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Mary in the 19th century

EXPLANATORY NOTES

The breadth of Adams’s reading and the number and variety of his connections
are reflected in the unusually wide range of references in the Education. It would
be impractical to gloss every item here, but the notes that follow identify the
major (and sometimes the minor) figures and events that play a central role in
Adams’s account. A useful adjunct to the present edition is that edited by Ernest
Samuels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.

5 Editor’s Preface: written by Henry Adams; found in a sealed packet con-
taining a corrected copy of the privately printed 1907 edition with the ini-
tials ‘H.C.L.’ added to the preface with the puzzled approval of Senator
Henry Cabot Lodge, who was instructed by Adams in a letter of 1916 to
publish a posthumous edition. Lodge, a friend and former student of
Adams’s at Harvard, was also president of the Massachusetts Historical
Society in whom Adams had vested the copyright.

“Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres”: Adams’s study of Gothic architecture,
published in 1904. Adams is here rationalizing the composition of the
Education; however, it grew out of Mont-Saint-Michel and was not planned
simultaneously with it.

St. Augustine’s “Confessions”: Adams believed that St Augustine’s
Confessions (397–401) was his chief literary model. To William James on 17
February 1908 he wrote that among autobiographies, ‘I think St.
Augustine alone has an idea of literary form—a notion of writing a story
with an end and an object, not for the sake of the object, but for the form,
like a romance’ (Lett. vi. 119–20).

6 “A Letter to American Teachers”: a short book by Adams focusing on the
second law of thermodynamics and entropy as applied to history.

severe illness: Adams suffered a stroke on 24 April 1912 which left him par-
tially paralysed for several months. On his recovery he continued his ex-
tensive correspondence and undertook new research on the medieval
chanson. He wrote no more for publication, however.

1914: World War I began on 28 June 1914 when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian
Serb, shot and killed Archduke Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary in Sarajevo.
By 3 August 1914 Germany declared war on France and the next day
German troops entered Belgium. 1914 seemed to confirm Adams’s most
pessimistic predictions. The war ended on 11 November 1918.

Henry Cabot Lodge: Adams affixed Lodge’s name to the preface as well as
the date, September 1918. Adams had written the preface in 1916, as he ex-
plained in a letter to Lodge dated 1 March 1916. Lodge had read the pre-
face and assented to the attachment of his name. He also respected Adams’s
wish to exclude any illustrations, especially portraits.

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7 Jean Jacques Rousseau . . . ‘I was a better man!’ ”: Rousseau’s Confessions ap-
peared 1764–70. The translation appears to be Adams’s own.

Benjamin Franklin: (1706–90), American statesman, inventor, author,
printer, and scientist. His unfinished Autobiography, much admired for its
literary style and moral inspiration, was begun in 1771 and first published
in its entirety in 1868.

misfit of the clothes: use of the mannequin and image of the tailor recalls the
‘clothes philosophy’ of Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus, a favourite text of
Adams’s in his youth. Also see Ch. XXVII of the Education.

8 February 16, 1907: the date of Adams’s sixty-ninth birthday, suggesting
that he might have intended the book as a kind of birthday message to his
friends. A similarly symbolic date appears in the preface to his Letter to
American Teachers of History in 1910 on the occasion of his seventy-second
birthday.

9 John Hancock: (1737–93), the first signatory to the Declaration of
Independence and the first governor of the state of Massachusetts.

Beacon Hill: location of the State Capitol and the symbolic centre of old
Boston; State Street was the financial centre of the city.

troglodytic: characteristic of cave-dweller, especially of prehistoric times.

John Adams: second president of the United States and the great-grand-
father of Henry Adams, John Adams (1735–1826) returned from London
in 1789 after four years’ service as American minister to England. He had
earlier served in France, helping to negotiate the Treaty of Paris ending the
Revolutionary War. He was elected president in 1797 after serving as
Washington’s vice-president. When president, he appointed his son, John
Quincy Adams, minister to Berlin. After his defeat as president by Thomas
Jefferson in 1801, he returned to Washington as a congressman.

10 Gargantua-Napoleon-Bismarck: Gargantua: the giant in Rabelais’s comic
masterpiece Gargantua et Pantagruel (1552). Napoleon: (1769–1821),
Corsican-born graduate of the École Militaire; conqueror of Austria,
Piedmont, and Egypt who returned to France in 1799 to lead a coup and
declare himself first consul; crowned emperor in 1804 in Notre Dame
Cathedral. Reversals on several military fronts and a failing alliance led to
his exile in 1813 to Elba, from which he later escaped and returned to
France in 1815, forcing Louis XVIII to flee to Holland. He was defeated,
however, by Wellington at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and later exiled to the
island of St Helena, where he died. Bismarck: (1815–98), Count Otto von
Bismarck, often called ‘the Iron Chancellor’, was first a Prussian legislator
who in 1859 was minister to St Petersburg and then Paris. He became
prime minister under Wilhelm I of Prussia; his expansionist military policy
led to the defeat of Denmark and then Austria and the reorganization of
Germany under Prussian leadership. He provoked the Franco-Prussian
War (1870–1), leading to the defeat of Napoleon III and Bismarck’s ap-
pointment as chancellor of the new German empire. Although he shaped

422 Explanatory Notes

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imperial Germany at the end of the nineteenth century, a conflict with the
new German emperor, Wilhelm II, caused his resignation of the chancel-
lorship in 1890.

Notre Dame: leading Gothic cathedral of Paris located on the Île de la Cité,
built on the ruins of two earlier churches, predated by a Gallo-Roman tem-
ple dedicated to Jupiter. The foundation stone was laid in 1163 and the altar
consecrated in 1189; the western façade was completed in 1250, the date
also for the finished twin Gothic towers. The spire was added during nine-
teenth-century renovations. The three great rose windows date from the
thirteenth century.

Boston and Albany Railroad: the railway was extended from Boston to
Quincy in 1846.

11 his brothers: Henry Adams was the third of five brothers (there were also
two sisters): John Quincy (1833–94); Charles Francis (1835–1915); Henry
Brooks (1838–1918); Arthur (1841–46); Brooks (1848–1927). His sisters
were Louisa Catherine (1831–70) and Mary (1846–1928).

