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LET’S GET THAT BUSINESS OF YOURS DOWN ON PAPER…



A good business plan is essential for your Start Up Loan application. The process of completing it helps you to validate that your business idea is going to stack up. We’re here to guide you through the Start Up Loan application process starting with this business plan template, so you can show us why your business is going to be a success!

This document is designed to help you create a business plan that is relevant for your application for Start Up Loan funding through Virgin StartUp.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD BUSINESS PLAN?

Check out our diagram on what makes up a good business plan.

We are big believers in doing as much planning and research as possible before starting your business – knowing the market and who your customers are will dramatically increase your chances of success.

The idea, your ability to launch and operate the business, and the logistics, are all very important considerations but first you need to demonstrate that there are customers for your business and that you have access to this market.

WHERE DO YOU START?

PART 1: YOUR BUSINESS PLAN

BEFORE YOU START

Details about you and your business.

1

YOUR BUSINESS IDEA

10%

Once you have your initial idea it’s important to build up each layer to inform the next. See steps 3 – 6. As you research your market and customers you should refine and improve your idea to make sure it is something your customers want.

2

YOU

10%

We want to know all about you, the brains behind the idea. You’ll be responsible for driving your business forward so it’s important that we understand a bit more about your past experience and what gets you out of bed in the morning.

3

MARKET RESEARCH

20%

Market Research forms the base of a good business plan. You have to know what is happening in your market to make sure you understand current trends and what your competitors are doing.

4

CUSTOMER RESEARCH

30%

Once you have established where your business will sit in the larger market, it’s time to think more about your customers. This is the most important part of the plan and should be given the most attention. It’s really important that you are able to present your own information that you have gathered yourself directly from your customers.

5

MARKETING

20%

Now that you know who your customers are you can use that information to make a marketing plan that will help you launch and grow your business.

6

OPERATIONS

10%

Premises, staff, suppliers, rules and regulations – Now that you know all you can about your market and customers you can make an operational plan about how you’re going to pull it altogether.

PART 2: GUIDE TO COMPLETING

YOUR BUSINESS PLAN

For each of the 6 sections of your business plan noted above there is a handy guide jam-packed with tips, links and examples. As you work your way through Your Business Plan make sure you benefit from all this extra advice by selecting ‘Click here for more guidance’ to link you with the relevant advice for that section. You’ll spot this link throughout the plan so make sure you use it!

Remember! Completing a business plan for your business is a process of exploration that helps you to look objectively at your idea. A good business is the product of refining of the initial idea over time using what you learn through your research and experience with your customers. Listening to and learning from the people who’ll be paying for your product or service is the key to creating a successful business! Good Luck!




BEFORE YOU START

We need to grab a few details about YOU and YOUR BUSINESS

Your Name

Your Business Name

Describe your business in one sentence

Your Business Partner

(if also applying for a Start Up Loan)

Loan Amount Requested

(Minimum £500 – Maximum £25,000)

To be Repaid over

(months)

Choose an item.

Business Website

Business Social Media

Facebook:

@

Instagram:

@

Twitter:

@

Snapchat:

@

Other:

Your Living Costs

1. How do you currently pay for them?

2. How will you pay for them when the business launches?

Choose an item.

Contingency Plan

As this is a personal loan we must consider how you would be able to make the loan repayments and meet your living costs if the business was to fail or generate less income than forecast. Please describe in detail how you would do this referencing your living costs, loan repayments, and earnings ability.



1. YOUR BUSINESS IDEA
Click here for more guidance

What will your business do and what is the opportunity? Describe, in detail, the products and/or services your business will be selling, what channels you will use to sell them and who you will sell them to. What does your brand stand for? What is the business philosophy and values? Include any pictures, drawings, or links that help bring this to life.

Type your answer here


2. YOU AND WHY YOU’RE STARTING
Click here for more guidance

Tell us about yourself, where the idea came from, and how your knowledge and experience will help to make the business a success.

Type your answer here


3. MARKET RESEARCH
Click here for more guidance

3.1 The Big Picture


Describe the wider market you are planning to operate in and identify where your company will sit in this landscape, as well as any key statistics or trends to support why you have chosen this area of the market.

Type your answer here


3.2 Competitors

No matter how good your idea is, there will always be other businesses fighting for the same customers – either on price or features or quality. You need to make sure you understand your competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.

COMPETITOR 1


Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

COMPETITOR 2

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

COMPETITOR 3

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

COMPETITOR 4

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here


4. CUSTOMER RESEARCH
Click here for more guidance

This is perhaps the most important part of planning and launching your business – Validating your idea by talking directly to the people that will be buying your goods or services is the only way to ensure you are solving a problem the right way, and that there are customers willing to pay you to do it.

4.1 Test Trading

If you have undertaken any Test Trading – Describe what test/existing trading you have carried out so far. How long have you been doing this for and where? How much have you sold – provide a weekly/monthly breakdown of sales. Based on this trading what insights have you gained into your business or customers and how will you be implementing these into your business going forward? If you haven’t undertaken any test trading but are in a position to start, give it a go and come back and readdress this section.

Type your answer here


4.1.2 Direct Research |
Click here for more guidance

If you have not undertaken any test trading describe what research you have done with your potential customers, what the findings of the research were, and how you have used this to validate your idea.

Type your answer here


4.2 Evidence of Demand |
Click here for more guidance

Describe how you have you used your customer research or test trading to build up a picture of your sales forecast.

Type your answer here


5. MARKETING
Click here for more guidance



5.1 Customer Profile

Based on your market and customer research/test trading you should now have built up a good idea of the different types of customer your business will appeal to and how to reach them with your marketing activity.

CUSTOMER PROFILE 1

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

CUSTOMER PROFILE 2

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

CUSTOMER PROFILE 3

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

CUSTOMER PROFILE 4

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here




5.2 Route to Market |
Click here for more guidance

Whether through a personal connection, an existing network of contacts, an audience you have built up on social media, or sign-ups you have collected on your website, it’s important to demonstrate you have access to the market you plan to sell to – Who are your first customers going to be and why have you chosen this as your route to market?

Type your answer here


5.3 Launch Marketing |
Click here for more guidance

How are you planning to get the word out that you’re open for business? For each channel or medium you’re planning to use explain how and why you’re going to use it – this should be relevant to the customers you have identified in your customer profile.

Type your answer here


6. OPERATIONS
Click here for more guidance


6.1 Premises

Where will your business operate from? If your business premises plays an important part in your marketing/attracting customers (shops, restaurants etc.…) you will need to have a specific premises identified and explain why you have chosen this premises. Also explain any fit out costs that will be incurred.

If the business is less dependent on a specific location (operated from a readily available type of premises such as an office or industrial unit) you may not need to provide this but you should provide evidence of example properties that are currently available within your budget that suit your requirements.

Type your answer here



6.2 Staff |
Click here for more guidance

Are you planning to employ any staff in the first 12 months of trading? If so, make a list of them here, what their role will be, when they will start, how many hours per week they will work and what they will be paid. You should ensure the timings are accurately reflected in the Cash Flow Forecast and that 10% is added to the cost to reflect employer’s national insurance.

Role/Job Title

What will the job title be or what will the functions be?

Hours per month/week or FT

How many hours per month will the employee work if part time? Or state if full time.

Cost

What will their monthly salary, or average monthly cost be? – This should include employer’s national insurance and any other employer’s costs. If they will be paid by the hour please include the hourly rate as well.

Month Start (1 – 12)

What month in year 1 will they start assuming the month you receive the loan is month 0.

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Role/Job Title

What will the job title be or what will the functions be?

Hours per month/week or FT

How many hours per month will the employee work if part time? Or state if full time.

Cost

What will their monthly salary, or average monthly cost, be? – This should include employer’s national insurance and any other employer’s costs. If they will be paid by the hour please include the hourly rate as well.

Month Start (1 – 12)

What month in year 1 will they start assuming the month you receive the loan is month 0.

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6.3 Suppliers and Third Parties |
Click here for more guidance

Make a list of all suppliers and major third parties your business will deal with throughout the first 12 months, what they will be supplying, and how they are relevant or connected to your business.

Type your answer here


6.4 Risks |
Click here for more guidance

What are the operational risks facing your business and what are you doing to mitigate the effect these will have on you and your customers.

Risk Factor

Impact on Business

Mitigation and Outcome

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6.6 Legal and Regulatory |
Click here for more guidance

What legislation and regulations apply to your business? Are there any specific licenses or qualifications required for you to operate the business either legally or for credibility? Please provide evidence of these.

Relevant Law, regulation, or qualification

Evidence of Compliance provided

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7. NEXT STEPS
Click here for more guidance

If your application is successful what are the next steps you need to take to successfully launch your business, when do you need to complete them by and what is the cost associated at each stage?

Need to do

By When

Associated Cost

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GUIDE TO COMPLETING YOUR PLAN

This is your how-to guide for completing your business plan for your Start Up Loan application. We have provided you with everything you need to complete a solid first draft of your business plan, there’s advice on what to write, research and attach as well as providing handy examples and links to online content.

This Guide should be read alongside the relevant section in the business plan and we’ve included helpful links between each section in the business plan and this guide to make this as easy as possible.

You really can’t go wrong if you follow this guide!

1. THE BUSINESS IDEA

2. YOU

3. MARKET RESEARCH

4. CUSTOMER RESEARCH

5. MARKETING

6. OPERATIONS

1. THE BUSINESS IDEA Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section provide a summary, which someone who has never met you, and knows nothing about your business, would be able to use to gain a basic understanding of your proposition. We recommend finalising this section after you have completed your customer research.

Check out some great content on our website to help you with this section

Common Business Plan Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

Business Plan: How to Write an Executive Summary

Business Planning – Six Entrepreneurs Pitch their Business Idea

Include a
summary
of:

· What your business will do.

· What products and/or services the business will sell.

· What the market opportunity is –Why is there a need for it? And how will you address this gap in the market?

· Your business’s philosophy and values, and tell us about what your brand stands for and who it appeals to.

· Who your customers are.

· What you have achieved so far – Website, social media following, test – trading, existing trading etc.…

· What the business structure will be.

· Any other directors or shareholders as well as what their input into the business will be and what shareholding they have if applicable.

Supplementary attachments to provide:

Management homework help

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ministry of Education

Saudi Electronic University

A picture containing text, outdoor, sign  Description automatically generated

المملكة العربية السعودية

وزارة التعليم

الجامعة السعودية الإلكترونية

College of Administrative and Financial Sciences

Assignment 3

Portfolio Management (FIN424)

Due Date: 04/30/2022 @ 23:59

Course Name: Portfolio Management

Student’s Name:

Course Code: FIN424

Student’s ID Number:

Semester: Second

CRN:

Academic Year:2021-22-2nd

For Instructor’s Use only

Instructor’s Name:

Students’ Grade:

Marks Obtained/Out of 10

Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low

General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY

· The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.

· Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.

· Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.

· Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.

· Late submission will NOT be accepted.

· Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.

· All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).

· Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.


Learning Outcomes:

CLO 1-Recognize the characteristics and risks of stocks, bonds, money market, and property investments.

CLO 3- Recognize the purpose and function of stock markets, interest rates, and international regulation.

CLO 5- Evaluate portfolio performance and risk.

Assignment Question(s) :

1. Compare the relative liquidity characteristics of direct versus indirect investment in real estate. Discuss three factors that affect the liquidity of both forms of investment. (3 Marks)

2. Adel retired from his firm. He has continued to hold his private retirement investments in a portfolio of common stocks and bonds. At the beginning of 2015, when he retired, his account was valued at SAR500,000. By the end of 2015, the value of his account was SAR530,500. Adel made no contributions to or withdrawals from the portfolio during 2015. What rate of return did Adel earn on his portfolio during 2015? (3 Marks)

3. Ahmad follows the automotive industry, including ABC Motor Company. Based on ABC’s 2020 annual report, Ahmad writes the following summary: ABC Motor Company has businesses in several countries around the world. ABC frequently has expenditures and receipts denominated in non-U.S. currencies, including purchases and sales of finished vehicles and production parts, subsidiary dividends, investments in non-U.S. operations, etc. ABC uses a variety of commodities in the production of motor vehicles, such as nonferrous metals, precious metals, ferrous alloys, energy, and plastics/resins. ABC typically purchases these commodities from outside suppliers. To finance its operations, ABC uses a variety of funding sources, such as commercial paper, term debt, and lines of credit from major commercial banks. The company invests any surplus cash in securities of various types and maturities, the value of which are subject to fluctuations in interest rates. ABC has a credit division, which provides financing to customers wanting to purchase ABC’s vehicles on credit. Overall, ABC faces several risks. To manage some of its risks, ABC invests in fixed-income instruments and derivative contracts. Some of these investments do not rely on a clearing house and instead effect settlement through the execution of bilateral agreements.

Based on the above discussion, recommend and justify the risk exposures that should be reported as part of an Enterprise Risk Management System for ABC Motor Company. (4 Marks)

Management homework help

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9




Executive Summary

The research project focuses on cultural subsystems such as religion, kinship, and recreation, as well as Mexico’s prevailing perspectives regarding time, change, and material issues. It also contrasts Mexico with the United States in terms of Hofstede’s findings on the four characteristics of culture: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism. The investigation discovers that Catholicism is the most widely practiced religion in Mexico and that kinship relationships are extremely important to many Mexicans. While bullfights are the most popular spectator sports in the country, popular sports like soccer, baseball, and jai-alai are also popular among locals. People in Mexico believe that time is limitless, and they are open to change and material circumstances since they value achievement. According to Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions, Mexico, unlike the United States, has a high power distance, a strong propensity for avoiding uncertainty, and is a collectivist society. Although both countries have high levels of masculinity, masculinity is evident in the United States at both the individual and national levels. As the U.S. manager of a Mexican business, these discrepancies have a substantial impact on my managerial activities.

Cultural Profile of Mexico

Mexico is the third-largest country in Latin America, behind Brazil and Argentina. It is located in the south of North America. Both extremes of poverty and prosperity characterize the country. Due to its industrial basis, immense natural resources, and large population, it remains one of Latin America’s most powerful economic and political forces. Around 18 percent of the population lives in extreme poverty, and school dropout rates, absenteeism, and grade repeat are major issues in poor regions (Icfdn, 2019). It has seen a series of economic booms as a result of these, which have resulted in a number of significant social advantages.

Cultural Subsystems

Religion, kinship, and recreation are the three main cultural subsystems in Mexico. Marriage, family, and gender roles and statuses are some of the other subsystems.

Religion

Mexico’s major religion is Catholic, and the indigenous people of Mexico gladly accept its ideas and traditions. According to research, the people of Mexico accepted Catholicism following the Spanish invasion, and Catholic beliefs still saturate everyday life in Mexico. Furthermore, the Catholic Church has played an important and significant role in Mexican history. For example, the Virgin of Guadalupe, the country’s patron saint, has a shrine in Mexico City that draws thousands of pilgrims from around the world. The Catholic calendar determines the most important religious festivals in Mexico, such as Easter. As a result, priests are the most important religious practitioners, officiating at events like as weddings, births, and conducting regular religious services.

Kinship

Despite the fact that family members in Mexico are occasionally dispersed owing to foreign migration, kinship relationships are extremely important to many Mexicans. As a result, people actively seek out opportunities to assemble, such as religious events. At baptismal ceremonies, Mexicans also develop strong fictive kinship relationships through godfathers and mothers. They think that strong familial links are the source of support, trust, and solidarity, thus they activate these networks to achieve certain goals. For example, many newlywed couples reside with the husband’s family until they can collect enough money to build their own home. Families in rural settings live near to one another and share common resources like land and water.

Recreation

Football, or soccer as we know it in the United States, is the most popular pastime in Mexico. Football is a sport that people of all ages enjoy, whether they play or simply watch. When significant games are held, practically the entire county comes out to support their side.

Other Subsystems

In Mexico, marriage, family, and gender roles are all significant cultural components. Mexicans have the freedom to choose their partners when it comes to marriage. There are, however, rules relating to class and race that influence and sometimes limit people’s marital choices. In Mexico, a marriage ceremony consists of two parts: legal registration and a religious wedding, which is usually performed by a priest due to Catholicism’s dominance. As a result, monogamy is the only type of marriage permitted. Marriage is a particularly important ceremony in Mexico because of the reverence for kinship ties. The nuclear family is the most prevalent family unit, and the extended nuclear family is especially essential for poor families.

Prevailing Attitudes

Time

Time is viewed as fluid, relaxed, and round in Mexico, and as a result, people assume that time is limitless.

Change

Mexicans are typically open to change, as their political participation demonstrates (Pastrana-Valls, 2017).

Material Factors

Mexico places a high value on success and performance, as well as material factors.

Hofstede’s Four Dimensions of Culture

Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions are the most widely used cultural metrics since they define the most fundamental characteristics of civilizations all over the world.

Power Distance

This refers to the extent to which the poor and less powerful elements of society tolerate inequities among people and expect those in power to gain agreement from the rest of the population without needing to justify their actions.


Mexico

Mexico is a hierarchical culture in which people accept a hierarchical system in which everyone has a position and hence no additional justification is required. As a result, the culture reflects fundamental inequities in which subordinates expect to be ruled by a benign autocrat.


United States

The United States is a country with a low power distance and a proclivity to minimize social status inequalities. Because the American people do not support inequity, they want their leaders to justify their need for compliance.

Uncertainty Avoidance

This dimension is defined by how comfortable society is with ambiguity and uncertainty, and so it alludes to the level of stress that the unknown future poses.


Mexico

Mexican culture is characterized by a strong desire to avoid uncertainty, and as a result, it adheres to strict rules of beliefs and customs. As a result, unorthodox thoughts and behaviors are generally frowned upon in the country.


United States

Americans are open to new ideas and innovations, as well as willing to try new things in general. People are more accepting of other people’s thoughts and ideas since the country completely respects freedom of expression.

Masculinity

This dimension indicates a society’s materialism and achievement orientation.


Mexico

Mexico is a male society, hence the concept of hard effort is valued. Assertiveness and decisiveness are demanded of leaders and managers, and performance is valued.


United States

America has a strong masculinity drive that may be seen both on a personal and national level.

Individualism

This dimension describes the degree to which society’s members are interdependent. It is defined by how individuals or groups define their self-image.


Mexico

Mexico is a collectivist society in general, which is reflected in its strong kinship bonds, which are marked by loyalty, trust, and solidarity.


United States

The American society is loosely linked and has a short power distance; it is a country that values individualism. Managers want employees to be self-sufficient and initiative in the workplace, and Americans tend to pursue their own interests due to their significant geographic mobility.

Analysis

In terms of Hofstede’s four dimensions, there are considerable disparities between Mexico and the United States, and these are likely to effect my managerial tasks as a U.S. manager of a subsidiary in Mexico. For example, the cultural differences will affect how I relate with people, particularly employees from the two countries, and thus how I manage the subsidiary. Mexicans tend to avoid risky situations like new ideas and innovations, I may have difficulty implementing changes at the subsidiary, which might stymie my efforts to succeed. As a result, I’ll have to rethink my management tactics and realign them with Mexican values.

Recommendations

Understanding cultural differences and finding a means to ensure organizational effectiveness are the greatest recommendations for dealing with these variations in the workplace. For example, to accommodate the current beliefs and attitudes, the organizational structure and management processes must be reorganized. Hiring personnel from both Mexico and the United States and training them on how to achieve corporate goals by working together is one example. While the culture of Mexico differs greatly from that of the United States, there are characteristics that can be included into the management process to fulfill the subsidiary’s objectives.




References

Pastrana-Valls, A. (2017, February 2). Values, attitudes, and political participation in Mexico. Palabra Clave. Retrieved April 17, 2022, from http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0122-82852018000300673.

Icfdn. “4 Barriers to Quality Education in Mexico.” International Community Foundation, 18 Oct. 2019, https://icfdn.org/barriers-quality-education-mexico/?gclid=CjwKCAjw9e6SBhB2EiwA5myr9pmYbguBu7aB5PSPg_rTrc2DU2t3SnJSkqmFiORXyCVxmZfml7Ni1RoCfe4QAvD_BwE.

Management homework help

Week 2 – Assignment: Apply Critical Reading and Techniques for Notes

Instructions

Create a procedure to follow for reviewing article abstracts. This can be similar to a standard operating procedure or in a format you prefer. A flow chart or similar model can also be used. Assume you will use this method when you begin your own chapter 2.

Begin your procedure with the following:

Include at least three steps for determining if the abstract has the main points related to your topic.

Outline how or what you will look for in the abstract. This information will be what prompts you to open the full-text article.

In the next step of the procedure:

Develop a plan or visual tool to take notes about each search engine, main theme, URL, and a section of the chapter this would be used.

For example, chapter 2 begins with an introduction for the reader about your topic, next to a paragraph of how and where you found the literature, then the theoretical or conceptual framework, and then finally the main content of the chapter. The main content is categorized by you and how your literature develops.

Length: 1-2 pages, plus title and reference pages

References: Include a minimum of five (5) scholarly resources.

Your submission should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Clary, D., & Bannister-Tyrrell, M., (2018). Harnessing research-based practices to critique ‘truth’. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years. 26(3)

NCU Libraries. (2018). Anatomy of a Scholarly Article

Willison, J. W. (2018). Research skill development spanning higher education: Critiques, curricula, and connections. Journal of University

Management homework help

Leading Change

Dr.Nathanson

1

1

What is Change?

  • Examples?

Some Factors at work

  • Changing Workforce
  • Changing Technology
  • Changing Economy
  • New company/product/policy direction
  • Relocation
  • Company Shutdown
  • Merger
  • New Boss

Personal Factors

  • Job
  • Relationship
  • Health
  • Finances
  • Living situation
  • Emotions
  • Habits
  • School
  • Other?

Types of Changes

  • Planned
  • Typical reactions?
  • Unplanned
  • Typical reactions?

Why do people react to change?

  • Threat to expertise
  • Change in habit
  • Threat to power structure
  • Threat to the known vs. unknown
  • Threat to power relationships

How do people react to change?

  • It depends on the change and the person
  • Overt and immediate
  • Vocal
  • Implicit and deferred
  • Loss of loyalty
  • Increased motivation
  • Increased errors
  • Increased absenteeism
  • Increased theft
  • Increased illness

Ways to overcome resistance to change?

  • Communication (Why and the how)
  • Participation
  • Facilitation and support
  • Negotiation

The nature of change

  • Impetus for change is likely to come from outside change agent or reason
  • Internal change agents are most threatened
  • Long time power holders usually only implement incremental change
  • The outcome of power struggles will likely determine the speed and quality of change

Are people afraid of change?

  • What do you think?
  • Group Exercise:
  • Select one major change that one group member is going through and recommend a few strategies the person can use to get through the change successfully!

Summary

  • Change is part of life
  • Behavior can be impacted with any change
  • The process can determine how the change is accepted
  • Not everyone will be happy with any change
  • Taking the time to understand all views is key
  • Monitoring and follow-up will influence whether the change is effective or not
  • Post-Mortem review is critical

Management homework help

4.1 Devotion: Leader Discouragement- A Loss of Confidence

Getting Started

As we continue our devotional series on the sources of discouragement that Nehemiah faced when endeavoring to rebuild the walls of the city of Jerusalem, we turn our attention to another important source of discouragement: a loss of confidence. Previously, we read in 
Nehemiah 4:6(new tab)

 that the people had begun the rebuilding project with the heart they needed to do the work, but the loss of strength and vision combined to undermine their confidence. In verse 10, we read that the people began whining: “We ourselves are unable to build the wall.”

When people, be they leaders or followers, lose confidence in their abilities to achieve a task, the frequent result is discouragement. The Holy Scriptures offer many examples of how God gives us confidence to do what needs to be done. In 
Hebrews 13:6(new tab)

, we read: “The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can mere mortals do to me?” In 
Isaiah 40:31(new tab)

, the prophet wrote: “…those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary; they will walk and not be faint.” 
Joshua 1:9(new tab)

 states this more strongly: “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go.” How could one remain discouraged for long after reading what God has promised to us in the way of His strength and confidence?!

Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:

· Integrate biblical perspectives for promoting holistic well-being in organizational members.

Instructions

1. Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.

2. Review the information in the Getting Started section. 

3. Write a half to one-page reflection paper (Word document) that describes a situation where you lost confidence that ultimately led to discouragement. What was the root cause of your loss of confidence? How did you regain your confidence and what effect did that have on the discouragement you felt?

4. Incorporate two Scripture verses or passages of your choosing (other than those included above) that speak to how we are to deal with discouragement and/or a lack of confidence.

5. Reflection papers are to be written in accordance with 
APA Guidelines (7th ed.)(new tab)

 including format guidelines. Papers must be logical, well organized, grammatically correct, and have correct spelling and sentence structure.  Write in complete paragraphs. 

Management homework help

1.1 Devotion: Biblical Perspective

“Do not conform to the pattern of this world but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing, and perfect will.”

Romans 12:2 (New International Version)

So often, we are quick to judge our neighbors and others around us. Today’s society has allowed us to forget what Christ has taught us: to love thy neighbor. Romans 12:2 is a blueprint that is set forth to show us how each one of us should transform our character and renew our mind. The biblical perspective recognizes the active opposition of a personal adversary. In the business world, we diversify ourselves with others from all walks of life, not knowing that God has placed each of us together for the common good. Thinking back on your workplace, how do you engage with others from other backgrounds? Do you place judgment on others? Do you reflect your views on social media and other blogging components? Is this right?

1. Take time to reflect on Romans 12:2. 

2. Consider the following question:

a) How does this verse impact you in matters of faith in the workplace? (150-200 Words)

1.2 Discussion: Power Distance (Part A)

1. Watch the video “10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on Power Distance.” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqAJclwfyCw&t=1s)

1. Review the 

Power Distance

 file.

2. Navigate to the discussion below and post a substantive response to the following questions:

a. Compare and contrast attitudes toward authority between high power distance cultures and low power distance cultures.

b. Think about an organization with which you are involved (work, church, civic organization, etc.). Identify the organization and describe how you would characterize the power distance dimension within the organization’s culture. Is it high, low, or somewhere in between? Explain how you came to this conclusion and provide an example to support your assertion.

c. Describe how the principle of power distance is evident within the organization you identified.

3. Your initial response should:

a. Be 200–300 words in length

b. Include a minimum of two properly cited references. For questions on APA style, go to the APA Style Guide.

1.3 Assignment: PowerPoint Presentation

1. Read the article “How Indra Nooyi Turned Design Thinking Into Strategy.”

a. Remember to look for the .pdf icon to print the article!

2. Watch the video “Nooyi: You Can ‘Have It All’ With Support, Sacrifices.

3. Develop an American-Indian cultural profile via a 10- to 12-slide presentation (utilizing the presentation tool of your choice). Include narrative giving generalized country profiles based on a synthesis of research, primarily from Hofstede as well as numerous other sources. This profile illustrates how to synthesize information and gain a sense of the character of a society from which implications may be drawn about how to manage more effectively in that society.

4. The 10- to 12-slide presentation should also include the answers to the following questions:

a. What is the PDI (power distance index) for India compared to America? The difference between the two PDIs indicates what information for global managers?

b. What were the factors that shaped Indra Nooyi as a leader?

c. If PepsiCo were headquartered in India, how might Nooyi lead her employees in India based on the PDI of this country in comparison to America? 

d. What leadership style is being used by Nooyi at PepsiCo? Highlight the mix of various leadership styles found in Nooyi, such as that of servant leadership, ethical leadership, socialized charismatic leadership, and authentic leadership.

5. Your presentation should include a minimum of three properly cited references. For questions on APA style, go to the APA Style Guide.

Management homework help

Case 31 – Conflict Palm Oil and PepsiCo’s Ethical Dilemma need 2 page answer

The template provided must be used with each number showing and an answer for each provided in an informal manner or not requiring full sentences except in the “brief summary” section. An outline format may be used for your answers for each numbered item.

Please check next page for the example case study answer.

Describe the Following for this Case Study-

1. Industry & Market:

2. External Environment:

3. Internal Environment:

4. Financial Analyses:

5. Economic Condition for Industry:

6. Key Trending Factors:

7. SWOT Analysis:

8. Key issues of the case:

9. Critical issue of the case that needs attention first:

10. Assumptions in the recognition of this critical issue:

11. 2 to 3 alternatives to address this critical issue:

12. Choose 1 of the alternatives to implement:

13. Describe the overarching strategy you propose and within which this alternative fits:

14. Explain your plan to implement this alternative:

15. Identify the critical organizational functions of the organization needed for implementation:

16. Identify the processes needed from each of these critical functions for implementation:

17. Describe the Balance Scorecard metrics to measure the success of this implementation:

18. Describe any ethical concerns with this critical issue and plan implementation:

19. Describe any environmental concerns with this critical issue and plan implementation:

20. Describe any social concerns with this critical issue and plan implementation:

21.Write a brief summary of your recommendation and the value you propose this organization may gain from this implementation. (one paragraph – keep this to approximately100 words)

EXAMPLE

Case Analysis Study Approach (CASA)

Vodka

1. Industry & Market – the Alcoholic Beverage Industry enjoys a Global Market

1. External Environment – the industry is highly regulated and taxed on the state level in the United States, meaning, each state regulates how the industry may operate within its boundaries.

1. Internal Environment – The industry classification breaks down the distilled-spirit group into three categories, (1) brown goods, (2) white goods, which includes the case study subject, Absolut Vodka, and (3) specialties.

1. Financial Analyses – the Imported Vodka industry sales were on an upward trend, opposite the distilled-spirits and domestic vodka sales history in that period.

1. Economic Condition for Industry – by 1986, the distilled-spirits industry was on a downward slide for about five years.

1. Key Trending Factors –

5. Demographic – Those having attended college, single with household incomes of $50K or more in the Middle Atlantic region.

5. Social – promoting the brand to specific consumer groups and looking at market trends.

5. Economic – sales growth was on the upswing for imported vodka

5. Environmental – Another consideration is the industry’s effects on society. The influence on alcohol abuse and drunk driving.

1. SWOT Analysis –

6. Strength: in 1979, the U.S. was an open market for Absolut. They were looking for a distributor in a field where they did not currently have one. Strong leader in Mr. Roux.

6. Weakness: Costly advertising methodology, and distributor’s concentration on another brand than Absolut. Also odd-shaped bottle.

6. Opportunity: Niche marketing to expand market share, and flavored Vodka market

6. Threat: International political and industry regulatory impacts. Also odd-shaped bottle

1. Key Issues of the case – Marketing and advertising efforts to increase market share.

1. Critical Issue of the case that needs attention first – mismatch between traditional market-research techniques and the Absolut marketing strategy

1. Assumptions in the recognition of this critical issue –

9. The Swedish government was looking for a U.S. importer for Absolut

9. Stoli’s enjoyed an 80%share of the imported vodka sales

9. U.S. Vodka sales were rising. Foreign vodkas’ 22 percent growth attracted a rush of new importers

1. Two to three alternatives to address this critical issue –

10. Capturing the “Youth” markets

10. Capturing specific ethnic markets

10. Focusing on “Super Premium” products

1. Choose one of the alternatives to implement – focusing on its being a “Super Premium” product

1. Describe the overshadowing strategy you propose and within which this alternative fits – Target market for Absolut would be anyone over the age of 21 with the ability

1. Explain your plan to implement this alternative –

13. Advertise stressing Absolut’s Swedish origins

13. Target upper income trend-setting, artsy crowd

13. Market Absolut as a luxury item

13. Market to the “ferociously hip” crowd

1. Identify the critical organizational functions of the organization needed for implementation –

14. Copy and Media: punning on “absolute” using the superlative. Expanding media outlets beyond the standard weekly news, emphasizing the medium but focusing on the bottle.

14. Special Events and Promotion: Themes of music, art and fashion

14. Budget: increasing budget for advertising to reverse declining sales.

14. Production: ads were costly though generating huge media coverage, especially the much anticipated Christmas special ads.

1. Identify the processes needed from each of these critical functions for implementation –

1. Describe the Balanced Scorecard metrics to measure the success of this implementation –

(Must be these Four goals and a quantitative goal by which to measure strategic proposal success)

16. Financial: Set goals to increase gross sales by 20% and market share by 5%

16. Customer: Absolut enjoyed between 51 and 56 percent of the imported vodka market in the U.S. Survey the customer base to measure current satisfaction and then aim to increase this by 20% over the upcoming year.

16. Internal business processes: Measure initial social media hits and challenge the team to increase this by 30% within the first quarter of the new ad campaign. Set a goal to enter 2 new social media avenues in the upcoming year

16. Learning: Train employees in the new social media tools and require passage of a subsequent test by 75% with a maximum of 2 attempts to pass.

1. Describe any actual or hypothetical ethical concerns with this critical issue and plan implementation – the causal link between advertising and alcohol abuse and drunk driving. Alcohol should not be marketed towards those under the legal drinking age in any country. In the case of a country where no minimum age for consumption or purchase exists, beverage alcohol should not be marketed to those under the age of majority, as defined in that country.

1. Describe any actual or hypothetical environmental concerns with this critical issue and plan implementation – increase in excise taxes, governmental restrictions placed on advertising adult beverages and political fallout from the Russia boycott. U.S. Surgeon General Taskforce recommendation to raise excise taxes, reduce tax deductions for advertising allowances, placement of warnings and restricting advertising.

1. Describe any actual or hypothetical social concerns with this critical issue and plan implementation – effects of alcohol on society and the role of advertising in consumption, its influence in general, and on “abuse” versus “use”.

1. I recommend continuing marketing Absolut as a “Super Premium” product, a luxury item. This focus has proven to have provided positive results growing its market share to the current respectable levels that it enjoys. Absolut is now recognized as leader in creative yet unconventional advertising. The partnership with its advertising firm has been quite a successful venture resulting in the Absolut seasonal campaigns as a yardstick of great advertising, as well as being one of the most anticipated advertising campaigns in the industry. Including messages of consumer responsibility and assimilating a similar emphasis as Anheuser-Busch’s “Know When to Say When” campaign would be very advisable as well.

Management homework help

1.5 Assignment: Prep for Assignment 2.4 – Reflected Best Self

Getting Started

Recent research evident in the positive psychology literature suggests that people are more valued by strengths-based approaches in their roles as leaders and followers than the use of deficit or weakness improvement approaches.

One Gallup study, for example, revealed that individuals felt more self-aware, productive, and confident when placing their focus on strengths rather than weaknesses. As you might imagine, this typically leads to lower employee turnover and higher workplace engagement (Suner, 2020).

This assignment will serve as preparation for a reflection paper that you will write and submit during Workshop Week #2. You will want to send out the required emails as soon as possible (see instructions below) so that you have time to review and reflect on the responses you receive.

Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:

· Explore self-concept, including components such as identity and self-efficacy by soliciting feedback from others as to what constitutes your “best” self.

Instructions

1. You will receive 10 points for the completion of this assignment. 

2. Read the Forbes article: 
Why Leaders Should Focus on Strengths, Not Weaknesses(new tab)

.

3. This assignment involves preparation for a reflection that will be part of Workshop 2.

4. Send an email to 10-12 people in your sphere of influence. Include family, friends, peers, subordinates, managers, professional associates, customers/clients, teachers, etc. Phrase the email using the following statement or one similar: The leadership course I am currently taking requires me to complete an exercise called “Reflected Best Self.” I would appreciate your help in completing this activity. Think about the times you have seen me at my best. What did I do that was meaningful to you, people around you, or to an organization to which we belonged? What did I accomplish? What strength do you think I exhibited in achieving this accomplishment? It isn’t necessary to spend a great deal of time writing a response. Just one or two paragraphs will be sufficient. Please respond to this email within the next week. Thanks for your cooperation and support.

5. Submit a simple statement on a single page of a Word document (no APA formatting necessary but be sure to include your name on the page) indicating that you have completed this preparation by sending out the necessary emails by the end of the workshop.

Management homework help

Servant Leadership: A Worldview Perspective

J. Randall Wallace
Regent University

The concept of worldview is introduced and explored as a framework for creating a philosophical
foundation for servant leadership. The author uses the work of Schaeffer (1968), Pearcey (2004), Murphy
and Ellis (1996), and MacIntyre (1984, 1988) to demonstrate the fragmented nature of modern
philosophic and scientific traditions, how this affects ethics and morality, and how this fragmentation can
be remedied to produce a unified and cohesive worldview. Five major world religions (Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) are examined for their overall compatibility with servant
leadership. An eight-component worldview based upon the Judeo-Christian tradition is offered as a
potential foundation for servant leadership and an answer to the question: Why should I practice servant
leadership?

While attending the 2005 Servant Leadership Roundtable at Regent University, I was struck by
the frequency of a recurring question from the audience: What are the philosophic foundations
for servant leadership? Whenever asked, it was answered by speakers or participants with a wide
variety of responses ranging from purely religious explanations to vague allusions to particular
values. Ultimately, the question was never fully answered to the satisfaction of the person asking
it. The overall impression was that there really were no philosophic, conceptual underpinnings to
servant leadership other than the essays of Greenleaf (1996, 1997) and the commitment to treat
people with kindness.

Does Servant Leadership Literature Offer a Philosophic Base for the Theory?

Greenleaf’s (1997) theory of servant leadership was formulated after he read Herman

Hess’ Journey to the East. Greenleaf (1997) stated that the story greatly impressed him, but the
idea laid dormant for over 11 years before he began to write essays expanding on various ideas
related to the blossoming theory of servant leadership. These essays touched on various aspects
related to power, manipulation, hope, responsibility, strength, and so forth. Eventually, they
coalesced into a theory of servant leadership consisting of 10 attributes: listening, empathy,

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healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the
growth of people, and building community (Spears, 1995).

The development of servant leadership as a theory has been a slow process as researchers
struggle to articulate an adequate theoretical infrastructure. Theorists have explored servant
leadership attributes (Russell, 2002) and values (Russell, 2001), offered models (Buchen, 1998;
Patterson, 2003; Winston, 2003; Wong & Page, 2003), compared servant leadership with other
theories (Farling, Stone, & Winston, 1999; Humphries, 2005; Matteson & Irving, 2005;
Rennaker, 2005; Smith, Montagno, & Kuzemenko, 2004; Stone, Russell, & Patterson, 2004;
Whetstone, 2002, 2005; Winston & Hartsfield, 2004), offered a typology of servant leadership
(Laub, 2004), explained its benefits theoretically or through research (Banutu-Gomez, 2004;
Greenleaf, 1997; Greenleaf, 1996; Irving, 2004; Irving, 2005; Polleys, 2002; Reinke, 2004;
Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002; Spears, 1995; Spears & Lawrence, 2002; Stupak & Stupak, 2005;
Winston, 2004), explored contextual appropriateness (Humphries, 2005; Smith et al., 2004), and
criticized its assumptions in relation to gender (Eicher-Catt, 2005).

Very few studies have offered a philosophical base for the theory, anchoring it in a
particular worldview. There have been attempts to link it to Christianity since the New
Testament records Jesus Christ telling his disciples that “…the greatest among you will be your
servant. For whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be
exalted” (Matt. 23:11-12, New International Version; Russell, 2003; Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002;
Wong & Page, 2003). However, these attempts have not sought to create a cohesive rationale for
servant leadership in the context of a worldview or explained basic aspects of what would
constitute a biblical worldview. Russell provided the most comprehensive textual support for
servant leadership from a Judeo-Christian perspective but fell short of showing a philosophic
rationale supporting why servant leadership should be practiced (Russell, 2003). In addition,
attempts to link servant leadership to a religious tradition have met resistance in a pluralistic
society where a myriad of worldviews compete for attention, where it is assumed that there will
be a separation between religion and public life, and where a logical framework for the inclusion
of religious values in everyday life is missing. This position of separation flows from
presuppositions fueled by a fragmented modern worldview, as explored later in this paper.

Patterson (2003) used the concept of virtue as a descriptor for servant leadership. Virtue,
first defined by Aristotle, involves doing right things through moral character (Patterson, 2003;
Whetstone, 2002). Patterson (2003) identified seven virtues associated with servant leadership:
agapáo love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment, and service. Winston (2003) used
these virtues as a basis for building an interactive model of servant leadership. Stone and
Patterson (2005) revisited it when placing servant leadership within a historical continuum of
leadership development. By building on Aristotle’s philosophic framework, the beginnings of an
underpinning for servant leadership were offered. However, Aristotelian ethics have been
criticized for gender bias; impracticality in application; and the observation that virtues divorced
from theology are the product of socially constructed agreements and, therefore, schemes of
virtue may include diametric opposites in different cultures (Hauptli, 2002). Whetstone (2005)
stated that an Aristotelian approach to ethics is inadequate to stand on its own. MacIntyre (1984)
stated that since the enlightenment, there has been no agreement among modern philosophers as
to what specific virtues exist. This inability to agree upon what constitutes virtues opens any list
of virtues to criticism.

