership Skills. Your skill measures are based on your

gameplay responses when key managerial decisions were called for.

IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE

More details and explanations about the Game. You’ll find a discussion

of the following topics: FLIGBY’s game-based analytics to identify your

real leadership potential; additional KPIs; and Mr. Fligby’s subjective

opinions about your leadership practice.

1

2

3

4

FEEDBACK
ON YOUR

FLIGBY PERFORMANCE
ARE SUMMARIZED

IN TWO
CHAPTERS

1. Welcome

Report for Jamin Trinidad 5

1.3. CONTENTS

1. Welcome
1.1. Greetings by Prof. Csikszentmihalyi 2
1.2. How to get the most out of this Report? 4
1.3. Contents 5
1.4. Flow and Good Business 6
1.5. Join our Global Flow-promoting Leadership Network 8

2. Your Gameplay Results
2.1. Your gaming progress 9
2.2. Spirit of the Wine Award 10
2.3. Flow trophies 11
2.4. Corporate atmosphere 12
2.5. Profitability 13
2.6. Sustainability 14
2.7. Your colleagues’ “no-holds-barred” comments on you as their manager 15

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile
3.1. What skills are measured and how to interpret them? 17
3.2. Your 29 leadership skills 19
3.3. Distribution curve and Percentile rankings 20
3.4. Your top 3 Skills identified, compared and explained 21
3.5. Your most to-be-improved skills identified, compared and explained 22

4. If You Want to Know More
4.1. A Game-based approach to identifying your leadership potential 27
4.2. More about winning the Spirit of the Wine Award 28
4.3. More about the “Hit” Percentage of Your Decisions 29
4.4. More about the “Flow Map” 30
4.5. More about Your “Sum Flow” Index 32
4.6. Your colleagues’ final positions on the Flow Map 33
4.7. The 29 leadership skills: definitions 35
4.8. Mr. Fligby’s “no-punches-pulled” opinion on you as a leader 39

QUICK FINDER – OVERVIEW OF YOUR FLIGBY RESULTS

Spirit of the Wine Award 10
Your 29 leadership skills 19
Your colleagues’ final positions on the Flow Map 33
Mr. Fligby’s personal feedback 39

1. Welcome

Report for Jamin Trinidad 6

1.4. FLOW AND GOOD BUSINESS

FLIGBY was created as a guide for conducting business that is both successful and

humane. While most people enjoy working when it provides Flow, too few jobs are

designed to make Flow possible. This is where management can make a real

difference. For a manager or leader who truly cares about the bottom line, in the

broadest sense of that term, the first priority is to eliminate the obstacles to Flow

at all levels of the organization and to put in place practices and policies designed

to make work meaningful and thus enjoyable, especially for “knowledge workers”.

WHY IS FLOW IMPORTANT?

When we are in the state of Flow, we perform at our peak. Not only do our productivity

levels soar, but we also experience a deep sense of satisfaction. Work becomes a source

of enjoyment.

Flow is being in the zone, getting into the groove – in other words, being in a totally optimal

state for peak performance. It is that magical time when everything seems to come

together – you become fully immersed in the activity, fears and insecurities melt away,

action becomes spontaneous, and you feel fully alive and in the present moment.

Prof. Csikszentmihalyi’s term, “good business”, means a meaningful and enjoyable

work environment, through which a business’ (or any organization’s) “balanced

scorecard” improves, thereby contributing to healthier and more sustainable

workplaces and societies at large.

The best way to manage people is to create an environment where employees find

meaning in their work and grow while doing it. Organizations whose co-workers

are happy are more productive, have a higher morale, and lower turnover.

1. Welcome

Report for Jamin Trinidad 7

Work should be meaningful and also fun (as much as possible). Companies should

of course care about the bottom line, but not only about maximizing short-term

profits. If there is Flow in your business, employees perform at their peak and work

becomes a source of enjoyment and personal growth. Your organization will

become a place that people look forward to being a part of.

Our jobs have a significant influence on the quality of our lives. Happiness is not

something that happens to us, but rather, it is something we make happen. As

such, work can be one of the most fulfilling aspects of life, provided that

employees have an opportunity to do their best and to contribute to something

greater than themselves.