12 Cromwellian: Political references are to the struggles of the colony against
the British Crown and the short-lived dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell, the
English Puritan leader.

greatest grandmother: Edith Squires married the first Henry Adams in
England before emigrating to the Massachusetts Bay Colony about 1633.

14 Adams grandfather . . . Brooks grandfather: Adams grandfather: John Quincy
Adams (1767–1848), sixth president of the United States, who resided on
a 7-acre tract in Quincy, Massachusetts, 7 miles south of Boston and bor-
dering on the sea. The land was purchased by John Adams in 1787. In 1817
John Quincy Adams returned to the USA after helping to negotiate the
Treaty of Ghent in 1814 and then serving as minister to England. He was
elected president in 1825 and served until 1829. Brooks grandfather: reput-
edly the wealthiest man in New England, Peter Chardon Brooks (1767–
1849) made his fortune as a merchant and then turned to real estate, repre-
senting to his grandson Henry the power and influence of commerce in
Boston.

15 both died in 1848: Adams is incorrect: Peter Chardon Brooks died on 1
January 1849 as he notes at the opening of Ch. II.

17 President Polk: President James Polk’s support of the annexation of Texas
as a slave state angered John Quincy Adams, who objected to the Southern
expansionist policy. Polk was president from 1845 to 1849.

19 President Quincy: Josiah Quincy (1772–1864), president of Harvard
College from 1829 to 1845, was actually only five years younger than John
Quincy Adams, not ten as Henry Adams writes.

The Madam: Louisa Catherine Adams, wife of President John Quincy
Adams. Henry Adams worked on her voluminous memoirs in 1869 with
the thought of their publication. He discontinued the editing when he was
appointed to Harvard to teach in 1870.

Explanatory Notes 423

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20 Romney portrait: George Romney (1734–1802) was a favourite painter of
the British aristocracy. His portraits of women were especially flattering.

Abigail: Abigail Smith Adams (1744–1818), an early American advocate of
rights for women and wife of John Adams, second President of the United
States. Her letters were edited in two volumes by her grandson, Charles
Francis Adams, Henry Adams’s father.

21 Federalist Party: Federalist president John Adams was defeated for re-
election by Thomas Jefferson in 1801. John Quincy Adams, the president’s
son, was then minister to Berlin, but was recalled home after his father’s
defeat.

Cent Jours: the ‘hundred days’ from 20 March 1815 to 28 June 1815 was the
period of Napoleon’s return to power in France after his exile on the island
of Elba. He was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June 1815.

Court of the Regent: the Prince of Wales (1762–1830) ruled as prince regent
for nine years after his father, George III (1738–1820), became ill in 1811.
On his father’s death in 1820, he became George IV.

back to Congress in 1833: The date is wrong, indicating Adams’s occasional
inaccuracy. John Quincy Adams was elected in 1830 to the 22nd Congress
and took his seat in 1831.

22 the battle of Bunker Hill: the bloodiest engagement of the entire American
Revolution. It took place on 17 June 1775 and was actually fought not on
Bunker Hill but on nearby Breed’s Hill.

hurt himself: John Quincy Adams suffered a slight stroke on 20 November
1846. He was back in his seat in Congress, however, by 12 February 1847.
He had a second stroke on the floor of the House of Representatives on 21
February 1848 and died on the 23rd.

Dr. Parkman: Dr George Parkman (1790–1849), prominent Bostonian who
donated the site of the Harvard Medical College.

P. P. F. Degrand: (d. 1855), originally a Philadelphia banker.
23 Stuart portraits: Gilbert Stuart (1755–1828), American portrait painter ac-

claimed for his portrait of George Washington. Studied in London under
Benjamin West. He also did portraits of John Adams and John Quincy
Adams.

Dr. Lunt: Revd William Parsons Lunt (1805–57) delivered the funeral ora-
tion at the commemorative services for John Quincy Adams on 11 March
1848.

Buckminster: John Stevens Buckminster (1784–1812), one of the first
Unitarian ministers in Boston and important contributor to biblical
scholarship in the United States.

Channing: William Ellery Channing (1740–1842), the most influential
spokesman of the Unitarian movement.

Faneuil Hall: Boston gathering-place for patriotic meetings before the
Revolution, known as ‘the cradle of liberty’.

424 Explanatory Notes

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Edward Everett: (1794–1865), brother-in-law of Henry Adams’s mother
and a famous Unitarian preacher and congressman, minister to England,
and president of Harvard from 1846 to 1849.

Sam Adams’s father: (1689–1748), a first cousin of President John Adams’s
father, John Adams (1691–1761). Consequently, Sam Adams was a second
cousin of President John Adams.

State Street: the financial centre of Boston and chief support of the most
conservative elements in the Federalist party.

25 Andrew Jackson: President of the United States from 1829 to 1837, Jackson
defeated John Quincy Adams in a notorious campaign. Earlier, in the elec-
tion of 1824, Jackson won the larger popular vote but lost out to Adams in
the electoral college.

26 Quincy: the ancestral home of the Adamses which symbolized the political
ideals of the family, including a strong moral opposition to the pro-slavery
views of the conservative leaders of the State Street financial district.

Mr. Webster: Daniel Webster (1782–1852), senator from Massachusetts
after 1827 who in 1834, with Henry Clay, formed the Whig party out of
Republican followers of John Quincy Adams and the Democrats opposed
to Jackson’s abolition of the National Bank.

Mr. Seward: William Henry Seward (1801–72), senator from New York
known for his strong anti-slavery attitude who nevertheless supported the
Whig compromise candidates in 1848 and 1852. By 1860 Seward had be-
come the leader of the new Republican party.

27 a fair parallel: In 1776 John Adams declared his support with the American
Revolutionists against England.