Table 1 lists a comparison of the virtues identified by Aristotle and what are recognized
as traditional Christian virtues and those outlined by Patterson (2003). Aristotle valued pride,

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Wallace/INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES 116

while Patterson listed humility as a virtue. Finally, Aristotle’s concept of the fulfilled or
complete person came from a reflection upon the nature of the pantheon of Greek gods. His ethic
was rooted in his religious tradition, providing the ethic with a means for determining how
humans ought to live or what is sometimes called a teleology. Virtues are moral in nature
(Whetstone, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005). Drawing attention to virtues, an arm of morality/ethics, as
a basis of action raises the questions as to whether or not the virtues mentioned are grounded
metaphysically or philosophically? If virtues have no grounding philosophically, are they merely
another form of relativism?

Table 1: A Comparison of Virtues

Aristotelian Traditional Christian Patterson (2003) and servant leadership
Courage Chastity Agapáo love
Temperance Abstinence Vision
Generosity Liberality Altruism
Pride Humility Humility
Self-control Patience Trust
Truthfulness Kindness Empowerment
Justice Diligence Service
Wittiness
Friendliness
Practical knowledge
Scientific knowledge

Patterson’s (2003) approach of linking servant leadership to virtues implies that servant

leadership is a moral form of leadership. Whetstone (2002, 2005) originally raised the same
sentiment by demonstrating that servant leaders operate out of a moral concern for others. I
believe the absence of a philosophic foundation for servant leadership, which conceptually
anchors ethics or morality in a specific philosophic system, causes one to be unable to answer
clearly the question: why should I practice this form of leadership? Is servant leadership merely
another technique which can be applied and discarded at the leader’s whim or according to the
bottom line? Or, is it a philosophic orientation, linked to a cohesive worldview which gives
meaning to values and attributes in servant leadership and functions as an orientation that
governs perceptions, understanding, and praxis in the world?

I will first examine the concept of worldview, defining and clarifying its role in the
selection and organization of values. Second, through a summary of Pearcey (2004) and
Schaffer’s (1968) work in philosophy and Murphy and Ellis’ (1996) analysis of the modern
hierarchy of scientific inquiry, I will explain how current fragmented and competing worldviews
undermine a sound philosophic base for any justification of values or ethics and result in a
quandary as to how to classify ethics. Thirdly, the question of whether or not philosophy can
offer a foundation for servant leadership is answered. This is followed by Murphy and Ellis’
explanation of how to repair the fragmented worldview of science and philosophy while
maintaining the integrity of science through MacIntyre’s (1984, 1988) approach of requiring any
philosophic or worldview system to be linked to a traditional religion in order to create
cohesiveness and consistency within the worldview and objectify the fields of ethics and

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES 117

morality. Having argued that there is a necessity to link worldviews to religion, the paper then
examines extant leadership literature linking religion to leadership studies and specifically
whether or not the five major world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and
Judaism) have any serious incompatibility with servant leadership. The next section presents a
specific worldview drawn from broad principles of a Judeo-Christian perspective as a potential
foundation for servant leadership. This worldview is then examined as to how well it aligns with
leadership theory in general and servant leadership in particular, comparing worldview
components with servant leadership attributes, followed by a concluding section.

What is Worldview?

“Worldview comes from the German word ‘weltanschauung’ meaning a ‘look into the

world.’ It refers to a wide world perception. It constitutes the framework through which an
individual interprets the world and interacts in it” (Worldview, 2006, p. 1). Nash (1996) stated
that the writings of philosophers identify assumptions about the make-up of reality or how the
world works, conceptual schemes, or patterns of ideas or values and organizes them to form a
worldview. In the same manner, religions offer a scheme for interpreting the world and,
therefore, are recognized as worldviews as well (Nash, 1996). A worldview is used to interpret
and make sense of the world. Perceptions of the world and reality can greatly differ between
people or cultures since their assumptions of what is important and true differ. There are many
types of worldviews vying for supremacy. These include religious systems (formal philosophic
systems such as modernism or postmodernism), less formal systems including large group
perspectives such as a particular culture, or personal systems.

A history of challenge, debate, and theorizing within the philosophic community
demonstrates how worldviews may have inherent weaknesses, inconsistencies, or inabilities to
account for various beliefs or practices. This is consistent with Kuhn (1970) who; in explaining
the history of scientific advancement; identified the challenges, shifts, and transformations
associated with comparing belief systems and selecting the most stable or cohesive.

Which Worldview? How Fragmentation in Modern Worldviews Breeds Confusion

Schaeffer (1968, 1976) and later Pearcey (2004) argued that modern Western worldview

suffers from a fragmentation of false dichotomies which affect every aspect of life, particularly
morality. Beginning with Plato and his dichotomy of form and matter, the authors examined
western philosophic thought, showing how this false dichotomy confuses morality and ethics in
particular. The dichotomy is currently expressed as a juxtaposition of values and ethics against
science and facts. This placing of ethics in the realm of relativism spurred Murphy and Ellis
(1996) to look at the problem of ethics in the fragmented scientific paradigm and whether or not
there is a rationale which would unite the current fragmented philosophic reality into a unified
worldview.

If one agreed with Pearcey (2004), Schaeffer (1968, 1976), and Murphy and Ellis (1996)
that the fragmentation of modern worldviews has created an unsure foundation for ethics or
morality, are there implications for leadership? It is not difficult to find the effects of this
fragmentation within companies and individuals as they go about daily life and business. The
most glaring effect is that values or morality are cast as a purely individual or relative matter. In
its most extreme form, it could be called hyperrelativistic. This is relativism that goes beyond

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Wallace/INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES 118

cultural norms, mores, and folkways into a type of anarchism in which companies and
individuals recognize no law but themselves. This is exemplified in the excesses and
questionable practices of leaders and businesses. As business expands globally, authors such as
Greider (1997) document labor and manufacturing practices of business in the developing world
that rival egregious activities associated with Europe and the United States in the 19th century.
The more common effects of a fragmented worldview in business relates to dichotomies that
often breed conflict between competing values. One such occurrence relates to the conflict
between shareholder and stakeholder focus found in arguments of social responsibility in
business. The shareholder perspective promotes profit alone as the major consideration in
business decisions while the stakeholder perspective promotes human and social impact as the
major considerations in business decisions. Another effect would be the dichotomy between task
and people orientation in leadership.

Fragmentation of worldview affects every level of science as well. In science in general,
this fragmentation is exhibited when scientists defend certain inquiries as value free. The pursuit
of knowledge is held as the highest value, and the collateral damage done by a logical
application of certain findings is seen as the broken eggs necessary to make an omelet.

Can philosophy provide a foundation for servant leadership? The ultimate question is
why should one practice servant leadership? The values of servant leadership lean heavily
toward human consideration and morality (Whetstone, 2005). Without having a sound, unified
worldview that justifies use of servant leadership; one falls prey to the reality that, ultimately, the
reason is either utilitarian/pragmatic or situational. The utilitarian/pragmatic reason contradicts
the idea that people are to be viewed as an end as opposed to a means, a key value in servant
leadership. If the only reason we use the servant leadership approach is that it causes people to
work harder to obtain organizational goals, then we undermine the very theory itself. If we take a
purely situational approach, stating servant leadership can only work in certain settings and
contexts, we again undermine some of the key values described in the theory. In the situational
approach, humans are only to be valued if their culture or personal beliefs align with the theory.
Pragmatism and situational ethics both fail as reasons for practicing servant leadership.

This brings up the question of whether or not modern philosophy is a suitable base for
servant leadership. Kantian philosophy and humanism have been used as potential foundations
for leadership. Bowie (2000) argued for a Kantian form of leadership which is highly egalitarian.
However, he also stated that “Kant specifically rejects the notion of servility as an acceptable
stance for any person-leader or otherwise” (p. 188). To Kant, a servant leader allows himself or
herself to be used as a means to others attaining their goals. The idea of one agent using another,
even if it is voluntary, is unacceptable. From Bowie’s perspective, Kant’s philosophic position
cannot be used as a foundation for servant leadership.

Humanism has been examined in relation to leadership in general by McGuire, Cross,
and O’Donnell (2005) and found wanting. After articulating how humanistic approaches; which
emphasize meeting job-related personal, self-esteem, and self-development needs; are normally
applied in the workplace, the authors concluded that those who adhere to humanism are
“misguided because they fail to grasp, take into account or make explicit the core principles that
continue to underpin the capitalist enterprise” (p. 132). They stated that “humanist approaches
may mislead employees, and perhaps HRD professionals, by fostering the illusion that the needs
of the employees and organizations are always mutually inclusive” (p. 133). Their response
uncovers how a fragmented worldview has shaped our concept of capitalism, framing its goals as
diametrically opposed to individual development.

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In addition, humanism itself seems to be on the decline as it appears to be forsaking its
original commitment to human interests as the center of civilization. Veith (2005)outlined how
one prominent scientist equated humans to bacteria who need to be cleansed from the planet.
Merriam (2004) argued that population growth has cheapened our concept of the value of
humans to the point that there is greater outcry over the torture of an animal as opposed to a
human. Although an examination of Kantian philosophy or humanism hardly represents an
overview of all aspects of modern thought, they do illustrate how Western philosophy as it now
stands cannot be used to justify servant leadership.

MacIntyre (1984, 1988), in seeking to provide a firm foundation for ethics and virtues,
argued that if ethics are divorced from a religious tradition, they are robbed of a high view of
humans. The whole concept of how people ought to live has been the focus of philosophers for
centuries. However, MacIntyre (1984) feels that it cannot be convincingly argued outside of a
religious tradition. According to MacIntyre (1984), how humans ought to be treated becomes
entirely relativistic and essentially meaningless when divorced from some religious tradition.

With this understanding, Murphy and Ellis (1996) addressed how fragmentation in
worldview creates a scientific paradigm void of ethics. By following MacIntyre’s (1984) method
of creating a narrative for examining the cohesiveness and consistency of paradigms, Murphy
and Ellis reasoned through the process of placing various scientific fields into a hierarchy based
upon their complexity. Once Murphy and Ellis completed the hierarchy, they noted that there is
no scientific sphere for ethics or morality. The authors explained how unacceptable this is by
demonstrating that values and assumptions of morality and ethics are embedded in each
scientific field and in how science is conducted as a discipline. Murphy and Ellis then suggested
that since ethics/morality are embedded at every level in scientific inquiry; they are required as
part of a scientific hierarchy of disciplines and, because the very nature of ethics and morality
implies an oversight role, are required to be placed at the upper levels of the hierarchy where
they are able to govern all levels below. Having shown the necessity for ethics/morality as a
scientific discipline; the authors use the research and reasoning of MacIntyre (1984) to link
morality to a religious system, demonstrate that it is necessary to place ethics and morality below
some metaphysical belief system, and unify the fragmented scientific system.

If all levels of science (including the social sciences) are saturated with ethical and moral
assumptions in either their theories or practice, if all levels of science require an ethical/moral
discipline for critique, and if morality and ethics must be linked to some traditional religion in
order to have coherence; then servant leadership must also be linked to some overarching
worldview. What then could serve as a foundation for servant leadership? According to
MacIntyre (1984), one of the first places to look is religion.

Five Major Religions’ Worldviews and Their Compatibility with Servant Leadership

Kriger and Seng (2005) posed a contingency theory in leadership based upon the
worldview of five religions that together represent over 82% of the world’s population. They
compared the worldviews of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism in relation to
factors such as the nature and exemplars of leadership, core vision, basis for moral leadership,
source of wisdom for leaders, levels of being, and the role of community. The explanations of
worldview were not exhaustive or critical in their appraisal of each religion. In fact, they stated
that their primary focus was upon Buddhism and Islam, followed by Hinduism, with sparse
reference to Judaism and Christianity. They concluded that leadership in the five religions

International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 2 Iss. 2, 2007, pp. 114-132
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ISSN 1554-3145

Wallace/INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES 120

corresponds more closely to charismatic leadership theories since each tradition provides a series
of individuals as role models who exemplify leadership behavior as well as acceptable life
patterns, not to mention their inclusion of heroes and heroines who arise in times of crises to
provide guidance and inspiration.
Kriger and Seng (2005) also provided a list of values drawn from the study of spirituality
in the workplace that included forgiveness, compassion/empathy, integrity, kindness,
honesty/truthfulness, patience, humility, loving kindness, service to others, peacefulness,
thankfulness, guidance, joy, equanimity, and stillness/inner peace. They stated that these values
were also found within each of the five religions. How well did each of the religions embody
these values? As pointed out earlier, Russell (2003) identified key support for servant leadership
within the Judeo-Christian tradition. Sendjaya and Sarros (2002) along with Wong and Page
(2003) made a strong case for linking it to Christianity in particular. However, the components of
a Judeo-Christian worldview were not explained in any detail by any of these authors. It is
therefore necessary to present, in broad terms, essential elements of the Judeo-Christian
worldview in order to understand its compatibility with servant leadership theory.
This exploration of a broad worldview of the Judeo-Christian tradition will not be a
theological treatise encompassing all the details and complexity associated with theology or
praxis. Rather, it is an exploration of broad concepts associated with practical theology as
evidenced in how individual and community roles and values are explained. Eight different
components of worldview are defined. These components highlight the tension that exists when
seeking to reconcile the inalienable rights of individuals with the ever-present responsibility to
community and the community’s responsibility to protect and serve the individual. These eight
components consist of human dignity, personal responsibility, character, community, the use of
power, compassion, stewardship, and justice. These components have been reduced to broad
topics from an examination of the Old and New Testament teachings related to how individuals
are to be treated and the essential values associated with what the Scriptures teach a healthy
society should embody. Many find their roots in Old Testament instructions from God to the
nation of Israel regarding the structure of the Hebrew society.

Human dignity. Individuals are important and are to be treated in a manner that makes
them ends, not means. This is because God has created each person in His image. Each person is
worthy of respect because of their potential life with God. Each person, no matter how damaged
or hopeless they may seem, has worth. People have value that exists apart from any sense of
utility. Individuals have rights to specific types of treatment, and leaders have an obligation to
ensure that individuals are treated in a manner that affirms the image of God in their lives. Each
person, consciously or unconsciously, feels this dignity that God has placed inherently in them.
Cahill (1998) pointed out that one of the gifts of Judaism to the world was the idea that the
individual is important. Prior to this, the emphasis was upon the group or tribe. The emphasis on
the individual is a key aspect of personal dignity. Whenever this dignity is injured, the individual
suffers loss; and, ultimately, the community of which the person is a part suffers. Human dignity
assumes that leaders affirm the ideas, visions, goals, and aspirations of followers. People have
the right and responsibility to shape their own destinies. People have certain rights that exist
apart from socially constructed law. We express this dignity through a sense of personal
integrity. When a person has a strong sense of dignity or self-respect; he or she strives to live in a
manner that affirms that dignity, giving honor to the image of God within him or her.

International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 2 Iss. 2, 2007, pp. 114-132
©2007 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1554-3145

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES 121

Personal responsibility. Dignity produces a sense of personal responsibility. Individuals
take responsibility for their actions. When a person’s sense of dignity is injured, one of the first
things to suffer is a sense of personal responsibility for his or her actions. Peterson, Maier, and
Seligman (1994) outlined extreme cases that result in a sense of helplessness or what is currently
called a victim mentality. The person embracing this victimhood places responsibility for his or
her life and actions on others. Steele (1990) and McWhorter (2000, 2005) outlined how this loss
of dignity and victim mentality can permeate not only the psyche of a people but how it can
influence leaders to formulate solutions to problems that perpetuate this sense of helplessness
and lack of responsibility. Central to the idea of personal responsibility is the concept of
character.

Character. Character focuses on the necessity to not only do good, but to be good.
Specific character traits are isolated in Scripture as not only being pleasing to God; but beneficial
to the self, the family, and the greater community. Some of these include wisdom, teachability,
loving kindness, joyfulness, peace making, humility, meekness, longsuffering, gentleness,
patience, self-control, courage, self-sacrifice, trustworthiness, truthfulness, empathy, and
foresight. The presence of these attributes is expected to be seen in how one lives and conducts
business within the world.

Community. In the Old Testament, the idea of community embraced extended family,
village location, tribal affiliation, and national identity. Most people were members of small
groups of friends, family, and business associates with whom they had interaction on almost a
daily basis. The emphasis on the individual is tempered by emphasizing the need for individuals
to be aware of the common good of the community. This tension between individual needs and
wants and community needs and wants permeates all of Scripture. There are expectations related
to how communities were to relate to individuals; with special emphasis on the marginalized,
disenfranchised, or unfortunate. There were also expectations related to the responsibilities
individuals had to ensure that communities were peaceful, prosperous, and just places to live.

Use of power. How leaders use power is a key area of interest in the Scriptures. The
recurring theme is one of sharing power; not amassing power, misleading or manipulating
people, or using them as pawns in some grand vision or scheme of the leader (Berkhof, 1977;
Christian, 1994). Each person should have the opportunity to participate in shaping their
individual destiny. The use of power must affirm and strengthen human dignity. Power usage
must involve the average person having the means to act upon their dreams and desires.

Justice. Of particular note is the attention given to those who are marginalized,
disenfranchised, and downtrodden in society in the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures. This
concern is a dual concern. On the one hand, it reveals the value God places on an individual
regardless of whether that individual is rich or poor, a member of the community or not, useful
or not. It emphasizes that communities have a responsibility to care for these marginalized
people. On the other hand, it reveals that a community’s concept of justice exposes the strength
or weakness of that community and whether or not its worldview is sufficient for its long-term
sustainability (Perkins, 1995). Is the community a just community? Mott and Sider (1999)
pointed out that this theme is captured by the prophets and enriches the concept of justice found
in the Scriptures beyond what was common apart from Scripture. The concept of justice found

International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 2 Iss. 2, 2007, pp. 114-132
©2007 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1554-3145

Wallace/INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES 122

within Scripture includes (a) procedural justice, which specifies fair legal process for rich and
poor alike; (b) commutative justice, which defines the fair exchange of goods and the conducting
of business (e.g., fair weights and measures); (c) distributive justice, which specifies fair
allocation of a society’s wealth; (d) retributive justice, which defines fair punishment for crimes;
and (e) restorative justice, which is an aspect of distributive and retributive justice and specifies
fair ways to correct injustice and restore socio-economic wholeness for persons and
communities. Specific admonitions exist in the Old and New Testaments relating to the
m

Management homework help

Children’s Nest is a preschool/daycare center with multiple locations. They specialize in child care that is both high quality and affordable for families. The daycare and preschool industry is a place whether that be someone’s home or an establishment that provides early education for children. These establishments provide education, extracurriculars, and fun activities that help children to develop their minds. The industry can be divided into two types of child care, center-based care and family child care. The following sections discuss many characteristics of the daycare/preschool industry.

KSF 1 – Quality of teachers

Consistency and Fairness:

Your pupils should know what to expect each day in order to establish a healthy learning

environment. Students thrive in environments that are consistent and predictable, allowing them

to feel anchored while still allowing them to explore. Instead of adjusting to disorienting

changes, they should be utilizing their brainpower to learn. Routines help you stay on track and

make school life simpler. (Kelly, Melissa, 2019)

Flexibility and Responsiveness:

One of the foundations of teaching should be that a classroom should function smoothly even

though things are changing all the time. Interruptions are inevitable, but a

teacher must handle them without jeopardizing their pupils’ learning environment (much).

Maintaining calm and taking charge of every circumstance necessitates a flexible approach.

Both flexibility and responsiveness allude to a teacher#39;s capacity to make real-time modifications and succeed. When a class doesn’t go as planned or a day gets derailed, even the most experienced instructors feel panicked, but they know that changing, persevering, and reteaching are all part of the job. (Kelly, Melissa, 2019)

Know Your Learners:

Knowing your students is one of the most critical elements for a great teacher, yet it's often

overlooked in favor of providing information on time. Some instructors assume that developing

close relationships with each of their pupils is unimportant, if not irrelevant, in the great scheme

of things, but this is not the case. (Kelly, Melissa, 2019)

Threat of Substitutes:

Industry profitability decreases when a new product or service satisfies comparable client wants in different ways. If a replacement product or service delivers a value proposition that is significantly different from the industry#39;s current offerings, it poses a significant threat. Such as storage hardware drives replaced with Google Drive and Dropbox. Non-profit organizations, churches, and employer-sponsored childcare facilities are examples of substitute products. These sorts of facilities are usually found in larger organizations or in locations that are heavily industrialized. Established child care facilities, personal babysitters, and stay-at-home parents are all direct competitors. (2017)

Technology:

Low levels of innovation limit the threat to incumbent operators from new technologies

disrupting their operations. However, a low rate of growth in technology can also create

exposure for incumbents as the trajectory of innovation in other markets could lead to unforeseen

competitive disadvantages. Operators in this industry face a low rate of new entrants and

moderate entry barriers. This confluence of circumstances produces an atmosphere in which

Entrance patterns aren’t a major source of disruption. This industrys principal markets are extremely concentrated, implying that the market is focused on certain consumer categories. This gives a chance for strategic entry into lower-end or unserved sectors, allowing disruptive ideas to emerge. ( Kennedy, Kevin, 2021) The Day Care business has seen little technological disruption; nonetheless, some organizations have used digital platforms to optimize operations. As a consequence, technology is unlikely to disrupt the business to the point where it displaces present providers. As are taxi drivers and ride-sharing applications. Nonetheless, technology has the potential to improve specific job tasks for childcare providers and change business norms in the future. Education documentation applications allow childcare providers and parents to communicate on a variety of topics, including activities, meals, naps, potty training, attendance, and requests for extra supplies. These apps also allow you to share videos and photos. Moreover, industry operators manage enterprises in the simplification of information and organize administrative information ,such as enrollment schedules and waitlists, medical history and immunization information, automated invoicing, mobile registration, staffing, and a variety of other aspects. (Kennedy, Kevin, 2021)

Key success factors 13/15 points

Quality of teachers: I like that you broke this into three different sections, however they all seem like things that are nice to have rather than are must haves for success. That is partially because you describe very generally each category (for example look at my notes on consistency and fairness, which apply to all three). To strengthen this KSF, add some sentences before you go into your 3 subcategories that describe the importance of quality teachers overall – like how they really drive profit or create loss – then the three subcategories will be support for your argument.

Consistency and fairness: you explain that this is good for students to be in an environment that is consistent and fair, but you do not really emphasize why this is critical for a company to survive in the long run. Put another way, if a company does not have consistency and fairness, what would happen that would threaten their survival? – Try to weave this in to all three subcategories.

Porter’s 5 Forces observations Comment by Ashley Salaiz: Number of buyers are small
Products sold to buyers are undifferentiated
Products sold to buyers are a significant percentage of a buyer’s final cost
Buyers are not earning significant economic profits

Poorly done from start to finish – specifics mentioned below.

Threat of substitutes – this section needs to be rewritten beyond the first sentence or so where you explain what a substitute is.

Management homework help

Introduction to LEADERSHIP

Delsa Christian

Indiana Wesleyan University

Introduction to Leadership

Professor Aaron Metzcar

August 23, 2021

Definition of Leadership

Social process for influencing others

Empower others

Directing others towards a common objective

Social influence process

Benefitting others

Leadership entails the social process for influencing others. Leadership is the process through which individuals determine a goal, influence others or groups towards the identified mission or objective (The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 2021). Best leaders do not tell people what to do; instead, they empower others and show them how it is done. Leadership development varies in diverse organizational settings (Northouse, 2015). Leadership entails directing others towards a common objective using original and borrowed ideas to communicate to others effectively. Therefore, leadership is a social influence process seeking to maximize others’ efforts for the common good. Leadership focuses on benefitting others based on the biblical context. From the spiritual aspect, the bible states, “I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the ends of the earth” (Acts 13:47, NIV).

2

Leadership Requirements

Leadership entails strong belief in oneself and personal ideas before introducing them to the external parties. Leaders are bound to make hard choices; leadership entails self-sacrifice to improve others or the followers (Gleeson, 2016). A great leader should earn the team’s respect by showing reciprocal respect, empathy, and care for followers. Empathy allows the leader to touch the individual’s emotions and connect with his teams (Gleeson, 2016). Gleeson (2016) notes that more excellent leadership entails knowing the team and people as the key to success, articulating a clear vision, and pushing teams to the best.

3

Strong belief in oneself and personal ideas

Earn the team’s respect

Touch the individual’s emotions

Knowing the team

Articulating a clear vision

Pushing teams to the best

How Leadership is Different from Management

Leadership is a subset of management

Leadership steers vision and motivation

Management states the procedures

Leadership provides change and direction

Management gives order and consistency

Leadership is a subset of management, but they are both essential for organizational performance. There are key distinguishing factors that draw boundaries between leadership and management. Liphadzi et al. (2017) note that leadership steers vision and motivation within the teams, and management states the procedures for executing tasks. As a result, leadership provides change and direction, and management gives order and consistency. As leadership entails building teams and coalitions for executing the organizational mission, management entails establishing rules and procedures for achieving the goals (Liphadzi et al., 2017). Therefore, leadership must move hand in hand with management to achieve organizational goals.

4

Helpful Leadership Theory: Transformational Leadership Theory

Leaders work with groups, teams, or followers

They detect the need for change

Create a vision to guide motivation

Influence to keep the members committed

Idealized influence

Intellectual simulation

Inspirational motivation

Individualized or personal considerations

The transformational leadership theory holds that leaders work with groups, teams, or followers beyond their underlying interests to detect the need for change, create a vision to guide motivation and influence to keep the members committed (Moradi Korejan & Shahbazi, 2016). Moradi Korejan and Shahbazi (2016) note that transformational leadership theory’s key dimensions include idealized influence, intellectual simulation, inspirational motivation, and individualized or personal considerations. Idealized influence entails showing power and competence, raising respect, instilling a sense of honor and pride, and sacrificing personal gratification. Inspirational motivation entails optimism and encouraging teams. Besides, intellectual stimulation ensures promoting innovation, problem-solving, and suitability of solutions. Personal consideration incorporates guidance and training, incorporating people’s different needs, developing others’ capabilities, and teamwork (Moradi Korejan & Shahbazi, 2016).

5

Key Leadership Principles: Potential

The ability to inspire others

Create an enabling environment where greatness emerges

Self-confidence

Capabilities

Advancements

Perfect leadership entails the ability to inspire others to attain joint objectives. The emerging philosophy from this principle is that the role of a leader is not to instill greatness into people; greatness exists in everyone, but the leaders’ task is to create an enabling environment where greatness emerges. It shows leadership is about self-confidence, capabilities, and advancements to achieve the desired goal.

6

Purpose

The mission the team members share

Make a difference beyond personal interests

Inform the core organizational values

Collective action

Inspiring mission

Creating a culture of customer obsession

Sharing objectives

Purpose represents the mission the team members share and working towards a common goal. Purpose in leadership entails the desire to make a difference beyond personal interests (By, 2021). The purpose should inform the core organizational values rather than focusing on a specific section of the team members. Therefore, leadership demonstrates collective action resulting from mutual, discursive, and evolving patterns. Purpose entails an inspiring mission, create a culture of customer obsession, and sharing objectives.

7

People

Building relationships

Promoting a community culture

Leadership encourages diversity

The creation of teams

Defining multiculturalism and diversity

Enhance cultural competence

Inclusiveness and promote intersectionality

The people construct an integral part of leadership; leadership entails building relationships with the employees while promoting a work culture. Incorporating people in leadership encourages diversity and the creation of teams. Outstanding leadership entails defining multiculturalism and diversity to enhance cultural competence, inclusiveness and promote intersectionality in the teams (Chin et al., 2016).

8

Playbook

Creating a playbook

Execute excellence

Promote the capability of the teams

Defining few priorities

Promoting continuous learning and experimentation

Innovation and change

Allocating resources to the impactful priorities

In a rapidly changing environment, leadership entails creating a playbook to execute excellence and promote the capability of the teams. It involves defining few priorities, promoting continuous learning and experimentation through innovation and change, and allocating resources to the impactful priorities.

9

Pay-It-Forward

A leader is a teacher

Social responsibility to build long-term value

Investing in customers, teams, and communities

Steering mentorship

Motivation

Encouraging the teams towards teamwork

A leader is a teacher with a social responsibility to build long-term value by investing in customers, teams, and communities. Critical factors for leadership are steering mentorship, motivation, and encouraging the teams towards teamwork.

10

Key Practices in Effective Leadership: Model the Way

The way people should be treated

Ways to pursue goals

Establishing a vision

Standards of excellence

Leading by example

Leaders generate opportunities for winning

Leaders point out tenets regarding the way people should be treated and ways to pursue goals. Modeling the way entails establishing a vision, standards of excellence, and leading by example (followership). Through a clear definition of goals, leaders generate opportunities for winning.

11

Inspiring a Common Vision

Envisioning the future

Generating the ideal image of the desire outcomes

The passion and self-belief

Persuasion

Leaders enlist others into their desire goal

Promote teamwork and cooperation

Effective leadership entails envisioning the future and generating the ideal image of the desire outcomes. Influential leaders have the passion and self-belief that they can create a difference. Through their persuasion, leaders enlist others into their desire goal to promote teamwork and cooperation.

12

Challenging the Process

Leaders pursue new opportunities

Challenge the status quo

Steering innovation

Leaders set short-term goals

Influential leaders disentangle bureaucracy

Leaders pursue new opportunities to challenge the status quo. This process entails steering innovation to improve the organization and establish new ways of executing tasks. Besides, as change threatens to overwhelm people in the organization, leaders set short-term goals to work towards the long-term objectives. Influential leaders disentangle bureaucracy when it hinders action and takes risks, which involves disappointments, successes, and opportunities to learn.

13

Enabling Others or Motivation

Influential leaders steer collaboration and encourage team spirit by actively engaging others. Additionally, leaders steer mutual respect to earn honor, create a trustworthy atmosphere and value human dignity. Leaders are bound to make others powerful and capable of performing the underlying function or duties by encouraging them to take challenges to achieve goals or learn.

14

Collaboration and encourage team spirit

Leaders steer mutual respect to earn honor

Create a trustworthy atmosphere

Value human dignity

Make others powerful and capable

Encouraging the Heart

Achieving the organizational goals entails hard work and collective participation from all participants. Therefore, to keep the teams alive and determined, a leader must acknowledge individuals’ contributions to notable success. Recognizing the success of the teams cultivates a spirit of work and teamwork towards the organizational goal. This concept relates to the biblical verse, “Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up” (Galatians 6:7, NIV). Demonstrating leadership by encouraging heart entails the inspiration to remain persistent and committed towards the desired goals.

15

Hard work and collective participation

Keep the teams alive and determined

Acknowledge individuals’ contributions

Cultivates a spirit of work and teamwork

Persistent and committed towards the desired goals

The Essence of this Information

Encouragement to establish common goals

Envision the desired outcomes

Maximize efficiency

Framework for teamwork and coordination

Steer employee confidence and cooperation

Promoting diversity and sharing resources

Following this information will be a central source for encouragement to establish common goals and envision the desired outcomes. By adhering to this information, it will be possible to maximize efficiency by understanding individual and team roles and achieving organizational goals. This information matters for it provides a framework for teamwork and coordination to steer employee confidence and cooperation. Besides, this presentation is a salient avenue for promoting diversity and sharing resources for a common goal.

16

References

By, R. T. (2021). Leadership: In pursuit of purpose. Journal of Change Management, 21(1), 30-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697017.2021.1861698

Chin, J. L., Desormeaux, L., & Sawyer, K. (2016). Making way for paradigms of diversity leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68(1), 49-71. https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000051

Discover the five practices of exemplary leadership. (2021). Leadership Challenge. https://www.leadershipchallenge.com/Research/Five-Practices.aspx#:~:text

Gleeson, B. (2016, November 29). 10 Unique Perspectives On What Makes A Great Leader. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/brentgleeson/2016/11/09/10-unique-perspectives-on-what-makes-a-great-leader/?sh=774c844b5dd1

Cont:

Liphadzi, M., Aigbavboa, C., & Thwala, W. (2017). A theoretical perspective on the difference between leadership and management. Procedia Engineering, 196, 478-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.227

Moradi Korejan, M., & Shahbazi, H. (2016). An analysis of the transformational leadership theory. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 8(3), 452. https://doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i3s.192

Northouse, P. G. (2015). Leadership: Theory and practice. SAGE Publications.

The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). (2021, January 26). Developing organizational leaders. SHRM. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/developingorganizationalleaders.aspx

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Management homework help

5/1/22, 10:11 AM Multiweek Discussion Rubric – MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022928/viewContent/17973060/View 1/3

Multiweek Discussion Rubric

Overview

Your ac�ve par�cipa�on in the discussions is essen�al to your overall success this term. Discussion ques�ons will help you make

meaningful connec�ons between the course content and the larger concepts of the course. Conducted over a two-week �me

period, these discussions give you a chance to express your own thoughts, ask ques�ons, and gain insight from your peers and

instructor. Mul�week discussions allow for more flexibility around submission due dates compared to tradi�onal discussions and

encourage a deeper evolu�on of conversa�on around specific course concepts.

Direc�ons

For each discussion, you must create one ini�al post and follow up with at least two response posts.

For your ini�al post, do the following:

Write a post of 1 to 2 paragraphs.

In the first week one of this mul�week discussion, complete your ini�al post by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. of your local �me

zone.

Consider content from other parts of the course where appropriate. Use proper cita�on methods for your discipline when

referencing scholarly or popular sources.

For your response posts, do the following:

Reply to at least two classmates outside of your own ini�al post thread.

In the second week of this mul�week discussion, complete your two response posts by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. of your local

�me zone.

When responding to at least two of your peers’ pos�ngs, your responses should show that you have given thought to what

the original post said. They should also push the conversa�on forward, offering insights or asking clarifying ques�ons if

necessary.

Consider the following ques�ons:

Does your response push the conversa�on forward?

Does your response offer your perspec�ve?

What about your peers’ stories can you relate to?

What can you learn from your peers’ stories?

Are your responses clear?

Have you considered the viewpoints or insights of the original posts?

Criteria Exemplary Proficient Needs Improvement Not Evident Value

Comprehension Develops an ini�al

post with an

organized, clear

point of view or idea

using rich and

Develops an ini�al

post with a point of

view or idea using

appropriate detail

(90%)

Develops an ini�al

post with a point of

view or idea but with

some gaps in

organiza�on and

( )

Does not develop an

ini�al post with an

organized point of

view or idea (0%)

20

Mul�week Discussion Rubric



MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22… TM

5/1/22, 10:11 AM Multiweek Discussion Rubric – MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022928/viewContent/17973060/View 2/3

significant detail

(100%)

detail (70%)

Timeliness N/A Submits ini�al post

on �me (100%)

Submits ini�al post

one day late (70%)

Submits ini�al post

two or more days

late (0%)

10

Evolu�on of

Discussion

Adds insigh�ul,

meaningful, and

specific feedback

that takes the

relevant concepts to

a deeper level;

examines

assump�ons made

as a reader and calls

them out so they

can be addressed

(100%)

Adds substan�ally to

the discussion by

providing meaningful

and specific

feedback that probes

beyond the

superficial and

invites looking

deeper at the

subject; may include

asking the “why”

behind the “why”

(90%)

Adds to discussion

by providing specific

feedback, but some

of the feedback may

not promote deeper

thinking about the

subject (70%)

Does not provide

feedback that takes

the discussion to the

next level (0%)

20

Cri�cal Thinking Draws insigh�ul

conclusions that are

thoroughly defended

with evidence and

examples (100%)

Draws informed

conclusions that are

jus�fied with

evidence (90%)

Draws logical

conclusions (70%)

Does not draw

logical conclusions

(0%)

30

Wri�ng

(Mechanics)

Ini�al post and

responses are easily

understood, clear,

and concise using

proper cita�on

methods where

applicable with no

errors in cita�ons

(100%)

Ini�al post and

responses are easily

understood using

proper cita�on

methods where

applicable with few

errors in cita�ons

(90%)

Ini�al post and

responses are

understandable

using proper cita�on

methods where

applicable with a

number of errors in

cita�ons (70%)

Ini�al post and

responses are not

understandable and

do not use proper

cita�on methods

where applicable

(0%)

20

Total 100%

5/1/22, 10:11 AM Multiweek Discussion Rubric – MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22TW4

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Management homework help

Deliverable 3: Engaging Stakeholders

Brandy Felicita

Rasmussen University

Healthcare Strategic Planning and Marketing

Dr. Ide

1

May 2, 2022

Table 1 Strategy Map

Stakeholder

Specialists

Patients

Employees

Dynamic Insurance Firm

Colfax brand

Community wellness

Representation

Physicians

Users

Users

Insurance companies

Pharmaceutical

companies

Wellness

Roles/Responsibilities

Provide users with quality care.

Assess quality during interactions.

Provide feedback on quality assurance.

Provide feedback on quality during care.

Articulate quality improvement required.

Ensure services are quality oriented.

Provide feedback on workplace quality.

Financing cover plans on timely basis.

Review quality with insurance plans.

Provide supplies on timely basis for quality.

Articulate quality through brand products.

Review quality measures.

Evaluate quality perspectives from community participants.

Stakeholder Power

Legitimate Power

Expert Power

Expert Power

Coercive Power

Coercive Power

Reward Power

Meeting times

Weekly

Daily

Daily

Monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Timeline

Entire project time

Entire project time

Entire project time

Six months

Six months

Entire project time

The project will consider the inclusion of cultural diversity among the key stakeholders. For instance, specialists and employees as per the organizational policy are recruited considering age, gender, ethnicity, and race (Johnson & Orr, 2020). This already shows the internal stakeholders reflect diversity. Social interactions between shareholders and interest groups provide dimensions in expectations and mobilizing interests to meet organizational needs (Johnson & Orr, 2020). Patients to be selected as participants in the project will also be considered under cultures and conditions (Neto & Borges, 2019). The pharmaceuticals and community wellness organizations will be required to provide the diversity and inclusivity policy to depict diversity considerations (Neto & Borges, 2019). Adaptive factors displayed by institutions in the macro context foster acceptance of current market dynamics (Neto & Borges, 2019). Thus, considering inclusivity policy would explore organizational adaptations of diversity (Neto & Borges, 2019).

Ensuring fairness and equity will entail the selection stakeholders through random sampling. This is after an evaluation of their reputation in the community (for the organizations). Final approval depends on adequacy of settlement in respect to participation, opportunities, and allocation schemes (McGovern & Rubenstein, 2020). Further, the process will entail fair background evaluations to avoid discriminatory instances. Alternatively, employees and specialists will be selected by their colleagues in different departments for representation. The selected individuals are required to build commitment and prioritize the mission. Internal stakeholders play an imperative role in influencing changes required in the strategy plan. Allowing the team mates to select their preferred candidates would effectively lead to fairness and equity (Jasti et al., 2019).

Stakeholder Survey

Key Questions

1. What do you think is critical in ensuring quality healthcare standards are met?

2. What are your organizational standards in meeting quality assurance?

3. What measurements could be deployed to measure, review, and evaluate? (Jasti et al., 2019).

4. Are KPI’s effective in measuring healthcare quality?

5. How will incorporating quality KPI’s in the organization impact operations, processes, and outcomes?

6. How do your internal stakeholders perceive of the current quality measures?

7. Will the workplace culture allow quality measure changes and how will they be integrated in a span of three months?

8. Do the current quality measures and quality integration levels up to the expected standard?

9. In your organization what necessitates quality assurance and how is it effectively embedded in your workplace policy? (McGovern & Rubenstein, 2020).