“… Today business leaders are among the most influential members of

society. While they are all trained to generate profits, many of them are

oblivious to the other responsibilities that their new societal leadership

entails. To be successful you have to enjoy doing your best while at the

same time contributing to something beyond yourself. Perhaps the most

important distinguishing trait of visionary leaders is that they believe in a

goal that benefits not only themselves, but others as well. It is such a vision

that attracts the psychic energy of other people, and makes them willing to

work beyond the call of duty for the organization.”

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
GOOD BUSINESS: LEADERSHIP, FLOW, AND THE MAKING OF MEANING

1. Welcome

Report for Jamin Trinidad 8

1.5. JOIN OUR GLOBAL FLOW-PROMOTING LEADERSHIP NETWORK

Here are a few simple, no-cost suggestions on how you can support the

dissemination of the Flow-promoting Leadership in any organization:

Find out more! – Discover the “missing link” and read the FLIGBY story1.
with Csikszentmihalyi’s thoughts: flowleadership.org/our-new-book/

Invite others! – If you have a friend or colleague who you think might be2.
interested in leadership development simulations, we are glad to send a
demo account. Let us know on demo@fligby.com.

Help to spread the idea! – Do you know any organizations that the “good3.
business” approach might make stronger and more effective? Please
send us your suggestions, we would be glad to get in touch with them:
goodbusiness@fligby.com

Be part of the discovery! – Would you, or others you know, be interested4.
in joining our official “Leadership & Flow” research program that studies
innovative approaches of leadership? We are happy to welcome you at
flowleadership.org/contact-us/

Please stay in touch with us on our social media interfaces:

Official FLIGBY Blog:

Linkedin:

Facebook:

Youtube:

Pinterest:

fligby.com/blog

linkedin.com/company/fligby

facebook.com/fligby

youtube.com/fligby

pinterest.com/fligby

Report for Jamin Trinidad 9

2. Your Gameplay Results

2.1. YOUR GAMING PROGRESS

GAME DATA

Game registration mail sent:

Game started:

Game finished:

Your gameplay time:

Gameplay time of all the players (average):

Media Library Items Opened* by you:

Media Library Items Opened* by all players:

7 April 2022 11:34AM

7 April 2022 11:52AM

2 May 2022 2:11PM

03 h 13 m

05 h 52 m

1%

24%

*Shows what percentage of the information available in Media Library you have clicked on.

If you have further questions, contact your Host(s). You can find your

Host(s)’ profiles on “My Group” page.

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 10

It is important to stress that winning or not winning the Game, and the other

performance indicators listed below, are not directly linked to your skills profile.

In other words, it is possible to win or not to win the Award (and to show

impressive or poor gameplay results) with all sorts of skills profile

combinations.

2.2. SPIRIT OF THE WINE AWARD

Although you did not win the Award,

you have impressive leadership skills

and other Game results.

The winning-ratio in the full FLIGBY

population is 45%

“Spirit of the Wine Award” is the

ultimate prize to win in FLIGBY.

It is a measure of the Player’s

success in skillfully balancing

difficult tradeoffs, such as

generating individual Flow,

improving the corporate

atmosphere, earning satisfactory

profit, and adequately protecting

the environment.*

* For more information about the Award,
refer to section 4.2. below, “More about
winning the Spirit of the Wine Award”

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 11

2.3. FLOW TROPHIES

Each time your decisions helped put a colleague into Flow, you won a Flow

trophy. Your trophy inventory at the end of your gameplay is as follows:

YOU EARNED 12 OF MAX 21 FLOW TROPHIES!
The average number of Flow trophies earned by all FLIGBY players is 13.2

A key task of FLIGBY is to create an environment that promotes teamwork and

enhances Flow. Thus, one of the key aims of the Game was to bring as many

colleagues as possible – even if just for a short time – into a Flow state. Please

note that expanding too great an effort to put someone repeatedly into Flow can

move others away from their Flow state.

Earning many Flow trophies is positive, up to a point. However, earning fewer than

the average number of trophies is not necessarily bad; it may show that you gave

higher priorities to some of the other Game objectives.

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 12

These labels and colors are used further on in this Report:

#1 Your first gameplay’s result fl Average of all FLIGBY players

2.4. CORPORATE ATMOSPHERE

CORP. ATM.%

#1 48
fl 60

The “CORPORATE ATMOSPHERE” METER of the

Turul Winery shows the level of workplace satisfaction

by the entire workforce.