29 Dr. Palfrey . . . O. W. Holmes: Dr. Palfrey: (1796–1881), family friend of the
Adamses who was also a congressman and historian. As editor of the North
American Review, he encouraged Henry Adams to write his first article for
the quarterly. President Walker: John Walker (1794–1874) was professor of
religion and after 1853, president of Harvard. R. W. Emerson: Ralph Waldo
Emerson (1803–82), foremost New England poet and essayist born in
Boston, educated at Harvard; in 1829 became pastor of a Unitarian church
in Boston but had to resign because of his controversial views. In 1833 trav-
elled to Europe where he met and befriended Thomas Carlyle; became the
leading spokesperson of the Transcendental movement. In his Journals he
criticized John Quincy Adams as ‘a bruiser [who] loves a melee . . . He is an
old roué who cannot live on slops, but must have sulphuric acid in his tea.’
Journals, ed. William H. Gilman and J. E. Parsons (Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard Univ. Press, 1970), viii. 339. Boston ministers: All of these clergy-
men were influential in the growth of Unitarianism between 1800 and
1835. The first Unitarian congregation in the USA was established in 1782
at King’s Chapel, Boston. Theodore Parker: (1810–60), founded the Con-
gregational Society of Boston where he celebrated Transcendentalism, as
well as radical social and political reform. Brook Farm: From 1841 to 1847

Explanatory Notes 425

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an experiment in cooperative community living near West Roxbury,
Massachusetts. philosophy of Concord: The philosophic and literary move-
ment which flourished from approximately 1836 to 1860 in Concord under
the leadership of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ticknor: George Ticknor (1791–
1871), the first Smith Professor of French and Spanish at Harvard and au-
thor of a massive history of Spanish literature. Prescott: William Hickling
Prescott (1796–1859), historian of the conquest of Mexico and Peru. Long-
fellow: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–82), author of Hiawatha
(1855) and the most popular American poet of the nineteenth century.
Born in Maine and educated at Bowdoin College, he developed his skill as
a translator; accepted post at Harvard after study in Europe. ‘Paul Revere’s
Ride’ appeared in an 1863 collection, Tales of a Wayside Inn. Motley: John
Lothrop Motley (1814–77), Boston-born historian and author of The Rise
of the Dutch Republic, was also minister to Austria and England. He suc-
ceeded Charles Francis Adams as minister to England in 1869. President
Ulysses S. Grant recalled Motley from London in July 1870; failing to re-
sign, however, Motley was dismissed in December. Adams made use of this
incident in his anonymously published novel, Democracy (1880), in his por-
trayal of Nathan Gore. O. W. Holmes: Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–94),
leading Boston literary figure as poet and novelist, author of Autocrat at
the Breakfast Table (1858) and father of Justice Holmes (see n. to p. 51,
below).

29 Mr. Winthrop: Robert Charles Winthrop (1804–94), descendant of the first
governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was appointed senator to succeed
Daniel Webster when he became secretary of state. Defeated by Charles
Sumner in 1851.

Mr. Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison (1805–79), vitriolic editor of the
abolitionist paper the Liberator who attacked the constitution as a slave-
holder’s document and advocated a division of the Union.

30 Mr. Wendell Phillips: (1811–84), prominent Boston abolitionist and sup-
porter of Garrison.

Mr. Edmund Quincy: (1808–77), reformer and author closely associated
with Garrison and frequent contributor to anti-slavery publications.

set up a party of his own: ironic since Charles Francis Adams did not estab-
lish the Free Soil party, although he played an important role in its organ-
ization.

three: . . . Charles Sumner: Dr. John G. Palfrey: see note to p. 29 above.
Richard H. Dana: (1815–82), Boston lawyer and author of Two Years Before
the Mast, also active in Free Soil politics and defender of fugitive slaves.
Charles Sumner: (1811–74), elected to US Senate on Free Soil ticket and
the eloquent leader of New England opposition to ‘Slave Power’. He be-
came active in the impeachment proceedings against President Johnson.

William M. Evarts: (1818–1901), Boston-born New York lawyer active in
Republican politics who failed to win election to the Senate in 1861 but
later served as attorney general for a period in 1869 and then as secretary of

426 Explanatory Notes

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state from 1877 to 1881. Henry Adams became a close friend when Evarts
was sent to London in 1863 to serve as legal adviser to Adams’s father, the
minister.

Edmund Burke: (1729–97), Dublin-born English statesman and political
philosopher whose 1775 speech on conciliation with the American colonies
made him a well-known name in the United States. Author of Philosophical
Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1756), which established the founda-
tion of aesthetics in England, and the influential Reflections on the French
Revolution (1790), popular throughout Europe. Adams owned a nine-
volume set of his work.

31 Beacon Street: centre of fashionable Boston running down Beacon Hill
from the State House.

Russell: George R. Russell (1816–90), Free Soil leader and aspirant for
Congress who withdrew from the race of 1858 to allow the nomination of
Henry Adams’s father.

Mr. Lodge: John Ellerton Lodge (1807–62), Boston merchant and father of
Henry Cabot Lodge.

32 newspaper: the Boston Daily Whig began publication six months before
Henry Adams’s father became editor and one of the owners.

“Works”: Works of John Adams (10 vols., Boston, 1850–6), ed. Charles
Francis Adams, who also wrote the Life contained in vol. 1.
Novanglus and Massachusettensis: pseudonym with which John Adams
signed his controversial articles in the Boston Gazette replying to the loyal-
ist essays signed ‘Massachusettensis’.

Ciceronian: the reference is to Cicero’s De Republica, a dialogue on the best
form of government.

Peter Harvey: (1810–77), Whig politician. The other contributors repres-
ented wealthy Bostonian families. See note p. 46.

33 Louis Philippe . . . Carlyle: Louis Philippe: (1773–1850), king of France
1830–48, a liberal monarch. Guizot. François Guizot (1787–1874), his-
torian and first minister of France who opposed parliamentary reform. de
Tocqueville: Count Alexis de Tocqueville (1805–59), French historian and
political scientist; author of Democracy in America (2 vols., 1835–40), the
result of his 1831 visit to America initially to study the prison system; fo-
cused on the success of the democratic experiment so that France might be
better prepared for the transition to democracy. Robert Peel: (1788–1850),
British statesman and Tory prime minister from 1834–5, 1841–6. Was sec-
retary for Ireland (1812–18), then home secretary (1822–7, 1828–30), car-
rying through Catholic Emancipation Act. Also reorganized the London
police force. Macaulay: Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800–59), historian
best known for his History of the Roman Empire and History of England.
Member of parliament who supported the reform bill for extending the
vote. John Stuart Mill: (1806–73), empiricist philosopher, social reformer
and economist, remembered as the author of On Liberty (1859), and his

Explanatory Notes 427

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Autobiography (1873), as well as political essays and studies of political
economy. Carlyle: Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881), author of Sartor Resartus,
which argued for the spiritual regeneration of society, and Heroes and Hero-
Worship. He was an early hero for Adams, who owned a number of his books
including The French Revolution, Past and Present, and Sartor Resartus. The
last of these echoes throughout the Education.