Effectiveness Questions

1. What are your thoughts on what should be included in our agenda for the next meeting?

2. How would you influence changes you feel are required to improve quality standards and measures?

3. What reviews would you provide in our current quality focus strategy?

4. Which measures would you incorporate in our organization to influence quality assurance?

5. What would you term as a satisfactory meeting regarding this project? (Neto & Borges, 2019).

References

Jasti, B., Livesye, J., Oppenheimer, P., Boyce, E. & Long, T. (2019). Development, implementation, and assessment of a comprehensive strategy plan in a school pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical education, 83(6) 6899. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6899

Johnson, S. & Orr, K. (2020). What is business school research for? Academic and stakeholder perspectives, politics, and relationability. Studies in higher education, 45(3) 557-578. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1564901

McGovern, F. & Rubenstein, W. (2020). The negotiation class: a cooperative approach to class actions involving large stakeholders. Texas law review, 99(73). https://web.p.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=12&sid=14d30bf6-a12f-4064-ba50-d36f17499a73%40redis

Neto, J. & Borges, J. (2019). Narratives of stakeholders under the perspective of the strategy as social practice. Revista de Administracao Mackenzie, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-6971/eRAMR190118

Management homework help

1

3

5.3 Assignment-leader2leaderConversationReport

Delsa D. Christian

Indiana Wesleyan University

Developing the Self Leader

Dr. Michale Linville

September 27, 2021

In my Leader2Leader dialogue, I got a chance to engage Elder Joseph Jackson on matters of leadership. I narrowed my conversation with Elder Jackson into this week’s material on character, virtues, and values. Elder Jackson is a restaurant manager and ministry leader. Elder Jackson has been managing the restaurant for over ten years, making him a suitable interviewee, managing hundreds of employees. Because of his busy schedule, the meeting was conducted via Zoom. During the dialogue, I engaged Elder Jackson with the following questions;

1. Do you consider character an essential aspect of leadership? If yes, explain further.

“Yes, a character is essential to effective leadership since good character builds trust. When I joined the corporate world, I thought leadership was all about desire, determination, and personality; I did not realize it was all about character. This has struck me more as I go along this management journey. Leaders who are respected and followed by people have good and admirable characters among themselves, which makes them exemplary people in the community.”

2. What constitutes the character of an individual?

“An individual’s character consists of patterns and traits that influence their thoughts, emotion, motivation, and behavior. Character drives one to consistently think, behave, and feel in a certain way. A person of character is self-conscious and expresses gratitude freely and regularly.”

3. Mention three character strengths that define you

“The three character strengths that define me are wisdom and knowledge, courage and justice. As a leader, wisdom comes in handy when making decisions; I can assemble much-needed knowledge to understand situations before making the final decision. Having courage allows me to take risks, which has enabled me to make significant steps in life. Justice allows me to promote a culture that develops, empowers, and enriches my employees as a leader. It also allows me to ensure fairness in the workplace, especially when delegating duties.”

4. How does character dictate your manner of leadership?

“Being a committed and productive leader, character allows me to dictate hard work and perseverance in the workplace. I rarely accept unrealistic excuses from my employees; I also make sure that employees take responsibility for their actions. My character allows me to build a reputation for myself, both as a man of God, professional and as an individual.”

5. Which virtues and values do you find important in leadership?

“The virtues and values that I find important in leadership are decisiveness, courage, passion, and humility. Decisiveness is an important virtue for leaders since it allows them to make up their minds on certain issues that affect the organization. It also allows the leader to show consistency with their decisions. I also find courage important because it gives the leader the boldness and determination to pursue something that most may find difficult. On the other hand, passion gives the leader the inspiration and boundless energy to pursue certain tasks and responsibilities. The last virtue that I find important in leadership is humility. Great and successful leaders admit their mistakes when they are wrong; they also take criticism as an opportunity to grow.”

6. How can leaders achieve virtue ethics?

According to Elder Jackson, leaders can achieve virtue ethics by practicing positive attributes such as being honest, generous, just, and brave. This way, they will drastically build a moral and honorable character. By honoring God and having good virtues and attributes in life, leaders will develop good characters to help them make the right choices when faced with specific ethical challenges. Achieving such virtues is essential for leaders as it allows them to lead ethically without bending to urges, desires, or impulses.

7. How can a leader instill good virtues and values in his followers?

“Positive leadership builds trust and loyalty. When an employee knows that their employer is ethical, they will also start practicing ethical attributes. For instance, if an employer is honest, humble, and hardworking, they will also start to absorb these virtues from their employer. Besides being exemplary, a leader can instill good virtues and values on his followers by addressing these attributes in the employee handout; this way, the employees will understand what is expected of them in the organization.”

Conclusion

The above dialogue with Elder Joseph Jackson highlights essential insights about the significance of the character in leadership. Elder Jackson has highlighted the importance of virtues in leadership and how they impact the organization. The interviewee responses have also noted important insights that support what I have learned in this class, especially how to become an effective leader. From the dialogue, I have learned that character is essential to effective leadership since it builds trust, and without faith, one cannot be an effective leader.

Management homework help

Leadership

Overview

 Approaches/models

Leadership qualities

 Formal & informal

 Factors influencing leadership behaviour

  Styles and practices

Leadership Approaches

Trait Approach

Skill Approach

Style Approach

Situational Approach

Contingency Theory

https://youtu.be/xB-YhBbtfXE

https://youtu.be/ddt_IGMMOrI

Qualities of Great leaders

Good leader has a vision

Courage

Integrity

Humility

Strategic planning

Focus on strengths in themselves in others and the organization

Attributes of a Good Leader

Honesty

Ability to delegate

Effective communication

Confidence

Commitment

Positive attitude

Creativity

Intuition

Ability to inspire

Characteristics of a good leader

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=silPtekoFqE&feature=related

Formal and Informal leadership

Informal leadership is the ability of a person to influence the behavior of others by means other than formal authority conferred by the organization through its rules and procedures.

Informal leadership is basically any type of leadership that is not based upon formal authority.

The informal leader is someone who does not have the official authority to direct the group. Despite this, the group chooses to follow the lead of this person.

Formal and Informal leadership

Formal leaders are given leadership based on their position with a group. They are actually assigned to be leaders as part of their role in the group. Examples of formal leaders would be the teacher in a classroom or the manager within a company

For example, the class clown may be someone that the students in the class take cues from even though the teacher is the official leader of the classroom.

The informal leader may arise because he is charismatic and outgoing so that people want to listen to him, because she is easy to talk to, or because she exhibits certain knowledge and ideas that seem useful to the group.

8

Factors influencing leadership behaviour

Personality

One factor determining leadership style that cannot be ignored is the personality of the individual who is in charge of a group of employees

Belief System

A manager’s professional ethics is often a factor that influences his method of leadership. For example, the person who believes strongly in teamwork as the most successful approach to work often adopts a democratic leadership style

Factors influencing leadership behaviour

Company Culture

The nature of a company’s culture will influence the style of leadership used in the establishment. If there is a strong culture of motivated and well-trained employees, the managers can adopt a laissez faire style

Employee Diversity

Small businesses are hiring a more diverse workforce than in the past. A company is likely to employ people of different races, gender, ages and cultures. Leaders must respond to this diversity with a vision for their staff and by developing a multi-cultural approach to their work.

Leadership Styles

Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needs to know when to exhibit a particular approach

Leadership Styles

Laissez Faire Leadership

Authoritarian Leadership

Participative Leadership

Situational Leadership

Transformational Leadership

Laissez Faire Leadership

The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible .

All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.

Autocratic Leadership Style

The classical approach

Manager retains as much power and decision making authority as possible

Does not consult staff, nor allowed to give any input

Staff expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations

Structured set of rewards and punishments

Participative Leadership
(Democratic)

Encourages staff to be a part of the decision making

•Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities

When is is style more effective

15

Situational Leadership

A situational leader can be a mixture of an authoritarian and participative leadership style.

Transformational Leadership

A transformational leadership style is designed to make drastic changes to a management team. The leader is often highly charismatic and visionary, with specific plans on how to change the department or organization.

Transformational Leadership

Creates and sustains a context that maximizes human and organizational capabilities;

Facilitate multiple levels of transformation;

Align them with core values and a unified purpose

Transactional Leadership

Emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo

•In opposition to transformational leadership

•“By the book” approach -the person works within the rules

•Commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organisations

Three factors that influence which leadership style to use.

The manager’s personal background: What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work?

Staff being supervised: Staff individuals with different personalities and backgrounds; The leadership style used will vary depending upon the individual staff and what he or she will respond best to

The organization: The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the organization influence how a manager acts

Determining the Best Leadership Style

•Should leaders be more task or relationship (people) oriented

•Leaders have a dominant style, one they use in a wide variety of situations

•No one best style -leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led

•Many different aspects to being a great leader -a role requiring one to play many different leadership styles to be successful

Assignment

Individual presentation

1. Find an example in the media or otherwise of one person you feel is a great leader. Then write a paper on what model(s) he/she applies to lead others.

Give a background/ History of the individual

Give your evaluation of this person as a leader. Was he / she an effective leader.

2. Identify an organisation, explain the culture, structure and the business model of the organisation. Outline the leadership style you believe is most effective in this case?

Management homework help

Case Study 01

Blendtec Goes Global … Again

Harvey Scott, vice president of international development, was in charge of Blendtec’s global
expansion effort. He and his team had been gathering data and meeting with international
partners and contacts for months to help determine which global markets to enter, when to
enter them, and how. Scott had to decide how to leverage Blendtec’s existing network of
international partners and distribution channels, or whether to scrap them and start over. He
understood that in many international markets, if Blendtec didn’t get things right, it wouldn’t
get a second chance.

Blendtec began in 1975 when founder Tom Dickson created a revolutionary wheat mill.
Dickson next turned his attention to commercial kitchen appliances, and his blenders were an
unqualified success, reducing average blending times from around fifty seconds to just
thirteen.

Product performance made Blendtec the primary appliance supplier to big-name companies
like Starbucks and Jamba Juice. The company also partnered with Costco to sell Blendtec
blenders directly to consumers. These relationships initially stayed domestic, and Blendtec
was positioned to service a predominantly U.S. market. Starbucks and Costco, however, had
plans for global expansion.

Going Global
When Starbucks and Costco moved international in the early 1990s, Blendtec wasn’t an
international company, so it had no network in place to provide service and support to its big
customers. It promised to build a global supply and support network, but it faced new and
different problems in each market, which required additional innovation. For example, in
Australia, the power grid could fluctuate widely in terms of voltage. Most U.S. appliances
would burn up under that kind of power variation. Blendtec had to find a partner to explain
how to build a power regulation system that would protect appliances from those
fluctuations.

Mixing Things Up
After a few years abroad, the company wanted to enter other foreign markets using a more
strategic focus, not just in reaction to customers’ demands. To ensure its future, Harvey Scott
needed to determine Blendtec’s strategy. Future growth depended on his decision, and he
wouldn’t get a second chance to make a first impression on new markets and consumers.

Case Discussion Questions

1. Which markets are most likely to be most receptive to a greater presence from
Blendtec? Why? What differentiates those markets from other markets?

2. Should Blendtec sell to local retail stores or rely on global retailers such as
Costco?

3. Should Blendtec set up production facilities in foreign countries? For example,
would it be better to manufacture units in Brazil for that market or better to
ship product there and pay applicable import tariffs? Does that determination
vary from market to market?

Management homework help

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The Legal and Regulatory
Environment of BUSINESS

Nineteenth Edition

Marisa Anne PAGNATTARO
Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professor of Legal Studies,

University of Georgia

Daniel R. CAHOY
Professor of Business Law and Dean’s Faculty Fellow,

Pennsylvania State University

Julie Manning MAGID
Professor of Business Law and Kelley Venture Fellow, Indiana University

Peter J. SHEDD
University Professor Emeritus of Legal Studies, University of Georgia

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THE LEGAL AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS, NINETEENTH EDITION

Published by McGraw Hill LLC, 1325 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2022 by
McGrawHill LLC. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2019, 2016,
and 2013. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in
a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC, including, but not limited
to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI24 23 22 21

ISBN 978-1-260-73428-7 (bound edition)
MHID 1-260-73428-5 (bound edition)
ISBN 978-1-264-12581-4 (loose-leaf edition)
MHID 1-264-12581-X (loose-leaf edition)

Portfolio Manager: Kathleen Klehr
Product Developers: Elizabeth Pappas (Agate)
Marketing Manager: Claire McLemore
Content Project Managers: Fran Simon;/Jodi Banowetz
Buyer: Susan K. Culbertson
Designer: Beth Blech
Content Licensing Specialists: Gina Oberbrockling
Cover Image: Gavel – Kelly Redinger/Design Pics; Buildings – CHROMORANGE/Karl-Heinz Spremberg/Alamy Stock
Photo; People – Maskot/Getty Images; Wind Turbines – Ingram Publishing/SuperStock
Compositor: SPi Global

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Pagnattaro, Marisa Anne, 1961- author. | Cahoy, Daniel R., author. |
Magid, Julie Manning, author. | Reed, O. Lee (Omer Lee), author. | Shedd, Peter J., author.
Title: The legal and regulatory environment of business / Marisa Anne
Pagnattaro, Josiah Meigs, Distinguished Teaching Professor of Legal
Studies, University of Georgia; Daniel R. Cahoy, Professor of Business Law
and Dean’s Faculty Fellow, Pennsylvania State University; Julie Manning
Magid, Professor of Business Law, Indiana University; O. Lee Reed,
Emeritus Professor of Legal Studies, University of Georgia; Peter J. Shedd,
University Professor Emeritus of Legal Studies, University of Georgia.
Description: Nineteenth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw Hill LLC,
[2021] | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2020027610 (print) | LCCN 2020027611 (ebook) | ISBN 9781260734287 (hardcover) |
ISBN 1260734285 (bound edition) | ISBN 9781264125814 (loose-leaf edition) | ISBN 126412581X
(loose-leaf edition) | ISBN 9781264125838 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Trade regulation–United States. | Commercial law–United States. | Industrial laws
and legislation–United States. | LCGFT: Textbooks.
Classification: LCC KF1600 .C6 2021 (print) | LCC KF1600 (ebook) | DDC 346.7307–dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020027610
LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020027611

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does
not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw Hill LLC, and McGraw Hill LLC does not guarantee the
accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

mheducation.com/highered

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Marisa Anne PAGNATTARO
Marisa Anne Pagnattaro is a Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professor of
Legal Studies in the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia. She
received her Ph.D. in English at the University of Georgia, her J.D. from New York
Law School, and her B.A. from Colgate University. Prior to joining the Georgia fac-
ulty, Dr. Pagnattaro was a litigation attorney with Kilpatrick & Cody (now known as
Kilpatrick Townsend) in Atlanta. Dr. Pagnattaro is the recipient of numerous teach-
ing awards, and she also won the Academy of Legal Studies in Business Charles M.
Hewett Master Teacher Competition. She is the author of many scholarly articles
on national and international employment law issues, as well as labor issues related
to international trade and the protection of trade secrets in China. She is an active
member of the Academy of Legal Studies in Business and is a former Editor in Chief
of the American Business Law Journal.

Daniel R. CAHOY
Dan Cahoy is a Professor of Business Law, Dean’s Faculty Fellow and Research
Director of the Center for the Business of Sustainability in the Smeal College of
Business at The Pennsylvania State University. He is a registered patent attorney,
with a J.D. from the University of New Hampshire School of Law and a B.A. from
the University of Iowa. Prior to joining Penn State, Professor Cahoy was a litigator
at an intellectual property firm in New York City, where he specialized in pharma-
ceutical and biotechnology cases. He is the author of numerous scholarly articles
on technology law, regulatory policy, and sustainability, and he received a Fulbright
Scholarship in 2009 to serve as the Visiting Chair in International Humanitarian
Law at the University of Ottawa. Professor Cahoy is a former Editor in Chief of the
American Business Law Journal and IDEA: The Journal of Law and Technology. He
has also held various leadership positions in academic organizations including serv-
ing as the President of the Academy of Legal Studies in Business.

about the authors

Simone Beasley

Pennsylvania State University

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Julie Manning MAGID
Julie Manning Magid is a Professor of Business Law and Kelley Venture Fellow
in the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University. She also is the Director of
the Randall L. Tobias Center for Leadership Excellence at Indiana University. She
received her J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School and her A.B. from
Georgetown University. Prior to joining the Kelley School faculty, Professor Magid
was a litigation attorney specializing in employment and business litigation. Profes-
sor Magid is recognized for her teaching in the undergraduate, graduate, specialized
graduate, and online teaching environments, with numerous teaching awards, includ-
ing the Kelley School of Business MBA Teaching Excellence Award and the Schuy-
ler F. Otteson Undergraduate Teaching Excellence Award. Her teaching received
international recognition from the Academy of Legal Studies in Business as the over-
all winner of the Charles M. Hewitt Master Teacher Award. Professor Magid is the
author of numerous scholarly articles and book chapters focused on public policy
related to health care, diversity and inclusion, innovation, and privacy. She is a Life
Sciences Research Fellow with the Center for the Business of Life Science and for-
mer Editor in Chief of the American Business Law Journal.

Peter J. SHEDD
Peter Shedd is the University Professor Emeritus of Legal Studies in the Terry Col-
lege of Business at the University of Georgia where he received his B.B.A. and J.D.
degrees. He also has been a Visiting Professor in the Ross School of Business at
the University of Michigan and the Warrington College of Business at the Univer-
sity of Florida. Professor Shedd has extensive experience as a teacher, researcher,
administrator, and author of business-related texts. His teaching of undergraduate
and MBA courses has earned Professor Shedd numerous teaching awards including
being named a Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professor. Professor Shedd is a
member of the Academy of Legal Studies in Business and its Southeastern Regional.
He served as national president during 1999–2000. Professor Shedd is a member
of the State Bar of Georgia and is an experienced arbitrator and mediator. In 2020,
Professor Shedd was honored by the University of Georgia Alumni Association with
their Faculty Service Award.

Indiana University

Peter Shedd

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T
his nineteenth edition continues the long, rich tradition of our commitment
to presenting timely examples and cases that underscore the relevance of the
law for business. We are passionate about helping students understand the

importance of the legal and regulatory environment of business. Our goal is to make
this text accessible, and we hope that they will embrace the study of the law with
enthusiasm. In this preface, we strive to highlight themes, additions, and pedagogical
devices—including important electronic features—that are key to this edition.

The Nineteenth Edition: Themes and New Additions
With each new edition, we endeavor to maintain the reputation of this text as being the
most up-to-date on the latest important developments in the law for business. As we
prepare each new edition, we consider the events that affect the business environment
and discuss how to incorporate them into the text. The nineteenth edition includes
a new focus on sustainability and innovation, including the ethical issues. Because
we were in the midst of revising the text during COVID-19, issues related to the pan-
demic are also incorporated throughout this edition. We also continue to highlight
ongoing legal fallout from the 2008 financial crisis. In this edition, we spotlight the
U.S. Supreme Court case Iancu v. Brunetti, which addresses issues at the intersection
of business and the law related to the protection (trademarks) and the First Amend-
ment. We also added a number of recent federal cases and Supreme Court decisions.

Each chapter includes a range of relevant examples and case opinions, with
key points noted for each case. Sidebars within each chapter provide students and
instructors with opportunities to learn about topics that illustrate the principles dis-
cussed within the text. Margin comments also reinforce key themes and points of
emphasis. We hope that that this layering of the law with examples reinforces each
student’s understanding of the law for business.

We believe that this text is well suited for both legal environment and business
law classes. The fundamental message we wish our readers to grasp is that the law
is at the core of private enterprise. The law determines ownership and protects busi-
ness and individual ownership interests, which is why property law is at the heart
of this text. Law defines property, enforces property rights, resolves disputes about
where the boundaries of property lie, and recognizes that compensation is appropri-
ate when one person infringes across the boundary of what is owned by another.
Nations enforcing property rights under the rule of law establish conditions for cre-
ating prosperous, diversified economies, which are crucial for businesses to thrive.

All of the current examples and sidebars are designed to teach business students
the relevance of the law for business and to prepare them to make informed decisions
about how the law can be used strategically to protect their rights and business interests.

Organization of the Nineteenth Edition
This edition consists of 22 chapters, divided into four parts. Part One introduces
students to the legal foundations for business. The first chapter in this section under-
scores the importance of the legal environment of business to appreciate the role
of law as the foundation for business in the private market system. This section
also includes a chapter on ethics, as well as three chapters pertaining to dispute

preface

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resolution: courts, litigation, and alternative dispute resolution. Lastly, this first part
includes a chapter on the U.S. Constitution (including the Commerce Clause) and
its fundamental role in the legal system for business.

Part Two consists of basic legal principles, incorporating eight chapters: property,
contract formation, contractual performance, torts, intellectual property, international
law, criminal law, and business organizations. These chapters are designed to help stu-
dents learn basic legal principles, as well as how to identify them in business contexts.

Part Three details the regulatory landscape for business. Five chapters cover
essential regulatory aspects of business: the regulatory process, antitrust, financial and
securities regulation, privacy and consumer protection, and environmental regulation.

The final section, Part Four, contains three chapters pertaining to the employer–
employee relationship: discrimination, employment laws (including agency), and the
labor–management relationship.

Taken together, these chapters should provide students with a comprehensive,
yet accessible, sense of the laws and regulations crucial for companies doing busi-
ness in the United States.

WHAT’S NEW
PART ONE

Chapter 1 Law as Foundation for Business

• Edited the Introduction to incorporate new themes for the text, including sus-
tainability, integrity, and corporate social responsibility.

• Updated Sidebar 1.1, adding information about Wells Fargo to underscore the
kind of liability that can result from a lack of integrity.

• Added new Sidebar 1.2 about the importance of lawyers in the boardroom.
• Updated Sidebar 1.3 with information from the AmCham China 2019 Climate Survey.
• Updated Sidebar 1.4 with a new example involving a $1 billion scandal at Gold-

man Sachs.
• Replaced Sidebar 1.5 with a new topic about the enforceability of corporate

social responsibility.

Chapter 2 Ethics in Decision Making

• Added discussion in introduction about the Business Roundtable Statement
calling for fair and ethical treatment of suppliers.

• Added new Learning Objective 2-1 about ethical challenges facing business in
the 21st century.

• Added new subsection “Modern Ethical Challenges in Innovation and Technol-
ogy” addressing artificial intelligence.

• Added information about FTC fine for violations of user privacy against Facebook.
• Added 2018 National Business Ethics Survey results.
• Added new Sidebar 2.3 “Facebook Tackles Fake News.”
• Updated Hertz standards of business conduct.
• Updated Sidebar 2.7 with Boeing Code of Conduct.

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Chapter 3 Courts

• Updated the federal caseload statistics in Sidebar 3.1.
• Updated Sidebar 3.3 with new examples.
• Sidebar 3.4 updated with the 2018 term stats.
• Updated the statistics in Sidebar 3.5 and added information about 5-4 Supreme

Court decisions.
• Revised Sidebar 3.6, adding information about the role of the chief justice.
• Updated Sidebar 3.7 with information about the process of selection of a

Supreme Court justice.
• Updated Sidebar 3.8 with new information about how business fares in the Rob-

erts Court.
• Updated Sidebar 3.9.
• Updated Sidebar 3.11 with new information about the Supreme Court justices.
• Added new Case 3.1 Iancu v. Brunetti and commentary in the text, replacing

Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins. The corresponding Case Briefing in Appendix I has
been updated as well.

Chapter 4 Litigation

• Added a new Case 4.1 Juliana v. United States regarding standing to sue related
to climate change.

• Updated Sidebar 4.3 adding information about Paul Ceglia.
• Added a new example to Sidebar 4.4 about allegations regarding Apple and throttling.
• Updated Sidebar 4.5 with new cases including major securities-related class

action cases, Facebook litigation, and a class action related to a data breach.
• Revised Sidebar 4.7 with a new example related to discovery abuse.
• Updated Sidebar 4.8 adding commentary about big data being used to predict lawsuits.
• New Sidebar 4.10 with examples of frivolous lawsuits.
• Added new examples to Sidebar 4.11 about social media and jurors.
• Updated Sidebar 4.15 with new information about cameras in the courtroom,

including Congressional testimony by Justices Kagen and Alito.

Chapter 5 Alternative Dispute Resolution

• Updated conflict example to reflect modern global office culture.
• Updated marginalia concerning number of tort cases settled out of court.
• Replaced Sidebar 5.4 referencing trends in arbitration including #MeToo and

Uber agreement examples.
• Replaced Sidebar 5.11 with a summary of four recent Supreme Court rulings

developing arbitration law.

Chapter 6 The Constitution

• Added a new Sidebar 6.3 with the case involving the sale of wine and spirits in
Tennessee as an example of litigation related to the Commerce Clause.

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• Updated Sidebar 6.4 with information about the kinds of acts that can jeopar-
dize tax-exempt status.

• Updated Sidebar 6.7 with an example from the 2020 Superbowl and a FCC fine
involving Jimmy Kimmel.

• Updated Sidebar 6.9 with a new case involving the First Amendment and a rap artist.
• Updated Sidebar 6.10 with new 2020 label on cigarette packaging and issues

related to vaping.
• Updated Sidebar 6.12 regarding the Second Amendment.
• Updated information about the Oberfeld case.
• Clarified information about the levels of scrutiny.

PART TWO

Chapter 7 Property

• Updated Sidebar 7.4 to address recent Supreme Court case on intangible
property.

• Updated Sidebar 7.5 to address current drone use and include current references.
• Added new Case 7.1 Briggs v. Southwestern Energy Prod. Co. and commentary

in the text, replacing Coastal Oil v. Garza.
• Added Sidebar 7.9 on property rights impact of light, odor and noise.
• Added Sidebar 7.10 discussing how property restrictions contribute to sustainability.

Chapter 8 Contract Formation

• Added Sidebar 8.7, Overcharging into Invalidity to address contractual issues
related to price gouging.

• Updated Sidebar 8.8 to reflect new legislation regarding non-compete covenants.
• Added Sidebar 8.9 to address truth in sustainability advertising and greenwashing.

Chapter 9 Contract Performance and Breach

• Replaced Sidebar 9.1 to more broadly address the judge’s role in interpreting
contracts and highlight recent case.

• Added section on Force Majeure clauses as excuses for non-performance.
• Added Sidebar 9.4 to address when a global pandemic will be considered a

Force Majeure.

Chapter 10 Torts

• Added a definition for business invitee.
• Revised Trespass section to distinguish trespass from business invitee.
• Added new marginalia about defamation on web pages that allow comments.
• Added new marginalia describing 2019 defamation claim filed against Amazon’s

Jeff Bezos.
• New Sidebar 10.2 addressing Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act

and Trump Administration Executive Order.

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• Included discussion about manipulation of audio or visual files as potential mis-
appropriation concern.

• Revised Sidebar 10.6 updating medical malpractice claims.
• Condensed Case 10.4 for readability.
• Replaced Sidebar 10.11 describing the increase in billion dollar jury verdicts.

Chapter 11 Intellectual Property

• Revised Sidebar 11.1 to include discussion of 2018 Nobel Prize winner Paul
Romer’s work.

• Added Sidebar 11.3 on the role of trade secrets in international trade relations,
particularly with China.

• Updated text on trade secrets to include current UTSA adoptions.
• Added Sidebar 11.6 to address whether artificial intelligence (AI) can be an

inventor on a patent.
• Added Sidebar 11.8 to discuss sharing intellectual property related to the

COVID-19 pandemic as an emergency response.
• Revised Sidebar 11.10 to address Matal v. Tam and Iancu v. Brunetti cases and

cross reference Case 3.1.
• Added Sidebar 11.13 to discuss Public Domain Day and the expiration of copy-

right on a new set of works.
• Added new Case 11.4 Skidmore v. Led Zeppelin and commentary in the text,

replacing Campbell v. Acuff Rose.
• Added Sidebar 11.14 concerning two recent Supreme Court cases that address

state copyright ownership and infringement.

Chapter 12 International Law

• Updated Figure 12.1, Top Ten Trading Partners, with 2019 year-end data.
• Updated Sidebar 12.1 with current information from Transparency Interna-

tional, including new commentary about corruption and inequality.
• Updated Sidebar 12.3 with new FCPA prosecutions.
• Updated marginalia with new information about export controls.
• Added a new example of a $1 billion fraud scheme involving fraudulently

obtained funds and money laundering.
• Updated the text and Table 12.2 to reflect the withdrawal of the United King-

dom from the EU (Brexit).
• Updated Sidebar 12.4 to focus on export violations.
• Updated Sidebar 12.5 with new information about pirate attacks.
• Updated all information about NAFTA, now known as USMCA.
• Updated Sidebar 12.9 about the top international franchises.
• Updated Sidebar 12.10 regarding Chiquita’s liability for alleged acts in Colombia.
• Updated Sidebar 12.12 regarding Chevron and Texaco’s liability for alleged acts

in Ecuador.

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Chapter 13 Criminal Law

• Made general chapter updates, including the chapter introduction. Updates
include the Wells Fargo $3 billion criminal fine and marginalia regarding incar-
ceration in the United States.

• Revised Sidebar 13.1 to add potential fraud related to COVID-19.
• Updated information about the grand jury process.
• Updated Sidebar 13.2 with additional information regarding the death of Bernard

Ebbers who was incarcerated for fraud at WorldCom.
• Added new material to Sidebar 13.5 about checking identification and the case

Kansas v. Glover.
• Updated Sidebar 13.6 with additional information about Bernie Madoff.
• Updated Sidebar 13.7 and added more examples of fraud schemes.
• Case 13.1 added a note about Carpenter v. U.S. involving searches and cell phones.
• Case 13.2 added updated information about Jeffrey Skilling.
• Updated Sidebar 13.8 with new information about preventing identity theft.
• Updated Sidebar 13.9 with new information about the Department of Justice

priorities related to false claims act cases
• Updated Sidebar 13.12 with new information about the post-prison life of Don

Blankenship.
• Replaced Sidebar 13.13 with a new example involving the prosecution of execu-

tives at the New England Compounding Center.

Chapter 14 Business Organizations

• Revised Taxation overview to include information about the 2017 Tax Cuts and
Jobs Act.

• Added Sidebar 14.2 to provide detail of changes that Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
made to corporate tax rates.

• Revised Trends in Managing the Organization to describe increasing emphasis
on sustainability.

• Added new Case 14.2 Marchand v. Barnhill and commentary in text, replacing
FCC v. AT&T.

• Revised Trends in Managing the Organization to discuss how businesses are
dealing with remote workspaces.

PART THREE

Chapter 15 Regulatory Process

• Updated Sidebar 15.2 examining the unique structure of the Consumer Finan-
cial Protection Bureau to include 2018 D.C. Circuit Court opinion.

• Added marginalia concerning FTC request for information from big tech
companies.

• Replaced Case 15.1 with Free Lucia v. SEC highlighting the authority of admin-
istrative law judges in federal agencies.

• Added Key Points for Case 15.1.

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Chapter 16 Antitrust Regulation

• Added new Case 16.1 Prosterman v. American Airlines and commentary in text,
replacing U.S. v. Apple.

• Added Sidebar 16.2, addressing debate regarding whether Big Tech firms are
monopolists.

• Added new Case 16.3, Apple v. Pepper, and commentary in text, replacing
Kolon Industries v. E.I. Dupont De Nemours.

• Updated Figure 16.3 on criminal antitrust fines (2008-2019).

Chapter 17 Financial and Securities Regulation

• Updated marginalia with quote concerning capital formation trends.
• Replaced Case 17.1 with Lorenzo v. SEC in which the Supreme Court addressed

Rule 10b-5 liability.
• Added Key Points for Lorenzo v. SEC.
• Added reference to Case 17.1 in discussion of PSLRA.
• Updated number of filings of securities claims against foreign companies with

2019 data.
• Update Table 17.2 with data from 2010-2019.
• Added new marginalia providing link to the 2019 PCAOB five-year strategic plan.
• Updated Dodd-Frank whistleblower discussion with Supreme Court’s 2018 deci-

sion in Digital Realty Trust, Inc. v. Somers.
• Added findings from 2019 SEC crowdfunding study under the JOBS Act.
• Added Figure 17.1 demonstrating the geographical distribution of crowdfunding

offerings.

Chapter 18 Privacy and Consumer Protection

• Added new Case 18.1 Carpenter v. United States and commentary in text,
replacing In re Zynga.

• Added Sidebar 18.2 discussing the possible exchange of privacy rights for
increased protection and security during a crisis.

• Updated Sidebar 18.3 discussing the development and impact of the GDPR.
• Added discussion of 2018 Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer

Protection Act that revised system for credit freezes and fraud alerts.

Chapter 19 Environmental Regulation and Resource Sustainability

• Updated Learning Objective 19-4 to reflect 21st century sustainability issues.
• Updated NEPA discussion to include 2020 proposed rule limiting its impact.
• Updated data regarding international air quality rankings.
• Changed the title of Table 19.1 to better reflect its contents.
• Replaced marginalia with Supreme Court’s 2020 Clean Water Act decision in

County of Maui v. Hawaii Wildlife Fund.
• Updated Superfund cleanup discussion with Supreme Court’s 2019 case Atlan-

tic Richfield v. Christian.

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• Changed the final section title to Sustainability Approaches to better reflect
updated contents.

• Reorganized discussion of the Kyoto Protocol as a precursor to the Paris Agree-
ment and updated the Paris Agreement discussion.

• Added discussion about government and business leaders around the world
engaging in new actions to preserve the environment and promote jobs, such as
education and ecotourism.

PART FOUR

Chapter 20 Employment Discrimination

• Updated marginalia and added additional information to the text, including the
McDonald’s sexual harassment class action.

• Updated Figure 20.1 EEOC data.
• Updated Sidebar 20.3 with new material about concerns related to COVID-19.
• Updated Sidebar 20.4 with additional examples about religious accommodation

claims related to Muslims.
• Updated Sidebar 20.5 with additional information about the many forms of sex-

ual harassment for women in the workplace.
• Updated Sidebar 20.6 with information about #MeToo and the unintended con-

sequences and backlash in the workplace.
• Updated Sidebar 20.7 information about pregnancy discrimination claims and

added more information about the Young v. UPS case.
• Updated Sidebar 20.9 with information about cases brought in the U.S. Supreme

Court involving LGBT discrimination.
• Updated Sidebar 20.10 with a case involving age discrimination at PwC.
• Updated Sidebar 20.11 with additional examples.

Chapter 21 Employment Laws

• Updated minimum wage information and added statistics on COVID-19
unemployment.

• Updated Sidebar 21.1 with the FLSA overtime rules and new examples.
• Updated Sidebar 21.2 with information about the department of Labor’s new

primary beneficiaries test for internships.
• Updated Sidebar 21.4 FMLA statistics information.
• Added an example to Sidebar 21.9 about OSHA’s severe violator program.
• Updated Sidebar 21.10 with information about Families First Coronavirus

Response legislation.

Chapter 22 Labor–Management Relationship

• Updated Table 22.1 with statistics on union membership.
• Updated Sidebar 22.1 with information on union membership.
• Replaced Sidebar 22.2 with details of three Trump Administration Executive

Orders.

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• Replaced Sidebar 22.5 with information about Kickstarter, the first technology
company to unionize.

• Update statistics regarding state right-to-work laws.

Authorship Team
One of the strengths of this text is its continuity of authorship and the coordina-
tion among the authorship team. Marisa Pagnattaro, who joined the team on the
fourteenth edition, continues to lead the authorship team. Dan Cahoy (who began
on the sixteenth edition) and Julie Manning Magid (who joined on the seventeenth
edition) have played a significant role in shaping this edition. Peter Shedd, who has
long been a steward of the text, joined the book as a co-author on the eighth edition
in 1990. Although he is no longer part of the authorship team, we want to recognize
Lee Reed who joined the team in 1977 on the fourth edition.

Acknowledgments
We want to thank a number of people who contributed to the nineteenth edition. We
greatly appreciate the efforts of our team at McGraw-Hill, especially Tim Vertovec and
Kathleen Klehr. We greatly appreciate their support of the authorship team and the
continued development of new electronic features of the text. We are also grateful to
all of the regional sales team representatives for their ent

Management homework help

Required Assessment – Customer Satisfaction Survey Paper HL 400

Description (Course Guide)

The opinions of customers regarding healthcare experiences should be of primary importance to healthcare leaders. There are several ways for an organization to obtain information about its customers’ perceptions of products and services received. In this 5-7 page (not including cover sheet, abstract, or reference list) APA-formatted paper, students will describe the various methods by which healthcare organizations gather feedback from their customers. Using research to validate their statements, students should assert which method is more reliable at receiving a higher return rate. A minimum of five (5) professional references must be included. References should be less than five years old in order to reflect current information. After researching data on how to compose a survey that is unbiased and does not lead a customer to choose a particular option, students will compose a customer satisfaction survey. This survey should be one (1) page in length and is not part of the 5-7 page paper. Students should write the survey as if they are querying customers after receiving care in an ambulatory care facility. This survey must be original work done by the student.

Grading Components *

% of
Grade *

Below Standard

Approaching Standard

At Standard

Exceeds Standard

APA style (citations/reference list)

15

Fails to cite and reference sources to support ideas. Paper is not in proper APA format. The majority of the resources are more than five years old.

Attempts to cite and reference credible and/or relevant sources, appropriate to the discipline, to support ideas. Portions of paper are in proper APA format. Several of the resources are more than five years old.

Almost always cites and references credible and/or relevant sources, appropriate to the discipline to support ideas. Most of the paper, including the reference list, is in proper APA format. Most of the resources are less than five years old.

Always cites and references credible and/or relevant sources, appropriate to the discipline, to support ideas. Includes more than the required number or resources. APA formatting throughout the paper is flawless. Nearly all of the resources are less than five years old.

Style and Mechanics

15

Contains spelling, punctuation, and/or grammatical errors, so understanding is difficult. Contains numerous awkward or ungrammatical sentences, and sentence structure is simple or monotonous. Misuses words, or uses words that are too vague and abstract or too personal and specific for the topic. Student is more than one-page short of the minimum page requirement.

Contains spelling, punctuation, and/or grammatical errors which may temporarily confuse the reader, but does not generally impede the overall understanding. Sentence structure generally correct but may be wordy, unfocused, repetitive, or confusing. Uses relatively vague or general words and sometimes inappropriate words. Paper is not in the third person throughout. Student is one-page short of the minimum page requirement.

Contains minimal spelling, punctuation, and/or grammatical errors that not impede understanding. Sentences generally clear, well structured, and focused. Generally uses words accurately and effectively, but sometimes may be too general. Paper is in the third person throughout. Students meets the minimum page requirement.

Entirely free of spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors. Sentences are varied, clearly structured, carefully focused, and fits assignment’s purpose and audience. Words chosen for their precise meaning and an appropriate level of specificity is used. Paper is written in the third person throughout. Student exceeds the minimum page requirement.

Description of Best Practices and Increases

35

Student does not describe the best practices for obtaining patient satisfaction data in the healthcare industry and/or does not assert which method is more reliable at receiving a higher return rate.

Student attempts to describe the best practices for obtaining patient satisfaction data in the healthcare industry and assert which method is more reliable at receiving a higher return rate. Students description is vague, incomplete, or inaccurate.

Student describes the best practices for obtaining patient satisfaction data in the healthcare industry and assert which method is more reliable at receiving a higher return rate. Students description is clear, complete, accurate, and fully supported by literature.

Student describes the best practices for obtaining patient satisfaction data in the healthcare industry and assert which method is more reliable at receiving a higher return rate. Students description is clear, complete, accurate, and fully supported by literature. Student provides numerous examples to further understanding of the data.

Customer Satisfaction Survey

35

Student does not compose a customer satisfaction survey or the survey does not meet two or more of the parameters described in the assignment.

Student attempts to compose a customer satisfaction survey. The survey does not met one of the parameters described in the assignment.

Student composes a customer satisfaction survey that meets all of the parameters described in the assignment.

Student composes a customer satisfaction survey that meets all of the parameters described in the assignment. Student’s survey shows a high level of critical thinking in the verbiage of the questions.

Total

100

 

 

 

 


Management homework help

What criteria should he consider? What should be the sequence for
selecting and assigning people to projects?

Case 8.3

Tham Luang Cave Rescue
On June 23, 2018, in Thailand, a group of 12 boys aged between 11 and 17
from the local football team, named the Wild Boars, and their 23-year-old
assistant coach entered the Tham Luang cave. Tham Luang is a large cave
complex in northern Thailand along the border with Myanmar. The cavern
was popular with locals and the boys had visited Tham Luang before. Tham
Luang cave is isolated—there is no GPS, Wi-Fi, or cell phone service. The
last known survey was conducted in the 1980s by a French caving society,
but many of the deeper recesses remain unmapped.

The boys had little difficulty getting fairly far into the cave, crawling
through a couple of choke points to open spaces. They did not anticipate
any problems getting back. The monsoon rains weren’t expected until the
next week, and the year before, the cave did not begin to flood until the
middle of July. The team took no food with them, because this was going to
be a brief field trip. They planned to stay for perhaps an hour, then return
home to their parents.

However, nature had different plans. Heavy monsoon rain began to fall.
The Wild Boars didn’t know about the rain at first. There was a thousand
feet of rock above them and they were more than a mile from the open
forest. Heavy rains gathered in streams that disappeared into sinks, rushing
through limestone into the cavern. Water rose suddenly and quickly, forcing
the team to retreat farther and farther into the cave. The interior of the cave
is not level but rather rises and falls as it burrows into the mountain. The
team scrambled for higher ground as the water continued to rise. Finally,
they settled on a mud slope and waited to see if the water would continue to
rise. It didn’t.

page 304

A mother of one of the boys contacted the police when her child failed
to come home. A teammate who had missed practice that day told people
that the team had planned to visit the cave after practice. Parents rushed to
the cave, only to find their children’s bikes and cleats at the entrance and
the cave flooded.