A good corporate atmosphere is one where the goals are clear to everyone;

relevant information is available to all; and the challenges faced by everyone are

manageable because they match each employee’s skill level. In other words, there

is a highly satisfactory and productive atmosphere for all internal stakeholders,

which would maximally support the sustainable advancement of the organization.

This KPI shows, in percentage terms, how far your managerial decisions have

created a satisfactory atmosphere for all internal stakeholders.

The graph below shows the scene-by-scene evolution (for each of the 23 Scenes)

of Turul’s Corporate Atmosphere, as a function of your decisions:

100

75

50

25

0

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 13

2.5. PROFITABILITY

PROFIT %

#1 53
fl 67

This indicator shows the impact of your decisions on

the Winery’s revenue-generating potential, in percent

terms, relative to the maximum achievable.

It shows the direction of the Winery’s profit-generating capability rather than

actual profit data.

The graph below shows the scene-by-scene evolution of Turul’s Profitability, as a

function of your decisions:

100

50

0

-50

-100

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 14

2.6. SUSTAINABILITY

SUSTAINABILITY %

#1 64
fl 63

This indicator shows whether your decisions have

improved, maintained, or decreased the environmental

sustainability of the Turul Winery.

You did not win the Sustainability Badge

in the Game this time.

California wine making can be a perfect

example of “good business” policies

through its sustainability practices; they

are being adopted by many organizations

worldwide.

Each time you made an

important decision that also

helped to protect the

environment (since “good

business” practices include

sustainability) you moved closer

to obtaining the Sustainability

Badge. Winning it is a good

indicator that you made sure

that Turul’s products and

production processes are

environmentally sustainable and

fit harmoniously with the local

community.

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 15

2.7. YOUR COLLEAGUES’ “NO-HOLDS-BARRED” COMMENTS ON YOU AS THEIR MANAGER

Your colleagues’ comments below are responses to the decision-path you,

yourself, chose during the Game:

WHAT DO YOUR TEAM MEMBERS THINK ABOUT YOUR LEADERSHIP?

ELLEN JOE LARRY REBECCA CHRIS ALEX

Ellen: “I will love to move to HR! Thanks for thinking creatively about my options here, and
not discriminating against me due to my age. ”

Joe: “I wanted to thank you for dealing with time management. I am learning to work more
effectively with my colleagues. ”

Larry: “I just wanted to thank you for letting me leave the Bacchus Boutique meeting… early
that day. You showed real empathy for me. I wouldn’t have wanted to miss the birth of my
child. ”

Rebecca: “I’m glad you supported my decision to leave. I’m sure I’ll be happy at Top Dog
winery. And this party is wonderful! I’m so impressed with Jen. However, she is a fantastic
assistant, I know she’ll be hard to replace in her role. ”

Chris: “Larry and I learned to work together as a team. It was thanks to your intervention. So
enjoy the party. ”

Alex: “I wanted to thank you for your commitment to discontinuing our “jug” wine. You
showed integrity. I respect that. Have a good time tonight. ”

2. Your Gameplay Results

Report for Jamin Trinidad 16

You have the option also to hear their opinions from their own mouths. Check out
these brief clips!

ELLEN JOE LARRY

REBECCA CHRIS ALEX

Report for Jamin Trinidad 17

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

3.1. WHAT SKILLS ARE MEASURED AND HOW TO INTERPRET THEM?

In FLIGBY, your leadership profile is comprised of your scores on each of the 29

leadership competences. Good skill combinations are helpful for creating and

maintaining a Flow-promoting organizational culture.

11.9.

DelegatingConflict-
management

8.

Diplomacy

10.

Emotional
intelligence

Communi-
cation

7.

Feedback

15.

Execution

14.

Future
orientation

16.13.
Empower-

ment

12.

Entrepreneur-
ship

Analytical
skill

2.

Active
listening

1.

Assertive-
ness

3.

Balancing
skill

4.
Engage-

ment and
trust

5.

Business-
oriented
thinking

6.

Information
gathering

17.

Prioritizing

22.

Organizing

21.
Intuitive
thinking

18.

Involvement

19.

Motivation

20.

Time-
pressured
decisions

23.

Personal
strengths

24.

Social
dynamics

25.

Stakeholder
management

26.

Strategic
thinking

27.

Teamwork
management

28.
Time

management

29.