33 Karl Marx: (1818–83), German-born founder of communism who studied
law, history, and philosophy in Bonn and Berlin; author of the Communist
Manifesto (1848); settled in London in 1849 where he studied economics.
His major work, Das Kapital, appeared in 1867 as an extended critique of
the capitalist system.

“Were half the power . . . no need of arsenals or forts”: Longfellow, ‘The Arsenal
at Springfield’, published in Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems in 1845.

34 Octavius Frothingham: (1822–95), a Unitarian minister who later became an
independent clergyman and author of Transcendentalism in New England.

35 “Hosea Biglow”: protagonist of James Russell Lowell’s Biglow Papers (first
series 1847), whose rhymed ‘Epistles’ satirized the war with Mexico and
the evils of slavery.

37 yellow-legs: American shore-birds.

40 brother Charles: Charles Francis Adams, jun. (1835–1915), attended the
Boston Latin School and went on to Harvard and then read law. He fought
in the Civil War, becoming a colonel of the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, a
black regiment. After the war he married; following a lengthy European
honeymoon, he returned to develop a specialty in railroads and their re-
form. By 1869 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Board of Railroad
Commissioners, becoming chair in 1872. Within six years, he became chair
of government directors of the Union Pacific Railroad and by 1884, presid-
ent of the railroad. Within six and a half years, his railroad career ended as
the company faced financial crises. Adams, however, remained an investor
and speculator, making enormous fortunes in real estate, largely bought in
Kansas City. He developed a strong interest in history and became the first
president of the Massachusetts Historical Society and the author of several
minor histories of Massachusetts communities. His biography of his father
appeared in 1900; his autobiography in 1916.

Henry Higginson: (1834–1919), became a leading Boston financier and
philanthropist; founder of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1881.

41 Turenne: (1611–75), a noted soldier who fought under Richelieu and
Mazarin and in 1660 became marshal general of France.

Henri IV: (1553–1610), King of Navarre, became King of France in 1589
and did much to reconcile Catholic and Protestant factions. He was assas-
sinated in 1610.

Fugitive Slave Law: Passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law pro-
vided for exclusive federal jurisdiction over runaway slaves. The day after

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its passage, the young Henry Adams witnessed a Boston mob trying to save
a runaway slave; they failed and he was taken to the wharf by a battalion of
US soldiers. The crowd was held back by the state militia.

Stamp Act: This stamp tax of 1765 required revenue stamps to be attached
to all documents and newspapers and was the first act of parliament to tax
American commodities directly for revenue purposes. It became one of the
major American grievances leading to the American Revolution.

Tea Tax: This levied an import duty on tea and led to the Boston Tea Party
of 1773 when demonstrators, disguised as Indians, dumped three tea car-
goes into the harbour.

Boston Massacre: occurred on 5 March 1770 when British soldiers fired on
a mob, killing four and wounding others. Captain Preston and the soldiers
were charged with murder. John Adams was asked to defend them and ob-
tained an acquittal from the jury. These episodes helped to precipitate the
American Revolution.

42 unfinished square marble shaft: the Washington monument, begun in 1848
but not completed until 1884.

43 Johnson blood: Refers to Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775–1852), who mar-
ried John Quincy Adams. She was Henry Adams’s grandmother.

Clay: Henry Clay (1772–1852), Virginia-born statesman who moved to
Kentucky, a leading figure in the passage of the Missouri Compromise of
1820 and the Compromise of 1850. A moderate on the slavery issue and re-
membered for his remark, ‘I had rather be right than be President.’

Calhoun: John Caldwell Calhoun (1782–1850), South Carolina statesman
who served as vice-president under President John Quincy Adams and a
leading political philosopher for the Southern states. Advocated dual sov-
ereignty. Adams’s recollection is wrong: Calhoun died late in March, two
months before Adams arrived in Washington.

Conklinian: Roscoe Conkling (1829–88), a senator from New York and a
Republican machine politician, flamboyant in manner and an eloquent
speaker, who was disliked by Adams for his opposition to civil-service re-
form. Later, one of the sources of Adams’s satire of Senator Ratcliffe in his
successful 1880 novel, Democracy.

44 President Taylor: Zachary Taylor (1784–1850), visited by Henry Adams
and his father on 4 June 1850, one month before the president’s death.
Confirming the account of the shabby condition of the White House is the
diary of Charles Francis Adams, Henry Adams’s father.

Free Soil Party: the Free Soil ticket of Martin van Buren and Charles
Francis Adams did not win a single state but their candidacies split the
Democratic ticket in New York, giving the state’s electoral vote to the Whig
candidate, General Zachary Taylor.

Nathaniel Gorham: (1738–96), president of the Continental congress, 1786
and the grandfather of Henry Adams’s mother on her mother’s side.

Explanatory Notes 429

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44 Mount Vernon: George Washington’s Virginia estate, which has become a
national monument; Adams used it fictionally in his 1880 novel, Demo-
cracy.

45 John Marshall: (1755–1835), chief justice of the Supreme Court, 1801–35,
who fashioned its role in interpreting the constitution and established the
doctrine of judicial review.

46 Peter Harvey: (1810–77), a wealthy Boston merchant who served in both
houses of the Massachusetts legislature and was a close friend of Daniel
Webster.

Thurlow Weed: (1797–1882), publisher of the Albany Journal, 1830–63, be-
coming one of the most influential anti-slavery editors and politicians in
the Northeast.

Henry Wilson . . . Anson Burlingame: Henry Wilson: (1812–75), abolitionist
and US senator from Massachusetts; vice-president (1873–5), during
Grant’s second term. John B. Alley: (1817–96), congressman from
Massachusetts, 1859–67. Anson Burlingame: (1820–70), congressman from
Massachusetts, 1855–61, minister to China, 1861–7.

George S. Boutwell: (1818–1905), governor of Massachusetts, 1851–2, then
secretary of the treasury under Grant, 1869–73.

47 Tammany Hall: Tammany societies (named for a Delaware Indian chief
who supposedly welcomed William Penn) were patriotic societies that
flourished during the American Revolution. Only the New York society
lasted, with headquarters at Tammany Hall. It influenced the Democratic
party and represented party machinery and political corruption.