A contingent of Thai Navy SEAL divers arrived the next day and began
pushing their way into the flooded cave. This was no easy task. The Thai
frogmen were accustomed to tropical open water, not the dark, cold currents
racing through the cave. They lacked equipment, much less
expertise needed for caves, where divers cannot just rise to the
surface if something goes wrong.

The plight of the Wild Boars drew international attention overnight.
Soon skilled cave divers from around the world, including Finland, Britain,
China, Australia, and the United States, volunteered their services. At first
the foreign divers were not met with open arms by the Thai military in
charge of the rescue. Many of the SEAL divers bristled at the idea of
needing foreign assistance. The divers were not even allowed into the cave.
After much political haggling, the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs told the
military chiefs to let the foreign divers go.

Even the experienced cave divers found the conditions extremely
difficult. “It was like walking into a strong waterfall and feeling the water
rushing at you,” one diver said. “It was a horizontal climb against water
with every move.”

The divers painstakingly penetrated the cave, securing guidelines
needed to ensure safety. Visibility at times was negligible. “If you put your
hand in front of you, it just disappeared,” said one diver. “You couldn’t see
anything.”

Meanwhile, on the surface, policemen with sniffer dogs searched for
shaft openings that could provide an alternative entrance to the cave system.
The search was augmented by hundreds of volunteers dressed in lemon-
yellow shirts and sky-blue caps, searching for hidden cracks in the
limestone that might reveal an opening to the cave. Drones were also used,
but no technology existed to scan for humans deep underground. Local holy
men created a shrine at the mouth of the cave, where they chanted and
communed with the spirit of the cave, “Jao Mae Tham.” Several times the
search had to be suspended due to heavy rains.

page 305

After the team had spent 10 days of captivity without real food or water,
there was little hope among the rescuers of discovering the boys alive.

In the cave, a pair of British divers working to extend the guide ropes
popped up near a narrow ledge. First they smelled, and then they saw, 13
emaciated people perched in the dark. The Wild Boars had run out of food
and light but had survived by sipping the condensation from the cave walls.
Later it was reported that the assistant coach, a Buddhist, had led the boys
in meditation to relax and conserve energy. The ledge where they were
found was about 2.5 miles from the cave mouth.

The next day Thai SEALs ferried food, water, and blankets to the Wild
Boars. Four divers, including a doctor, would stay with them until their
rescue. Thai officials reported that the rescuers were providing health
checks, keeping the boys entertained, and none of the boys were in serious
condition.

Thai officials released a video made by the rescuers and shared to the
world. The video showed all 12 boys and their coach introducing
themselves and stating their ages. Wrapped in emergency blankets and
appearing frail, each boy said hello to the outside world, “Sawasdee khrap,”
with his palms together in wai, the traditional Thai greeting. The video went
viral. Soon all the major newscasts across the world were covering the
story. The big question then became, now that the boys had been found,
how could they be gotten out alive?

A rescue camp was set up at the cave entrance, accommodating the
volunteers and journalists in addition to the rescue workers. The camp was
divided into zones: restricted areas for the Thai Navy SEALs, other military
personnel, and civilian rescuers; an area for relatives to wait in privacy; and
areas for the press and general public.

An estimated 10,000 people contributed to the rescue effort, including
more than 100 divers, 900 police officers, 2,000 soldiers, and numerous
volunteers. Equipment included 10 police helicopters, seven ambulances,
and more than 700 diving cylinders, of which more than 500 were in the
cave at any time while another 200 were in queue to be refilled.

The plight of the Wild Boars caught the attention of Elon Musk of Tesla
and Space X fame. He tasked engineers to build a kid-size submarine that

could be used to transport the boys out of the cave. Within days an actual
submarine was sent to Tham Luang. Thai officials praised the effort but
concluded it was not practical, given the narrow passages in the cavern.

The journey through the cave to the team took six hours against current
and five hours to exit with the current. The route had several flooded
sections, some with strong currents and zero visibility, and some extremely
narrow parts, the smallest measuring only 15 by 28 inches. The boys were
perched on a ledge 400 yards from Pattaya beach chamber, named after an
above-ground beach in Thailand. Chamber 3, which was dry, would be used
as rescue base.

Pumps were brought in to remove water from the cave. Although not a
solution, efforts at draining the cave began to produce results. Crags and
outcroppings emerged from the murk. The most challenging passage, which
had taken five hours to navigate early on, could now be traversed in two
hours with the help of guide ropes.

As the crisis unfolded, rescuers considered several different methods to
save the team. The principal options included
Wait until the end of the monsoon season, with divers providing food and
water.
Find an alternative entrance to the cave that would allow for an easier
escape.
Drill a rescue shaft.
Teach the group basic diving skills and have them swim out with the
divers.

Waiting until the monsoons ended in November and the water drained was
the simplest solution. The boys could walk out on their own. However, the
logistics did not make sense. Feeding 13 people, three times a day, for even
60 days is more than 2,750 meals. Every meal would have to be ferried in
by a team of divers, flirting with death each time they went under.

This was a growing concern. Four days after the boys were found,
retired Navy SEAL diver Saman Kunan lost consciousness while returning
from dropping off three air tanks. His dive buddy attempted CPR without
success. Kunan had left his airport security job to volunteer for the rescue
mission. Before that fatality, three divers were lost for over three hours in
the dark cave, and rescue efforts had to be redirected to find them.

page 306

From the beginning hundreds of volunteers crawled over the hillside in
search of hidden openings. People knew the odds were slim to none, given
the depth of the cave, but it was worth a try.

Drilling through a couple thousand feet of rock would require extensive
infrastructure work and take too long. Besides, there was significant
uncertainty as to where to drill.

That left the fourth option. None of the boys or the coach knew how to
dive. Even if they could master the basics, cave diving is not the same as a
practice run at a resort swimming pool. A weakened child submerged in
darkness and breathing unnaturally through a regulator is likely to panic.
Yet through long stretches of the cave, he wouldn’t be able to surface and
regain his composure—he would be in a flooded tunnel.

Privately experts thought maybe half the boys would survive the
journey. But pulling it off 13 times in a row would take a miracle.

While plans were being developed, two alarming events occurred. First,
the oxygen levels in the cave began to drop faster than anticipated. This
raised fears that the boys could develop hypoxia if they remained for a
prolonged time. By July 7 the oxygen level was measured to be 15 percent.
The level needed to maintain normal functions for humans is
between 19.5 percent and 23.5 percent. Thai engineers’
attempts to install an air supply line to the boys failed.

The second development was the weather forecast. Monsoon rains were
predicted for later in the week, which could flood the cave until November.

The Thai Navy SEALs, with the support of U.S. Air Force rescue
experts, devised a plan approved by the Thai Minister of the Interior.
Rescuers initially wanted to teach the boys basic diving skills to enable
them to make the journey. Organizers even built a mockup of a tight
passage with chairs and had divers practice with local boys in a nearby
school swimming pool. Eventually it was decided that the boys were too
weak to swim, and the plan was revised to have divers bring the boys out.

On July 8 the rescue attempt was initiated. For the first part of the
mission, 18 divers were sent into the caves to retrieve the boys, with 1 diver
to accompany each boy on the dive out. The boys were dressed in a wetsuit,
a buoyancy jacket, and a harness. Instead of sticking a regulator in each
boy’s mouth, they were given a full face mask that allowed them to breathe
naturally. An oxygen cylinder was clipped to their front, a handle was

attached to their back, and they were tethered to a diver in case they were
lost in poor visibility.

Panic was a chief concern. The SEAL doctor administered an anesthetic
to the boys before the journey, rendering them unconscious to prevent them
from panicking on the escape and risking the lives of their rescuers.1 The
anesthetic lasted about 50 minutes, requiring the divers, whom the doctor
had trained, to re-sedate their bodies during the three-hour-plus journey.

There was discussion about which boy should go first—the weakest, the
youngest, the strongest—but in the end it came to a boy who volunteered.
The boys were maneuvered out by the divers holding on to their back or
chest, with each boy on the left or right depending upon the guideline. In
very narrow spots, the divers had to push the boys from behind. The divers
kept their heads higher than the boys so that in poor visibility the divers
would hit their heads first against the rocks. After a short dive to a dry
section of cave, the divers and boys were met by three divers, and the boys’
dive gear was removed. A drag stretcher was used to transport the boys up
over a 200-meter stretch of rocks and sandy hills. The dive gear was put
back on before entering the next submerged section.

After being delivered by the divers into the rescue base in chamber 3,
the boys were then passed along a “daisy chain” of hundreds of workers
stationed along the treacherous path out of the cave. The boys were
alternately carried, slid, and zip-lined over a complex network of pulleys
installed by rock climbers. The path out of the chamber contained many
areas still partially submerged, and the boys had to be transported over
slippery rocks and through muddy waters. The journey out of chamber 3
took about four to five hours initially, less later as a result of drainage.

Soon after 7 p.m. local officials announced that two boys had been
rescued. Shortly later, two more boys appeared out of the cave. On July 9,
four more boys were rescued. On July 10, the last four boys and their coach
were rescued.

The four Thai Navy SEALs, including the doctor who had stayed with
the boys the entire time, were the last to dive out. When they got to
chamber 3, a water pipe burst, and the main pump stopped working. All of a
sudden, the water began to rise rapidly. This forced the SEALs and 100 of
the rescuers still a mile inside the cave to abandon the rescue equipment and
scramble out of the cave.

page 307

Upon reaching the surface the boys were quarantined while health
workers determined whether they had caught any infectious diseases. The
boys were on a fixed rice porridge diet for the first 10 days. Parents initially
visited their children looking through a window, but once the laboratory
results proved negative, they were allowed to visit in person while wearing
a medical gown, face mask, and hair cap.

After the rescue, the boys’ families, officials, and thousands of
volunteers gathered at the cave entrance. The group gave thanks for the
lives saved and asked forgiveness from the cave goddess, “Jao Mae Tham,”
for the intrusion of pumps, ropes, and people during the rescue.

The world rejoiced with the news of the successful rescue. The head of
the rescue mission said that the cave system would eventually be turned
into a living museum to highlight how the operation unfolded. As a result of
the incident, Thailand’s Navy SEALs will include cave diving in their
training programs.

On September 7, 2018, the Royal Thai government hosted a reception
for all Thai and foreign officials and personnel involved in the rescue. His
Majesty the King granted a royal decoration, The Most Admirable Order of
the Direkgunabhorn, to those who were involved in the rescue of the
football team—114 foreigners and 74 Thais. The order is bestowed upon
those who render devotional service to the Kingdom of Thailand. The title
Direkgunabhorn roughly translates as “Noble order of abundance and
quality.”

Three months after being rescued, the entire Wild Boar team and coach
appeared on the U.S. day-time talk show Ellen. Speaking through a
translator, the team revealed that four of the boys had had birthdays while
trapped in the cave. The team and coach were stunned when their football
hero, Zlatan Ibrahimović, who now plays for the LA Galaxy, made a
surprise appearance on the show to meet them. The Swedish star high-fived
each member. “These kids, this team is braver than me and they showed
their collective teamwork and had patience, faith,” Ibrahimović said. “This
is probably the best team in the world.”

1. How did the physical environment of the cave affect the rescue plan?
2. How did the rescue team respond to the risks of the project?

page 308

3. Some have called the rescue a miracle and that luck was the decisive
factor. Do you agree?

Sources
ABC News, “It Was Utter Chaos: Inside the Thai Cave Rescue That
Nearly Didn’t Happen,” December 1, 2018. www.abc.net.au. Accessed
2/8/19.
ABC News, “Thai Cave Rescue: Elon Musk Hits Out at Mission Chief
Who Turned Down Mini-submarine Offer,” July 11, 2018.
www.abc.net.au. Accessed 2/8/19.
Beech, H., R. C. Paddock, and M. Suhartono, “Still Can’t Believe It
Worked: The Story of the Thailand Cave Rescue,” New York Times, July
12, 2018. www.nytimes.com. Accessed 2/9/2019.
Ellis-Petersen, H., “Thai Cave Rescue Boys Meet Hero Zlatan during
Ellen Interview,” The Guardian, October 17, 2018.
www.theguardian.com. Accessed 2/12/19.
Flynn, S., “Miracle at Tham Luang,” GQ, December 3, 2018.
www.gq.com. Accessed 2/10/19.

1 The Thai government provided the SEAL doctor with diplomatic immunity if something
went wrong.

Appendix 8.1

The Critical-Chain Approach

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this appendix you should be able to:

  • Project Management
    • Chapter 8 Scheduling Resources and Costs
      • Appendix 8.1: The Critical-Chain Approach

Management homework help

1

9




Executive Summary

The research project focuses on cultural subsystems such as religion, kinship, and recreation, as well as Mexico’s prevailing perspectives regarding time, change, and material issues. It also contrasts Mexico with the United States in terms of Hofstede’s findings on the four characteristics of culture: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism. The investigation discovers that Catholicism is the most widely practiced religion in Mexico and that kinship relationships are extremely important to many Mexicans. While bullfights are the most popular spectator sports in the country, popular sports like soccer, baseball, and jai-alai are also popular among locals. People in Mexico believe that time is limitless, and they are open to change and material circumstances since they value achievement. According to Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions, Mexico, unlike the United States, has a high power distance, a strong propensity for avoiding uncertainty, and is a collectivist society. Although both countries have high levels of masculinity, masculinity is evident in the United States at both the individual and national levels. As the U.S. manager of a Mexican business, these discrepancies have a substantial impact on my managerial activities.

Cultural Profile of Mexico

Mexico is the third-largest country in Latin America, behind Brazil and Argentina. It is located in the south of North America. Both extremes of poverty and prosperity characterize the country. Due to its industrial basis, immense natural resources, and large population, it remains one of Latin America’s most powerful economic and political forces. Around 18 percent of the population lives in extreme poverty, and school dropout rates, absenteeism, and grade repeat are major issues in poor regions (Icfdn, 2019). It has seen a series of economic booms as a result of these, which have resulted in a number of significant social advantages.

Cultural Subsystems

Religion, kinship, and recreation are the three main cultural subsystems in Mexico. Marriage, family, and gender roles and statuses are some of the other subsystems.

Religion

Mexico’s major religion is Catholic, and the indigenous people of Mexico gladly accept its ideas and traditions. According to research, the people of Mexico accepted Catholicism following the Spanish invasion, and Catholic beliefs still saturate everyday life in Mexico. Furthermore, the Catholic Church has played an important and significant role in Mexican history. For example, the Virgin of Guadalupe, the country’s patron saint, has a shrine in Mexico City that draws thousands of pilgrims from around the world. The Catholic calendar determines the most important religious festivals in Mexico, such as Easter. As a result, priests are the most important religious practitioners, officiating at events like as weddings, births, and conducting regular religious services.

Kinship

Despite the fact that family members in Mexico are occasionally dispersed owing to foreign migration, kinship relationships are extremely important to many Mexicans. As a result, people actively seek out opportunities to assemble, such as religious events. At baptismal ceremonies, Mexicans also develop strong fictive kinship relationships through godfathers and mothers. They think that strong familial links are the source of support, trust, and solidarity, thus they activate these networks to achieve certain goals. For example, many newlywed couples reside with the husband’s family until they can collect enough money to build their own home. Families in rural settings live near to one another and share common resources like land and water.

Recreation

Football, or soccer as we know it in the United States, is the most popular pastime in Mexico. Football is a sport that people of all ages enjoy, whether they play or simply watch. When significant games are held, practically the entire county comes out to support their side.

Other Subsystems

In Mexico, marriage, family, and gender roles are all significant cultural components. Mexicans have the freedom to choose their partners when it comes to marriage. There are, however, rules relating to class and race that influence and sometimes limit people’s marital choices. In Mexico, a marriage ceremony consists of two parts: legal registration and a religious wedding, which is usually performed by a priest due to Catholicism’s dominance. As a result, monogamy is the only type of marriage permitted. Marriage is a particularly important ceremony in Mexico because of the reverence for kinship ties. The nuclear family is the most prevalent family unit, and the extended nuclear family is especially essential for poor families.

Prevailing Attitudes

Time

Time is viewed as fluid, relaxed, and round in Mexico, and as a result, people assume that time is limitless.

Change

Mexicans are typically open to change, as their political participation demonstrates (Pastrana-Valls, 2017).

Material Factors

Mexico places a high value on success and performance, as well as material factors.

Hofstede’s Four Dimensions of Culture

Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions are the most widely used cultural metrics since they define the most fundamental characteristics of civilizations all over the world.

Power Distance

This refers to the extent to which the poor and less powerful elements of society tolerate inequities among people and expect those in power to gain agreement from the rest of the population without needing to justify their actions.


Mexico

Mexico is a hierarchical culture in which people accept a hierarchical system in which everyone has a position and hence no additional justification is required. As a result, the culture reflects fundamental inequities in which subordinates expect to be ruled by a benign autocrat.


United States

The United States is a country with a low power distance and a proclivity to minimize social status inequalities. Because the American people do not support inequity, they want their leaders to justify their need for compliance.

Uncertainty Avoidance

This dimension is defined by how comfortable society is with ambiguity and uncertainty, and so it alludes to the level of stress that the unknown future poses.


Mexico

Mexican culture is characterized by a strong desire to avoid uncertainty, and as a result, it adheres to strict rules of beliefs and customs. As a result, unorthodox thoughts and behaviors are generally frowned upon in the country.


United States

Americans are open to new ideas and innovations, as well as willing to try new things in general. People are more accepting of other people’s thoughts and ideas since the country completely respects freedom of expression.

Masculinity

This dimension indicates a society’s materialism and achievement orientation.


Mexico

Mexico is a male society, hence the concept of hard effort is valued. Assertiveness and decisiveness are demanded of leaders and managers, and performance is valued.


United States

America has a strong masculinity drive that may be seen both on a personal and national level.

Individualism

This dimension describes the degree to which society’s members are interdependent. It is defined by how individuals or groups define their self-image.


Mexico

Mexico is a collectivist society in general, which is reflected in its strong kinship bonds, which are marked by loyalty, trust, and solidarity.


United States

The American society is loosely linked and has a short power distance; it is a country that values individualism. Managers want employees to be self-sufficient and initiative in the workplace, and Americans tend to pursue their own interests due to their significant geographic mobility.

Analysis

In terms of Hofstede’s four dimensions, there are considerable disparities between Mexico and the United States, and these are likely to effect my managerial tasks as a U.S. manager of a subsidiary in Mexico. For example, the cultural differences will affect how I relate with people, particularly employees from the two countries, and thus how I manage the subsidiary. Mexicans tend to avoid risky situations like new ideas and innovations, I may have difficulty implementing changes at the subsidiary, which might stymie my efforts to succeed. As a result, I’ll have to rethink my management tactics and realign them with Mexican values.

Recommendations

Understanding cultural differences and finding a means to ensure organizational effectiveness are the greatest recommendations for dealing with these variations in the workplace. For example, to accommodate the current beliefs and attitudes, the organizational structure and management processes must be reorganized. Hiring personnel from both Mexico and the United States and training them on how to achieve corporate goals by working together is one example. While the culture of Mexico differs greatly from that of the United States, there are characteristics that can be included into the management process to fulfill the subsidiary’s objectives.




References

Pastrana-Valls, A. (2017, February 2). Values, attitudes, and political participation in Mexico. Palabra Clave. Retrieved April 17, 2022, from http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0122-82852018000300673.

Icfdn. “4 Barriers to Quality Education in Mexico.” International Community Foundation, 18 Oct. 2019, https://icfdn.org/barriers-quality-education-mexico/?gclid=CjwKCAjw9e6SBhB2EiwA5myr9pmYbguBu7aB5PSPg_rTrc2DU2t3SnJSkqmFiORXyCVxmZfml7Ni1RoCfe4QAvD_BwE.

Management homework help

Assignment: Effective Business Partnerships

Earlier in 2012, Microsoft Corporation and SUSE, an independent business unit of The Attachmate Group, Inc., announced a 4-year extension of their groundbreaking agreement reached nearly 5 years ago for broad collaboration on Windows and Linux interoperability and support (“Computer software; Microsoft and SUSE renew successful interoperability agreement,” 2011). This collaboration has been successful not only because the partners agree on shared risks, resources, rewards, and vision, but because it promotes interoperability and sets the stage for other business partnerships.

In the Required Resources, Jerry R. Mitchell, President/Founder of The Midwest Entrepreneurs Forum, argues that effective business partnerships are a function of four factors: (1) Shared Risk, (2) Shared Resources, (3) Shared Rewards, and (4) Shared Vision (Mitchell, 2013). He points out that building strong relationships with other organizations is often the best way to strengthen their own. Organizations can shore up weaknesses by accessing the strengths of others.

Imagine a scenario in which only two of the four factors are in place, but the C-suite (the highest-level executives of your company) is determined to forge ahead. As an HR executive in this situation, how would you counsel the CEO, who believes that only having two of the four factors is sufficient? Assuming the CEO is correct, which two factors do you see as absolutely essential to a successful partnership? Explain your reasoning.

To complete this Assignment, respond to the following in a 2- to 3-page paper:

· Analyze Mitchell’s four factors of effective business partnerships.

· Analyze a successful business partnership, indicating which of the four factors were present.

· Analyze a failed business partnership, indicating which of the four factors were absent.

· Is it possible for a business partnership to succeed when none of the four factors are present? Under what circumstances?

· Examine HR’s responsibilities in a proposed business partnership where only two of the four factors are present.

· How should HR advise the CEO in this situation?

· From an HR perspective, which two factors do you consider to be most important, and why?

· No Plagiarism

· APA citing

Reference:
Mitchell, J. R. (2013). Strategic alliances. Retrieved from 
http://www.slideshare.net/JerryMitchell/stra

Management homework help

FIN 6301, Corporate Finance 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

6. Apply the time value of money (TVM) to capital budget decision-making.
6.1 Explain how the TVM works.
6.2 Explain different types of risk that bond investors and issuers face.
6.3 Discuss how a bond’s terms and collateral can be changed to affect its interest rate.

Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

6.1

Unit Lesson
Chapter 4, pp. 139-183
Chapter 5, pp. 195-218
Video Segment: “Time Value of Money”
Unit II Case Study

6.2

Unit Lesson
Chapter 4, pp. 139-183
Chapter 5, pp. 195-218
Unit II Case Study

6.3

Unit Lesson
Chapter 4, pp. 139-183
Chapter 5, pp. 195-218
Unit II Case Study

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 4: Time Value of Money, pp. 139–183

Chapter 5: Bonds, Bond Valuation, and Interest Rates, pp. 195–218

In order to access the following resource, click the link below.

Thomson Learning (Producer). (1995). Time value of money (Video segment 4 of 5). In Fundamental

concepts in financial management.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla
ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=5845&loid=505923

The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films
on Demand database.

Unit Lesson

Fixed-Income Securities

Fixed-income securities refer to a type of investment that provides a fixed periodic payment return, in terms of
a fixed interest rate with the eventual return of the principal at the time of maturity. These are normally issued
by the government or companies to borrow money to finance their operations, while investors use fixed-
income securities as a way to invest their money to earn interest with the expectation that they will get the full
amount of their investment in a predetermined date in the future (i.e., the maturity). In order to fully

UNIT II STUDY GUIDE

Fixed Income Securities

FIN 6301, Corporate Finance 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

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understand fixed-income securities, we will discuss the different types of bonds, their benefits and risks, and
the risk or return assessment.

Types of Fixed-Income Securities

When people talk about fixed-income securities, they are primarily referring to bonds that are fixed-income
investments where an investor loans money to an entity (usually the government or corporations) for a
predetermined period of time at a variable or fixed interest rate. We are only going to focus on fixed-income
securities, which are those that provide periodic income payments at an interest rate known in advance by the
holder.

There are generally two types of bonds: government and corporate. Government bonds are those fixed-
income securities that are issued by the government. Generally speaking, developed countries, such as the
United States and European nations, are considered risk-free investments because people are most likely to
get their principal investment at the date of maturity. However, in less stable and less developed countries,
government bonds are generally considered riskier and less safe, often resulting in a higher yield. For
instance, Fan, Titman, and Twite (2012) found that investors’ decisions to invest in government bonds are
influenced by perceptions of corruption, legal structures, and explicit policies that protect investors.

The next type of bond, corporate bonds, are issued by corporations, which make up a large portion of the
overall bond market. By and large, corporate bonds provide a higher yield than government bonds because of
a higher risk of defaulting. To understand the differences in risk between the two, think about the following
scenario: A company is much more likely to go bankrupt and default as compared to the U.S. government. It
is safer to assume that the government will not run out of money and default.

Not all corporations are equal; however, some are riskier than others, which then results in a higher yield. For
instance, companies with top-flight credit quality are less risky. You are more likely to get your money back at
the maturity date of the bond, which means that they tend to offer a lower interest rate.

Other types of fixed-income securities include treasury bills, treasury notes, certificates of deposit (CD), and
preferred stock. All of these are fixed-income securities because the interest/dividend/earnings are fixed and
predetermined. To illustrate how people can choose between government or corporate bonds based on
specific requests, needs, or preferences, the following case is presented.

Lisa is one of those people who does not want to constantly monitor the financial market and simply wants to
invest her money in the safest and most convenient way possible instead of a regular savings account in a
bank. She wants to earn a little bit of interest with the utmost certainty that her money will be safe. If you are
going to advise Lisa on the choice of a fixed-income security using either corporate or government bonds,
what would you tell her?

Answer: She should invest her money in a government bond. It is almost certain that she will get her money
back because the U.S. government is almost certainly not going to default, and she can also earn a little bit of
interest. The interest may not be as high as corporate bonds, but she still earns money by investing in
government bonds. This fits her preference for a relatively low risk investment while earning money.

Benefits of Fixed-Income Securities

There are many benefits for investors in procuring fixed-income securities such as bonds. First, fixed-income
securities are a good diversifier (i.e., the financial portfolio is varied and not just invested in one place).
Second, fixed-income securities are less volatile than equities, which means that fixed-income securities tend
to be less risky for investors. Third, fixed-income securities provide stable and predictable income because
the terms (e.g., the interest rate) are predetermined from the start until the maturity.

As an example of somebody benefiting from investing through fixed interest bonds, here is a scenario:
Michelle is starting to feel that her money in her savings account is not earning enough and that she is
wasting an opportunity to earn more. She wants to explore other options that could increase her earnings.
After getting some advice from a financial advisor, she invested half of her savings account money in a
corporate bond with a maturity length of 5 years. Through those 5 years, the interest that she had been
receiving from the bond was almost 10 times more than what she had been earning from her savings

FIN 6301, Corporate Finance 3

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

account. Because she was so happy with the results at the time of the maturity of her bond investment, she
decided to invest in another corporate bond for 5 more years.

Risks of Fixed-Income Securities

There are associated risks with choosing fixed-income securities. The riskiest aspects of fixed-income
securities are tied to the interest rate, credit risk, and inflation risk. For example, fixed interest bonds can be
risky if the prevailing interest rate goes up; the investor cannot amend the fixed interest rate during the entire
term. Debtor defaulting is another risk, particularly for corporate bonds that have low credit quality ratings.
Finally, inflation is a risk because the actual value of investment can be lower during the maturity when
massive inflation occurs during the time period of the bond.

Here is a scenario to illustrate how fixed-income securities can be risky for an investor: Henry invested
$100,000 in a corporate bond with a maturity of 10 years. When he invested the money, the interest rate was
2%, which will be the same interest rate for the entire 10 years until maturity. Since the economy has been
booming for the last several years, the prevailing interest rate has gone up to 3%. Being that Henry was tied
to a fixed interest rate of 2% for the entire 10 years, he could not change the terms of the bond. In the end, he
lost the opportunity to earn more because he was stuck with the lower interest rate.

Risk/Return Assessment

Audrey and Shirley were debating whether to invest their money in a bond or to just save their money as
cash. Audrey is more of a risk-taker, whereas Shirley is more of a risk-averse person who prefers to see and
hold her money to feel secure and safe. Audrey decides to invest in a corporate bond because she wants to
earn a higher interest rate. She has the full expectation that her savings will be returned to her in the full
amount in 5 years. However, Shirley decides to just keep her money in a traditional savings account so that
she can get her money anytime she wants. Both Audrey and Shirley made decisions about risk versus return
and their own personal situations.

A yield curve provides information about how bond investors see the future and help to guide borrowers on
the direction of interest rates. A yield curve links the total return expected from bonds of a similar type over
different maturities. From the perspective of investors, the yield curve can also reveal how future interest rates
are being viewed. In certain situations, the yield curve can be an early indicator of impending trouble.

The normal yield curve is somewhat sloped upward with higher expected return as the length of the maturity
increases (i.e., 10 years > 5 years). This is primarily due to the risk associated with time. The assumption in
this yield curve is that there will be economic expansion, which means that longer maturity bonds would be
disadvantageous for investors locked in an interest rate that is expected to climb as the years go on. As a
result, shorter-term bonds tend to increase during times of anticipated economic expansion.

FIN 6301, Corporate Finance 4

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The inverted yield curve is somewhat sloped downward with lower expected return as the length of the
maturity increases (i.e., 10 years < 5 years). The assumption in this yield curve is that there will be an
economic recession, which means that longer maturity bonds would be advantageous for investors because
they would receive a fixed interest rate despite the anticipated decrease in the interest rate. As a result,
longer-term bonds tend to increase during times of anticipated economic recession.

To illustrate how the yield curve can be helpful for the decision-making of bond investors, take a look at the
scenario below.

Media reports have widely claimed that an economic recession is about to occur. As a bond investor, Faye
wondered what would be the best thing that she could do to invest her money using fixed-income securities. If
you are a financial adviser and you are using the yield curve as a guide, what would you say to her?

Answer: If fixed-income securities are her choice of investment, she should be advised that the optimal thing
for her to do is lock in the current interest rate by investing in long-term maturity bonds. This way, she would
be able to benefit from a favorable interest rate that is expected to go down as the economic recession
progresses. If Faye was able to secure an interest rate of 5% with a maturity of 10 years, regardless of
whether the interest rate decreases to 2% 5 years from now, she would still be receiving the fixed rate of 5%.

Conclusion

In this unit, you learned about the various fixed-income securities along with some of their risks and benefits.
Fixed-income securities are debt instruments that obligate the issuing party and the lender to raise and repay
funds according to the term of their contract. These debt instruments could be bonds, certificates, mortgages,
a building lease, or other debentures. Fixed-income securities allow an investor to receive a return on his or
her investment for a specific, fixed period of time while waiting to collect on the principal when the security

Adapted from the “Daily Treasury Yield Curve Rates” by the
U.S. Department of the Treasury, 2020

FIN 6301, Corporate Finance 5

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

reaches maturity. Fixed securities are a part of an investor’s diversified portfolio and generally provide low risk
with steady return.

References

Fan, J. P., Titman, S., & Twite, G. (2012). An international comparison of capital structure and debt maturity

choices. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 47(1), 23–56.
doi:10.1017/S0022109011000597

U.S. Department of the Treasury. (2020). Daily treasury yield curve rates. https://www.treasury.gov/resource-

center/data-chart-center/interest-rates/Pages/TextView.aspx?data=yield

  • Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II
  • Required Unit Resources
  • Unit Lesson
    • Fixed-Income Securities
    • Types of Fixed-Income Securities
    • Benefits of Fixed-Income Securities
    • Risks of Fixed-Income Securities
    • Risk/Return Assessment
    • Conclusion
    • References

Management homework help

Payers’ Influence on the Health Care Industry

Private insurance companies as well as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have great influence over vital aspects of health insurance coverage in the United States. These third-party payers take on the responsibility to help improve a health insurance market undergoing a great deal of change right now.

In a three-page essay, answer the questions listed below.

· What are the new programs and initiatives that commercial insurance companies and the government are creating in order to help curb the rising cost of health care? Discuss these initiatives.

· How are these third-party payers impacting pricing in the health insurance industry?

· In your opinion, what are some strategies that could be utilized to help better control costs as well as reduce fraud and waste in the medical industry?

Be sure to include an introduction for your essay. This essay must be at least three pages in length and be double-spaced. You are required to use at least one outside source. Please adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary.


Management homework help

IHP 430 Module One Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric

Overview: In this short paper, you will use a root cause analysis to determine what caused a patient to receive the wrong medication, what should be done about
this, and how this type of error could be prevented in the future.

Prompt: The local hospital had an incident involving the wrong medication administered to a patient. You have been asked to perform a root cause analysis. First,
you need to discover the event that happened, how it happened, and why it happened. Then in your response, address the following elements:

• Recommend key stakeholders to investigate this case. Why should these stakeholders be involved with the investigation?

• Compare the Five Whys of medication administration. How could addressing these questions help identify the root cause of this problem?
• How could medication errors be avoided in the future?

Rubric

Guidelines for Submission: Your paper should be submitted as a one- to two-page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman
font, one-inch margins, and at least three sources cited in APA format.

Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (80%) Needs Improvement (70%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Stakeholders Meets or exceeds “Proficient”
criteria and demonstrates in-
depth knowledge of which
significance of the stakeholders
should be involved in
determining the root cause of
events

Identifies appropriate
stakeholders for determining
the root cause with sound
rationale

Identifies appropriate
stakeholders for determining
the root cause but without
sound rationale

Does not identify appropriate
stakeholders for determining
the root cause

30

Use of Five Whys Meets or exceeds “Proficient”
criteria and demonstrates in-
depth understanding of how
the Five Whys could identify the
error’s root cause

Explains how addressing each
of the questions in the Five
Whys could help identify the
root cause of the error

Explains how addressing some
of the questions in the Five
Whys could help identify the
root cause of the error, but
some steps are missing

Does not explain how
addressing the questions in the
Five Whys could help identify
the root cause of the error

30

Avoidance of
Medication Errors

Meets or exceeds “Proficient”
criteria by successfully
explaining how medication
errors could be avoided by
showing in-depth knowledge to
support assertions

Successfully explains how
medication errors could be
avoided

Partially explains how
medication errors could be
avoided

Does not explain how
medication errors could be
avoided

30

Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (80%) Needs Improvement (70%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Articulation of
Response

Submission is free of errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, and
organization and is presented in
a professional and easy-to-read
format

Submission has no major errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or organization

Submission has major errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or organization
that negatively impact
readability and articulation
of main ideas

Submission has critical errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or organization
that prevent understanding of
ideas

10

Total 100%

Management homework help

Goal setting is yet another skill you will need to further develop yourself personally and professionally.

There are two parts to this discussion. Make sure you address and clearly label both parts (Part A and Part B) in your initial post.

Part A: Goal Achievement

    •    Describe a situation in which you set a goal and achieved it. How did this accomplishment make you feel? Which elements of SMART goal setting did you use in this case? What did you learn about goal setting from this experience?

Part B: Applying SMART Goals

    •    Describe a situation in which you set a goal but were not able to accomplish it. How did this make you feel? Which elements of SMART goal setting did you fail to use in this case? What did you learn about goal setting from this experience?

Management homework help

Introduction to LEADERSHIP

Delsa Christian

Indiana Wesleyan University

Introduction to Leadership

Professor Aaron Metzcar

August 23, 2021

Definition of Leadership

Social process for influencing others

Empower others

Directing others towards a common objective

Social influence process

Benefitting others

Leadership entails the social process for influencing others. Leadership is the process through which individuals determine a goal, influence others or groups towards the identified mission or objective (The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 2021). Best leaders do not tell people what to do; instead, they empower others and show them how it is done. Leadership development varies in diverse organizational settings (Northouse, 2015). Leadership entails directing others towards a common objective using original and borrowed ideas to communicate to others effectively. Therefore, leadership is a social influence process seeking to maximize others’ efforts for the common good. Leadership focuses on benefitting others based on the biblical context. From the spiritual aspect, the bible states, “I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the ends of the earth” (Acts 13:47, NIV).

2

Leadership Requirements

Leadership entails strong belief in oneself and personal ideas before introducing them to the external parties. Leaders are bound to make hard choices; leadership entails self-sacrifice to improve others or the followers (Gleeson, 2016). A great leader should earn the team’s respect by showing reciprocal respect, empathy, and care for followers. Empathy allows the leader to touch the individual’s emotions and connect with his teams (Gleeson, 2016). Gleeson (2016) notes that more excellent leadership entails knowing the team and people as the key to success, articulating a clear vision, and pushing teams to the best.

3

Strong belief in oneself and personal ideas

Earn the team’s respect

Touch the individual’s emotions

Knowing the team

Articulating a clear vision

Pushing teams to the best

How Leadership is Different from Management

Leadership is a subset of management

Leadership steers vision and motivation

Management states the procedures

Leadership provides change and direction

Management gives order and consistency

Leadership is a subset of management, but they are both essential for organizational performance. There are key distinguishing factors that draw boundaries between leadership and management. Liphadzi et al. (2017) note that leadership steers vision and motivation within the teams, and management states the procedures for executing tasks. As a result, leadership provides change and direction, and management gives order and consistency. As leadership entails building teams and coalitions for executing the organizational mission, management entails establishing rules and procedures for achieving the goals (Liphadzi et al., 2017). Therefore, leadership must move hand in hand with management to achieve organizational goals.

4

Helpful Leadership Theory: Transformational Leadership Theory

Leaders work with groups, teams, or followers

They detect the need for change

Create a vision to guide motivation

Influence to keep the members committed

Idealized influence

Intellectual simulation

Inspirational motivation

Individualized or personal considerations

The transformational leadership theory holds that leaders work with groups, teams, or followers beyond their underlying interests to detect the need for change, create a vision to guide motivation and influence to keep the members committed (Moradi Korejan & Shahbazi, 2016). Moradi Korejan and Shahbazi (2016) note that transformational leadership theory’s key dimensions include idealized influence, intellectual simulation, inspirational motivation, and individualized or personal considerations. Idealized influence entails showing power and competence, raising respect, instilling a sense of honor and pride, and sacrificing personal gratification. Inspirational motivation entails optimism and encouraging teams. Besides, intellectual stimulation ensures promoting innovation, problem-solving, and suitability of solutions. Personal consideration incorporates guidance and training, incorporating people’s different needs, developing others’ capabilities, and teamwork (Moradi Korejan & Shahbazi, 2016).

5

Key Leadership Principles: Potential

The ability to inspire others

Create an enabling environment where greatness emerges

Self-confidence

Capabilities

Advancements

Perfect leadership entails the ability to inspire others to attain joint objectives. The emerging philosophy from this principle is that the role of a leader is not to instill greatness into people; greatness exists in everyone, but the leaders’ task is to create an enabling environment where greatness emerges. It shows leadership is about self-confidence, capabilities, and advancements to achieve the desired goal.

6

Purpose

The mission the team members share

Make a difference beyond personal interests

Inform the core organizational values

Collective action

Inspiring mission

Creating a culture of customer obsession

Sharing objectives

Purpose represents the mission the team members share and working towards a common goal. Purpose in leadership entails the desire to make a difference beyond personal interests (By, 2021). The purpose should inform the core organizational values rather than focusing on a specific section of the team members. Therefore, leadership demonstrates collective action resulting from mutual, discursive, and evolving patterns. Purpose entails an inspiring mission, create a culture of customer obsession, and sharing objectives.

7

People

Building relationships

Promoting a community culture

Leadership encourages diversity

The creation of teams

Defining multiculturalism and diversity

Enhance cultural competence

Inclusiveness and promote intersectionality

The people construct an integral part of leadership; leadership entails building relationships with the employees while promoting a work culture. Incorporating people in leadership encourages diversity and the creation of teams. Outstanding leadership entails defining multiculturalism and diversity to enhance cultural competence, inclusiveness and promote intersectionality in the teams (Chin et al., 2016).

8

Playbook

Creating a playbook

Execute excellence

Promote the capability of the teams

Defining few priorities

Promoting continuous learning and experimentation

Innovation and change

Allocating resources to the impactful priorities

In a rapidly changing environment, leadership entails creating a playbook to execute excellence and promote the capability of the teams. It involves defining few priorities, promoting continuous learning and experimentation through innovation and change, and allocating resources to the impactful priorities.

9

Pay-It-Forward

A leader is a teacher

Social responsibility to build long-term value

Investing in customers, teams, and communities

Steering mentorship

Motivation

Encouraging the teams towards teamwork

A leader is a teacher with a social responsibility to build long-term value by investing in customers, teams, and communities. Critical factors for leadership are steering mentorship, motivation, and encouraging the teams towards teamwork.