The four skills – shown in green with white borders – are those that contribute

most directly to the attainment of a Flow-promoting workplace. For the definition

of each skill, see: section 4.7.

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 18

Your skill measures are based on your gameplay responses when important

managerial decisions were called for. Your skill measures are objective and

unbiased. However, a game such as FLIGBY could give you only limited

opportunities to display the leadership skills you may possess. At the same time,

what you did reveal by the decision choices you made has been carefully

interpreted, in terms of their skill implications, by a prestigious group of

psychologists and leadership-development experts.

Lower skill levels show, first and foremost, that you made rather infrequent use of

those skills during the gameplay. Thus, lower skill levels do not necessarily mean

that your skills are notably weak in those areas. Nevertheless, low skill levels may

indicate that a purposeful strengthening of those skills would likely to improve

your managerial/leadership performance. The numbers in the charts below

represent the percentage (max 100) achievable skill levels in the Game.

“In creating one’s self, it makes sense to build on one’s strengths. Often,

however, we don’t have good notion of what our talents are, because we

have never had a chance to try them out. The more opportunities one is

willing to explore, the better chances one has of discovering one’s

strengths.”

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
GOOD BUSINESS: LEADERSHIP, FLOW, AND THE MAKING OF MEANING

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 19

3.2. YOUR 29 LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Active listening 65 63

Analytical skill 80 64

Assertiveness 67 57

Balancing skill 64 65

Building engagement 67 67

Business-oriented thinking 63 62

Communication 58 64

Conflict-management 63 62

Delegating 44 63

Diplomacy 80 67

Emotional intelligence 83 72

Empowerment 64 62

Entrepreneurship (Risk-taking) 73 66

Execution 90 63

Feedback 75 69

Future orientation 78 68

Information gathering 85 72

Intuitive thinking 71 63

Involvement 89 70

Motivation 71 69

Organizing 75 67

Prioritizing 50 56

Recognizing personal strengths 67 68

Social dynamics 81 67

Stakeholder management 70 64

Strategic thinking 80 63

Teamwork management 80 62

Time management 60 56

Time-pressured decision-making 44 58

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 20

3.3. DISTRIBUTION CURVE AND PERCENTILE RANKINGS

Your scores are systematically juxtaposed with all FLIGBY players’ average as well

as median scores. In this Report, the term “average” is the arithmetic mean, while

the “median” shows the dividing point – the middle number – where the exact

same number of players have higher as well as lower scores. The basic advantage

of the median in describing data compared with the mean (often simply described

as the “average”) is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small

values, and so it may give a better idea of a ‘typical’ value.

THIS GRAPH SHOWS THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MEASURED SKILL VALUES

OF ALL FLIGBY PLAYERS

0 25 50 75 100

YOUR SCORE
MEDIAN VALUE

Your “percentile ranking” shows that you did better than the percentage of all

players shown.

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 21

3.4. YOUR TOP 3 SKILLS IDENTIFIED, COMPARED AND EXPLAINED

1
EXECUTION
Execution is the act of performing, the completion of
managerial tasks (execution of a plan, a task, etc.),
and the readiness of doing something successfully.
Managing the business aligned with the common
values. Executing strategic goals is by far the
greatest challenge in business today.

Your Score:

EXECUTION

#1 90
fl 63

Database Median Score:

60

Your Percentile Ranking:

99

Explanation of the Execution distribution curve

Most people’s overall Execution score is between 32 and 79. In fact, 93% of all

people have Execution within that range. 57% of people score between 48 and 66.

0 25 50 75 100

90
60

32 48 7966

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 22

2
STRATEGIC THINKING
Strategic thinking helps managers to set goals, to
determine priorities, to review policy issues, and to
perform long term planning. Clear goals are
necessary to reach the flow-state. For a person to
become deeply involved in any activity it is essential
that he or she knows precisely what tasks he or she
must accomplish moment by moment. Of course the
ultimate goals of an activity are also important but
true enjoyment comes from the steps one takes
toward attaining a goal, not from actually reaching it.

Your Score:

STRATEGIC THINKING

#1 80
fl 63

Database Median Score:

61

Your Percentile Ranking:

95

Explanation of the Strategic thinking distribution curve

Most people’s overall Strategic thinking score is between 42 and 82. In fact, 94%

of all people have Strategic thinking within that range. 51% of people score

between 53 and 67.