Caleb Cushing: (1800–79), first a Whig then a Democrat, who was later
nominated by Grant to become chief justice; his previous record prevented
his confirmation, however.

50 no one took Harvard College seriously: the Adamses consistently criticized
the intellectual life of Harvard College, although one of them usually
served on the examining committees or Board of Overseers.

51 Alexander Agassiz: (1835–1910), son of the great Swiss geologist who
taught at Harvard, later a successful geologist and mining engineer and
author of Coral Reefs of the Tropical Pacific (1903).

Phillips Brooks: (1835

Mary in the 19th century

Wild air, world-mothering air,
Nestling me everywhere,
That each eyelash or hair
Girdles; goes home betwixt
The fleeciest, frailest-flixed
Snowflake; that’s fairly mixed
With, riddles, and is rife
In every least thing’s life;
This needful, never spent,
And nursing element;
My more than meat and drink,
My meal at every wink;
This air, which, by life’s law,
My lung must draw and draw
Now but to breathe its praise,
Minds me in many ways
Of her who not only
Gave God’s infinity
Dwindled to infancy
Welcome in womb and breast,
Birth, milk, and all the rest
But mothers each new grace
That does now reach our race—
Mary Immaculate,
Merely a woman, yet
Whose presence, power is
Great as no goddess’s
Was deemèd, dreamèd; who

The Blessed Virgin compared to the Air we Breathe

 T H A T N A T U R E I S A H E R A C L I T E A N F I …  T H E C A G E D S K Y L A R K 

denisedupont
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This one work has to do—
Let all God’s glory through,
God’s glory which would go
Through her and from her flow
Off, and no way but so.

I say that we are wound
With mercy round and round
As if with air: the same
Is Mary, more by name.
She, wild web, wondrous robe,
Mantles the guilty globe,
Since God has let dispense
Her prayers his providence:
Nay, more than almoner,
The sweet alms’ self is her
And men are meant to share
Her life as life does air.

If I have understood,
She holds high motherhood
Towards all our ghostly good
And plays in grace her part
About man’s beating heart,
Laying, like air’s fine flood,
The deathdance in his blood;
Yet no part but what will
Be Christ our Saviour still.
Of her flesh he took flesh:
He does take fresh and fresh,
Though much the mystery how,
Not flesh but spirit now
And makes, O marvellous!
New Nazareths in us,
Where she shall yet conceive
Him morning noon and eve;

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Him, morning, noon, and eve;
New Bethlems, and he born
There, evening, noon, and morn

Bethlem or Nazareth,
Men here may draw like breath
More Christ and baffle death;
Who, born so, comes to be
New self and nobler me
In each one and each one
More makes, when all is done,
Both God’s and Mary’s Son.

Again, look overhead
How air is azurèd;
O how! nay do but stand
Where you can lift your hand
Skywards: rich, rich it laps
Round the four fingergaps.
Yet such a sapphire-shot,
Charged, steepèd sky will not
Stain light.   Yea, mark you this:
It does no prejudice.
The glass-blue days are those
When every colour glows,
Each shape and shadow shows.
Blue be it: this blue heaven
The seven or seven times seven
Hued sunbeam will transmit
Perfect, not alter it.
Or if there does some soft,
On things aloof, aloft,
Bloom breathe, that one breath more
Earth is the fairer for.
Whereas did air not make
This bath of blue and slake
Hi fi th ld h k

His fire, the sun would shake,
A blear and blinding ball
With blackness bound, and all

The thick stars round him roll
Flashing like flecks of coal,
Quartz-fret, or sparks of salt,
In grimy vasty vault.
So God was god of old:
A mother came to mould
Those limbs like ours which are
What must make our daystar
Much dearer to mankind;
Whose glory bare would blind
Or less would win man’s mind.
Through her we may see him
Made sweeter, not made dim,
And her hand leaves his light
Sifted to suit our sight.

Be thou then, thou dear
Mother, my atmosphere;
To wend and meet no sin;
Above me, round me lie
Fronting my froward eye
With sweet and scarless sky;
Stir in my ears, speak there
Of God’s love, O live air,
Of patience, penance, prayer:
World-mothering air, air wild,
Wound with thee, in thee isled,
Fold home, fast fold thy child.

Study Guide
Print this poem

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Mary in the 19th century

CHAPTER XXV

the dynamo and the virgin (1900)

Until the Great Exposition of 1900* closed its doors in November,
Adams haunted it, aching to absorb knowledge, and helpless to find it.

He would have liked to know how much of it could have been grasped

by the best-informed man in the world. While he was thus meditating

chaos, Langley came by, and showed it to him. At Langley’s behest, the

Exhibition dropped its superfluous rags and stripped itself to the skin,

for Langley knew what to study, and why, and how; while Adams

might as well have stood outside in the night, staring at the Milky Way.

Yet Langley said nothing new, and taught nothing that one might not

have learned from Lord Bacon,* three hundred years before; but
though one should have known the “Advancement of Science” as well

as one knew the “Comedy of Errors,”* the literary knowledge counted
for nothing until some teacher should show how to apply it. Bacon

took a vast deal of trouble in teaching King James I and his subjects,

American or other, towards the year 1620, that true science was the de-
velopment or economy of forces; yet an elderly American in 1900 knew
neither the formula nor the forces; or even so much as to say to himself

that his historical business in the Exposition concerned only the

economies or developments of force since 1893, when he began the
study at Chicago.

Nothing in education is so astonishing as the amount of ignorance it

accumulates in the form of inert facts. Adams had looked at most of the

accumulations of art in the storehouses called Art Museums; yet he

did not know how to look at the art exhibits of 1900. He had studied
Karl Marx and his doctrines of history with profound attention, yet he

could not apply them at Paris. Langley, with the ease of a great master

of experiment, threw out of the field every exhibit that did not reveal a

new application of force, and naturally threw out, to begin with, al-

most the whole art exhibit. Equally, he ignored almost the whole

industrial exhibit. He led his pupil directly to the forces. His chief in-

terest was in new motors to make his airship feasible, and he taught

Adams the astonishing complexities of the new Daimler* motor, and
of the automobile, which, since 1893, had become a nightmare at a
hundred kilometres an hour, almost as destructive as the electric tram

Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams : Education of Henry Adams, edited by Ira Nadel,
Oxford University Press USA – OSO, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/southernmethodist/detail.action?docID=737338.
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which was only ten years older; and threatening to become as terrible

as the locomotive steam-engine itself, which was almost exactly

Adams’s own age.