10

Key Practices in Effective Leadership: Model the Way

The way people should be treated

Ways to pursue goals

Establishing a vision

Standards of excellence

Leading by example

Leaders generate opportunities for winning

Leaders point out tenets regarding the way people should be treated and ways to pursue goals. Modeling the way entails establishing a vision, standards of excellence, and leading by example (followership). Through a clear definition of goals, leaders generate opportunities for winning.

11

Inspiring a Common Vision

Envisioning the future

Generating the ideal image of the desire outcomes

The passion and self-belief

Persuasion

Leaders enlist others into their desire goal

Promote teamwork and cooperation

Effective leadership entails envisioning the future and generating the ideal image of the desire outcomes. Influential leaders have the passion and self-belief that they can create a difference. Through their persuasion, leaders enlist others into their desire goal to promote teamwork and cooperation.

12

Challenging the Process

Leaders pursue new opportunities

Challenge the status quo

Steering innovation

Leaders set short-term goals

Influential leaders disentangle bureaucracy

Leaders pursue new opportunities to challenge the status quo. This process entails steering innovation to improve the organization and establish new ways of executing tasks. Besides, as change threatens to overwhelm people in the organization, leaders set short-term goals to work towards the long-term objectives. Influential leaders disentangle bureaucracy when it hinders action and takes risks, which involves disappointments, successes, and opportunities to learn.

13

Enabling Others or Motivation

Influential leaders steer collaboration and encourage team spirit by actively engaging others. Additionally, leaders steer mutual respect to earn honor, create a trustworthy atmosphere and value human dignity. Leaders are bound to make others powerful and capable of performing the underlying function or duties by encouraging them to take challenges to achieve goals or learn.

14

Collaboration and encourage team spirit

Leaders steer mutual respect to earn honor

Create a trustworthy atmosphere

Value human dignity

Make others powerful and capable

Encouraging the Heart

Achieving the organizational goals entails hard work and collective participation from all participants. Therefore, to keep the teams alive and determined, a leader must acknowledge individuals’ contributions to notable success. Recognizing the success of the teams cultivates a spirit of work and teamwork towards the organizational goal. This concept relates to the biblical verse, “Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up” (Galatians 6:7, NIV). Demonstrating leadership by encouraging heart entails the inspiration to remain persistent and committed towards the desired goals.

15

Hard work and collective participation

Keep the teams alive and determined

Acknowledge individuals’ contributions

Cultivates a spirit of work and teamwork

Persistent and committed towards the desired goals

The Essence of this Information

Encouragement to establish common goals

Envision the desired outcomes

Maximize efficiency

Framework for teamwork and coordination

Steer employee confidence and cooperation

Promoting diversity and sharing resources

Following this information will be a central source for encouragement to establish common goals and envision the desired outcomes. By adhering to this information, it will be possible to maximize efficiency by understanding individual and team roles and achieving organizational goals. This information matters for it provides a framework for teamwork and coordination to steer employee confidence and cooperation. Besides, this presentation is a salient avenue for promoting diversity and sharing resources for a common goal.

16

References

By, R. T. (2021). Leadership: In pursuit of purpose. Journal of Change Management, 21(1), 30-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697017.2021.1861698

Chin, J. L., Desormeaux, L., & Sawyer, K. (2016). Making way for paradigms of diversity leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68(1), 49-71. https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000051

Discover the five practices of exemplary leadership. (2021). Leadership Challenge. https://www.leadershipchallenge.com/Research/Five-Practices.aspx#:~:text

Gleeson, B. (2016, November 29). 10 Unique Perspectives On What Makes A Great Leader. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/brentgleeson/2016/11/09/10-unique-perspectives-on-what-makes-a-great-leader/?sh=774c844b5dd1

Cont:

Liphadzi, M., Aigbavboa, C., & Thwala, W. (2017). A theoretical perspective on the difference between leadership and management. Procedia Engineering, 196, 478-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.227

Moradi Korejan, M., & Shahbazi, H. (2016). An analysis of the transformational leadership theory. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 8(3), 452. https://doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i3s.192

Northouse, P. G. (2015). Leadership: Theory and practice. SAGE Publications.

The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). (2021, January 26). Developing organizational leaders. SHRM. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/developingorganizationalleaders.aspx

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Management homework help

Ladson 4

LinkedIn Assignment

Ja’Niya Ladson

Professor Roger Riley

CP 202 VC

April 24, 2022

LAST WEEK’S ASSIGNMENT

Utilize the internet to identify/research at least four (4) professionals within your specific career interest to initiate contact with on LinkedIn (If you do not already have a LinkedIn Profile, you should create one now)

NOTE: Do not initiate contact just select four individuals.

Submit a paper in which you describe the individuals and provide the following information: 

· Name and Company 

· Current Position

· Educational Background

· Relevant Past Experience

· Pathway to Success

· Qualities you Admire

· Questions you would ask them

LinkedIn Assignment

Liz Fraser

Liz Fraser is the global executive leader of Kate Spade New York. Kate has a bachelor’s of art from the Columbia University, Barnard College. She started off as a merchandising manager at Calvin Klein between 1988 and 1989. She became a merchandising manager at Liz Claiborne between 1989 and 1994. Between 1994 and 1996, she was vice president sourcing at Escada. She has also worked as a vice president at esprit de corp, Marc Jacobs limited and was promoted to president at Marc Jacobs. She has grown to the current position as a result of her self-drive and productivity in work (Priebe). She is strategic with consistency to execute the company’s vision and has a deep knowledge in European business practices and culture. If I met her, the questions I would ask would be how she managed to climb up the leadership ladder and what is her motivation in clothing business?

Allegra Versace

Allegra Versace is the director of Gianni Versace. She has a degree in fashion design from the University of California. The model cum socialite started as a junior employee in her father’s company the Versace fashion line. She is the director and heiress of the company. The Italian-American director has diverse knowledge in fashion design. She has previously worked as a theatrical dresser at Versace and currently works as the director. Although she is the heiress of the company, she is skilled in fashion design and has excellent leadership skills. She ensures the company’s vision of fashion is upheld and works to continue with her father’s legacy. Her diversity in career choice has helped her grow her father’s company. As a model, she understands the market demand in the fashion industry and can predict future demand. She has diverse knowledge in handling international clients through her exposure in working under her father from a tender age. Her managerial skills are learnt from her father from a young age and she has perfected them through practice. If I met her I would want to know how it feel to an heiress to such a huge company. I would also ask her to explain to me the leadership roles that come along with such a big position at such a big company.

Marzia Bisognin

Marzia Bisognin is an independent and self-employed fashion designer. The 30 year old fashion entrepreneur utilized the use of internet and made a fashion blog. She has a YouTube channel that majors on DIY tips for the fashion industry. She attended the Italian local high school and is a university graduate. She started off as a YouTuber in 2012, with her channel attracting over 530 million views by 2017. The entrepreneur has risen due to her zeal to showcase fashion and design to the world. Through her you tube videos, she articulates the accurate requirements for making new and fashionable clothes. Her net worth is estimated to $2 million. Her zeal to educate the world on fashion design has seen her grow to be one of the renowned fashion design YouTubers. If I met her, the questions I would ask are her experience in running an online venture, the pros and cons and what impact fashion design has to her life (Roulin and Levashina, 200).

Tina Knowles

Tina Knowles is the president and owner of House of Dereon and Miss Tina. The entrepreneur studied at Ball High School. She has worked hard throughout her entrepreneurship to become a popular and distinguished brand among celebrities. Her achievements are attributed towards her love and zeal for fashion. Her active leadership has led to the rise of her companies. She is a devoted and open-minded leader. Her open-mindedness is seen through her contribution by letting her daughters pursue their careers and passion in music. Her career has grown over the past few years due to her daughters’ popularity. The brand name of the daughters has led to a boost in popularity of Tina Knowles clothing brands. The entrepreneur has also grown due to her zeal in fashion design. She articulates modern fashion to her designs to keep up with market trends. If I met her the questions I would ask her are what was her drive in starting two giant clothing lines and the impact it has had on her family life. I would also want to know how she handles the family’s fame raised by her daughters and the impact it has in her clothing lines business.

References

Piedboeuf, Frédéric, Philippe Langlais, and Ludovic Bourg. “Personality extraction through LinkedIn.” Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Cham, 2019.

Roulin, N. and Levashina, J., 2019. LinkedIn as a new selection method: Psychometric properties and assessment approach. Personnel Psychology72(2), pp.187-211.

Management homework help

IIRP Tips on Writing Reflection Papers

A reflection paper is not a summary of the course readings or a stream of
conscious mind dump on paper.

Main themes
Readings

Integrate

Effects on:
Thinking
Practice

Classroom
Experience

1. As the diagram suggests, a reflection paper is your identification of the main
themes of the readings integrated with your classroom experience and how both
affect your thinking and practice.

2. A reflection paper is your chance to add your thoughts and analysis to what
you have read and experienced.

3. A reflection paper is meant to illustrate your understanding of the material and
how it affects your ideas and possible practice in future.

4. Begin by jotting down some of the reading material and class experiences that
stand out in your mind. Decide why they stand out to you.

5. It may be helpful to use the restorative questions to generate some of your
thoughts and feelings about the course experience.

6. Using the first person singular (“I”), relate the readings and classes to your
previous knowledge and experience.

7. Consider if and how what you have read and learned changes your thinking
and might affect your practice in both personal and professional situations.

8. Review the readings and class notes to be sure you’ve included all the
relevant information you can and made all the connections you can.

9. Give your reflection paper structure with an opening paragraph, main body,
and conclusion.

10. It may be helpful to write the body of the paper first by using Steps 4-7, and
then decide what your opening paragraph should say. The opening paragraph
may be brief, only a sentence or two, but it should offer some overall statement
of your perspective based on what you’ve learned (e.g., Before I read the articles
for YC/ED 501, I had never considered that I was an authoritative supervisor, that
is, someone who gives my staff firm direction but little support.). Then you could
go on to describe which readings or class experiences affected your thinking and
why. You could disagree with some of the readings or ideas. The conclusion of

IIRP/4/6/10MM/BR/SO

your reflection may also be brief (e.g., I realize that I must learn how to be more
supportive to get the best from my staff.). Or it could be uncertain (e.g., I don’t
agree with everything I learned but I am going to consider using some of the
practices in future to see if they change my office environment.).

11. Include in-text references and a reference page for any materials you cite
using APA citation formatting.

Management homework help

Deliverable 3: Engaging Stakeholders

Brandy Felicita

Rasmussen University

Healthcare Strategic Planning and Marketing

Dr. Ide

1

May 2, 2022

Table 1 Strategy Map

Stakeholder

Specialists

Patients

Employees

Dynamic Insurance Firm

Colfax brand

Community wellness

Representation

Physicians

Users

Users

Insurance companies

Pharmaceutical

companies

Wellness

Roles/Responsibilities

Provide users with quality care.

Assess quality during interactions.

Provide feedback on quality assurance.

Provide feedback on quality during care.

Articulate quality improvement required.

Ensure services are quality oriented.

Provide feedback on workplace quality.

Financing cover plans on timely basis.

Review quality with insurance plans.

Provide supplies on timely basis for quality.

Articulate quality through brand products.

Review quality measures.

Evaluate quality perspectives from community participants.

Stakeholder Power

Legitimate Power

Expert Power

Expert Power

Coercive Power

Coercive Power

Reward Power

Meeting times

Weekly

Daily

Daily

Monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Timeline

Entire project time

Entire project time

Entire project time

Six months

Six months

Entire project time

The project will consider the inclusion of cultural diversity among the key stakeholders. For instance, specialists and employees as per the organizational policy are recruited considering age, gender, ethnicity, and race (Johnson & Orr, 2020). This already shows the internal stakeholders reflect diversity. Social interactions between shareholders and interest groups provide dimensions in expectations and mobilizing interests to meet organizational needs (Johnson & Orr, 2020). Patients to be selected as participants in the project will also be considered under cultures and conditions (Neto & Borges, 2019). The pharmaceuticals and community wellness organizations will be required to provide the diversity and inclusivity policy to depict diversity considerations (Neto & Borges, 2019). Adaptive factors displayed by institutions in the macro context foster acceptance of current market dynamics (Neto & Borges, 2019). Thus, considering inclusivity policy would explore organizational adaptations of diversity (Neto & Borges, 2019).

Ensuring fairness and equity will entail the selection stakeholders through random sampling. This is after an evaluation of their reputation in the community (for the organizations). Final approval depends on adequacy of settlement in respect to participation, opportunities, and allocation schemes (McGovern & Rubenstein, 2020). Further, the process will entail fair background evaluations to avoid discriminatory instances. Alternatively, employees and specialists will be selected by their colleagues in different departments for representation. The selected individuals are required to build commitment and prioritize the mission. Internal stakeholders play an imperative role in influencing changes required in the strategy plan. Allowing the team mates to select their preferred candidates would effectively lead to fairness and equity (Jasti et al., 2019).

Stakeholder Survey

Key Questions

1. What do you think is critical in ensuring quality healthcare standards are met?

2. What are your organizational standards in meeting quality assurance?

3. What measurements could be deployed to measure, review, and evaluate? (Jasti et al., 2019).

4. Are KPI’s effective in measuring healthcare quality?

5. How will incorporating quality KPI’s in the organization impact operations, processes, and outcomes?

6. How do your internal stakeholders perceive of the current quality measures?

7. Will the workplace culture allow quality measure changes and how will they be integrated in a span of three months?

8. Do the current quality measures and quality integration levels up to the expected standard?

9. In your organization what necessitates quality assurance and how is it effectively embedded in your workplace policy? (McGovern & Rubenstein, 2020).

Effectiveness Questions

1. What are your thoughts on what should be included in our agenda for the next meeting?

2. How would you influence changes you feel are required to improve quality standards and measures?

3. What reviews would you provide in our current quality focus strategy?

4. Which measures would you incorporate in our organization to influence quality assurance?

5. What would you term as a satisfactory meeting regarding this project? (Neto & Borges, 2019).

References

Jasti, B., Livesye, J., Oppenheimer, P., Boyce, E. & Long, T. (2019). Development, implementation, and assessment of a comprehensive strategy plan in a school pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical education, 83(6) 6899. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6899

Johnson, S. & Orr, K. (2020). What is business school research for? Academic and stakeholder perspectives, politics, and relationability. Studies in higher education, 45(3) 557-578. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1564901

McGovern, F. & Rubenstein, W. (2020). The negotiation class: a cooperative approach to class actions involving large stakeholders. Texas law review, 99(73). https://web.p.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=12&sid=14d30bf6-a12f-4064-ba50-d36f17499a73%40redis

Neto, J. & Borges, J. (2019). Narratives of stakeholders under the perspective of the strategy as social practice. Revista de Administracao Mackenzie, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-6971/eRAMR190118

Management homework help

1

3

5.3 Assignment-leader2leaderConversationReport

Delsa D. Christian

Indiana Wesleyan University

Developing the Self Leader

Dr. Michale Linville

September 27, 2021

In my Leader2Leader dialogue, I got a chance to engage Elder Joseph Jackson on matters of leadership. I narrowed my conversation with Elder Jackson into this week’s material on character, virtues, and values. Elder Jackson is a restaurant manager and ministry leader. Elder Jackson has been managing the restaurant for over ten years, making him a suitable interviewee, managing hundreds of employees. Because of his busy schedule, the meeting was conducted via Zoom. During the dialogue, I engaged Elder Jackson with the following questions;

1. Do you consider character an essential aspect of leadership? If yes, explain further.

“Yes, a character is essential to effective leadership since good character builds trust. When I joined the corporate world, I thought leadership was all about desire, determination, and personality; I did not realize it was all about character. This has struck me more as I go along this management journey. Leaders who are respected and followed by people have good and admirable characters among themselves, which makes them exemplary people in the community.”

2. What constitutes the character of an individual?

“An individual’s character consists of patterns and traits that influence their thoughts, emotion, motivation, and behavior. Character drives one to consistently think, behave, and feel in a certain way. A person of character is self-conscious and expresses gratitude freely and regularly.”

3. Mention three character strengths that define you

“The three character strengths that define me are wisdom and knowledge, courage and justice. As a leader, wisdom comes in handy when making decisions; I can assemble much-needed knowledge to understand situations before making the final decision. Having courage allows me to take risks, which has enabled me to make significant steps in life. Justice allows me to promote a culture that develops, empowers, and enriches my employees as a leader. It also allows me to ensure fairness in the workplace, especially when delegating duties.”

4. How does character dictate your manner of leadership?

“Being a committed and productive leader, character allows me to dictate hard work and perseverance in the workplace. I rarely accept unrealistic excuses from my employees; I also make sure that employees take responsibility for their actions. My character allows me to build a reputation for myself, both as a man of God, professional and as an individual.”

5. Which virtues and values do you find important in leadership?

“The virtues and values that I find important in leadership are decisiveness, courage, passion, and humility. Decisiveness is an important virtue for leaders since it allows them to make up their minds on certain issues that affect the organization. It also allows the leader to show consistency with their decisions. I also find courage important because it gives the leader the boldness and determination to pursue something that most may find difficult. On the other hand, passion gives the leader the inspiration and boundless energy to pursue certain tasks and responsibilities. The last virtue that I find important in leadership is humility. Great and successful leaders admit their mistakes when they are wrong; they also take criticism as an opportunity to grow.”

6. How can leaders achieve virtue ethics?

According to Elder Jackson, leaders can achieve virtue ethics by practicing positive attributes such as being honest, generous, just, and brave. This way, they will drastically build a moral and honorable character. By honoring God and having good virtues and attributes in life, leaders will develop good characters to help them make the right choices when faced with specific ethical challenges. Achieving such virtues is essential for leaders as it allows them to lead ethically without bending to urges, desires, or impulses.

7. How can a leader instill good virtues and values in his followers?

“Positive leadership builds trust and loyalty. When an employee knows that their employer is ethical, they will also start practicing ethical attributes. For instance, if an employer is honest, humble, and hardworking, they will also start to absorb these virtues from their employer. Besides being exemplary, a leader can instill good virtues and values on his followers by addressing these attributes in the employee handout; this way, the employees will understand what is expected of them in the organization.”

Conclusion

The above dialogue with Elder Joseph Jackson highlights essential insights about the significance of the character in leadership. Elder Jackson has highlighted the importance of virtues in leadership and how they impact the organization. The interviewee responses have also noted important insights that support what I have learned in this class, especially how to become an effective leader. From the dialogue, I have learned that character is essential to effective leadership since it builds trust, and without faith, one cannot be an effective leader.

Management homework help

page 279

Darinburt/Getty Images

8.8 Assigning Project Work

LO 8-7
Identify general guidelines for assigning people to specific tasks.

When making individual assignments, project managers should match, as
best they can, the demands and requirements of specific work with the
qualifications and experience of available participants. In doing so, there is
a natural tendency to assign the best people the most difficult tasks. Project
managers need to be careful not to overdo this. Over time these people may
grow to resent the fact that they are always given the toughest assignments.
At the same time, less experienced participants may resent the fact that they
are never given the opportunity to expand their skill/knowledge base.
Project managers need to balance task performance with the need to
develop the talents of people assigned to the project.

Project managers need to decide not only who does what but also who
works with whom. A number of factors need to be considered in deciding
who should work together. First, to minimize unnecessary tension,
managers should pick people with compatible work habits and personalities
but who complement each other (i.e., one person’s weakness is the other

person’s strength). For example, one person may be brilliant at solving
complex problems but sloppy at documenting his progress. It would be wise
to pair this person with an individual who is good at paying attention to
details. Experience is another factor. Veterans should be teamed up with
new hires—not only so they can share their experience but also to help
socialize the newcomers to the customs and norms of the organization.
Finally, future needs should be considered. If managers have some people
who have never worked together before but who have to later on in the
project, they may be wise to take advantage of opportunities to have these
people work together early on so that they can become familiar with each
other. Finally, see Snapshot from Practice 8.4: Managing Geeks for some
interesting thoughts from the former CEO of Google on how to put together
teams.

SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 8.4

Managing Geeks*

Eric Schmidt, after a successful career at Sun Microsystems, took over
struggling Novell, Inc., and helped turn it around within two years. Four
years later he became the CEO of Google. One of the keys to his success
is his ability to manage the technical wizards who develop the sophisticated

systems, hardware, and software that are the backbone of electronically driven
companies. He uses the term “geek” (and he can, since he is one, with a Ph.D. in
computer science) to describe this group of technologists who rule the cyberworld.

Schmidt has some interesting ideas about assigning geeks to projects. He believes
that putting geeks together in project teams with other geeks creates productive peer
pressure. Geeks care a great deal about how other geeks perceive them. They are good
at judging the quality of technical work and are quick to praise as well as criticize each
other’s work. Some geeks can be unbearably arrogant, but Schmidt claims that having
them work together on projects is the best way to control them—by letting them control
each other.

At the same time, Schmidt argues that too many geeks spoil the soup. By this he
means that when there are too many geeks on a development team, there is a tendency
for intense technical navel gazing. Members lose sight of deadlines, and delays are
inevitable. To combat this tendency, he recommends using geeks only in small groups.
He urges breaking up large projects into smaller, more manageable projects so that
small teams of geeks can be assigned to them. This keeps the project on time and
makes the teams responsible to each other.

page 280

*Russ Mitchel, “How to Manage Geeks,” Fast Company, May 31, 1999, pp. 175–80.

8.9 Multiproject Resource Schedules

LO 8-8
Identify common problems with multiproject resource scheduling.

For clarity we have discussed key resource allocation issues within the
context of a single project. In reality resource allocation generally occurs in
a multiproject environment where the demands of one project have to be
reconciled with the needs of other projects. Organizations must develop and
manage systems for efficiently allocating and scheduling resources across
several projects with different priorities, resource requirements, sets of
activities, and risks. The system must be dynamic and capable of
accommodating new projects as well as reallocating resources once project
work is completed. While the same resource issues and principles that apply
to a single project also apply to this multiproject environment, application
and solutions are more complex, given the interdependency among projects.

The following are three of the more common problems encountered in
managing multiproject resource schedules. Note that these are macro
manifestations of single-project problems that are now magnified in a
multiproject environment.

1. Overall schedule slippage. Because projects often share resources,
delays in one project can have a ripple effect and delay other projects.
For example, work on one software development project can grind to a
halt because the coders scheduled for the next critical task are late in
completing their work on another development project.

2. Inefficient resource utilization. Because projects have different
schedules and requirements, there are peaks and valleys in overall
resource demands. For example, a firm may have a staff of 10

page 281

electricians to meet peak demands when, under normal conditions, only 5
electricians are required.

3. Resource bottlenecks. Delays and schedules are extended as a result of
shortages of critical resources that are required by multiple projects. For
example, at one Lattice Semiconductor facility, project schedules were
delayed because of competition over access to test the equipment
necessary to debug programs. Likewise, several projects at a U.S. forest
area were extended because there was only one silviculturist on the staff.

To deal with these problems, more and more companies are creating project
offices or departments to oversee the scheduling of resources across
multiple projects. One approach to multiple project resource scheduling is
to use a first come–first served rule. A project queue system is created in
which projects currently under way take precedence over new projects.
New project schedules are based on the projected availability of resources.
This queuing tends to lead to more reliable completion estimates and is
preferred on contracted projects that have stiff penalties for being late. The
disadvantages of this deceptively simple approach are that it does not
optimally utilize resources or take into account the priority of the project.
See Snapshot from Practice 8.5: Multiple Project Resource Scheduling.

Many companies utilize more elaborate processes for scheduling
resources to increase the capacity of the organization to initiate projects.
Most of these methods approach the problem by treating individual projects
as part of one big project and adapting the scheduling heuristics previously
introduced to this “mega project.” Project schedulers monitor resource
usage and provide updated schedules based on progress and resource
availability across all projects. One major improvement in project
management software in recent years is the ability to prioritize resource
allocation to specific projects. Projects can be prioritized in ascending order
(e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .), and these priorities will override scheduling heuristics
so that resources go to the project highest on the priority list. (Note: This
improvement fits perfectly with organizations that use project priority
models similar to those described in Chapter 2.) Centralized project
scheduling also makes it easier to identify resource bottlenecks that stifle
progress on projects. Once bottlenecks have been identified, their impact
can be documented and used to justify acquiring additional

equipment, recruiting critical personnel, or delaying the project.

SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 8.5

Multiple Project Resource Scheduling

The case for a central source to oversee project resource scheduling is
well known by practitioners. Here is a synopsis of a conversation with one
middle manager.

Interviewer: Congratulations on acceptance of your multiproject
scheduling proposal. Everyone tells me you were very convincing.

Middle Manager: Thanks. Gaining acceptance was easy this time. The board quickly
recognized we have no choice if we are to keep ahead of competition by placing our
resources on the right projects.

Interviewer: Have you presented this to the board before?
Middle Manager: Yes, but not this company. I presented the same spiel to the firm I

worked for two years ago. For their annual review meeting I was charged to present a
proposal suggesting the need and benefits of central capacity resource planning for
managing the projects of the firm.

I tried to build a case for bringing projects under one umbrella to standardize
practices and to forecast and assign key people to mission critical projects. I explained
how benefits such as resource demands would be aligned with mission critical projects,
proactive resource planning, and a tool for catching resource bottlenecks and resolving
conflicts.

Almost everyone agreed the idea was a good one. I felt good about the presentation
and felt confident something was going to happen. But the idea never really got off the
ground; it just faded into the sunset.

With hindsight, managers really did not trust colleagues in other departments, so they
only gave half-hearted support to central resource planning. Managers wanted to protect
their turf and ensure that they would not have to give up power. The culture there was
simply too inflexible for the world we live in today. They are still struggling with constant
conflicts among projects.

I’m glad I made the switch to this firm. The culture here is much more team-oriented.
Management is committed to improving performance.

Finally, many companies are using outsourcing as a means of dealing
with their resource allocation problems. In some cases, a company will
reduce the number of projects they have to manage internally to only core
projects and outsource noncritical projects to contractors and consulting
firms. In other cases, specific segments of projects are outsourced to

page 282

overcome resource deficiencies and scheduling problems. Companies may
hire temporary workers to expedite certain activities that are falling behind
schedule or contract project work during peak periods when there are
insufficient internal resources to meet the demands of all projects. The
ability to more efficiently manage the ebbs and flows of project work is one
of the major driving forces behind outsourcing today.

8.10 Using the Resource Schedule to Develop
a Project Cost Baseline

Once resource assignments have been finalized, you are able to develop a
baseline budget schedule for the project. Using your project schedule, you
can time-phase work packages and assign them to their respective
scheduled activities to develop a budget schedule over the life of your
project. Understanding the reason for time-phasing your budget is very
important. Without a time-phased budget, a good project schedule and cost
control are impossible.

Why a Time-Phased Budget Baseline Is Needed

LO 8-9
Explain why a time-phased budget baseline is needed.

The need for a time-phased budget baseline is demonstrated in the
following scenario. The development of a new product is to be completed in
10 weeks at an estimated cost of $400,000 per week, for a total
cost of $4 million. Management wants a status report at the end of
5 weeks. The following information has been collected:

Planned costs for the first 5 weeks are $2,000,000.
Actual costs for the first 5 weeks are $2,400,000.

How are we doing? It would be easy to draw the conclusion there is a
$400,000 cost overrun. But we really have no way of knowing. The

  • Project Management
    • Chapter 8 Scheduling Resources and Costs
      • 8.8 Assigning Project Work
      • 8.9 Multiproject Resource Schedules
      • 8.10 Using the Resource Schedule to Develop a Project Cost Baseline
        • Why a Time-Phased Budget Baseline Is Needed

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Praise for
Leading at a Higher Level

“At Southwest Airlines, we have always strived to lead at a higher level.
We truly believe that profit is the applause you get for taking care of your
internal and external customers. We have always insisted upon a happy,
carefree, team-spirited—yes, even fun—working environment, which
we think results in motivated employees who will do the right thing for
their internal and external customers. Reading this book will make a
positive difference in your organization.”

Colleen C. Barrett, President Emeritus, Southwest Airlines

“This is not just theory. It is the real stuff, tried in dozens of companies
big and small. It represents the most concise, practical, and effective
thinking on leadership around. Plainly said, this works.”

Gary Crittenden, Managing Director, Huntsman Gay Global Capital,
former CFO of Citigroup and American Express

“Leading at a higher level is a must today if leaders are to rebuild trust
and credibility, as we are doing at Tyco. This book will teach you how.”

Eric Pillmore, Senior Vice President of Corporate Governance,
Tyco International

“Leading at a Higher Level translates decades of research and 30 years of
global experience into simple, practical, and powerful strategies to equip
leaders at every level to build organizations that produce bottom-line
results. At Nissan, we have made these principles a core part of our lead-
ership philosophy, better equipping our managers to bring out the great
energies and talents of our employees.”

Jim Irvine, Vice President of Human Resources,
Nissan North America

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The concepts in Leading at a Higher Level have been used by high perform-
ing organizations around the world, including:

Abbott Laboratories

AMF Bowling
Worldwide, Inc.

Anthem Blue Cross
and Blue Shield

Applebee’s
International, Inc.

Bayer AG

Big Lots Stores, Inc.

Biogen Idec Inc.

Bose® Corporation

Bowater® Incorporated

Burger King®

Callaway Golf
Company

Caterpillar Inc.

Cellular One

Chick-fil-A®, Inc.

Children’s Hospital

The Coffee Bean and
Tea Leaf®

Comerica Incorporated

Compaq

CompUSA®

ConocoPhillips

Domino’s Pizza

Dow Corning
Corporation

Energy Northwest

Exxon Mobil
Corporation

Fairmont Hotels &
Resorts

FedEx Kinko’s Office
and Print Services

Fireman’s Fund
Insurance Company®

Foster Farms

Genentech, Inc.

Georgetown University

Hilton Hotels
Corporation

Home Depot

Host Hotels & Resorts,
(formerly known
as Host Marriott)

Hyatt Corporation

Jack in the Box Inc.

Kennedy Space Center

Krispy Kreme
Doughnut Corporation

L’Oréal

Mattel, Inc.

Marriott International

MCI, Inc.

Merck & Co., Inc.

The Michelin Group

Microsoft Corporation

Nabisco

Nissan Motor Co.

Northrop Grumman
Corporation

Novartis AG

Pepperdine University

Polaris Industries

The Ritz-Carlton Hotel
Company

Royal Caribbean Cruises
Ltd.®

Safeco Corporation

San Diego Padres

S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc.

Six Continents Retail

Sony Corporation of
America

Staples, Inc.

Toshiba Corporation

Toyota Motor Corporation

TRW Automotive Inc.

Tyson Foods, Inc.

UCLA

United States Postal
Service®

UPS™

Verizon

Victoria’s Secret

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

Washington State
Criminal Justice Training
Commission

WD-40 Company

Wells Fargo & Company

Wendy’s International,
Inc.

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LEADING
AT A

HIGHER
LEVEL

Revised and Expanded Edition

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CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
Ken Blanchard

Marjorie Blanchard

Scott Blanchard

Madeleine Blanchard

Don Carew

Eunice Parisi-Carew

Kathy Cuff

Garry Demarest

Chris Edmonds

Fred Finch

Susan Fowler

Bob Glaser

Lael Good

Vicki Halsey

Laurence Hawkins

Judd Hoekstra

Fay Kandarian

Linda Miller

Alan Randolph

Jesse Stoner

Drea Zigarmi

Pat Zigarmi

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LEADING
AT A

HIGHER
LEVEL

Revised and Expanded Edition

Blanchard on Leadership
and Creating High

Performing Organizations
The Founding Associates and Consulting Partners

of The Ken Blanchard Companies

with an Introduction
by Ken Blanchard

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Vice President, Publisher: Tim Moore
Associate Publisher and Director of Marketing: Amy Neidlinger
Editorial Assistant: Pamela Boland
Development Editor: Russ Hall
Operations Manager: Gina Kanouse
Digital Marketing Manager: Julie Phifer
Publicity Manager: Laura Czaja
Assistant Marketing Manager: Megan Colvin
Cover Designer: Chuti Prasertsith
Managing Editor: Kristy Hart
Senior Project Editor: Lori Lyons
Copy Editor: Gayle Johnson
Proofreader: Kay Hoskin
Senior Indexer: Cheryl Lenser
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Manufacturing Buyer: Dan Uhrig

© 2010 by BMC, Blanchard Management Corporation
Publishing as FT Press
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

FT Press offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or
special sales. For more information, please contact U.S. Corporate and Government Sales,
1-800-382-3419, corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com. For sales outside the U.S., please contact
International Sales at international@pearson.com.
Company and product names mentioned herein are the trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective owners.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without
permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing October 2009
ISBN-10: 0-13-701170-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-701170-4
Pearson Education LTD.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Blanchard, Kenneth H.
Leading at a higher level : Blanchard on leadership and creating high performing organizations /

the founding associates and consulting partners of The Ken Blanchard Companies. — Updated ed.
p. cm.

ISBN 978-0-13-701170-4 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. Leadership. 2. Organizational effectiveness.
I. Ken Blanchard Companies. II. Title.

HD57.7.B5612 2010
658.4’092—dc22

2009024874

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Dedicated to all leaders in the world
who are trying every day to lead at a higher level.

May you keep your energy high and know
that what you are doing makes a difference.

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CONTENTS
Introduction: Leading at a Higher Level

by Ken Blanchard xv

SECTION I: SET YOUR SIGHTS ON THE RIGHT TARGET
AND VISION 1

CHAPTER 1 IS YOUR ORGANIZATION
HIGH PERFORMING? 3
Don Carew, Fay Kandarian, Eunice Parisi-Carew,
Jesse Stoner, and Ken Blanchard

The Right Target: The Triple Bottom Line • A High
Performing Organization SCORES Every Time • The HPO
SCORES Model • The HPO SCORES Quiz

CHAPTER 2 THE POWER OF VISION 17
Jesse Stoner, Ken Blanchard, and Drea Zigarmi

The Importance of Vision • Effective Versus Ineffective Vision
Statements • Creating a Vision That Really Works • A
Compelling Vision Creates a Culture of Greatness • Vision Is
the Place to Start • Make Your Vision a Reality • Vision and
Leadership

SECTION II: TREAT YOUR CUSTOMERS RIGHT 31

CHAPTER 3 SERVING CUSTOMERS AT A
HIGHER LEVEL 33
Ken Blanchard, Kathy Cuff, Vicki Halsey,
and Jesse Stoner

Getting Legendary SCORES from Your Customers • Creating
Legendary Service • Serving Customers at a Higher Level •
Deliver Your Ideal Customer Service Experience • Permitting
People to Soar • Wallowing in a Duck Pond • Give Your People
Wings • Creating Legendary Service Requires Gung Ho People

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Contents

x

SECTION III: TREAT YOUR PEOPLE RIGHT 55

CHAPTER 4 EMPOWERMENT IS THE KEY 57
Alan Randolph and Ken Blanchard

What Is Empowerment? The Power of Empowerment • How
Past History Blocks Change to Empowerment • Tapping
People’s Potential: A Real-World Example • Learning the
Language of Empowerment • The Three Keys to
Empowerment

CHAPTER 5 SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP® II:
THE INTEGRATING CONCEPT 75
The Founding Associates

Matching Leadership Style to Development Level •
Development Level Varies from Goal to Goal and Task to
Task – The Importance of Meeting People Where They Are •
The Three Skills of a Situational Leader • Effective Leadership
Is a Transformational Journey

CHAPTER 6 SELF LEADERSHIP: THE POWER BEHIND
EMPOWERMENT 91
Susan Fowler, Ken Blanchard
and Laurence Hawkins

Creating an Empowered Workforce • Creating Self Leaders
Through Individual Learning • The Three Skills of a
Self Leader

CHAPTER 7 PARTNERING FOR PERFORMANCE 105
Fred Finch and Ken Blanchard

Establishing an Effective Performance Management System •
Partnering and the Performance Management System •
Partnering as an Informal Performance Management System

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CHAPTER 8 ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR PARTNERING FOR
PERFORMANCE: THE ONE MINUTE
MANAGER® 129
Ken Blanchard and Fred Finch

One Minute Goal Setting • One Minute Praisings •
Reprimanding Versus Redirection • The Fourth Secret of the
One Minute Manager

CHAPTER 9 COACHING: A KEY COMPETENCY FOR
LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 149
Linda Miller and Madeleine Homan Blanchard

Definition of Coaching • Five Applications of Coaching

CHAPTER 10 SITUATIONAL TEAM LEADERSHIP 165
Don Carew, Eunice Parisi-Carew, Lael Good,
and Ken Blanchard

Why Teams? • Why Teams Fail • Five Steps to High
Performing Teams • The Miracle of Teamwork

CHAPTER 11 ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP 191
Pat Zigarmi, Judd Hoekstra, Ken Blanchard,
and Drea Zigarmi

The Importance of Managing Change • Why Is
Organizational Change So Complicated? • When Is Change
Necessary? • Change Gets Derailed or Fails for Predictable
Reasons • Focus on Managing the Journey • Surfacing and
Addressing People’s Concerns • Organizational Leadership
Behaviors • Involvement and Influence in Planning the
Change

CHAPTER 12 STRATEGIES FOR LEADING A CHANGE 215
Pat Zigarmi and Judd Hoekstra

Nine Change Leadership Strategies

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CHAPTER 13 MANAGING A SUCCESSFUL CULTURE
TRANSFORMATION 241
Garry Demarest, Chris Edmonds, and Bob Glaser

Gung Ho!: A Starting Point • Culture by Default, Not by
Design • Senior Leaders Are Skeptical about Culture • The
Importance of a Compelling Vision • From Gung Ho! to a
Proven Cultural Transformation • Managing a Successful
Cultural Transformation • Critical Success Factors for Cultural
Transformation

SECTION IV: HAVE THE RIGHT KIND OF LEADERSHIP 259

CHAPTER 14 SERVANT LEADERSHIP 261
Ken Blanchard, Scott Blanchard, and Drea Zigarmi

What Is Servant Leadership? • Applying Servant Leadership •
Great Leaders Encourage Their People to Bring Their Brains to
Work • What Impacts Performance the Most? • Being a
Servant Leader Is a Question of the Heart • Driven Versus
Called Leaders • The Plight of the Ego • What Servant Leaders
Do • Servant Leadership: A Mandate or a Choice

CHAPTER 15 DETERMINING YOUR LEADERSHIP POINT OF
VIEW 289
Ken Blanchard, Margie Blanchard, and Pat Zigarmi

Elements of a Leadership Point of View • Developing Your
Own Leadership Point of View

ENDNOTES 309

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 323

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 327

SERVICES AVAILABLE 347

INDEX 351

Contents

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Illustration Page

Figure 1.1 The HPO SCORES™ Model 12
Figure 3.1 The Implementation Role of Leadership 49

Figure 5.1 The Situational Leadership® II Model 77
Figure 5.2 Matching Leadership Style to Development

Level 82

Figure 6.1 Points of Power 96

Figure 6.2 The Needs Model 100

Figure 7.1 The Partnering for Performance Game Plan 110

Figure 7.2 Situational Leadership® II Leadership Styles 116
Figure 9.1 The Coaching Sweet Spot 151

Figure 10.1 Team Performance Process 168

Figure 10.2 The Team Charter 173

Figure 10.3 The Stages of Team Development Model 175

Figure 10.4 Situational Leadership® II Team
Leadership Styles 182

Figure 10.5 Situational Leadership® II: Matching
Leadership Styles to Team Development Stages 183

Figure 11.1 The Stages of Concern Model 198

Figure 12.1 The Leading People Through Change Model 216

Figure 12.2 Perceived Loss of Control Increases
Resistance to Change 218

Figure 14.1 The Leadership-Profit Chain 269

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Introduction

Several years ago, my wife Margie and I went on a safari inSouth Africa with some family and friends. We had been on a
number of safaris over the past 20 years, but this time I saw some
things differently. The jungle appeared more vicious, competitive,
and territorial than ever before. If you’ve ever heard a lion roar, it
sends chills up your back. When our long-time guide, Gary Clarke
from Topeka, Kansas, imitates the lion’s roar, he shouts, “It’s
mine, mine, mine, mine!” That’s because when the lion roars,
what he’s really saying is, “This is my territory. Don’t mess with
me.” In fact, lions will kill their sons if the sons challenge their
fathers’ control over their territory.

The reason I saw this more vividly than ever before is that I
had decided on this trip that I was going to find out as much as I
possibly could about Nelson Mandela. We had been at a dinner
party where people around the table were asked to share what
person—of anyone in the world—they would love to have dinner
with. It was a quick decision for me. I said, “Nelson Mandela. I
would love to have dinner with a man who was in prison for 28

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xvi

Leading at a Higher Level

years and treated cruelly, yet came out of that experience full of
love, compassion, and reconciliation.” On the trip, I began to read
Mandela’s autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom.