0 25 50 75 100

80
61

42 53 8267

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 23

3
TEAMWORK MANAGEMENT
Teamwork management is the readiness to form,
facilitate and monitor teamwork and teams.

Your Score:

TEAMWORK MANAGEMENT

#1 80
fl 62

Database Median Score:

61

Your Percentile Ranking:

95

Explanation of the Teamwork management distribution curve

Most people’s overall Teamwork management score is between 41 and 78. In fact,

93% of all people have Teamwork management within that range. 53% of people

score between 53 and 69.

0 25 50 75 100

80
61

41 53 7869

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 24

3.5. YOUR MOST TO-BE-IMPROVED SKILLS IDENTIFIED, COMPARED AND EXPLAINED

1
DELEGATING
Delegation is the readiness to confer functions or
powers on another person so he or she can act on
behalf of the manager. Delegation empowers a
subordinate to make decisions, i.e. it is a shift of
decision-making authority from one organizational
level to a lower one.

Your Score:

DELEGATING

#1 44
fl 63

Database Median Score:

62

Your Percentile Ranking:

9

Explanation of the Delegating distribution curve

Most people’s overall Delegating score is between 34 and 78. In fact, 94% of all

people have Delegating within that range. 57% of people score between 45 and

67.

0 25 50 75 100

44
62

34 45 7867

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 25

2
TIME-PRESSURED DECISION-MAKING
Decision-making under time pressure is a readiness
that enables effective decision-making when limited
time and inadequate information is available. This is
the skill to decide authoritatively and to be
consistent with one’s decisions.

Your Score:

TIME-PRESSURED DECISION-
MAKING

#1 44
fl 58

Database Median Score:

57

Your Percentile Ranking:

9

Explanation of the Time-pressured decision-making distribution curve

Most people’s overall Time-pressured decision-making score is between 36 and

77. In fact, 94% of all people have Time-pressured decision-making within that

range. 50% of people score between 48 and 63.

0 25 50 75 100

44
57

36 48 7763

3. Your Leadership Skills Profile

Report for Jamin Trinidad 26

3
PRIORITIZING
Prioritization is the readiness to evaluate a group of
items and ranking them in their order of importance
or urgency.

Your Score:

PRIORITIZING

#1 50
fl 56

Database Median Score:

57

Your Percentile Ranking:

25

Explanation of the Prioritizing distribution curve

Most people’s overall Prioritizing score is between 37 and 75. In fact, 93% of all

people have Prioritizing within that range. 56% of people score between 52 and

64.

0 25 50 75 100

50
57

37 52 7564

Report for Jamin Trinidad 27

4. If You Want to Know More

4.1. A GAME-BASED APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING YOUR LEADERSHIP POTENTIAL

FLIGBY was designed to identify your leadership skills and potential. The Game creates

an environment that offers a new type of platform for observing management

behavior. The Player gets totally absorbed into the story (indicated by the fact that the

global average actual playing time is 05 h 52 m), concentrating on handling the

decisions that you had to make.

This approach is not distorted by you, the Player, feeling observed or thinking that you

must respond as expected (which is a source of bias when leadership skills are

determined on the basis of answers in simple questionnaires).

In FLIGBY, each Player‘s leadership profile is comprised of his or her scores on each of

the 29 leadership competences that supports the creation and maintenance of a value-

based and Flow-promoting organizational culture. Incidentally, most of the 29 skills so

identified overlap a great deal with those leadership skills that most other, well-known

skillsets cover. This means that your FLIGBY skillset is likely to be aligned, or can be

aligned, with your organization’s own competency listing.

One of the first steps in developing FLIGBY was identifying those 29 skills. Each

Player’s skill profile was automatically generated at the end of the Simulation.

On each of t

Operations Management homework help

Hide Folder InformationTurnitin® This assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®.Instructions

The focus of this week’s assignment is on applying the qualitative method to the research problem. Begin with a one-page introduction about the circumstances that led to the development of the problem; do not state the problem in this section. Establish the existence of your research problem using three to four scholarly articles published within the last five years. Remember that the problem must have a business administration focus, and must relate to your degree specialization. Keep your research focus and problem simple for this assignment.

NOTE: this framework must be used for your assignment response. Use one sentence for each of the following:

Hook: An attention-grabbing statement that is supported by the literature.