Then he showed his scholar the great hall of dynamos,* and ex-
plained how little he knew about electricity or force of any kind, even

of his own special sun, which spouted heat in inconceivable volume,

but which, as far as he knew, might spout less or more, at any time, for

all the certainty he felt in it. To him, the dynamo itself was but an in-

genious channel for conveying somewhere the heat latent in a few tons

of poor coal hidden in a dirty engine-house carefully kept out of sight;

but to Adams the dynamo became a symbol of infinity. As he grew ac-

customed to the great gallery of machines, he began to feel the forty-

foot dynamos as a moral force, much as the early Christians felt the

Cross. The planet itself seemed less impressive, in its old-fashioned,

deliberate, annual or daily revolution, than this huge wheel, re-

volving within arm’s-length at some vertiginous speed, and barely

murmuring—scarcely humming an audible warning to stand a hair’s-

breadth further for respect of power—while it would not wake the

baby lying close against its frame. Before the end, one began to pray

to it; inherited instinct taught the natural expression of man before

silent and infinite force. Among the thousand symbols of ultimate

energy, the dynamo was not so human as some, but it was the most

expressive.

Yet the dynamo, next to the steam-engine, was the most familiar of

exhibits. For Adams’s objects its value lay chiefly in its occult mechan-

ism. Between the dynamo in the gallery of machines and the engine-

house outside, the break of continuity amounted to abysmal fracture

for a historian’s objects. No more relation could he discover between

the steam and the electric current than between the Cross and the

cathedral. The forces were interchangeable if not reversible, but he

could see only an absolute fiat in electricity as in faith. Langley could
not help him. Indeed, Langley seemed to be worried by the same

trouble, for he constantly repeated that the new forces were anarchical,

and especially that he was not responsible for the new rays, that were

little short of parricidal in their wicked spirit towards science. His own

rays,* with which he had doubled the solar spectrum, were altogether
harmless and beneficent; but Radium denied its God—or, what was to

Langley the same thing, denied the truths of his Science. The force

was wholly new.

318 The Education of Henry Adams

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A historian who asked only to learn enough to be as futile as Langley

or Kelvin,* made rapid progress under this teaching, and mixed him-
self up in the tangle of ideas until he achieved a sort of Paradise of

ignorance vastly consoling to his fatigued senses. He wrapped himself

in vibrations and rays which were new, and he would have hugged

Marconi* and Branly* had he met them, as he hugged the dynamo;
while he lost his arithmetic in trying to figure out the equation between

the discoveries and the economies of force. The economies, like the

discoveries, were absolute, supersensual, occult; incapable of expres-

sion in horse-power. What mathematical equivalent could he suggest

as the value of a Branly coherer? Frozen air, or the electric furnace, had

some scale of measurement, no doubt, if somebody could invent a

thermometer adequate to the purpose; but X-rays* had played no part
whatever in man’s consciousness, and the atom itself had figured only

as a fiction of thought. In these seven years man had translated himself

into a new universe which had no common scale of measurement with

the old. He had entered a supersensual world, in which he could meas-

ure nothing except by chance collisions of movements imperceptible

to his senses, perhaps even imperceptible to his instruments, but per-

ceptible to each other, and so to some known ray at the end of the scale.

Langley seemed prepared for anything, even for an indeterminable

number of universes interfused—physics stark mad in metaphysics.

Historians undertake to arrange sequences,—called stories, or

histories—assuming in silence a relation of cause and effect. These as-

sumptions, hidden in the depths of dusty libraries, have been astound-

ing, but commonly unconscious and childlike; so much so, that if any

captious critic were to drag them to light, historians would probably

reply, with one voice, that they had never supposed themselves re-

quired to know what they were talking about. Adams, for one, had

toiled in vain to find out what he meant. He had even published a

dozen volumes of American history for no other purpose than to sat-

isfy himself whether, by the severest process of stating, with the least

possible comment, such facts as seemed sure, in such order as seemed

rigorously consequent, he could fix for a familiar moment a necessary

sequence of human movement. The result had satisfied him as little as

at Harvard College. Where he saw sequence, other men saw something

quite different, and no one saw the same unit of measure. He cared

little about his experiments and less about his statesmen, who seemed

to him quite as ignorant as himself and, as a rule, no more honest; but

The Dynamo and the Virgin (1900) 319

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he insisted on a relation of sequence, and if he could not reach it by one

method, he would try as many methods as science knew. Satisfied that

the sequence of men led to nothing and that the sequence of their soci-

ety could lead no further, while the mere sequence of time was arti-

ficial, and the sequence of thought was chaos, he turned at last to the

sequence of force; and thus it happened that, after ten years’ pursuit,

he found himself lying in the Gallery of Machines at the Great

Exposition of 1900, with his historical neck broken by the sudden ir-
ruption of forces totally new.

Since no one else showed much concern, an elderly person without

other cares had no need to betray alarm. The year 1900 was not the first
to upset schoolmasters. Copernicus* and Galileo* had broken many
professorial necks about 1600; Columbus had stood the world on its
head towards 1500; but the nearest approach to the revolution of 1900
was that of 310, when Constantine* set up the Cross. The rays that
Langley disowned, as well as those which he fathered, were occult,

supersensual, irrational; they were a revelation of mysterious energy

like that of the Cross; they were what, in terms of mediaeval science,

were called immediate modes of the divine substance.

The historian was thus reduced to his last resources. Clearly if he

was bound to reduce all these forces to a common value, this common

value could have no measure but that of their attraction on his own

mind. He must treat them as they had been felt; as convertible, re-

versible, interchangeable attractions on thought. He made up his mind

to venture it; he would risk translating rays into faith. Such a reversible

process would vastly amuse a chemist, but the chemist could not deny

that he, or some of his fellow physicists, could feel the force of both.

When Adams was a boy in Boston, the best chemist in the place had

probably never heard of Venus except by way of scandal,* or of the
Virgin except as idolatry; neither had he heard of dynamos or auto-

mobiles or radium; yet his mind was ready to feel the force of all,

though the rays were unborn and the women were dead.