When I compared what I saw in the jungle with how Mandela
had reacted to his treatment, I realized that in many ways we as
human beings are just intelligent animals. And being intelligent
animals, we can choose every day whether to be self-serving or
serving. Jungle animals, like the lion, can’t make that choice.
They have to protect their territory. It’s not in their nature to
share with other species. And yet, just as Mandela did, we as
human beings can make choices to live and lead at a higher level,
to be serving rather than self-serving. But when you look at the
leaders around the world—whether they’re running countries,
businesses, churches, educational institutions, or what have
you—too many people are choosing to be self-serving rather than
serving. Why is that? Because they don’t have a different leader-
ship role model. They have been conditioned to think about lead-
ership only in terms of power and control. That’s what this book
is all about—a different leadership paradigm. We want to help
individuals and organizations lead at a higher level.

Leading at a Higher Level
What is leadership? For years we defined leadership as an influ-
ence process. We believed that anytime you tried to influence the
thoughts and actions of others toward goal accomplishment in
either your personal or professional life, you were engaging in
leadership. In recent years, we have taken the emphasis away
from goal accomplishment and have defined leadership as the
capacity to influence others by unleashing their power and potential to
impact the greater good. Why did we do that? Because when the
definition of leadership focuses on goal accomplishment, one can
think that leadership is only about results. Yet when we talk
about leading at a higher level, just focusing on goal accomplish-
ment is not enough. The key phrase in our new definition is “the

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xvii

Introduction

greater good”—what is best for all involved. We think leadership
is a high calling. Leadership should not be done purely for person-
al gain or goal accomplishment; it should have a much higher
purpose than that.

What is a higher purpose? It is not something as internally
focused and self-centered as making money. As Matt Hayes and
Jeff Stevens contend in The Heart of Business, when it becomes
obvious that profit, which is a legitimate goal, is the driving rea-
son for being in business, everyone—stockholders, top managers,
employees, customers, suppliers, and the community—quickly
becomes self-serving. They focus on their own agenda and per-
sonal enrichment. Employee loyalty and passion often go out the
window as the point of work becomes simply to get as much as
you can for as little effort as possible.1

What is the answer to this dilemma? A higher purpose—a key
element of what we will refer to throughout this book as a com-
pelling vision. In Hayes and Stevens’ terms, it is something out-
wardly focused, it requires sacrifice—in other words, it takes
precedence over any short-term goal like profit—and it is intrinsi-
cally honorable.

Leaders can be successful in the short run if they emphasize
only goal accomplishment. What tends to fall by the wayside is
the condition of the human organization. Leaders don’t always
take morale and job satisfaction into consideration—only results
count. They forget what the point is. They don’t have a higher
purpose. In business, with that kind of leadership, it is a short
leap to thinking that the only reason to be in business is to make
money. An either/or is added to people and results. Leaders false-
ly believe that they can’t focus on both at the same time.

When you are leading at a higher level, you have a both/and
philosophy. The development of people—both customers and
employees—is of equal importance to performance. As a result,
the focus in leading at a higher level is on long-term results and
human satisfaction. Leading at a higher level, therefore, is a
process. We define it as the process of achieving worthwhile results

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while acting with respect, care, and fairness for the well-being of all
involved. When that occurs, self-serving leadership is not possible.
Why?

Self-serving leaders think that leadership is all about them and
not about the best interests of those they serve. They forget about
acting with respect, care, and fairness toward all involved.
Everything is about their own self interest. It’s only when you real-
ize that it’s not about you that you begin to lead at a higher level.

Why Did We Write This Book?

In 2006 we wrote the original edition of this book for several rea-
sons. First, our dream was that someday everyone will know some-
one who is leading at a higher level. Self-serving leaders will be a
thing of the past, and leadership throughout the world will be com-
posed of people who, as Robert Greenleaf said, “serve first and lead
second.”2 We wrote this book to help make our dream a reality.

Second, the vision of The Ken Blanchard Companies is focused
on leading at a higher level. This kind of leadership begins with a
vision. Jesse Stoner and I wrote a book called Full Steam Ahead!
about the power of visioning. To us, a compelling vision tells you
who you are (your purpose), where you’re going (your preferred pic-
ture of the future), and what will drive your journey (your values).

The purpose of The Ken Blanchard Companies is to help indi-
viduals and organizations lead at a higher level. Our mission
statement reflects our new definition of leadership:

Unleash the power and potential of people
and organizations for the greater good.

Our picture of the future is

• Everyone is trained to lead at a higher level.
• Every organization is led by people leading at a higher

level.

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Leading at a Higher Level

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• People are motivated to lead at a higher level by observ-
ing people who lead at a higher level.

Our operating values are

• Ethical Behavior: Doing the right thing
• Relationships: Developing mutual trust and respect
• Success: Operating a profitable and well-run organiza-

tion
• Learning: Always growing, inquiring, and developing

These values are ordered by rank. In other words, we won’t do
anything to improve the company’s profitability that is unethical
or that doesn’t honor the relationships we have with our cus-
tomers, our people, our suppliers, and our community. We realize
that making money is not the higher purpose of our business.

You might say that this all sounds like Pollyanna—overly opti-
mistic. That may be, but these are the standards we have set for
ourselves. And these are the same high standards we want to help
you and the people in your organization reach through this book.
Helping individuals and organizations lead at a higher level is our
passion, both for your organization and our own.

Finally, in many ways this book spells out our leadership point
of view. Extensive research shows that effective leaders have a
clear leadership point of view and are willing to share with oth-
ers these beliefs about leading and motivating people. We hope
reading this book will impact your leadership point of view.

How This Book Is Organized

Over the years, I have found that in organizations where leading
at a higher level is the rule rather than the exception, people do
four things well:

• They set their sights on the right target and vision.
• They treat their customers right.

xix

Introduction

From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff

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• They treat their people right.
• They have the right kind of leadership.

This book is organized into four sections. Section I focuses on
the right target and vision and integrates our work on the triple bot-
tom line, the characteristics of a high performing organization,
and the creation of a compelling vision.

Section II highlights treating the customer right and integrates
our work on legendary service, raving fans, and customer mania.
Today, everybody should realize that their customers are the rea-
son that their organization exists.

Section III focuses on treating your people right. This is where
the rubber meets the road. If you don’t empower your people and
treat them right, they won’t take care of your customers, and in
the long run, you won’t get your desired results. This is the
longest section of the book, because your treatment of people is
leadership in action. This is what The Ken Blanchard Companies
has been focusing on for more than 30 years. In this section, we
start with empowerment and then examine four leadership
domains: self leadership, one-on-one leadership, team leader-
ship, and organizational leadership.

Section IV zeros in on the right kind of leadership. Here we’re
not talking about leadership style; we’re talking about character
and intentionality. My travels over the years through organiza-
tions of all shapes and sizes have convinced me of two things:
Effective leadership starts on the inside, and the right kind of
leadership is servant leadership. This is a leadership not based on
false pride or fear, but one that’s grounded in humility and
focused on the greater good. With the right kind of leadership,
leading at a higher level can become a reality.

This section also includes our thoughts on determining your
leadership point of view. This turns the focus to you. Here we
assist you in pulling together many of the concepts you have
learned and help you integrate and apply that knowledge to your
own leadership situation.

xx

Leading at a Higher Level

From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff

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Writing this book has been a labor of love. Pulling together our
best thinking from more than 30 years of working together, it
truly is Blanchard on Leadership. With new chapters on culture
and coaching, this second edition includes not only Margie’s and
my thinking, but also all the wonderful contributions of our
founding associates—Don Carew, Eunice Parisi-Carew, Fred
Finch, Laurie Hawkins, Drea Zigarmi, and Pat Zigarmi—and
other fabulous consulting partners who have really made
Blanchard “the home of the authors,” including Scott Blanchard,
Madeleine Homan Blanchard, Kathy Cuff, Garry Demarest, Chris
Edmonds, Susan Fowler, Bob Glaser, Lael Good, Vicki Halsey, Judd
Hoekstra, Fay Kandarian, Linda Miller, Alan Randolph, and Jesse
Stoner .

We think everyone can lead at a higher level, whether at work,
at home, or in the community. We hope that regardless of your
position, the size or type of your organization, or the kind of cus-
tomers or people you serve, you will learn some important infor-
mation in this book. We also hope this book will help you lead at
a higher level and create a high-performing organization that not
only accomplishes your desired results but is a welcome harbor
for the people you touch. May good come out of your reading of
this book.

Ken Blanchard
San Diego, California
Spring 2009

xxi

Introduction

From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff

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section I

SET YOUR SIGHTS
ON THE

RIGHT TARGET AND VISION

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Chapter 1

IS YOUR ORGANIZATION
HIGH PERFORMING?

Don Carew, Fay Kandarian,
Eunice Parisi-Carew, Jesse Stoner,

and Ken Blanchard

Marksmen will tell you that when you aim at a target, youshould go for the bull’s-eye. The reason is that if you miss
the bull’s-eye, you’re still on the target. But if all you do is aim for
the target and you miss, you’re nowhere. Don Shula, who coau-
thored Everyone’s a Coach1 with Ken Blanchard, always told his
Miami Dolphins football team that the target they were aiming at
was to win every game. Was that possible? Obviously not, but if
you don’t shoot for excellence, you never have a chance of getting
there. That’s probably why Shula’s teams won more football
games than teams of any other coach in the history of the NFL.
His 1972 Dolphins is still the only team in history to go undefeat-
ed for an entire season. So the target you aim for has a lot to do
with your performance.

Wall Street and the pressures of business today make many
people think that the only target that counts is financial success.
Yet few, if any, businesspeople would want their epitaph to
include their company’s bottom line—their stock price or profit
margin. They might, however, want people to remember their
contribution to the creation of a high performing organization.

From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff

Download at WoweBook.Com

ptg

4

Leading at a Higher Level

Those who want to lead at a higher level need to understand
that to create a high performing organization, they need to aim
for the right target.

The Right Target: The Triple Bottom Line
In high performing organizations, everyone’s energy is focused
on not just one bottom line, but three bottom lines—being the
provider of choice, the employer of choice, and the invest-
ment of choice. This triple bottom line is the right target and can
make the difference between mediocrity and greatness.2 The lead-
ers in high performing organizations know that their bottom line
depends on their customers, their people, and their investors.
These leaders realize the following:

Profit is the applause you get for taking care of
your customers and creating a motivating

environment for your people.

Provider of Choice

Being the provider of choice is increasingly challenging.
Competition is fierce as new competitors emerge unexpectedly.
Customers are more demanding, with many more options at their
fingertips. The world has changed in such a way that today the
buyer, not the seller, is sitting in the driver’s seat. These days,
nobody has to convince anybody that the customer reigns. In
fact, companies are motivated to change when they discover the
new rule:

If you don’t take care of your customers,
somebody else will.

From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff

Download at WoweBook.Com

ptg

5

Is Your Organization High Performing?

In Raving Fans®: Satisfied Customers Are Not Enough,3 Sheldon
Bowles and Ken Blanchard argue that to keep your customers
today, you can’t be content just to satisfy them. You have to cre-
ate raving fans—customers who are so excited about how you
treat them that they want to tell everyone about you. They
become part of your sales force. Let’s look at a simple yet power-
ful example.

What’s the most common wake-up call that you get in a hotel
in America today? The phone rings at the allotted hour, but when
you pick it up, no one is there. At least they got the machine to
call your room at the designated hour. The second most common
wake-up call greets you with a recording. But again, no one’s
there. Today if you pick up the phone on a wake-up c

Management homework help

Pediatric Fertility Preservation

Project evaluation

Veronica Horne

Southern new Hampshire university

Ihp 670

April 10, 2022

Introduction

My project is to create a fertility preservation program in Bellevue Hospital for children diagnosed with cancer and similar chronic conditions.

Fertility preservation evaluates children with medical conditions and treatments that could affect fertility.

Evaluating the success of a healthcare program is important because it helps in obtaining a systematic method to study a program to understand how well it achieve its goals.

Evaluating a fertility preservation program helps will help me to determine what works well and what could be improved.

The method I will use to evaluate my project is the use of focus groups.

Evaluation method-Focus Groups

Focus groups is suitable for collecting data for fertility preservation because it is reliable.

It is primarily quantitative but can also be used to collect quantitative data.

When used for quantitative data, important data about the participant is numerically coded (Santesso et al., 2021)

Example of data sources for focus groups include documented questions and answers with multiple programs.

Participants in this program will be interviewed as a group.

Advantages of using focus groups

It is quick and reliable

It collects common impressions

Efficient way to get range and depth of information in a short timeframe

It is excellent in capturing the perspectives of key participants concerning the program.

It fully reflects the participant’s experiences

Challenges

Focus groups need a good and well-trained facilitator who will be able to coordinate the groups and ensure that each participant is active in the group (Flynn et al., 2018).

The use of focus groups makes it difficult to analyze response

It is characterized by difficulty scheduling a group of people together

There is high possibility of the facilitator or participants giving bias responses

Focus groups can be expensive

Quantitative data analysis

My evaluation method for this project will be focus groups.

When focus groups are used for quantitative data, important data about participants are numerically coded.

Quantitative data analysis is suitable for this project because it measures the differences between groups.

Quantitative data analysis measures the relationship between variables

It is suitable in testing hypothesis in a scientifically rigorous way.

References

Santesso, N., Wiercioch, W., Barbara, A. M., Dietl, H., & Schünemann, H. J. (2022). Focus groups and interviews with the public led to the development of a template for a GRADE Plain Language Recommendation (PLR). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 141, 18-25.

Flynn, R., Albrecht, L., & Scott, S. D. (2018). Two approaches to focus group data collection for qualitative health research: maximizing resources and data quality. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1609406917750781.

Management homework help

Week 4 Discussion 1

Image and Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility is a term we seem to hear more about than we did a decade ago. This is a concept that is growing in popularity as it allows an organization to give back to the community. We would often see sponsorships occur through little league teams and fundraisers, but now that we have a growing trend of digital use through our younger generations, corporate social responsibility is changing. Today we have what is called the “Triple Bottom Line” approach which expands on how a company achieves success by its economic, social, and environmental goals.

Employers are looking to ensure sustainability as a means of fulfilling their corporate social responsibility footprint. Running a business is not entirely about the profit any longer. Some of it has to do with the reputation of the organization in the community. Not only does this gain the interest of those in the community and with the competition, but it increases the interest of those who are in search of employment. Job searchers are often looking for the company that has a position corporate social responsibility standing because this often means this organization is doing what it takes to stay ahead of the competition while taking care of its employee’s.

Please review your materials for this week below. 

· Costa, G. (2019). 
Corporate Social Responsibility, Purpose Brands and Gen-Z

· Dans, E. (2018). 
Corporate Social Responsibility Is Turning Green, And That’s A Good Thing

· Elsey, W. (2018). 
Why Your Company Should Be More Socially Responsible

· Xu, K. (2019). 
How to Make Your Corporate Social Responsibility Come from Within

Remember that every in-text citation in your paper must have a corresponding entry in your reference list and every in-text citation needs to follow the format of (Barrett, 2010) when paraphrasing or (Barrett, 2010, p. 120) when quoting.


Assignment – Respond To Two Colleagues: – See attachments

· Expand the discussion by providing your thoughts on the ethical dilemma.

· How your peer intends to handle it.

· Be sure to include real-world examples

· Follow up with outside research.

· No plagiarism

· APA citing

1st Colleague – Hector Acosta

Top of Form

Hi everyone!,

If I was granted $35K to help build the company’s image within the community, I will start by reaching out to the local after schools programs within the community. See if the need school supplies such as pencils, notebooks, backpacks for the kids. I think the after school program for most of the community are neglected and need allot of help. I believe this will give the community a great why to better the after school program and give the company a better social responsibility with the community. I know here in Arizona some school stop the after school program that had to do with technology, even if they had a lot of kids interested in the program the schools cannot provide more money to better the program. If the community sees that the company cares about the program and the future of our next generation it will show that the company not only cares about profits but to also give back to the community. Another thing that can help is to provide equipment to the athletic department of the schools. If the company allows the employees to participate in events when the donation are been drop of to the community it will bring great pride to the employees.

Bottom of Form

2nd Colleague – Steven Cole

Week 4 Discussion

Top of Form

Being in touch and in tune with the local community is essential for success, especially for the small mom/pop places. Giving back to community can be achieved in a variety of ways, however, the most common and useful action is the donation of money.  By using the 35k, an analysis and review of the local community should be done and encouraged. Are the schools within the community serviceable and operable?  How are the small parks and locations for children and families to join the outdoors in fun?  By updating schools and/or parks, the business can show that it shows empathy and compassion to the citizens of the local community, and in a sense help promote their business. A customer can see the giving back to the community as a sign of partnership and essentially draw the customer into their business, whatever it may be. A customer would be more then willing to purchase goods and or services from a business that gives back to the community. Back in Texas, the grocery store of H-E-B usually puts together back to school kits for children whom are less fortunate and can not afford school supplies. As H-E-B gives back to the community, word of mouth spreads out and across all social media platforms, boosting their image and increase of customers completing their grocery shopping. Below is the link that speaks to the giving back to the community and how HEB thrives because of this social responsibility (Unknown, 2022).

Thoughts

Reference

Unknown (n.d.). 
https://www.heb.com/static-page/Community-Involvement

Steve

Bottom of Form

Management homework help

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page iv

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page i

————————————————– ————————————————–

———————————————————- ———————————————————-

T h e

Power
of

Positive
Leadership
H o w a n d W h y P o s i t i v e Le a d e r s

T r a n s f o r m T e a m s a n d Or g a n i z a t i o n s

and C h an ge t h e W o r l d

JON GORDON

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page ii

Cover image:  abzee/iStockphoto
Cover design: Wiley

Copyright  2017 by Jon Gordon. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Published simultaneously in Canada.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of
the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission
of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy
fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
(978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests
to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011,
fax (201) 748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have
used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or
warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book
and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives
or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be
suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate.
Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom.

For general information about our other products and services, please contact our
Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the
United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand.
Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included
in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD
that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material
at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products,
visit www.wiley.com.

ISBN (cloth) 9781119351979; ISBN 9781119351702 (ePub); ISBN 9781119352037 (ePDF)

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page iii

To Ken Blanchard, for teaching me and showing me
how a true positive leader lives and leads.

Your example and support changed my life and
I am forever grateful.

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page iv

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:48 Page v

Contents

1 From Negative to Positive 1

2 Real Positive 7

3 Positive Leaders Drive Positive
Cultures 13
Your Most Important Job 16

Culture Beats Strategy 17

Know What You Stand For 19

More than Words 21

Positively Contagious 22

Create a Culture that People Feel 23

Invest in the Root if You Want the Fruit 24

You Must Keep Building Your Culture 26

4 Positive Leaders Create and Share
a Positive Vision 29
A North Star 32

A Telescope and Microscope 34

Dabo Swinney’s Vision 34

Keep the Vision Alive 38

Make the Vision Come Alive 38

My Vision 40

v

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:49 Page vi

5 Positive Leaders Lead with Optimism,
Positivity, and Belief 45
Believe It and You’ll See It 50

If You Don’t Have It, You Can’t Share it 51

Feed the Positive Dog 51

Talk to Yourself 52

It’s All How You See It 53

Tell Yourself a Positive Story 54

Challenge or Opportunity 56

Shark or Goldfish 56

Think Like a Rookie 57

Defeating Murphy 59

Inside Out 59

Distort Reality 60

Leadership Is a Transfer of Belief 61

Lead with Faith Instead of Fear 63

Be an Over-Believer 64

Don’t Stop Believing 66

Your Leadership Journey 67

6 Positive Leaders Confront, Transform,
and Remove Negativity 69
Your Positivity Must Be Greater than All

the Negativity 72

No Energy Vampires Allowed 73

Why Wait? 74

The First Step Is to Transform 75

Start at the Culture Level 75

Remove the Negativity 77

Sooner or Later 77

vi

Contents

WEBFTOC 04/06/2017 11:42:46 Page vii

Lead from Where You Are 79

Implement the No Complaining Rule 79

Michael Phelps’s Positive Leadership 82

Don’t Be Negative about Negativity 83

7 Positive Leaders Create United
and Connected Teams 85
Connection Is the Difference 88

Team Beats Talent When Talent Isn’t a Team 91

Dabo Swinney’s Safe Seat 93

Collaborate and Facilitate 94

Don’t Let Your Reptile Eat Your Positive Dog 95

8 Positive Leaders Build Great Relationships
and Teams 99
Love Does 101

Love Is the Greatest Leadership Principle on

Where There Is a Void in Communication,

Believe in Others More than They Believe in

the Planet 103

Rules without Relationship Lead to Rebellion 104

Communication Builds Trust 104

Negativity Fills It 106

Leading by Walking Around 108

Listening Is Communicating 110

Enhance Your Positive Communication 110

Be an Encourager 113

Themselves 114

Help Your Team Become Unstoppable 115

Connect One on One 117

Be Committed 118

vii

Contents

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:49 Page viii

Serve to Be Great 119

Doing the Laundry 120

It’s Not About You 123

Commit to Coach 124

Commitment Requires Sacrifice 125

When You Help Others Improve, You Improve 126

Elite of the Elite 127

Positive Leaders Care 128

Develop Your Caring Trademark 129

The Sandwich 133

9 Positive Leaders Pursue Excellence 135
Humble and Hungry 137

There Is No Finish Line 139

Demanding without being Demeaning 139

Love and Accountability 140

Love Tough 143

Craftsmen and Craftswomen 144

The One Percent Rule 145

Clarity and Action 146

10 Positive Leaders Lead with Purpose 149
Find and Live Your Purpose 153

Share the Purpose 155

Inspire Others to Live Their Purpose 155

Purpose Driven Goals 156

One Word 159

Life Word 160

Leave a Legacy 161

Give People Great Stories to Tell 162

Life and Death 164

viii

Contents

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:50 Page ix

11 Positive Leaders Have Grit 167
Know What You Want 171

Know Your Why 171

Love It 172

Embrace Failure 173

Keep Doing Things the Right Way: Trust the Process 174

Ignore the Critics; Do the Work 175

12 Lead the Way Forward 177

Notes 189

Acknowledgments 191

Bring the Power of Positive Leadership to

Your Organization 193

Power of Positive Leadership Resources 194

Other Books by Jon Gordon 195

ix

Contents

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:50 Page x

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 1

Chapter 1

From Negative to
Positive

Being positive doesn’t just make you better;

it makes everyone around you better.

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 2

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 3

I ’m not naturally a positive person. People think I ambecause of my books and talks, but the truth is that I
have to work hard to be positive. It doesn’t come naturally

to me. In fact, I find it ironic that I would write a book like this—

and that my life’s work centers on the importance of positivity.

It’s true that we teach what we need to learn. I know that my

quest to become a more positive person and better leader has

made me a better teacher.

I grew up in Long Island, New York, in a Jewish-Italian

family; with a lot of food and a lot of guilt; a lot of wine and a lot

of whining. My parents were very loving but they were not the

most positive people in the world. My dad was a New York City

police officer who worked in undercover narcotics. He fought

crime every day and wasn’t a big fan of positivity. I remember

waking up in the morning and saying, “Good morning, Dad.”

He would say in his thick New York accent, “What’s so good

about it?” My dad was Al Bundy before Al Bundy was Al Bundy.

By the age of 31, I was a fearful, negative, stressed-out, and

miserable husband and father to two young children. My wife

had had enough. She gave me an ultimatum: Change or our

marriage was over. I knew she was right that I needed to

change. I knew that I was allowing the stress of life and the fear

3

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 4

of not being able to provide for my family to get the best of me.

I told my wife I would change and began researching ways I

could be more positive. At the time, positive psychology was an

emerging field, and I read everything I could about it. I began to

practice positivity and write about the things I was doing. I met

Ken Blanchard, who became my role model. I began taking

“thank you” walks to practice gratitude, enjoy the outdoors,

and feel grateful instead of stressed. This was a life-changing

practice that not only energized me physically, emotionally,

and spiritually, but also provided time for many profound

insights and ideas to come to me.

One of these ideas was The Energy Bus. In case you haven’t

read it, it’s about a guy named George who is miserable and

negative. His team at work is in disarray and he has problems at

home. George was easy for me to write about because he was

based on me and my struggle with negativity and adversity.

George wakes up one Monday morning to discover his car has

a flat tire and he has to take the bus to work. On the bus, he

meets Joy the bus driver, who, along with a cast of characters,

teaches George the 10 rules for the ride of his life. Their advice

not only helps him become a more positive person, but also a

better father, husband, and leader at work. On one level,

George demonstrates that positivity is a difference maker in

business, education, life, and sports. On another level, George

represents the fact that every one of us will have to overcome

negativity, adversity, and challenges to ultimately define our­

selves and our team’s success.

Since The Energy Bus was published in 2007, I’ve had the

opportunity to work with many Fortune 500 companies, busi­

nesses, professional and college sports teams, hospitals, schools,

4

The Power of Positive Leadership

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 5

and nonprofits that have utilized the book. I’ve met many

amazing positive leaders and have witnessed firsthand the power

of positive leadership. I’ve seen how they have led, inspired, and

transformed their teams and organizations. I’ve observed the

impact they have had and the results they have achieved. I’ve

also researched many positive leaders throughout history and

learned about their paths to success. There is indeed a power

associated with positive leadership, and my goal with this book

is twofold. First, I aim to explain how and why positive leaders

make a difference. Second, I intend to provide a simple frame­

work filled with practical ideas that will help anyone become a

positive leader. It’s one of the most important things a person

can do because one positive leader will inspire many others to

become positive leaders as well. My daughter wrote her college

admission essay last year and it said, “When I was young my mom

struggled with her health and my dad struggled with himself.

But over the years I watched my dad work to become a more

positive person. Then he started writing and speaking about it

and sharing his message with others. I saw people change for the

better and I know that if he can change, and they can change, the

world can change.” Her words brought tears to my eyes because

I realized that my one decision to be a positive leader not only

impacted my life but also my marriage, my children, my team at

work, and everyone around me. My hope is that you too will

discover the power of positive leadership in your own life.

I know that being a positive leader doesn’t just make you better;

it makes everyone around you better. You can start today!

5

From Negative to Positive

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 6

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 7

Chapter 2

Real Positive

We are not positive because life is easy.

We are positive because life can be hard.

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 8

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 9

I t takes a lot of work to create a world-class organization. It’shard to develop a successful team. It’s not easy to build a
great culture. It’s challenging to work toward a vision and

create a positive future. It’s difficult to change the world. As

a leader, you will face all kinds of challenges, adversity,

negativity, and tests. There will be times when it seems as if

everything in the world is conspiring against you. There will be

moments you’ll want to give up. There will be days when your

vision seems more like a fantasy than a reality. That’s why

positive leadership is so essential. When some people hear the

term positive leadership they roll their eyes because they

think I’m talking about Pollyanna positivity, where life is full

of unicorns and rainbows. But the truth is that we are not

positive because life is easy. We are positive because life can be

hard. Positive leadership is not about fake positivity. It is the

real stuff that makes great leaders great. Pessimists don’t change

the world. Critics write words but they don’t write the future.

Naysayers talk about problems but they don’t solve them.

Throughout history we see that it’s the optimists, the believers,

the dreamers, the doers, and the positive leaders who change

the world. The future belongs to those who believe in it

9

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 10

and have the belief, resilience, positivity, and optimism to

overcome all the challenges in order to create it.

Research by Manju Puri and David Robinson, business

professors at Duke University, shows that optimistic people

work harder, get paid more, are elected to office more often,

and win at sports more regularly.1 Research by psychologist

Martin Seligman also shows that optimistic salespeople perform

better than their pessimistic counterparts.2 And psychologist

Barbara Fredrickson’s research demonstrates that people who

experience more positive emotions than negative ones are

more likely to see the bigger picture, build relationships, and

thrive in their work and career, whereas people who experi­

ence mostly negative emotions are more likely to have a

narrower perspective and tend to focus more on problems.3

Daniel Goleman’s research demonstrates that positive teams

perform at higher levels than negative teams.4 John Gottman’s

pioneering research on relationships found that marriages are

much more likely to succeed when the couple experiences a

five-to-one ratio of positive to negative interactions; when the

ratio approaches a one-to-one ratio, marriages are more likely

to end in divorce.5 Additional research also shows that work­

groups with positive-to-negative interaction ratios greater than

three to one are significantly more productive than teams that

do not reach this ratio. Teams with more negative interactions

are more likely to be stagnant and unproductive. The positive

energy you share with your team is significant. According to

Wayne Baker, the research he and Robert Cross conducted

shows that “the more you energize people in your workplace,

the higher your work performance.” Baker says that this occurs

because people want to be around you. You attract talent and

10

The Power of Positive Leadership

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 11

people are more likely to devote their discretionary time to your

projects. They’ll offer new ideas, information, and opportuni­

ties to you before others.

Baker adds that the opposite is also true. If you de-energize

others, people won’t go out of their way to work with or help

you.6 Gallup estimates that negativity costs the economy

$250–$300 billion a year and affects the morale, performance,

and productivity of teams.

The research is clear. Positivity is about more than having a

positive state of mind. It’s also a life changer and gives people

a competitive advantage in business, sports, and politics.

While the pessimists are complaining about the future, the

energy vampires are sabotaging it, and the realists are talking

about it, the optimists are working hard with others to create it.

Puri and Robinson’s research shows that our attitude helps

create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Because optimists believe in a

positive future, they actually delude themselves into working

more to make it possible. Their belief makes them willing to

take actions to achieve it. As a result, positive leaders invest

their time and energy in driving a positive culture. They create

and share the vision for the road ahead. They lead with

optimism and belief and address and transform the negativity

that too often sabotages teams and organizations. They take

on the battle, overcome the negativity, face the adversity, and

keep moving forward. They devote all their energy and effort

to uniting and connecting their organization and invest in

relationships that truly build great teams. They believe in their

principles. They believe in their people. They believe in

teamwork. They believe in the future. They believe in what’s

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C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 12

possible, so they act and do, connect and create, build and

transform their team and organization—and change the world.

In the following chapters I’m going to take you through a

simple, powerful model and framework you can utilize and

implement to enhance your leadership capabilities and put

your positive leadership into action.

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Chapter 3

Positive Leaders
Drive Positive

Cultures

Culture is not just one thing. It’s everything.

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P ositive leaders drive positive cultures. I use the worddrive here because as a leader you are the driver of your
bus and you have a big role and responsibility in creating the

kind of journey you and your team will experience. One year

I spoke at a school district and talked with all their leaders,

mostly school principals. I shared the same principles and

strategies with everyone. At the end of the year, I heard from

two principals from the district. One principal had given

every member of her staff The Energy Bus to read and

followed up with staff meetings where she discussed and

reinforced the principles each month. She focused all of her

energy on creating a positive culture, one meeting, one conver­

sation, one interaction, one positive message, one teacher, and

one student at a time. She completely transformed the morale,

engagement, energy, and culture of her school. The other

principal I heard from was very disappointed and told me

that she had handed a copy of The Energy Bus to all her teachers,

encouraged them to read it, and wondered why it didn’t have

much of an impact on her school and culture. I realized in that

moment that you can give a team a bus, but unless you have

drivers, it doesn’t move. It’s not a book that makes a difference.

15

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:16 Page 16

It’s not a lecture or a keynote. It’s the leader that makes the

difference. It’s the leader that must drive the culture.

Your Most Important Job

Your most important job as a leader is to drive the culture—and

not just any culture. You must create a positive culture that

energizes and encourages people, fosters connected relation­

ships and great teamwork, empowers and enables people to

learn and grow, and provides an opportunity for people to do

their best work. Culture is not just one thing; it’s everything.

Culture drives expectation and beliefs. Expectations and beliefs

drive behaviors. Behaviors drive habits. And habits create the

future. It all starts with the culture you create and drive

throughout the organization. That’s where all success and great

results begin.

Driving your culture is not something you can delegate.

You are the leader and you must spend your time, energy, and

effort creating and building the culture of your team and

organization. Nancy Koeper, the retired president of UPS for

the Northwest Region, made culture her number-one priority as

she drove a positive culture through an organization that was,

literally, full of drivers. She wanted to improve engagement and

morale, so she rolled out The Energy Bus to the 1,000 leaders

she led with the intent of enhancing positive leadership, posi­

tive interactions, and improved relationships with the UPS

drivers. Her leaders all read the book, then discussed ways

to implement the ideas. They then rolled out The Energy Bus to

their 11,000 drivers in the district by simply focusing on

positivity, positive interactions, and improved relationships. I

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The Power of Positive Leadership

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had yet to have a company measure results after utilizing The

Energy Bus, so it was exciting to hear from Nancy a year later.

She reported that engagement, morale, and performance had

risen while disengagement and absenteeism had fallen. Nancy

drove the UPS bus and it made all the difference.

Alan Mulally, the former CEO of Ford, led one of the most

incredible corporate turnarounds in history. In 2006, when he

stepped into the CEO role, the automaker had just suffered an

annual loss of $12.7 billion and was on the verge of bankruptcy.

In just a few short years under his leadership, Ford was back in

the black and the company saw an annual profit every year

since 2009. Mulally credited this improbable feat on the organi­

zation’s focus on driving and building a “One Ford” culture that

was centered on the idea of “One Team” where everyone in the

organization was committed to the enterprise and to each other.

A cultural shift like this doesn’t happen by accident. Mulally

shared with me his management system, a simple but powerful

set of principles, philosophies, behaviors, and processes he

designed to create a culture at Ford that fostered unity, team­

work, appreciation, transparency, safety, and even joy. I’ll share

more of what I learned from Mulally, who defines his leadership

as positive leadership, throughout the book because he’s one of

history’s greatest examples of positive leadership and he dem­

onstrates that great cultures happen when positive leaders know

their most important job is to drive the culture.

Culture Beats Strategy

When Apple was just the two Steves (Jobs and Wozniak), they

knew the culture they wanted to create. They would be the

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Positive Leaders Drive Positive Cultures

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culture that challenged the status quo. Everything they did,

including hiring people, running campaigns, and creating

products, was influenced by this culture. Even after Steve Jobs’s

death, the culture continues to influence everything they do. It’s

why Apple is famous for stating the maxim that “culture beats

strategy.” You have to have the right strategy of course, but it is

your culture that will determine whether your strategy is

successful. I believe Apple will be successful as long as they

innovate and create from the strength of their culture. If they

lose their culture they will lose their way and, like many of the

mighty that have come before them, they will fall.

Very few people understand the importance of culture

more than Rick Hendrick, the owner and founder of Hendrick

Automotive Group and Hendrick Motorsports. In a world

where there are thousands of car dealerships and many NAS­

CAR racing teams, Hendrick Automotive is the largest privately

owned dealer group in the United States, and Hendrick Motor-

sports is the winningest racing organization in the modern

NASCAR era. Through speaking to the leaders of Hendrick

Automotive and Jimmie Johnson’s racing team (owned by

Hendrick Motorsports), I have witnessed the incredible culture

in both organizations. It’s clear that they are driven by the same

person. Rick Hendrick’s signature leadership and drive are

ingrained in everything they do. His people are humble,

hungry, thankful, kind, and appreciative. They are on a quest

for greatness. Their buildings are spotless. Their energy is

always positive and contagious. Everyone wants to be the

best and win. When you spend time with two companies—

when you see the success of his automotive dealerships and

the Jeff Gordon, Jimmie Johnson, and Dale Earnhardt, Jr. racing

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teams—you realize that culture not only beats strategy, but it

also fuels it and drives people and organizations to record

growth and performance.

Know What You Stand For

You might be wondering where to start when driving and

building a culture. I believe it starts with two questions: 1) What

do we stand for? 2) What do we want to be known for? While

visiting Hendrick Automotive, I asked several of Rick’s leaders

what they stood for, and they all said servant leadership. They

told me that Rick leads the way and, in doing so, puts himself

last in every decision he makes for his organization. He is very

focused on making sure everyone’s voice is heard because it is

the team that shapes the company today, tomorrow, and in the

future. His executive staff knows that Rick expects them to

serve the people they lead in the same way. Teamwork through

trust and respect is also one of Hendrick’s core organizational

values. One of Rick’s mantras is “None of us is as smart as all of

us.” He constantly states, “People are our biggest asset! If we

take care of our people they will take care of our customers,

and if we work together we will all accomplish more.” This

principle comes to life through weekly and monthly meetings

where employees share best practices. Having the high per­

formers share how they win in the market lifts the whole

company.

As you would expect, Rick is all about integrity and doing

the right thing, doing what you say you will do, and being

honest and telling the truth regardless of the situation. Leaders

at Hendrick Automotive and Hendrick Motorsports also told me

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they have a passion for winning and don’t give up until they do

so. Accountability and commitment to continuous improve­

ment help them improve individually and collectively as a team

and organization. They want to be known for their culture and

winning ways. They celebrate their past success and make it

very clear they expect future success. Yet, despite all their

success, they are a culture that believes in developing champi­

ons who serve others. They want to be known for making a

difference in the lives of others and their community. Hendrick

leaders are extremely selective in whom they hire. Only people

who fit their culture, embrace the same values, and possess a

high level of professionalism are added to the team. Because, as

an organization, Hendrick knows what their culture stands for,

they are able to choose the right people who fit their culture

and who stand for the same things. They also invest heavily to

train and develop their people in order to sustain success and

retain their talent. Brad Stevens, the head coach of the Boston

Celtics, once told me that your culture is not only your tradition,

but also the people in the locker room who c

Management homework help


What is Motivation?

1. A reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.

2. A general desire, need or want that generates the energy required for someone to behave in a particular way. (This means that there’s actually a motive behind the action)

3. Motivation is an employee’s intrinsic enthusiasm about and drive to accomplish activities related to work. Motivation is that internal drive that causes an individual to decide to take action. (An individual’s motivation is influenced by biological, intellectual, social, and emotional factors).

4. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.
Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as:

a) intensity of desire or need

b) incentive or reward value of the goal

c) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers.

Motivating employees

Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that work unit goals and objectives are achieved. Critical to fulfilling this responsibility is motivating employees to successfully accomplish assigned activities. Supervisors can use a number of motivation techniques, including:

· Providing positive feedback on employee achievements

· Assigning interesting and challenging work

· Providing effective guidance, support and training

· Recognizing and rewarding positive performance

· Tailoring work assignments, rewards and recognition to individual employee needs and desires

· Leading by example (nothing is more de-motivating than a supervisor who expects employees to “do what I say” not “what I do”)

Successfully motivating employees requires:

· Identifying the results and behaviours expected of employees

· Discussing these expectations with employees to ensure mutual understanding and employee buy-in

· Aligning motivating techniques accordingly

· Celebrating success

Specific Actions to Increase Employee Motivation

1) A manager or supervisor can create a work environment that will foster and influence increases in employee motivation – quickly.

2) Communicate responsibly and effectively any information employees need to perform their jobs most effectively.

3) Employees find interaction and communication with and attention from senior and executive managers motivational.

4) Provide the opportunity for employees to develop their skills and abilities.

5) Employees gain a lot of motivation from the nature of the work itself. Employees seek autonomy and independence in decision making and in how they approach accomplishing their work and job.

6) Elicit and address employee concerns and complaints before they make an employee or workplace dysfunctional. Listening to employee complaints and keeping the employee informed about how you are addressing the complaint are critical to producing a motivating work environment.

7) Recognition of employee performance is high on the list of employee needs for motivation. Many supervisors equate reward and recognition with monetary gifts. While employees appreciate money, they also appreciate praise, a verbal or written thank you, out-of-the-ordinary job content opportunities, and attention from their supervisor.

8) Employees appreciate a responsive and involved relationship with their immediate supervisor.

Factors to Encourage Motivation

· Management and leadership actions that empower employees

· Transparent and regular communication about factors important to employees

· Treating employees with respect

· Involving employees in decisions about their work and job

· Minimizing the number of rules and policies in an environment that demonstrate trust for employees and treats employees like adults

· Providing regular employee recognition

· Feedback and coaching from managers and leaders

· Above industry average benefits and compensation

· Providing employee perks and company activities

· Managing employees within a doable framework of goals, measurements, and clear expectations

Theories of Motivation

Overview

At a simple level, it seems obvious that people do things, such as go to work, in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don’t want. 

Why exactly they want what they do and don’t want what they don’t is still something a mystery. It’s a black box and it hasn’t been fully penetrated.

Overall, the basic perspective on motivation looks something like this:

http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/images/motiva1.gif

In other words, you have certain needs or wants (these terms will be used interchangeably), and this causes you to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction), and this can then change which needs/wants are primary (either intensifying certain ones, or allowing you to move on to other ones). 