Anchor: An evidence of the problem statement that includes a statistic and is supported by primary research.

A statement of the general business problem.

A statement of the specific business problem.

This script is helpful to (a) frame the problem, (b) validate that it exists with verifiable data, and (c) identify why and for whom the problem matters (Bakari 2018).

Next, rationalize the use of the qualitative method for your research inquiry. Explain the features. Give examples of the intended research outcomes. Formulate a purpose statement using the framework.

NOTE: this framework must be used for your assignment response.

The purpose of this qualitative study is _________________ [content aim of the study]. A qualitative study design will be used in which narrative data will be collected and analyzed to _________. These data will represent ____________ [the bounding or description of the study]. Qualitative data will be gathered exploring _____________ [the central phenomenon] from _________ [participants] at _________ [the research site]. The reasons for using this form of data to ________ [support or generate] data, is to develop an in-depth understanding of ____________________. [Include scholarly sources to support these research decisions.]

Create two research questions that will generate information for later analysis.

Tip: Remember that this is qualitative research. This is a qualitative research method course and you will use a qualitative research method approach for this assignment.

Length: 3-4 pages

References: Include a minimum of 5 scholarly resources.

Your essay should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect graduate-level writing and APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Upload your document and click the Submit to Dropbox button.

Reference:

Problem statement script. Personal communication Bakari, M. (2018).

Operations Management homework help

Organizational Behaviour and Work

Organizational
Behaviour and
Work
A critical introduction

F I F T H E D I T I O N

Fiona M. Wilson

1

1
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP,

United Kingdom

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship,

and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of
Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries

© Fiona M. Wilson 2018

The moral rights of the author have been asserted

Second edition 2004
Third edition 2010

Fourth edition 2014

Impression: 1

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the

prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted
by law, by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics

rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the
above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the

address above

You must not circulate this work in any other form
and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer

Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press
198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Data available

Library of Congress Control Number: 2017959734

ISBN 978–0–19–251097–6

Printed in Great Britain by
Bell & Bain Ltd., Glasgow

Links to third party websites are provided by Oxford in good faith and
for information only. Oxford disclaims any responsibility for the materials

contained in any third party website referenced in this work.

Brief contents

About the Author xvii

Acknowledgements xvii

How to Use the Book xviii

How to Use the Online Resources xx

Introduction 1

PART 1 Approaching management critically

1 Setting the scene 13

2 Employees’ views of work 38

3 Managerial views of work 69

4 The rationality of management 90

5 Sexuality, sex typing, and gender 113

PART 2 Classic organizational behaviour and the critique

6 Motivation 135

7 Leadership 158

8 Perception 181

9 Personality 203

10 Organizational learning 222

11 Culture 239

12 Teams and teamworking 266

13 Structure 284

14 All change? 306

PART 3 The core of critical approaches

15 Managerial power and control 333

16 Organizational misbehaviour 356

B r I E f C O n T E n T S vi

17 Voluntary, not-for-profit, and alternative organizations 379

18 Health, well-being, emotion, and stress 396

Glossary 419

Index 423

Detailed contents

About the Author xvii

Acknowledgements xvii

How to Use the Book xviii

How to Use the Online Resources xx

Introduction 1

Further Reading 8

Research Questions 8

References 9

PART 1 Approaching management critically

1 Setting the scene 13

Introduction 13

Scene setting 14

Globalization 14

Human trafficking and modern-day slavery 16

Corporate social responsibility and ethical behaviour 16

The growth of the enterprise economy 17

Trends in the working population 17

Income and social mobility 21

Men and women working 23

Men, women, and management 25

Mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes to work and family 26

Working hours 27

Part-time working 28

Homeworking 28

More scene-setting issues 29

Key Points 30

Case Study 30

Further Reading 31

Links to Films and Novels 31

Research Questions 31

References 32

D E TA I L E D C O n T E n T S viii

2 Employees’ views of work 38

Introduction 38

Alienation 39

The experience of the assembly line 40

Making work manageable 42

The experience of work in the call centre 43

Class and orientation to work 44

What work means 47

Measuring the meaning of work 49

Job redesign to improve the intrinsic meaning of work 50

Class, gender, and the meaning of work 52

More ‘not so good’ and ‘unskilled’ low-paid jobs 54

The experience of cateri