Here opened another totally new education, which promised to be

by far the most hazardous of all. The knife-edge along which he must

crawl, like Sir Lancelot* in the twelfth century, divided two kingdoms
of force which had nothing in common but attraction. They were as

different as a magnet is from gravitation, supposing one knew what a

magnet was, or gravitation, or love. The force of the Virgin was still felt

at Lourdes,* and seemed to be as potent as X-rays; but in America

320 The Education of Henry Adams

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neither Venus nor Virgin ever had value as force—at most as senti-

ment. No American had ever been truly afraid of either.

This problem in dynamics gravely perplexed an American his-

torian. The Woman had once been supreme; in France she still seemed

potent, not merely as a sentiment, but as a force. Why was she un-

known in America? For evidently America was ashamed of her, and

she was ashamed of herself, otherwise they would not have strewn fig-

leaves so profusely all over her. When she was a true force, she was

ignorant of fig-leaves, but the monthly-magazine-made American

female had not a feature that would have been recognized by Adam.

The trait was notorious, and often humorous, but anyone brought up

among Puritans knew that sex was sin. In any previous age, sex was

strength. Neither art nor beauty was needed. Everyone, even among

Puritans, knew that neither Diana of the Ephesians* nor any of the
Oriental goddesses was worshipped for her beauty. She was goddess

because of her force; she was the animated dynamo; she was reproduc-

tion—the greatest and most mysterious of all energies; all she needed

was to be fecund. Singularly enough, not one of Adams’s many schools

of education had ever drawn his attention to the opening lines of

Lucretius, though they were perhaps the finest in all Latin literature,

where the poet invoked Venus exactly as Dante invoked the Virgin:—

“Quae quoniam rerum naturam sola gubernas.”*

The Venus of Epicurean philosophy survived in the Virgin of the

Schools:—

“Donna, sei tanto grande, e tanto vali,

Che qual vuol grazia, e a te non ricorre,

Sua disianza vuol volar senz’ ali.”*

All this was to American thought as though it had never existed. The

true American knew something of the facts, but nothing of the feel-

ings; he read the letter, but he never felt the law. Before this historical

chasm, a mind like that of Adams felt itself helpless; he turned from

the Virgin to the Dynamo as though he were a Branly coherer. On one

side, at the Louvre and at Chartres,* as he knew by the record of work
actually done and still before his eyes, was the highest energy ever

known to man, the creator of four-fifths of his noblest art, exercising

vastly more attraction over the human mind than all the steam-engines

and dynamos ever dreamed of; and yet this energy was unknown to the

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American mind. An American Virgin would never dare command; an

American Venus would never dare exist.

The question, which to any plain American of the nineteenth cen-

tury seemed as remote as it did to Adams, drew him almost violently to

study, once it was posed; and on this point Langleys were as useless as

though they were Herbert Spencers* or dynamos. The idea survived
only as art. There one turned as naturally as though the artist were

himself a woman. Adams began to ponder, asking himself whether he

knew of any American artist who had ever insisted on the power of sex,

as every classic had always done; but he could think only of Walt

Whitman;* Bret Harte, as far as the magazines would let him venture;
and one or two painters, for the flesh-tones. All the rest had used sex

for sentiment, never for force; to them, Eve was a tender flower, and

Herodias an unfeminine horror. American art, like the American lan-

guage and American education, was as far as possible sexless.* Society
regarded this victory over sex as its greatest triumph, and the historian

readily admitted it, since the moral issue, for the moment, did not

concern one who was studying the relations of unmoral force. He

cared nothing for the sex of the dynamo until he could measure its

energy.

Vaguely seeking a clue, he wandered through the art exhibit, and, in

his stroll, stopped almost every day before St. Gaudens’s General

Sherman,* which had been given the central post of honor. St.
Gaudens himself was in Paris, putting on the work his usual intermin-

able last touches, and listening to the usual contradictory suggestions

of brother sculptors. Of all the American artists who gave to American

art whatever life it breathed in the seventies, St. Gaudens was perhaps

the most sympathetic, but certainly the most inarticulate. General

Grant or Don Cameron had scarcely less instinct of rhetoric than he.

All the others—the Hunts, Richardson, John La Farge, Stanford

White—were exuberant; only St. Gaudens could never discuss or di-

late on an emotion, or suggest artistic arguments for giving to his work

the forms that he felt. He never laid down the law, or affected the

despot, or became brutalized like Whistler by the brutalities of his

world. He required no incense; he was no egoist; his simplicity of

thought was excessive; he could not imitate, or give any form but his

own to the creations of his hand. No one felt more strongly than he the

strength of other men, but the idea that they could affect him never

stirred an image in his mind.

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This summer his health was poor and his spirits were low. For such

a temper, Adams was not the best companion, since his own gaiety was

not folle,* but he risked going now and then to the studio on Mont
Parnasse to draw him out for a stroll in the Bois de Boulogne, or dinner

as pleased his moods, and in return St. Gaudens sometimes let Adams

go about in his company.

Once St. Gaudens took him down to Amiens, with a party of

Frenchmen, to see the cathedral. Not until they found themselves ac-

tually studying the sculpture of the western portal, did it dawn on

Adams’s mind that, for his purposes, St. Gaudens on that spot had

more interest to him than the cathedral itself. Great men before great

monuments express great truths, provided they are not taken too

solemnly. Adams never tired of quoting the supreme phrase of his idol

Gibbon, before the Gothic cathedrals: “I darted a contemptuous look

on the stately monuments of superstition.”* Even in the footnotes of
his history, Gibbon had never inserted a bit of humor more human

than this, and one would have paid largely for a photograph of the fat

little historian, on the background of Notre Dame of Amiens, trying to

persuade his readers—perhaps himself—that he was darting a con-

temptuous look on the stately monument, for which he felt in fact the

respect which every man of his vast study and active mind always feels

before objects worthy of it; but besides the humor, one felt also the re-

lation. Gibbon ignored the Virgin, because in 1789 religious monu-
ments were out of fashion. In 1900 his remark sounded fresh and
simple as the green fields to ears that had heard a hundred years of

other remarks, mostly no more fresh and certainly less simple.