A variation on this model, particularly appropriate from an experimenter’s or manager’s point of view, would be to add a box labeled “reward” between “behavior” and “satisfaction”. So that subjects (or employees), who have certain needs do certain things (behavior), which then get them rewards set up by the experimenter or manager (such as raises or bonuses), which satisfy the needs, and so on.

Many theories posit a hierarchy of needs, in which the needs at the bottom are the most urgent and need to be satisfied before attention can be paid to the others. 

1. Maslow’s hierarchy

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.

Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.

maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramid

Maslow initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. However, he later clarified that satisfaction of a needs is not an “all-or-none” phenomenon, admitting that his earlier statements may have given “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges”

When a deficit need has been ‘more or less’ satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs. However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged.

Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of a job, may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.

Specific examples of these types are given below, in both the work and home context.

Need

Home

Job

self-actualization

education, religion, hobbies, personal growth

training, advancement, growth, creativity

esteem

approval of family, friends, community

recognition, high status, responsibilities

belongingness

family, friends, clubs

teams, depts, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinates

safety

freedom from war, violence

work safety, job security, health insurance

physiological

food water sex

Heat, air, base salary

According to Maslow, lower needs take priority. They must be fulfilled before the others are activated. There is some basic common sense here — it’s pointless to worry about whether a given color looks good on you when you are dying of starvation, or being threatened with your life. There are some basic things that take precedence over all else.

2. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

The Two-Factor Theory of motivation (otherwise known as dual-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory) was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s.

Analysing the responses of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked about their positive and negative feelings about their work, Herzberg found 2 factors that influence employee motivation and satisfaction…

1. Motivator factors – Simply put, these are factors that lead to satisfaction and motivate employees to work harder. Examples might include enjoying your work, feeling recognised and career progression.
2. Hygiene factors – These factors can lead to dissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are absent. Examples include salary, company policies, benefits, relationships with managers and co-workers.

According to Herzberg’s findings, while motivator and hygiene factors both influenced motivation, they appeared to work completely independently of each other…

While motivator factors increased employee satisfaction and motivation, the absence of these factors didn’t necessarily cause dissatisfaction. Likewise, the presence of hygiene factors didn’t appear to increase satisfaction and motivation but their absence caused an increase in dissatisfaction.

How to apply it to the workplace

This theory implies that for the happiest and most productive workforce, you need to work on improving both motivator and hygiene factors.

To help motivate your employees, make sure they feel appreciated and supported. Give plenty of feedback and make sure your employees understand how they can grow and progress through the company.

To prevent job dissatisfaction, make sure that your employees feel that they are treated right by offering them the best possible working conditions and fair pay. Make sure you pay attention to your team and form supportive relationships with them.

Don’t forget that all of your employees are different and what motivates one person might not motivate another.

3.  Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne Effect was first described by Henry A. Landsberger in 1950 who noticed a tendency for some people to work harder and perform better when they were being observed by researchers.

The researchers changed a number of physical conditions over the course of the experiments including lighting, working hours and breaks. In all cases, employee productivity increased when a change was made. The researchers concluded that employees became motivated to work harder as a response to the attention being paid to them, rather than the actual physical changes themselves.

How to apply it to the workplace

The Hawthorne Effect studies suggest that employees will work harder if they know they’re being observed. While I don’t recommend hovering over your employees watching them all day, you could try providing regular feedback, letting your team know that you know what they’re up to and how they’re doing.

Showing your employees that you care about them and their working conditions may also motivate them to work harder. Encourage your team to give you feedback and suggestions about their workspace and development.

4. Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory proposes that people will choose how to behave depending on the outcomes they expect as a result of their behaviour. In other words, we decide what to do based on what we expect the outcome to be. At work, it might be that we work longer hours because we expect a pay rise.

However, Expectancy Theory also suggests that the process by which we decide our behaviours is also influenced by how likely we perceive those rewards to be. In this instance, workers may be more likely to work harder if they had been promised a pay rise (and thus perceived that outcome as very likely) than if they had only assumed they might get one (and perceived the outcome as possible but not likely)

Expectancy Theory is based on three elements:

1. Expectancy – the belief that your effort will result in your desired goal. This is based on your past experience, your self confidence and how difficult you think the goal is to achieve.
2. Instrumentality – the belief that you will receive a reward if you meet performance expectations.
3. Valence – the value you place on the reward.

Therefore, according to Expectancy Theory, people are most motivated if they believe that they will receive a desired reward if they hit an achievable target. They are least motivated if they don’t want the reward or they don’t believe that their efforts will result in the reward.

How to apply it to the workplace

The key here is to set achievable goals for your employees and provide rewards that they actually want.

Rewards don’t have to come in the form of pay rises, bonuses or all-expenses paid nights out. Rewards can come in the form of Praise, opportunities for progression and “employee of the month” style rewards can all go a long way in motivating your employees.

5. Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Alderfer classifies needs into three categories, also ordered hierarchically:

· growth needs (development of competence and realization of potential)

· relatedness needs (satisfactory relations with others)

· existence needs (physical well-being)

This is very similar to Maslow — can be seen as just collapsing into three tiers. But maybe a bit more rational. For example, in Alderfer’s model, sex does not need to be in the bottom category as it is in Maslow’s model, since it is not crucial to (the individual’s) existence. (Remember, this about individual motivation, not species’ survival.) So by moving sex, this theory does not predict that people have to have sex before they can think about going to school, like Maslow’s theory does. 

Alderfer believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense (e.g., the power you get the more you want power), like an addiction.

Do any of these theories have anything useful to say for managing businesses? Well, if true, they suggest that

· Not everyone is motivated by the same things. It depends where you are in the hierarchy (think of it as a kind of personal development scale) 

· The needs hierarchy probably mirrors the organizational hierarchy to a certain extent: top managers are more likely to motivated by self-actualization/growth needs than existence needs.

6. Acquired Needs Theory (mcclellan)

Some needs are acquired as a result of life experiences

· need for achievement, accomplish something difficult. as kids encouraged to do things for themselves.

· need for affiliation, form close personal relationships. as kids rewarded for making friends.

· need for power, control others. as kids, able to get what they want through controlling others.

Again similar to maslow and alderfer.

These needs can be measured using the TAT (thematic apperception test), which is a projection-style test based on interpreting stories that people tell about a set of pictures. 

7. Cognitive Evaluation Theory

This theory suggests that there are actually two motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsic that correspond to two kinds of motivators:

· intrinsic motivators:  Achievement, responsibility and competence. motivators that come from the actual performance of the task or job — the intrinsic interest of the work.

· extrinsic:  pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions — things that come from a person’s environment, controlled by others.

One or the other of these may be a more powerful motivator for a given individual.

Intrinsically motivated individuals perform for their own achievement and satisfaction. If they come to believe that they are doing some job because of the pay or the working conditions or some other extrinsic reason, they begin to lose motivation.

The belief is that the presence of powerful extrinsic motivators can actually reduce a person’s intrinsic motivation, particularly if the extrinsic motivators are perceived by the person to be controlled by people. In other words, a boss who is always dangling this reward or that stick will turn off the intrinsically motivated people.

Note that the intrinsic motivators tend to be higher on the Maslow hierarchy.

8. Reinforcement Theory


Operant Conditioning
is the term used by
B.F. Skinner
to describe the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior. There are four types of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen behavior while both Punishment and Extinction weaken behavior.

· Positive reinforcement.  Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of getting goodies as a consequence of a behavior. You make a sale, you get a commission. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion. 

· Negative reinforcement. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a  consequence of a behavior. Long-term sanctions are removed from countries when their human rights records improve. (you see how successful that is!). Low status as geek at Salomon Brothers is removed when you make first big sale.

· Extinction. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting no goodies when do a behavior. So if person does extra effort, but gets no thanks for it, they stop doing it.

· Punishment. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Example: having your pay docked for lateness. 

 

Apply

Withhold

Reward

positive reinforcement (raise above baseline)

negative reinforcement (raise up to baseline)

Stressor

punishment (bring down below baseline)

extinction (stay at baseline)

9. Three-Dimensional Theory of Attribution

Attribution Theory explains how we attach meaning to our own, and other people’s, behaviour. There are a number of theories about attribution.

Bernard Weiner’s Three-Dimensional theory of attribution assumes that people try to determine why we do what we do. According to Weiner, the reasons we attribute to our behaviour can influence how we behave in the future.

For example, a student who fails an exam could attribute their failure to a number of factors and it’s this attribution that will affect their motivation in the future.

Weiner theorised that specific attributions (e.g. bad luck, not studying hard enough) were less important than the characteristics of that attribution. According to Weiner, there are three main characteristics of attributions that can affect future motivation.

1. Stability – how stable is the attribution? For example, if the student believes they failed the exam because they weren’t smart enough, this is a stable factor. An unstable factor is less permanent, such as being ill.

According to Weiner, stable attributions for successful achievements, such as passing exams, can lead to positive expectations, and thus higher motivation, for success in the future.

However, in negative situations, such as failing the exam, stable attributions can lead to lower expectations in the future.

2. Locus of control – was the event caused by an internal or an external factor?

For example, if the student believes it’s their own fault they failed the exam, because they are innately not smart enough (an internal cause), they may be less motivated in the future. If they believed an external factor was to blame, such as poor teaching, they may not experience such a drop in motivation.

3. Controllability – how controllable was the situation? If an individual believes they could have performed better, they may be less motivated to try again in the future than someone who believes they failed because of factors outside of their control.

How to apply it to the workplace

Weiner’s Three-Dimensional theory of attribution has implications for employee feedback.

Make sure you give your employees specific feedback, letting them know that you know they can improve and how they can about it. This, in theory, will help prevent them from attributing their failure to an innate lack of skill and see that success is controllable if they work harder or use different strategies.

You could also praise your employees for showing an improvement, even if the outcome was still not correct. For example, you might praise someone for using the correct methodology even though the results weren’t what you wanted. This way, you are encouraging employees to attribute the failure to controllable factors, which again, can be improved upon in the future.

Work attitude and Employee Morale

Workplace attitudes have an effect on every person in the organization, from the employees to the company owner. Attitudes help to develop the prevailing workplace environment that determines employee morale, productivity and team-building abilities.

Description of the emotions, attitude, satisfaction, and overall outlook of employees during their time in a workplace environment. Part of effective productivity is thought to be directly related to the morale of the employees. Employees that are happy and positive at work are said to have positive or high employee morale. Companies that maintain employees who are dissatisfied and negative about their work environment are said to have negative or low employee morale.

The employee morale in a workplace can depend on many factors, such as work hours, work load, pay and rewards, etc


Five signs of low employee morale in the workplace

Changes in attitude

If you have unhappy employees on your team, it will show. Look for red flags — increased negativity, high or increased rates of absenteeism, or reduced cooperation or commitment. Checking in with workers on a regular basis will help you gauge employee morale and address budding problems.

2. An active grapevine

When communication is scarce, gossip, misinformation and conflict flourish. Even if you have bad news to share or don’t have all the answers, honesty is still the best policy. The more team members can rely on accurate information, the less grist they’ll have for the rumor mill. Good communication will help turn the negative into positive.

3. Lack of initiative

Unmotivated employees go through the motions rather than taking an active seat at the table. Foster an ownership environment in which people have the expectations that they should take the initiative, demonstrate leadership and solve problems in creative ways. Not only will that improve employee morale at your company, but it will help your workforce thrive in any kind of economy.

4. Scarce rewards

Step up efforts to recognize accomplishments with praise, low-cost awards and spot bonuses. Make rewards personal, and give them as soon as possible after an achievement to raise workplace morale and lower employee turnover.

5. Poor performance

Employee morale problems can quickly affect a team’s quality of work. Signs of trouble include missed deadlines, an increase in mistakes or a decline in service levels. Ask your team members if they feel burdened by the amount of work they have to do.

Management homework help

Case Study 01

Blendtec Goes Global … Again

Harvey Scott, vice president of international development, was in charge of Blendtec’s global
expansion effort. He and his team had been gathering data and meeting with international
partners and contacts for months to help determine which global markets to enter, when to
enter them, and how. Scott had to decide how to leverage Blendtec’s existing network of
international partners and distribution channels, or whether to scrap them and start over. He
understood that in many international markets, if Blendtec didn’t get things right, it wouldn’t
get a second chance.

Blendtec began in 1975 when founder Tom Dickson created a revolutionary wheat mill.
Dickson next turned his attention to commercial kitchen appliances, and his blenders were an
unqualified success, reducing average blending times from around fifty seconds to just
thirteen.

Product performance made Blendtec the primary appliance supplier to big-name companies
like Starbucks and Jamba Juice. The company also partnered with Costco to sell Blendtec
blenders directly to consumers. These relationships initially stayed domestic, and Blendtec
was positioned to service a predominantly U.S. market. Starbucks and Costco, however, had
plans for global expansion.

Going Global
When Starbucks and Costco moved international in the early 1990s, Blendtec wasn’t an
international company, so it had no network in place to provide service and support to its big
customers. It promised to build a global supply and support network, but it faced new and
different problems in each market, which required additional innovation. For example, in
Australia, the power grid could fluctuate widely in terms of voltage. Most U.S. appliances
would burn up under that kind of power variation. Blendtec had to find a partner to explain
how to build a power regulation system that would protect appliances from those
fluctuations.

Mixing Things Up
After a few years abroad, the company wanted to enter other foreign markets using a more
strategic focus, not just in reaction to customers’ demands. To ensure its future, Harvey Scott
needed to determine Blendtec’s strategy. Future growth depended on his decision, and he
wouldn’t get a second chance to make a first impression on new markets and consumers.

Case Discussion Questions

1. Which markets are most likely to be most receptive to a greater presence from
Blendtec? Why? What differentiates those markets from other markets?

2. Should Blendtec sell to local retail stores or rely on global retailers such as
Costco?

3. Should Blendtec set up production facilities in foreign countries? For example,
would it be better to manufacture units in Brazil for that market or better to
ship product there and pay applicable import tariffs? Does that determination
vary from market to market?

Management homework help


7.1 Linear Regression Models

As mentioned, linear least-squares regression is typically taken up in a basic statistics course. The normal linear regression model is written

yi=β0+β1x1i+β2x2i+⋯+βkxki+εi=E(yi)+εi

(7.1)

where yi is the value of the response variable for the ith of n independently sampled observations; x1ix2i,…, xki are the values of k explanatory variables; and the errors εi are normally and independently distributed with 0 means and constant variance, εi ∼ NID(0,σε2). Both y and the xs are numeric variables, and the model assumes that the average value E(y) of yis a linear function—that is, a simple weighted sum—of the xs.
1
 If there is just one x (i.e., if k = 1), then 
Equation 7.1
 is called the linear simple regression model; if there are more than one x (k ≥ 2), then it is called the linear multiple regression model.

The normal linear model is optimally estimated by the method of least squares, producing the fitted model

yi=b0+b1x1i+b2x2i+⋯+bkxki+ei=y^i+ei

where y^i is the fitted value and ei the residual for observation i. The least-squares criterion

Image

FIGURE 7.1: The Linear Regression dialog for Duncan’s occupational prestige data.

selects the values of the bs that minimize the sum of squared residuals, ∑ei2. The least-squares regression coefficients are easily computed, and, in addition to having desirable statistical properties under the model (such as efficiency and unbias), statistical inference based on the least-squares estimates is very simple (see, e.g., the references given at the beginning of the chapter).

The simplest way to fit a linear regression model in the R Commander is by the Linear Regression dialog. To illustrate, I’ll use Duncan’s occupational prestige data (introduced in 
Chapter 4
). Duncan’s data set resides in the car package, and so I can read the data into the R Commander via Data > Data in packages > Read data from an attached package (see 
Section 4.2.4
). Then selecting Statistics > Fit models > Linear regression produces the dialog in 
Figure 7.1
. To complete the dialog, I click on prestige in the Response variable list, and Ctrl-click on education and income in the Explanatory variables list. Finally, pressing the OK button produces the output shown in 
Figure 7.2
.

The commands generated by the Linear Regression dialog use the lm (linear model) function in R to fit the model, creating RegModel.1, and then summarize the model to produce printed output. The summary output includes information about the distribution of the residuals; coefficient estimates, their standard errors, t statistics for testing the null hypothesis that each population regression coefficient is 0, and the two-sided p-values for these tests; the standard deviation of the residuals (“residual standard error”) and residual degrees of freedom; the squared multiple correlation, R2, for the model and R2 adjusted for degrees of freedom; and the omnibus F test for the hypothesis that all population slope coefficients (here the coefficients of education and income) are 0 (H0: β1 = β2 = 0, for the example).

This is more or less standard least-squares regression output, similar to printed output produced by almost all statistical packages. What is unusual is that in addition to the printout in 
Figure 7.2
, the R Commander creates and retains a linear model object on which I can perform further computations, as illustrated later in this chapter.

The Model button in the R Commander toolbar now reads RegModel.1, rather than <No active model>, as it did at the beginning the session. Just as you can choose among data sets residing in memory (if there are more than one) by pressing the Data set button in the toolbar, you can similarly choose among statistical models (if there are more than one) by pressing the Model button. Equivalently, you can pick Models > Select active model from the R Commander menus. Moreover, the R Commander takes care of coordinating data sets and models, by associating each statistical model with the data set to which it is fit. Consequently, selecting a statistical model makes the data set to which it was fit the active data set, if that isn’t already the case.

Image

FIGURE 7.2: Output from Duncan’s regression of occupational prestige on income and education, produced by the Linear Regression dialog.

The variable lists in the Linear Regression dialog in 
Figure 7.1
 include only numeric variables. For example, the factor type (type of occupation) in Duncan’s data set, with levels “bc” (blue-collar), “wc” (white-collar), and “prof”(professional, technical, or managerial), doesn’t appear in either variable list. Moreover, the explanatory variables that are selected enter the model linearly and additively. The Linear Model dialog, described in the next section, is capable of fitting a much wider variety of regression models.

In completing the Linear Regression dialog in 
Figure 7.1
, I left the name of the model at its default, RegModel.1. The R Commander generates unique model names automatically during a session, each time incrementing the model number (here 1).

I also left the Subset expression at its default, <all valid cases>. Had I instead entered type == “bc”,
2
 for example, the regression model would have been fit only to blue-collar occupations. As in this example, the subset expression can be a logical expression, returning the value TRUE or FALSE for each case (see 
Section 4.4.2
), a vector of case indices to include,
3
 or a negative vector of case indices to exclude. For example, 1:25 would include the first 25 occupations, while -c(6, 16) would exclude occupations 6 and 16.
4
 All of the statistical modeling dialogs in the R Commander allow subsets of cases to be specified in this manner.



7.2 Linear Models with Factors*

Like the Linear Regression dialog described in the preceding section, the Linear Model dialog can fit additive linear regression models, but it is much more flexible: The Linear Model dialog accommodates transformations of the response and explanatory variables, factors as well as numeric explanatory variables on the right-hand-side of the regression model, nonlinear functions of explanatory variables expressed as polynomials and regression splines, and interactions among explanatory variables. All this is accomplished by allowing the user to specify the model as an R linear-model formula. Linear-model formulas in R are inherited from the S programming language (Chambers and Hastie, 1992), and are a version of notation for expressing linear models originally introduced by Wilkinson and Rogers (1973).



7.2.1 Linear-Model Formulas

An R linear-model formula is of the general form response-variable ∼ linear-predictor . The tilde (~) in a linear-model formula can be read as “is regressed on.” Thus, in this general form, the response variable is regressed on a linear predictor comprising the terms in the right-hand side of the model.

The left-hand side of the model formula, response-variable , is an R expression that evaluates to the numeric response variable in the model, and is usually simply the name of the response variable—for example, prestige in Duncan’s regression. You can, however, transform the response variable directly in the model formula (e.g., log10(income)) or compute the response as a more complex arithmetic expression (e.g., log(investment.income + hourly.wage.rate*hours.worked).
5

The formulation of the linear predictor on the right-hand side of a model formula is more complex. What are normally arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, and ^) in R expressions have special meanings in a model formula, as do the operators : (colon) and %in%. The numeral 1 (one) may be used to represent the regression constant (i.e., the intercept) in a model formula; this is usually unnecessary, however, because an intercept is included by default. A period (.) represents all of the variables in the data set with the exception of the response. Parentheses may be used for grouping, much as in an arithmetic expression.

In the large majority of cases, you’ll be able to formulate a model using only the operators + (interpreted as “and”) and * (interpreted as “crossed with”), and so I’ll emphasize these operators here. The meaning of these and the other model-formula operators are summarized and illustrated in 
Table 7.1
. Especially on first reading, feel free to ignore everything in the table except +, :, and * (and : is rarely used directly).

A final formula subtlety: As I’ve explained, the arithmetic operators take on special meanings on the right-hand side of a linear-model formula. A consequence is that you can’t use these operators directly for arithmetic. For example, fitting the model savings ~ wages + interest + dividends estimates a separate regression coefficient for each of wages, interest, and dividends. Suppose, however, that you want to estimate a single coefficient for the sum of these variables—in effect, setting the three coefficients equal to each other. The solution is to “protect” the + operator inside a call to the I (identity or inhibit) function, which simply returns its argument unchanged:
6
 savings ∼ I(wages + interest + dividends). This formula works as desired because arithmetic operators like + have their usual meaning within a function call on the right-hand side of the formula—implying, incidentally, that savings ∼ log10(wages + interest + dividends) also works as intended, estimating a single coefficient for the log base 10 of the sum of wages, interest, and dividends.

TABLE 7.1: Operators and other symbols used on the right-hand side of R linear-model formulas.

Operator

Meaning

Example

Interpretation

+

and

x1 + x2

x1 and x2

:

interaction

x1:x2

interaction of x1 and x2

*

crossing

x1*x2

x1 crossed with x2 (i.e., x1 + x2 + x1:x2)

remove

x1 – 1

regression through the origin (for numeric x1)

^k

cross to order k

(x1 + x2 + x3)^2

same as x1*x2 + x1*x3 + x2*x3

%.in%.

nesting

province %in% country

province nested in country

/

nesting

country/province

same as country + province %in% country

Symbol

Meaning

Example

Interpretation

1

intercept

x1 – 1

suppress the intercept

.

everything but the response

y ~ .

regress y on everything else

( )

grouping

x1*(x2 + x3)

same as x1*x2 + x1*x3

The symbols x1, x2, and x3 represent explanatory variables and could be either numeric or factors.



7.2.2 The Principle of Marginality

Introduced by Nelder (1977), the principle of marginality is a rule for formulating and interpreting linear (and similar) statistical models. According to the principle of marginality, if an interaction, say x1:x2, is included in a linear model, then so should the main effects, x1 and x2, that are marginal to—that is lower-order relatives of—the interaction. Similarly, the lower-order interactions x1:x2, x1:x3, and x2:x3 are marginal to the three-way interaction x1:x2:x3. The regression constant (1 in an R model formula) is marginal to every other term in the model.
7

It is in most circumstances difficult in R to formulate models that violate the principle of marginality, and trying to do so can produce unintended results. For example, although it may appear that the model y ∼ f*x – x – 1, where f is a factor and x is a numeric explanatory variable,
8
 violates the principle of marginality by removing the regression constant and x slope, the model that R actually fits includes a separate intercept and slope for each level of the factor f. Thus, the model y ∼ f*x – x – 1 is equivalent to (i.e., an alternative parametrization of) y ∼ f*x. It is almost always best to stay away from such unusual model formulas.



7.2.3 Examples Using the Canadian Occupational Prestige Data

For concreteness, I’ll formulate several linear models for the Canadian occupational prestige data (introduced in 
Section 4.2.3
 and described in 
Table 4.2
 on 
page 61
), regressing prestige on income, education, women (gender composition), and type (type of occupation). The last variable is a factor (categorical variable) and so it cannot enter into the linear model directly. When a factor is included in a linear-model formula, R generates contrasts to represent the factor—one fewer than the number of levels of the factor. I’ll explain how this works in greater detail in Section 7.2.4, but the default in the R Commander (and R more generally) is to use 0/1 dummy-variable regressors, also called indicator variables.

A version of the Canadian occupational prestige data resides in the data frame Prestige in the car package,9 and it’s convenient to read the data into the R Commander from this source via Data > Data in packages > Read data from an attached package. Prestige replaces Duncan as the active data set.

Recall that 4 of the 102 occupations in the Prestige data set have missing values (NA) for occupational type. Because I will fit several regression models to the Prestige data, not all of which include type, I begin by filtering the data set for missing values, selecting Data > Active data set > Remove cases with missing data (as described in Section 4.5.2).

Moreover, the default alphabetical ordering of the levels of type—“bc” , “prof” , “wc”—is not the natural ordering, and so I also reorder the levels of this factor via Data > Manage variables in active data set > Reorder factor levels to “bc”, “wc”, “prof” (see Section 3.4). This last step isn’t strictly necessary, but it makes the data analysis easier to follow.

I first fit an additive dummy regression to the Canadian prestige data, employing the model formula prestige ∼ income + education + women + type. To do so, I select Statistics > Fit models > Linear model from the R Commander menus, producing the dialog box in Figure 7.3. The automatically supplied model name is LinearModel.2, reflecting the fact that I have already fit a statistical model in the session, RegModel.1 (in Section 7.1).

Most of the structure of the Linear Model dialog is common to statistical modeling dialogs in the R Commander. If the response text box to the left of the ∼ in the model formula is empty, double-clicking on a variable name in the variable list box enters the name into the response box; thereafter, double-clicking on variable names enters the names into the right-hand side of the model formula, separated by +s (if no operator appears at the end of the partially completed formula). You can enter parentheses and operators like + and * into the formula using the toolbar in the dialog box.10 You can also type directly into the model-formula text boxes. In Figure 7.3, I simply double-clicked successively on prestige, education, income, women, and type.11 Clicking OK produces the output shown in Figure 7.4.

I already explained the general format of linear-model summary output in R. What’s new in Figure 7.4 is the way in which the factor type is handled in the linear model: Two dummy-variable regressors are automatically created for the three-level factor type. The first dummy regressor, labelled type[T.wc] in the output, is coded 1 when type is “wc”and 0 otherwise; the second dummy regressor, type[T.prof], is coded 1 when type is “prof” and 0 otherwise. The first level of type—“bc”—is therefore selected as the reference or baseline level, coded 0 for both dummy regressors.12

Consequently, the intercept in the linear-model output is the intercept for the “bc” reference level of type, and the coefficients for the other levels give differences in the intercepts between each of these levels and the reference level. Because the slope coefficients for the numeric explanatory variables education, income, and women in this additive model do not vary by levels of type, the dummy-variable coefficients are also interpretable as the average difference between each other level and “bc” for any fixed values of education, income, and women.

Image

FIGURE 7.3: Linear Model dialog completed to fit an additive dummy-variable regression of prestige on the numeric explanatory variables education, income, and women, and the factor type.

To illustrate a structurally more complex, nonadditive model, I respecify the Canadian occupational prestige regression model to include interactions between type and education and between type and income, in the process removing women from the model—in the initial regression, the coefficient of women is small with a large p-value.
13
 The Linear Model dialog (not shown) reopens in its previous state, with the model name incremented to LinearModel.3. To fit the new model, I modify the formula to read prestige ∼ type*education + type*income. Clicking OK produces the output in 
Figure 7.5
.

With interactions in the model, there are different intercepts and slopes for each level of type. The intercept in the output—along with the coefficients for education and income— pertains to the baseline level “bc” of type. Other coefficients represent differences between each of the other levels and the baseline level. For example, type[T.wc] = –33.54 is the difference in intercepts between the “wc” and “bc” levels of type;
14
 similarly, the interaction coefficient type[T.wc]:education = 4.291 is the difference in education slopes between the “wc” and “bc” levels. The complexity of the coefficients makes it difficult to understand what the model says about the data; 
Section 7.6
 shows how to visualize terms such as interactions in a complex linear model.

Image

FIGURE 7.4: Output for the linear model prestige ∼ income + education + women + type fit to the Prestige data.

Image

FIGURE 7.5: Output for the linear model prestige ∼ type*education + type*income fit to the Prestige data.

TABLE 7.2: Contrast-regressor codings for type generated by contr.Treatment, contr.Sum, contr.poly,, and contr.Helmert.

Levels of type

Function

Contrast Names

“bc”

“wc”

“prof”

contr.Treatment

type[T.wc]

0

1

0

type[T.prof]

0

0

1

contr.Sum

type[S.wc]

1

0

-1

type[S.prof]

0

1

-1

contr.poly

type.L

−1/2

0

1/2

type.Q

1/6

−2/6

1/6

contr.Helmert

type[H.1]

-1

1

0

type[H.2]

-1

-1

2



7.2.4 Dummy Variables and Other Contrasts for Factors

By default in the R Commander, factors in linear-model formulas are represented by 0/1 dummy-variable regressors generated by the contr.Treatment function in the car package, picking the first level of a factor as the baseline level.
15
 This contrast coding, along with some other choices, is shown in 
Table 7.2
, using the factor type in the Prestige data set as an example.

The function contr.Sum from the car generates so-called “sigma-constrained” or “sum-to-zero” contrast regressors, as are used in traditional treatments of analysis of variance.
16
 The standard R function contr.poly generates orthogonal-polynomial contrasts—in this case, linear and quadratic terms for the three levels of type; in the R Commander, contr.poly is the default choice for ordered factors. Finally, contr.Helmert generates Helmert contrasts, which compare each level to the average of those preceding it.

Selecting Data > Manage variables in active data set > Define contrasts for a factor produces the dialog box on the left of 
Figure 7.6
. The factor type is preselected in this dialog because it’s the only factor in the data set. You can use the radio buttons to choose among treatment, sum-to-zero, Helmert, and polynomial contrasts, or define customized contrasts by selecting Other, as I’ve done here.

Clicking OK leads to the sub-dialog shown on the right of 
Figure 7.6
. I change the default contrast names, .1 and .2, to [bc.v.others] and [wc.v.prof], and then fill in the contrast coefficients (i.e., the values of the contrast regressors). This choice produces contrast regressors named type[bc.v.others] and type[wc.v.prof], to be used when the factor type in the Prestige data set appears in a linear-model formula. Contrasts defined directly in this manner must be lin

Management homework help

3.4 Assignment: Reflection Paper

Getting Started

Image labeled The Stanford Prison Experiment

Social identity within the context of leadership effectiveness begins with an understanding that it is a group process. As the sense of belonging to the group becomes more important to group members, effective leaders tend to be those group members who are perceived to display typical qualities of the group, and who fit well within the group (Messick & Kramer, 2005).

Would it surprise you to learn that most employees who resign from their jobs actually are quitting their supervisors, not their organizations? Social influence plays a significant role in the types of group settings in which we choose to engage.

In this assignment, you will analyze two well-known (but rather disturbing) studies that speak to how individuals and groups behave and the reasons why they behave as they do. As you view the two assigned videos, consider how you might have responded had you been part of each experiment. Be prepared, these two studies are among the more disturbing studies we read or hear about.

Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:

· Assess the extent to which one has agency (ability to shape one’s life) in light of social influence.

· Explain how social dynamics influence others, as well as strategies that may be used to become a better leader and a better follower.

Instructions

1. Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.

2. View each of the following two short videos:

a.
The Milgram Experiment – Taking Orders to Be Violent Might be Easier Than You Think(new tab)

b.
The Stanford Prison Experiment(new tab)

3. Informed by the two assigned videos as well as any other course resources (as well as those you discover on your own), write a two-page paper (no more than 2 ½, excluding the title page and reference page) that reflects on your observations regarding the following questions:

a. Discuss one or two examples of how you have observed social influence at work in your own life experiences, either positively or negatively (work, church, or other settings).

b. Reflect upon the extent to which one has agency (ability to shape one’s life) in light of social influence. Are people merely destined to behave based on their social groups? How might spirituality or faith address this issue?

c. With your understanding of how social dynamics influence others, what strategies could you form using that knowledge to become a better leader? A better follower?

4. The paper must include an introduction paragraph to summarize for your reader what they will find in your paper, as well as a conclusion paragraph that provides a succinct summary of your learning.

5. Submit your completed assignment by the end of the workshop week.

6. All papers are to be written and formatted in accordance with 
APA Guidelines (7th ed.)(new tab)


7. Papers must be logical, well organized, grammatically correct, and have correct spelling and sentence structure. Write in complete paragraphs of at least three sentences in length.

Management homework help


VRIO human resources (value, rareness, imitability, organization)

Children’s Nest has a friendly director that is clear about her goals. Her focus is completely on the development of all those students that are present in her care. She is very helpful towards her staff and students. (About Us) These capabilities make her valuable because it contributes to the healthy environment of the organization which ultimately leads to the success of the company. Her friendly behavior makes communication easy with staff, which means there is a great collaboration between her and her staff. A focused leader can lead her team in a more effective manner. These capabilities also make her rare, because it isn’t easy to find these qualities in a single person. Comment by Ashley Salaiz: Who is this referring to? Each center has a different director and Tripp manages all of them. Comment by Ashley Salaiz: When mentioning valuable, tie it to increasing revenues and/or decreasing costs.

Moreover, the experienced and innovative staff is the other success factor for Children’s nest. The diversity in staff makes them more effective. Their highly accommodating staff knows how to deal with the diverse behaviors of children. The staff used their experience for the development of the students. To create a nurturing environment, the staff uses their innovative knowledge, because they want to make a safe, loving, stimulating, and warm environment for their students. (About Us)

Furthermore, it is valuable because the staff is the asset of the organization. The success and growth of the organization depend on them. It isn’t rare because almost every organization demands experienced and innovative employees. It isn’t costly to imitate because every person knows about the trend of the market. To capture value, it is organized in the most effective manner, because parents will prefer teachers that are friendly, innovative and have experiences for their children. This factor will help to attract the attention of potential customers. Comment by Ashley Salaiz: When mentioning valuable, tie it to increasing revenues and/or decreasing costs.

Management homework help

Activity 2: Prepare a client loan application for case scenario 2

This activity requires you to prepare a client loan application for case scenario 2.

To do so, you are required to follow the steps given in Checklist 2 and complete the templates associated with each step.

The supervisor or trainer/assessor will:

· Supervise and observe the student performing this activity.

· Place a tick mark against each step given in the checklist after the student performs/implements the step.

· Sign off the checklist and ask the student for the submission of templates associated with each step.

For trainer/assessor: For the simulated environment

· The trainer/assessor or supervisor must ensure that the student is made familiar with the existing workplace practices used in the workplace.

· The trainer/assessor must ensure that the student has access to the following in the simulated workplace scenario:

· Office equipment, technology, software and consumables

· Computer

· Internet

· MS Word

· Printer or e-printer

· Team members

· BrokerEngine

· Contact software system and data

· Clients as mentioned in the case scenarios

· Organisational products and information

· Organisational policies and procedures documentation.

· The trainer/assessor will take on the role of the lender.

· The trainer/assessor must ensure that the student has access to the internal stakeholders of the training organisation.

· The trainer/assessor will assign the role of the client for case scenario 2 to the staff member of the training organisation.

· The trainer/assessor must brief the staff member regarding case scenarios provided above.

· The staff member must discuss the information requested by the student/broker based on the case scenarios and the scripts provided.

· The trainer/assessor must assess the student using the performance checklist provided.


Checklist 2: Prepare a client loan application for case scenario 2

Steps

Place a tick mark, once completed

Step 1: Determine the client’s goals, objectives, and confidentiality requirements.

· Analyse the information given in case scenario 2.

· Determine the client goals and objectives related to the loan and document using Template 2.

· Identify the confidentiality requirements requirement and document using Template 2.

·

Step 2: Obtain client’s financial and personal information.

· Consult with the client and obtain the following financial and personal information:

· Total cost of property.

· Total saving

· Work details

· Dependants

· Total expenses

· Loans and credit details

· Document the identified information using Template 2.

Client to discuss the following:

· Total home cost: $550,000.00

· Combined income details:

· $7,200 per month before tax.

· Dependants: 0

· Total expenses: $1,500/per month

· Credit scenario:

· Credit card: $2,000

· Car loan: $450/month

· Existing saving: $60,000

·

Step 3: Determine the information needed to support a loan application in accordance with codes of practice, legislative, and regulatory requirements.

Document the information needed to support a loan application using Template 2.

·

Step 4: Gather the necessary documents and signatures for the loan application.

· Request the client to provide the following details.

· Bank statements

· Copies of tax forms

· Request the client to sign the loan application document.

Trainer/assessor to provide the following documents to the student:

· Sample of bank statements and tax forms

· Loan application form

·

Step 5: Inform the client about the loan preparation and presentation process.

· Discuss with the client regarding the loan preparation and presentation process.

· Clarify the information requirements of the student.

· Document the loan preparation and presentation process discussed with the client using Template 2.

·

Step 6: Verify loan requirements and review supporting documentation for accuracy and readability.

· Verify loan requirements requirement with the client.

· Review supporting documentation for accuracy and readability.

· Bank statements

· Copies of tax forms

· Further, document the following using Template 2.

· Loan requirements

· Checks conducted on supporting documents to ensure accuracy and readability.

·

Step 7: Provide documentation that accurately reflects the client’s financial situation and personal information in accordance with the lender’s requirements and guidelines to the lender (Trainer/assessor).

· Go over documents with the client and confirm information.

· Complete document execution in accordance with organisational procedures as needed.

· Complete the home loan form provided along with the assessment. Ensure the documentation accurately reflects the client’s financial situation and personal information.

·

Step 8: Comply with client confidentiality requirements when submitting documents to the lender or approving officer.

Further, document the client confidentiality requirements complied with when submitting documents using Template 2.

·

Step 9: Obtain lender or approving officer decision and notify client of loan offer or non-offer in accordance with organisational policies and procedures.

Discuss in the e-mail how to proceed following the lender’s decision on the non-offer.

Lender (Trainer/assessor) to discuss that the loan is rejected due to bad credit history.

·

Sign off:

Supervisor’s signature:

Sign-off date:


Template 2: Client loan application for case scenario 2

Client loan application for case scenario 2

Confidentiality requirements requirement

Client’s financial and personal information

Total cost of property.

Total saving

Work details

Dependants

Total expenses

Loans and credit details

Information needed to support a loan application

Loan preparation and presentation process

Loan requirements

Checks conducted on supporting documents to ensure accuracy and readability

Confidentiality requirements complied with when submitting document

Management homework help

BUS521

© 2020 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may
not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

Page 1 of 2

Week 5 Activity – SWOT Analysis Template

• Complete the following matrix, identifying three strengths, three weaknesses, three
opportunities, and three threats for your company.

SWOT Matrix
Strengths:
1.
2.
3.

Weaknesses:
1.
2.
3.

Opportunities:
1.
2.
3.

Threats:
1.
2.
3.

• Provide a rationale for each strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat you identified
in your SWOT analysis.

Strengths Rationale

1.

2.

3.

Weaknesses Rationale

1.

2.

3.

Opportunities Rationale

1.

2.

BUS521

© 2020 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may
not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

Page 2 of 2

3.

Threats Rationale

1.

2.

3.

Management homework help

What criteria should he consider? What should be the sequence for
selecting and assigning people to projects?

Case 8.3

Tham Luang Cave Rescue
On June 23, 2018, in Thailand, a group of 12 boys aged between 11 and 17
from the local football team, named the Wild Boars, and their 23-year-old
assistant coach entered the Tham Luang cave. Tham Luang is a large cave
complex in northern Thailand along the border with Myanmar. The cavern
was popular with locals and the boys had visited Tham Luang before. Tham
Luang cave is isolated—there is no GPS, Wi-Fi, or cell phone service. The
last known survey was conducted in the 1980s by a French caving society,
but many of the deeper recesses remain unmapped.

The boys had little difficulty getting fairly far into the cave, crawling
through a couple of choke points to open spaces. They did not anticipate
any problems getting back. The monsoon rains weren’t expected until the
next week, and the year before, the cave did not begin to flood until the
middle of July. The team took no food with them, because this was going to
be a brief field trip. They planned to stay for perhaps an hour, then return
home to their parents.

However, nature had different plans. Heavy monsoon rain began to fall.
The Wild Boars didn’t know about the rain at first. There was a thousand
feet of rock above them and they were more than a mile from the open
forest. Heavy rains gathered in streams that disappeared into sinks, rushing
through limestone into the cavern. Water rose suddenly and quickly, forcing
the team to retreat farther and farther into the cave. The interior of the cave
is not level but rather rises and falls as it burrows into the mountain. The
team scrambled for higher ground as the water continued to rise. Finally,
they settled on a mud slope and waited to see if the water would continue to
rise. It didn’t.

page 304

A mother of one of the boys contacted the police when her child failed
to come home. A teammate who had missed practice that day told people
that the team had planned to visit the cave after practice. Parents rushed to
the cave, only to find their children’s bikes and cleats at the entrance and
the cave flooded.