Without malice, one might find it more instructive than a whole lec-

ture of Ruskin. One sees what one brings, and at that moment Gibbon

brought the French Revolution. Ruskin brought reaction against the

Revolution. St. Gaudens had passed beyond all. He liked the stately

monuments much more than he liked Gibbon or Ruskin; he loved

their dignity; their unity; their scale; their lines; their lights and

shadows; their decorative sculpture; but he was even less conscious

than they of the force that created it all—the Virgin, the Woman—by

whose genius “the stately monuments of superstition” were built,

through which she was expressed. He would have seen more meaning

in Isis* with the cow’s horns, at Edfoo, who expressed the same
thought. The art remained, but the energy was lost even upon the

artist.

The Dynamo and the Virgin (1900) 323

Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams : Education of Henry Adams, edited by Ira Nadel,
Oxford University Press USA – OSO, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/southernmethodist/detail.action?docID=737338.
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Yet in mind and person St. Gaudens was a survival of the 1500’s; he
bore the stamp of the Renaissance, and should have carried an image of

the Virgin round his neck, or stuck in his hat, like Louis XI.* In mere
time he was a lost soul that had strayed by chance into the twentieth

century, and forgotten where it came from. He writhed and cursed at

his ignorance, much as Adams did at his own, but in the opposite sense.

St. Gaudens was a child of Benvenuto Cellini,* smothered in an
American cradle. Adams was a quintessence of Boston, devoured by

curiosity to think like Benvenuto. St. Gaudens’s art was starved from

birth, and Adams’s instinct was blighted from babyhood. Each had but

half of a nature, and when they came together before the Virgin of

Amiens they ought both to have felt in her the force that made them

one; but it was not so. To Adams she became more than ever a channel

of force; to St. Gaudens she remained as before a channel of taste.

For a symbol of power, St. Gaudens instinctively preferred the

horse, as was plain in his horse and Victory of the Sherman monu-

ment. Doubtless Sherman also felt it so. The attitude was so American

that, for at least forty years, Adams had never realized that any other

could be in sound taste. How many years had he taken to admit a no-

tion of what Michael Angelo and Rubens were driving at? He could

not say; but he knew that only since 1895 had he begun to feel the
Virgin or Venus as force, and not everywhere even so. At Chartres—

perhaps at Lourdes—possibly at Cnidos* if one could still find there
the divinely naked Aphrodite of Praxiteles—but otherwise one must

look for force to the goddesses of Indian mythology. The idea died out

long ago in the German and English stock. St. Gaudens at Amiens was

hardly less sensitive to the force of the female energy than Matthew

Arnold at the Grande Chartreuse.* Neither of them felt goddesses as
power—only as reflected emotion, human expression, beauty, purity,

taste, scarcely even as sympathy. They felt a railway train as power; yet

they, and all other artists, constantly complained that the power em-

bodied in a railway train could never be embodied in art. All the steam

in the world could not, like the Virgin, build Chartres.

Yet in mechanics, whatever the mechanicians might think, both en-

ergies acted as interchangeable forces on man, and by action on man all

known force may be measured. Indeed, few men of science measured

force in any other way. After once admitting that a straight line was the

shortest distance between two points, no serious mathematician cared

to deny anything that suited his convenience, and rejected no symbol,

324 The Education of Henry Adams

Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams : Education of Henry Adams, edited by Ira Nadel,
Oxford University Press USA – OSO, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/southernmethodist/detail.action?docID=737338.
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unproved or unproveable, that helped him to accomplish work. The

symbol was force, as a compass-needle or a triangle was force, as the

mechanist might prove by losing it, and nothing could be gained by ig-

noring their value. Symbol or energy, the Virgin had acted as the great-

est force the Western world ever felt, and had drawn man’s activities to

herself more strongly than any other power, natural or supernatural,

had ever done; the historian’s business was to follow the track of the

energy; to find where it came from and where it went to; its complex

source and shifting channels; its values, equivalents, conversions. It

could scarcely be more complex than radium; it could hardly be de-

flected, diverted, polarized, absorbed more perplexingly than other

radiant matter. Adams knew nothing about any of them, but as a math-

ematical problem of influence on human progress, though all were oc-

cult, all reacted on his mind, and he rather inclined to think the Virgin

easiest to handle.

The pursuit turned out to be long and tortuous, leading at last into

the vast forests of scholastic science. From Zeno* to Descartes, hand in
hand with Thomas Aquinas,* Montaigne,* and Pascal,* one stumbled
as stupidly as though one were still a German student of 1860. Only
with the instinct of despair could one force one’s self into this old

thicket of ignorance after having been repulsed at a score of entrances

more promising and more popular. Thus far, no path had led any-

where, unless perhaps to an exceedingly modest living. Forty-five

years of study had proved to be quite futile for the pursuit of power;

one controlled no more force in 1900 than in 1850, although the
amount of force controlled by society had enormously increased. The

secret of education still hid itself somewhere behind ignorance, and

one fumbled over it as feebly as ever. In such labyrinths, the staff is a

force almost more necessary than the legs; the pen becomes a sort of

blind-man’s dog, to keep him from falling into the gutters. The pen

works for itself, and acts like a hand, modelling the plastic material

over and over again to the form that suits it best. The form is never ar-

bitrary, but is a sort of growth like crystallization, as any artist knows

too well; for often the pencil or pen runs into side-paths and shape-

lessness, loses its relations, stops or is bogged. Then it has to return on

its trail, and recover, if it can, its line of force. The result of a year’s

work depends more on what is struck out than on what is left in; on the

sequence of the main lines of thought, than on their play or variety.

Compelled once more to lean heavily on this support, Adams covered

The Dynamo and the Virgin (1900) 325

Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams : Education of Henry Adams, edited by Ira Nadel,
Oxford University Press USA – OSO, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/southernmethodist/detail.action?docID=737338.
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more thousands of pages* with figures as formal as though they were
algebra, laboriously striking out, altering, burning, experimenting,

until the year had expired, the Exposition had long been closed, and

winter drawing to its end, before he sailed from Cherbourg, on January

19, 1901, for home.

326 The Education of Henry Adams

Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams : Education of Henry Adams, edited by Ira Nadel,
Oxford University Press USA – OSO, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/southernmethodist/detail.action?docID=737338.
Created from southernmethodist on 2021-12-14 02:39:12.

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