A contingent of Thai Navy SEAL divers arrived the next day and began
pushing their way into the flooded cave. This was no easy task. The Thai
frogmen were accustomed to tropical open water, not the dark, cold currents
racing through the cave. They lacked equipment, much less
expertise needed for caves, where divers cannot just rise to the
surface if something goes wrong.

The plight of the Wild Boars drew international attention overnight.
Soon skilled cave divers from around the world, including Finland, Britain,
China, Australia, and the United States, volunteered their services. At first
the foreign divers were not met with open arms by the Thai military in
charge of the rescue. Many of the SEAL divers bristled at the idea of
needing foreign assistance. The divers were not even allowed into the cave.
After much political haggling, the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs told the
military chiefs to let the foreign divers go.

Even the experienced cave divers found the conditions extremely
difficult. “It was like walking into a strong waterfall and feeling the water
rushing at you,” one diver said. “It was a horizontal climb against water
with every move.”

The divers painstakingly penetrated the cave, securing guidelines
needed to ensure safety. Visibility at times was negligible. “If you put your
hand in front of you, it just disappeared,” said one diver. “You couldn’t see
anything.”

Meanwhile, on the surface, policemen with sniffer dogs searched for
shaft openings that could provide an alternative entrance to the cave system.
The search was augmented by hundreds of volunteers dressed in lemon-
yellow shirts and sky-blue caps, searching for hidden cracks in the
limestone that might reveal an opening to the cave. Drones were also used,
but no technology existed to scan for humans deep underground. Local holy
men created a shrine at the mouth of the cave, where they chanted and
communed with the spirit of the cave, “Jao Mae Tham.” Several times the
search had to be suspended due to heavy rains.

page 305

After the team had spent 10 days of captivity without real food or water,
there was little hope among the rescuers of discovering the boys alive.

In the cave, a pair of British divers working to extend the guide ropes
popped up near a narrow ledge. First they smelled, and then they saw, 13
emaciated people perched in the dark. The Wild Boars had run out of food
and light but had survived by sipping the condensation from the cave walls.
Later it was reported that the assistant coach, a Buddhist, had led the boys
in meditation to relax and conserve energy. The ledge where they were
found was about 2.5 miles from the cave mouth.

The next day Thai SEALs ferried food, water, and blankets to the Wild
Boars. Four divers, including a doctor, would stay with them until their
rescue. Thai officials reported that the rescuers were providing health
checks, keeping the boys entertained, and none of the boys were in serious
condition.

Thai officials released a video made by the rescuers and shared to the
world. The video showed all 12 boys and their coach introducing
themselves and stating their ages. Wrapped in emergency blankets and
appearing frail, each boy said hello to the outside world, “Sawasdee khrap,”
with his palms together in wai, the traditional Thai greeting. The video went
viral. Soon all the major newscasts across the world were covering the
story. The big question then became, now that the boys had been found,
how could they be gotten out alive?

A rescue camp was set up at the cave entrance, accommodating the
volunteers and journalists in addition to the rescue workers. The camp was
divided into zones: restricted areas for the Thai Navy SEALs, other military
personnel, and civilian rescuers; an area for relatives to wait in privacy; and
areas for the press and general public.

An estimated 10,000 people contributed to the rescue effort, including
more than 100 divers, 900 police officers, 2,000 soldiers, and numerous
volunteers. Equipment included 10 police helicopters, seven ambulances,
and more than 700 diving cylinders, of which more than 500 were in the
cave at any time while another 200 were in queue to be refilled.

The plight of the Wild Boars caught the attention of Elon Musk of Tesla
and Space X fame. He tasked engineers to build a kid-size submarine that

could be used to transport the boys out of the cave. Within days an actual
submarine was sent to Tham Luang. Thai officials praised the effort but
concluded it was not practical, given the narrow passages in the cavern.

The journey through the cave to the team took six hours against current
and five hours to exit with the current. The route had several flooded
sections, some with strong currents and zero visibility, and some extremely
narrow parts, the smallest measuring only 15 by 28 inches. The boys were
perched on a ledge 400 yards from Pattaya beach chamber, named after an
above-ground beach in Thailand. Chamber 3, which was dry, would be used
as rescue base.

Pumps were brought in to remove water from the cave. Although not a
solution, efforts at draining the cave began to produce results. Crags and
outcroppings emerged from the murk. The most challenging passage, which
had taken five hours to navigate early on, could now be traversed in two
hours with the help of guide ropes.

As the crisis unfolded, rescuers considered several different methods to
save the team. The principal options included
Wait until the end of the monsoon season, with divers providing food and
water.
Find an alternative entrance to the cave that would allow for an easier
escape.
Drill a rescue shaft.
Teach the group basic diving skills and have them swim out with the
divers.

Waiting until the monsoons ended in November and the water drained was
the simplest solution. The boys could walk out on their own. However, the
logistics did not make sense. Feeding 13 people, three times a day, for even
60 days is more than 2,750 meals. Every meal would have to be ferried in
by a team of divers, flirting with death each time they went under.

This was a growing concern. Four days after the boys were found,
retired Navy SEAL diver Saman Kunan lost consciousness while returning
from dropping off three air tanks. His dive buddy attempted CPR without
success. Kunan had left his airport security job to volunteer for the rescue
mission. Before that fatality, three divers were lost for over three hours in
the dark cave, and rescue efforts had to be redirected to find them.

page 306

From the beginning hundreds of volunteers crawled over the hillside in
search of hidden openings. People knew the odds were slim to none, given
the depth of the cave, but it was worth a try.

Drilling through a couple thousand feet of rock would require extensive
infrastructure work and take too long. Besides, there was significant
uncertainty as to where to drill.

That left the fourth option. None of the boys or the coach knew how to
dive. Even if they could master the basics, cave diving is not the same as a
practice run at a resort swimming pool. A weakened child submerged in
darkness and breathing unnaturally through a regulator is likely to panic.
Yet through long stretches of the cave, he wouldn’t be able to surface and
regain his composure—he would be in a flooded tunnel.

Privately experts thought maybe half the boys would survive the
journey. But pulling it off 13 times in a row would take a miracle.

While plans were being developed, two alarming events occurred. First,
the oxygen levels in the cave began to drop faster than anticipated. This
raised fears that the boys could develop hypoxia if they remained for a
prolonged time. By July 7 the oxygen level was measured to be 15 percent.
The level needed to maintain normal functions for humans is
between 19.5 percent and 23.5 percent. Thai engineers’
attempts to install an air supply line to the boys failed.

The second development was the weather forecast. Monsoon rains were
predicted for later in the week, which could flood the cave until November.

The Thai Navy SEALs, with the support of U.S. Air Force rescue
experts, devised a plan approved by the Thai Minister of the Interior.
Rescuers initially wanted to teach the boys basic diving skills to enable
them to make the journey. Organizers even built a mockup of a tight
passage with chairs and had divers practice with local boys in a nearby
school swimming pool. Eventually it was decided that the boys were too
weak to swim, and the plan was revised to have divers bring the boys out.

On July 8 the rescue attempt was initiated. For the first part of the
mission, 18 divers were sent into the caves to retrieve the boys, with 1 diver
to accompany each boy on the dive out. The boys were dressed in a wetsuit,
a buoyancy jacket, and a harness. Instead of sticking a regulator in each
boy’s mouth, they were given a full face mask that allowed them to breathe
naturally. An oxygen cylinder was clipped to their front, a handle was

attached to their back, and they were tethered to a diver in case they were
lost in poor visibility.

Panic was a chief concern. The SEAL doctor administered an anesthetic
to the boys before the journey, rendering them unconscious to prevent them
from panicking on the escape and risking the lives of their rescuers.1 The
anesthetic lasted about 50 minutes, requiring the divers, whom the doctor
had trained, to re-sedate their bodies during the three-hour-plus journey.

There was discussion about which boy should go first—the weakest, the
youngest, the strongest—but in the end it came to a boy who volunteered.
The boys were maneuvered out by the divers holding on to their back or
chest, with each boy on the left or right depending upon the guideline. In
very narrow spots, the divers had to push the boys from behind. The divers
kept their heads higher than the boys so that in poor visibility the divers
would hit their heads first against the rocks. After a short dive to a dry
section of cave, the divers and boys were met by three divers, and the boys’
dive gear was removed. A drag stretcher was used to transport the boys up
over a 200-meter stretch of rocks and sandy hills. The dive gear was put
back on before entering the next submerged section.

After being delivered by the divers into the rescue base in chamber 3,
the boys were then passed along a “daisy chain” of hundreds of workers
stationed along the treacherous path out of the cave. The boys were
alternately carried, slid, and zip-lined over a complex network of pulleys
installed by rock climbers. The path out of the chamber contained many
areas still partially submerged, and the boys had to be transported over
slippery rocks and through muddy waters. The journey out of chamber 3
took about four to five hours initially, less later as a result of drainage.

Soon after 7 p.m. local officials announced that two boys had been
rescued. Shortly later, two more boys appeared out of the cave. On July 9,
four more boys were rescued. On July 10, the last four boys and their coach
were rescued.

The four Thai Navy SEALs, including the doctor who had stayed with
the boys the entire time, were the last to dive out. When they got to
chamber 3, a water pipe burst, and the main pump stopped working. All of a
sudden, the water began to rise rapidly. This forced the SEALs and 100 of
the rescuers still a mile inside the cave to abandon the rescue equipment and
scramble out of the cave.

page 307

Upon reaching the surface the boys were quarantined while health
workers determined whether they had caught any infectious diseases. The
boys were on a fixed rice porridge diet for the first 10 days. Parents initially
visited their children looking through a window, but once the laboratory
results proved negative, they were allowed to visit in person while wearing
a medical gown, face mask, and hair cap.

After the rescue, the boys’ families, officials, and thousands of
volunteers gathered at the cave entrance. The group gave thanks for the
lives saved and asked forgiveness from the cave goddess, “Jao Mae Tham,”
for the intrusion of pumps, ropes, and people during the rescue.

The world rejoiced with the news of the successful rescue. The head of
the rescue mission said that the cave system would eventually be turned
into a living museum to highlight how the operation unfolded. As a result of
the incident, Thailand’s Navy SEALs will include cave diving in their
training programs.

On September 7, 2018, the Royal Thai government hosted a reception
for all Thai and foreign officials and personnel involved in the rescue. His
Majesty the King granted a royal decoration, The Most Admirable Order of
the Direkgunabhorn, to those who were involved in the rescue of the
football team—114 foreigners and 74 Thais. The order is bestowed upon
those who render devotional service to the Kingdom of Thailand. The title
Direkgunabhorn roughly translates as “Noble order of abundance and
quality.”

Three months after being rescued, the entire Wild Boar team and coach
appeared on the U.S. day-time talk show Ellen. Speaking through a
translator, the team revealed that four of the boys had had birthdays while
trapped in the cave. The team and coach were stunned when their football
hero, Zlatan Ibrahimović, who now plays for the LA Galaxy, made a
surprise appearance on the show to meet them. The Swedish star high-fived
each member. “These kids, this team is braver than me and they showed
their collective teamwork and had patience, faith,” Ibrahimović said. “This
is probably the best team in the world.”

1. How did the physical environment of the cave affect the rescue plan?
2. How did the rescue team respond to the risks of the project?

page 308

3. Some have called the rescue a miracle and that luck was the decisive
factor. Do you agree?

Sources
ABC News, “It Was Utter Chaos: Inside the Thai Cave Rescue That
Nearly Didn’t Happen,” December 1, 2018. www.abc.net.au. Accessed
2/8/19.
ABC News, “Thai Cave Rescue: Elon Musk Hits Out at Mission Chief
Who Turned Down Mini-submarine Offer,” July 11, 2018.
www.abc.net.au. Accessed 2/8/19.
Beech, H., R. C. Paddock, and M. Suhartono, “Still Can’t Believe It
Worked: The Story of the Thailand Cave Rescue,” New York Times, July
12, 2018. www.nytimes.com. Accessed 2/9/2019.
Ellis-Petersen, H., “Thai Cave Rescue Boys Meet Hero Zlatan during
Ellen Interview,” The Guardian, October 17, 2018.
www.theguardian.com. Accessed 2/12/19.
Flynn, S., “Miracle at Tham Luang,” GQ, December 3, 2018.
www.gq.com. Accessed 2/10/19.

1 The Thai government provided the SEAL doctor with diplomatic immunity if something
went wrong.

Appendix 8.1

The Critical-Chain Approach

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this appendix you should be able to:

  • Project Management
    • Chapter 8 Scheduling Resources and Costs
      • Appendix 8.1: The Critical-Chain Approach

Management homework help

5/2/22, 11:03 PM Preparing to Search – Research Process – LibGuides at Northcentral University

https://library.ncu.edu/researchprocess/preparingtosearch 1/7

NCU Library / LibGuides / Library How-To Guides / Research Process / Preparing to Search

Research Process
These pages offer an introduction to the research process

at a very general level.

Home

Finding a
Research Topic

Determining
Information
Needs

Scholarly
Research

Preparing to
Search

Database
Research
Log

Search
Limits

Keyword
Searching

Boolean
Operators

Phrase
Searching

Preparing to Search

Once you have selected a topic and reviewed general resources, you

must decide what exactly interests you most about your topic. For

example, you may have chosen globalization as a topic, but when you

run a search for globalization in the Library databases, you get over

12,000 results! In a situation like this you will need to narrow your

search. What about globalization interests you? Try adding some

keywords to globalization to come up with a smaller, more

manageable, set of search results. You may also find that your

research topic is much too narrow, or focused. Trying to look for

articles about the effects of globalization on outsourced employees

living in Hyderabad, India, will more than likely return zero results. In

this situation you need to broaden your topic by taking away some

keywords or being less specific about your research topic.

globalization = too broad
globalization on outsourced employees living in Hyderabad, India

= too narrow
globalization on outsourced employees = manageable topic

As mentioned above, it’s important to choose a topic that is not too

narrow or too broad. It is also helpful to select a topic where you can

effectively explore relationships. For example, “Is there a relationship

between globalization and the human rights of workers from local host

countries?” Use your research topic or question to identify the main

ideas, which will become your keywords.

keywords = globalization, human rights, outsourced employees

Search this Guide Search

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Truncation &
Wildcard
Symbols

Nesting

Proximity
Searching

Field Codes

Subject
Terms and
Database
Thesauri

Reading a
Scientific
Article

Evaluating
Information

Finding Similar
Resources

Resources for a
Literature
Review

Resources for
Dissertation
Research

Organizing
Research &
Citations 

Scholarly
Publication

y g , g , p y

As you continue searching, refine your search by adding or combining

different keywords that further explore your topic. You may find you

need to modify your question. Carefully read and evaluate scholarly

research articles to determine their suitability and validity. Use

information from selected articles to form a response to your question

and guide future searches.

Understanding how to narrow or broaden your topic is a an important

part of the research process. Learn to recognize when these steps

need to occur and what to do to carry out these steps. Once you have

developed a research topic, you will want to begin thinking about the

type of information you need and the best approach to finding it.

The sub-pages in this section will describe techniques for searching in

the Library’s databases.

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Learn the
Library 

Ask Us!

Top 5
Searching
Strategies

 Top 5
Searching
Strategies
EBSCO

handout

identifies

powerful

search

strategies to be

used at the

onset. Note

that some

search

commands

may vary in

other

databases.

Searching 101 Workshop

This workshop covers the basics of searching: Boolean logic,

keywords vs. subjects, how to use a database thesaurus, and

truncation. Various databases will be used throughout the workshop to

demonstrate different searching techniques.

Searching 101Searching 101

 Searching 101 Workshop Outline

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Searching 102 Workshop

This library workshop builds upon Searching 101 and covers field

searching, nesting, proximity searching, and finding similar resources.

Various databases will be used throughout the workshop to

demonstrate different searching techniques.

Searching 102Searching 102

 Searching 102 Workshop Outline

One-on-One Sessions

Below are our current one-on-one session offerings. Each one-on-one

offers a specific type of assistance. Please review them thoroughly and

if you need assistance deciding which session would be best for you,

speak with a Library team member through our Ask Us! page.

For questions or assistance with assignment interpretation or
specific requirements, please speak with your course instructor.

Research Smart: Getting Started is a one-on-one session that
provides students with the opportunity to learn how to conduct

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research, find relevant resources, and explore ways to effectively build

upon knowledge within their fields of study. Sessions are personalized

toward student needs and provide students with the insight and tools

needed for successfully completing assignments and establishing a

research routine.

Recommended prior to signing up for this session:

Attend the Library Orientation workshop. See the Library
Events page for scheduling.
Watch the ‘Search Like an Expert’ tutorial.

Research Consultations are live, one-on-one sessions that provide
in-depth, high-level, and customized research assistance with a

reference librarian. These sessions are NOT meant to provide basic

Library navigation and searching skills. Research consultations are

most beneficial for students who have a clearly identified research

topic and have already done significant research on their own.

Research Consultation Areas of Assistance:

Developing your search strategy

Identifying relevant databases and journals

Finding and evaluating information resources

Discovering alternative search terms for your topic

Using advanced search techniques for specific databases

Narrowing your search results

If you need help with APA, Mechanics, Style of Writing, or Citation

Formatting, please contact the Academic Success Center for
support.

Please review all requirements for a Research Consultation prior to

signing up on our Research Consultations page.

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Recorded Video Research Consultations provide in-depth, high-
level, and customized research assistance with a reference librarian.

These 30-minute sessions will be recorded and emailed to you within 3

business days (Monday – Friday).

These sessions are NOT meant to provide basic Library navigation

and searching skills. For help with basic library techniques, please

schedule a Research Smart session.

Research consultations are most beneficial for students who have a

clearly identified research topic and have already done significant

research on their own.

Research Consultation Areas of Assistance:

Developing your search strategy

Identifying relevant databases and journals

Finding and evaluating information resources

Discovering alternative search terms for your topic

Using advanced search techniques for specific databases

Narrowing your search results

If you need help with APA, Mechanics, Style of Writing, or Citation

Formatting, please contact the Academic Success Center for
support.

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8/6/2021 Why the Chip Shortage Is So Hard to Overcome – WSJ

https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-the-chip-shortage-is-so-hard-to-overcome-11618844905?mod=searchresults_pos1&page=1 1/10

This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients or customers visit
https://www.djreprints.com.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-the-chip-shortage-is-so-hard-to-overcome-11618844905

TECH

Why the Chip Shortage Is So Hard to Overcome
Semiconductor producers are trying to increase output, but the small gains are unlikely to �ix the

shortfalls hampering production of everything from cars to home appliances to PCs

By in Seoul and in Hong Kong |
Photographs by Gabby Jones for The Wall Street Journal
April 19, 2021 11�08 am ET

Eun-Young Jeong Dan Strumpf

The world’s leading suppliers of semiconductors are pushing to overcome the prolonged
chip shortage that has hampered production of everything from home appliances to PCs
to autos.

Chip makers are trying to eke out more supply through changes to manufacturing
processes and by opening up spare capacity to rivals, auditing customer orders to prevent
hoarding and swapping over production lines. The bad news is, there are no quick fixes,
and shortages will likely continue into next year, according to the industry’s executives.

On top of a spike in demand, producers have been hamstrung by a series of freak events
that have knocked out supply, while ongoing U.S.-China political frictions and concerns of
a prolonged shortage have prompted some manufacturers to stockpile chips.

The current shortfall includes the less-advanced chips that the industry’s biggest players
have been pulling away from to pursue higher-margin, cutting-edge chips. Building new
production capacity usually takes years.

That could slow down the post-pandemic recovery for certain industries that use the
chips that are looking to take advantage of rising consumer spending. It also feeds into
inflation concerns as higher chip costs can stoke prices throughout the economy.

Racing to fill orders, GlobalFoundries Inc., based in Santa Clara, Calif., one of the world’s
largest contract chip manufacturers, is dispatching its engineers to find ways to squeeze
out even the smallest amount of extra production from its factories in the U.S., Singapore
and Germany. Among the solutions: delaying certain maintenance tasks and speeding up
—by a fraction—the rate at which wafers move along the line.

8/6/2021 Why the Chip Shortage Is So Hard to Overcome – WSJ

https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-the-chip-shortage-is-so-hard-to-overcome-11618844905?mod=searchresults_pos1&page=1 2/10

“We’re working immensely hard to figure out how to do more, build more,” said chief
executive Thomas Caulfield.

Last Tuesday, President Biden called for a bipartisan push to strengthen the U.S.
semiconductor industry during a meeting with automotive and tech executives. He has
earmarked $50 billion to boost America’s semiconductor production as part of a $2.3
trillion infrastructure plan. The spending isn’t expected to push the needle far: making
the U.S. self-sufficient for its chips would require more than $1.4 trillion in investments
and government incentives over a decade, according to the Semiconductor Industry
Association, an industry group.

Chip makers can add only incremental boosts to capacity from existing plants, executives
say. Building a new fabrication plant can take years because of the scale and complexity of
equipment and space needed to make semiconductors.

Major chip makers made big strategic bets on the more-profitable advanced chips needed
for things such as 5G and servers. The approach hit a glitch when the coronavirus plunged
the global economy into one of its worst recessions, rattling supply chains and consumer
spending patterns. That left chip makers ill-equipped to deal with the high demand for
older, less-sophisticated semiconductors used widely in products such as cars, computer
monitors, speakers and appliances—products that have been hoovered up during the
pandemic.

The supply crunch was exacerbated by U.S.-China trade tensions, especially during the
past year, including Washington policies that gradually restricted the sale of American-
designed or -made chips to some Chinese buyers. Fears of sanctions prompted tech

A semiconductor wafer at GlobalFoundries’ Malta, N.Y., facility.

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companies in China to stockpile chips and prepare for the worst, Huawei Technologies Co.
deputy chairman Eric Xu said last week. The Chinese company uses a range of chips in its
telecommunication products and consumer gadgets, and aggressively stockpiled
components to protect against U.S. export restrictions.

“Now [the Chinese companies] are stockpiling for one month, three months, or even six
months, and they have disrupted the whole system,” Mr. Xu said. China’s semiconductor
imports soared 15% last year and hit a record $35.9 billion in March, Chinese customs
figures show.

Chip production was disrupted by events including a plant fire in Japan and freezing
weather in the southern U.S. that shuttered production lines. A drought in Taiwan, a
major chip-making hub, threatens to further reduce the industry’s output, since large
amounts of water are used in the process.

GlobalFoundries, above and below, is dispatching its engineers to �ind ways to squeeze out even the
smallest amount of extra production.

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Manufacturers of products that use chips are stepping up production in expectation of a
post-pandemic economic recovery. The surge in chip demand is pushing up prices and
extending already historically long wait times. Auto makers including Toyota Motor Corp.
and General Motors Co. have been forced to idle or reduce production at some plants.

Some buyers say they face delays of half a year or longer. “You ask on Monday, it’s a 12-
week lead time. Then you ask on Wednesday and it’s a 27-week lead time,” said Liam
Bates, chief executive officer of Kaiterra, a Swiss-based maker of air-quality tracking
devices.

Kaiterra, which manufactures in southern China, is beefing up contingency plans to make
its supply chain “future-proof.” Engineers who focus on building new products now
allocate a chunk of time to redesigning existing ones to operate on different chips, in case
the ones needed don’t arrive. Recently, the company decided to stock up a year’s worth of
inventory for some parts.

Semiconductors are the lifeblood of many industries—ranking as the world’s fourth-most
traded product counting imports and exports, after crude oil, refined oil and cars.

For years, the world’s biggest chip makers plowed investment into capacity to feed
demand for the next generation of semiconductors, and shifted their focus away from the
production of more-basic chips.

But autos and home electronics are packed with lots of the more rudimentary
components. These include power-management chips, a basic chip that regulates the flow
of electricity in a device, and microcontrollers, the workhorses that run a host of
functions.

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“There isn’t an electronic device that doesn’t have a microcontroller in it,”
GlobalFoundries’ Mr. Caulfield said. “This is pervasively in short supply.”

Even advanced electronic gadgets need some basic chips to operate, and in fact
increasingly use more of them to run more sophisticated technology. A typical 5G
smartphone can hold as many as eight power-management chips, compared with two to
three in a 4G phone, according to Hui He, an analyst at research firm Omdia.

Last year, 27% of all spending on chip-making equipment went to tools for building the
industry’s most-advanced chips, according to research firm Gartner Inc., which are often
used in smartphones, high-end PCs and data centers. Less than half that portion, about
11%, went to equipment for cranking out more commoditized chips

Thomas Caul�ield, the CEO of GlobalFoundries, at the Malta, N.Y., facility on Friday.

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The world’s largest contract chip maker, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. , told
investors in January that it is working with customers to upgrade some of the chips they
are using so that they can be built on its more-advanced manufacturing lines, where there
is more capacity. On Thursday, executives told investors that customers have been
stockpiling higher levels of inventory due to the pandemic and geopolitical tensions.

Switching existing production lines from making one type of chip to another isn’t easy
because different types of chips require different equipment to make, though there can be
some overlap.

There hasn’t been a time when the shortage has affected so many types and brands of
chips all at once, said Marcus Chen, vice president of sales for the Asia-Pacific at Fusion
Worldwide, one of the many global distributors who act as middlemen to supply
electronic components to buyers.

It usually takes at least two years to build and equip a semiconductor fabrication plant,
known as a “fab,” which can cost billions of dollars. The most advanced machines that can
be installed in the plants can top $100 million and are so large they require as many as
three 747s to deliver.

Once fabs are built, a chip typically takes three months to make—or longer for the most-
advanced ones.

Semiconductor makers must decide whether to make multibillion-dollar bets on whether
this surge will last or taper off by the time new plants are up and running. Many are
reluctant to alter long-term spending plans based on demand surges that could be short-
lived.

Still, the biggest semiconductor companies are setting aside huge sums to boost overall
capacity. TSMC earlier this month unveiled the industry’s largest-ever investment,
allocating $100 billion over the next three years to boost capacity. Most of the company’s
near-term spending, however, will go toward building the most-advanced chips. In the
U.S., Intel Corp. last month pledged $20 billion for two sites in Arizona and signaled
further investment commitments are to come this year. South Korea’s Samsung
Electronics Co. has earmarked $116 billion in investment by 2030 to diversify chip
production.

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In China, President Xi Jinping has for years made the country’s independence in advanced
technologies such as chips a national priority. Yet the goal remains elusive. One key player
in the country’s self-reliance push defaulted on billions of dollars in debt. Others have
been hobbled by U.S. export controls restricting access to advanced chip-making
technology.

China’s biggest chip maker, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp. , last
month committed $2.35 billion with a government partner to build a new factory focused
on older chip-making processes. The company anticipates the new facility to start
production next year. But delays in getting new chip-making equipment is an obstacle to
increasing output, the Shanghai-based company’s co-CEO, Haijun Zhao, told investors in
February.

Chip makers are seeing a doubling, if not quadrupling, of delivery times for the machinery
required to make semiconductors, said Bruce Kim, chief executive officer at SurplusGlobal
Inc., which sells used chip-making equipment.

At GlobalFoundries, Mr. Caulfield said the firm plans to invest $1.4 billion to expand
capacity at existing facilities this year, and will likely double that figure next year. Some of
his customers have pledged investment capital to secure future capacity, accounting for
30% of the company’s capital expenditure this year, he said. Before the pandemic, the
number was zero.

“You’re seeing a lot of customers saying, ‘I’m not going to let that happen again, my
business is too important,’ ” Mr. Caulfield said.

Workers at GlobalFoundries’ Malta, N.Y., facility. A global chip shortage is hampering production of
everything from home appliances to PCs to autos.

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At Intel, Chief Executive Pat Gelsinger said the company would make some of its
production capacity available to produce chips in particular short supply and needed by
auto-component makers. Supply could start improving in six to nine months, Mr.
Gelsinger said in an interview.

Guy Eristoff, chief strategy officer at Israel-headquartered foundry Tower Semiconductor
Ltd. , said chip production can be sped up to 3.5 times the usual time in rare cases by
sorting production lines so that high-priority chips pass through quickly. Some
equipment can be operated for longer before going into preventive maintenance, though
this can come at the cost of lower yields.

Altogether, these measures mean some chips can be churned out in 30 to 40 days from the
usual 120 days, Mr. Eristoff said. But doing so increases overall production times for other
chips. The tweaks can at best increase a fab’s production capacity by 5% and be sustained
for only up to six months.

“There are all sorts of little things you can play with,” said Mr. Eristoff. “But without
buying more equipment, you cannot, in a sustained manner, run that much more than you
are running right now.”

Suppliers are wary that the surge in demand may not last, with panicked buyers
increasing order volumes or placing orders with multiple companies. San Jose, Calif.-
based Broadcom Inc., one of the world’s leading chip companies, is trying to ensure orders
coming in reflect actual demand. It recently reminded investors that it doesn’t allow
customers to cancel chip orders to deter some buyers from making purchase
commitments out of fear of shortages.

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“We see customers accelerating their bookings for early deliveries and attempting to
build buffers and creating the demand-supply imbalance,” CEO Hock Tan told investors.
The company is nearly 90% booked for the year.

Auto makers are among the buyers that have felt the shortage most acutely, as cars need
more semiconductors than ever before. Electronics made up more than 40% of a car’s
total cost in 2017, doubling from that in 2007, according to consulting firm Deloitte.

Their use is expected to grow, along with costs. German auto-chip maker Infineon
Technologies AG said it expects the cost of chips in autonomous vehicles to jump to about
$1,200 by 2030 from about $170 currently required for “Level 2” vehicles, or partly
automated cars.

Nanoleaf, a Canada-headquartered smart-lighting maker that primarily produces its
products in Dongguan, southern China, said its lead time for receiving chips used to be
around two to four months. Now, vendors are asking Nanoleaf to place orders it should
expect to receive in January or May 2022.

“Money is almost not even an issue these days. It’s about what you can get,” said Christian
Yan, Nanoleaf ’s chief operations officer. He said he doesn’t know how many microchips his
company can get in the second half of this year. “You have to plead your case,” he said.

For Tower Semiconductor, meeting customers’ demands has turned into a delicate
balancing act that requires looking into factors such as customers’ margins, order
volumes, loyalty and business potential.

Wafers at GlobalFoundries.

8/6/2021 Why the Chip Shortage Is So Hard to Overcome – WSJ

https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-the-chip-shortage-is-so-hard-to-overcome-11618844905?mod=searchresults_pos1&page=1 10/10

Copyright © 2021 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients or customers visit
https://www.djreprints.com.

Appeared in the April 20, 2021, print edition as ‘Chip Makers Fight To Beat Shortage.’

“It’s an incredibly difficult decision to make,” Mr. Eristoff said. “Somebody’s business can
get hurt.”

—Robert Wall in San Francisco contributed to this article.

Write to Eun-Young Jeong at Eun-Young.Jeong@wsj.com and Dan Strumpf at
daniel.strumpf@wsj.com

How the Global Chip Shortage Affects You

The Chip Shortage Is Bad. Taiwan’s Drought
Threatens to Make It Worse.

Biden Touts Infrastructure Proposal in Chip-
Shortage Meeting

GM to Halt Production at Several North
American Plants Due to Chip Shortage

Chip Shortage Is Bad for GM but Worse for Car
Buyers

TSMC Sets Up for Soaring Chip Demand Big Tech Companies Prosper Despite Chip
Shortage

Auto Dealerships Can’t Keep Up With New
Models. The Global Chip Shortage Is to Blame.

How Car Makers Collided With a Global Chip
Shortage

Management homework help

For your course project in LDR-205, create a virtual presentation (PPT, Prezi, etc.) of your choice. Imagine that you have been invited to do a “Lunch and Learn” with a group of interns who have just started work in a local organization. You’ve been asked to provide a discussion on the “Fundamentals of Leadership” in 30 minutes or less (the lunch period for the interns). Draw on the new and developing tools in your toolkit that you are taking away from this course. Be sure to consider issues such as faith integration and diversity as you reflect on course material and prepare your slides. Address the following prompts in your work.  

a. What is leadership? (e.g., definition).

b. How is it different than management?

c. What is a key leadership theory that you find helpful? What are its key dimensions?

d. What are 5 key leadership principles (ideas about leadership) and 5 key practices (specific actions) that contribute to effective leading (based upon your study in the course)?

e. Why does the information included in your presentation “matter” for leaders, leading, or leadership? (e.g., benefits/consequences of doing/not doing things).

2. Put together a 10 – 15 slide presentation using presentation software such as PowerPoint or Prezi.

3. Be sure to keep your slides very succinct with just a few keywords or phrases. Use the notes section (e.g., in PPT) to supplement your slides with the explanatory material (e.g., your “script” of what you would say and why).

Use APA7 guidelines for any sources you reference.

Management homework help

Harnessing the Science
of Persuasion

by Robert B. Cialdini

Reprint r0109d

HBR Case Study r0109a
Off with His Head?
David Champion

HBR at Large r0109b
The Leadership Lessons of Mount Everest
Michael Useem

Different Voice r0109c
Genius at Work:
A Conversation with Mark Morris

Harnessing the Science of Persuasion r0109d
Robert B. Cialdini

Torment Your Customers
(They’ll Love It) r0109e
Stephen Brown

Radical Change, the Quiet Way r0109f
Debra E. Meyerson

Your Next IT Strategy r0109g
John Hagel III and John Seely Brown

HBR Interview r0109h
Bernard Arnault of LVMH:
The Perfect Paradox of Star Brands
Suzy Wetlaufer

Best Practice r0109j
Speeding Up Team Learning
Amy Edmondson, Richard Bohmer, and Gary Pisano

Tool Kit r0109k
Boost Your Marketing ROI
with Experimental Design
Eric Almquist and Gordon Wyner

October 2001

lucky few have it; most of us do not. A handful
of gifted “naturals” simply know how to cap-
ture an audience, sway the undecided, and

convert the opposition. Watching these masters of
persuasion work their magic is at once impressive
and frustrating. What’s impressive is not just the easy
way they use charisma and eloquence to convince
others to do as they ask. It’s also how eager those
others are to do what’s requested of them, as if the
persuasion itself were a favor they couldn’t wait
to repay.

The frustrating part of the experience is that
these born persuaders are often unable to ac-
count for their remarkable skill or pass it on to
others. Their way with people is an art, and
artists as a rule are far better at doing than at
explaining. Most of them can’t offer much
help to those of us who possess no more
than the ordinary quotient of charisma
and eloquence but who still have to wres-
tle with leadership’s fundamental chal-
lenge: getting things done through oth-
ers. That challenge is painfully familiar
to corporate executives, who every day
have to figure out how to motivate
and direct a highly individualistic
work force. Playing the “Because I’m
the boss” card is out. Even if it
weren’t demeaning and demoraliz-
ing for all concerned, it would be
out of place in a world where
cross-functional teams, joint ven-
tures, and intercompany part-
nerships have blurred the lines
of authority. In such an en-
vironment, persuasion skills
exert far greater influence
over others’ behavior than
formal power structures do.

A

Harnessing the Science
of Persuasion by Robert B. Cialdini

72 Copyright © 2001 by Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

No leader can succeed without mastering the art of persuasion.

But there’s hard science in that skill, too, and a large body

of psychological research suggests there are six basic laws of

winning friends and influencing people.

october 2001

IL
L

U
S

T
R

A
T

IO
N

: S
C

O
T

T
W

R
IG

H
T

Which brings us back to where we started. Persuasion
skills may be more necessary than ever, but how can ex-
ecutives acquire them if the most talented practitioners
can’t pass them along? By looking to science. For the past
five decades, behavioral scientists have conducted exper-
iments that shed considerable light on the way certain
interactions lead people to concede, comply, or change.
This research shows that persuasion works by appealing
to a limited set of deeply rooted human drives and needs,
and it does so in predictable ways. Persuasion, in other
words, is governed by basic principles that can be taught,
learned, and applied. By mastering these principles, exec-
utives can bring scientific rigor to the business of securing
consensus, cutting deals, and winning concessions. In the
pages that follow, I describe six fundamental principles of
persuasion and suggest a few ways that executives can
apply them in their own organizations.

The retailing phenomenon known as the Tupperware
party is a vivid illustration of this principle in action.
The demonstration party for Tupperware products is
hosted by an individual, almost always a woman, who in-
vites to her home an array of friends, neighbors, and rel-
atives. The guests’ affection for their hostess predisposes
them to buy from her, a dynamic that was confirmed by
a 1990 study of purchase decisions made at demonstra-
tion parties. The researchers, Jonathan Frenzen and
Harry Davis, writing in the Journal of Consumer Research,
found that the guests’ fondness for their hostess weighed
twice as heavily in their purchase decisions as their re-
gard for the products they bought. So when guests at a
Tupperware party buy something, they aren’t just buy-
ing to please themselves. They’re buying to please their
hostess as well.

What’s true at Tupperware parties is true for business
in general: If you want to influence people, win friends.
How? Controlled research has identified several factors
that reliably increase liking, but two stand out as espe-

cially compelling – similarity and praise. Similarity liter-
ally draws people together. In one experiment, reported
in a 1968 article in the Journal of Personality, participants
stood physically closer to one another after learning that
they shared political beliefs and social values. And in a
1963 article in American Behavioral Scientists, researcher
F. B. Evans used demographic data from insurance com-
pany records to demonstrate that prospects were more
willing to purchase a policy from a salesperson who was
akin to them in age, religion, politics, or even cigarette-
smoking habits.

Managers can use similarities to create bonds with a re-
cent hire, the head of another department, or even a new
boss. Informal conversations during the workday create
an ideal opportunity to discover at least one common
area of enjoyment, be it a hobby, a college basketball
team, or reruns of Seinfeld. The important thing is to es-
tablish the bond early because it creates a presumption
of goodwill and trustworthiness in every subsequent
encounter. It’s much easier to build support for a new
project when the people you’re trying to persuade are al-
ready inclined in your favor.

Praise, the other reliable generator of affection, both
charms and disarms. Sometimes the praise doesn’t even
have to be merited. Researchers at the University of
North Carolina writing in the Journal of Experimental So-
cial Psychology found that men felt the greatest regard for
an individual who flattered them unstintingly even if the
comments were untrue. And in their book Interpersonal
Attraction (Addison-Wesley, 1978), Ellen Berscheid and
Elaine Hatfield Walster presented experimental data
showing that positive remarks about another person’s
traits, attitude, or performance reliably generates liking in
return, as well as willing compliance with the wishes of
the person offering the praise.

Along with cultivating a fruitful relationship, adroit
managers can also use praise to repair one that’s damaged
or unproductive. Imagine you’re the manager of a good-
sized unit within your organization. Your work frequently
brings you into contact with another manager – call him
Dan – whom you have come to dislike. No matter how
much you do for him, it’s not enough. Worse, he never
seems to believe that you’re doing the best you can for
him. Resenting his attitude and his obvious lack of trust
in your abilities and in your good faith, you don’t spend
as much time with him as you know you should; in con-
sequence, the performance of both his unit and yours is
deteriorating.

The research on praise points toward a strategy for fix-
ing the relationship. It may be hard to find, but there has
to be something about Dan you can sincerely admire,
whether it’s his concern for the people in his department,
his devotion to his family, or simply his work ethic. In
your next encounter with him, make an appreciative
comment about that trait. Make it clear that in this case

74 harvard business review

H a r n e s s i n g t h e S c i e n c e o f P e r s u a s i o n

Robert B. Cialdini is the Regents’ Professor of Psychology
at Arizona State University and the author of Influence:
Science and Practice (Allyn & Bacon, 2001), now in its fourth
edition. Further regularly updated information about the in-
f luence process can be found at www.influenceatwork.com.

The Principle of

Liking:
People like those who like them.

The Application:

Uncover real similarities and offer
genuine praise.

at least, you value what he values. I predict that Dan will
relax his relentless negativity and give you an opening to
convince him of your competence and good intentions.

Praise is likely to have a warming and softening effect on
Dan because, ornery as he is, he is still human and subject
to the universal human tendency to treat people the way
they treat him. If you have ever caught yourself smiling at
a coworker just because he or she smiled first, you know
how this principle works.

Charities rely on reciprocity to help them raise funds.
For years, for instance, the Disabled American Veterans
organization, using only a well-crafted fund-raising letter,
garnered a very respectable 18% rate of response to its ap-
peals. But when the group started enclosing a small gift in
the envelope, the response rate nearly doubled to 35%.
The gift – personalized address labels – was extremely
modest, but it wasn’t what prospective donors received
that made the difference. It was that they had gotten any-
thing at all.

What works in that letter works at the office, too. It’s
more than an effusion of seasonal spirit, of course, that
impels suppliers to shower gifts on purchasing depart-
ments at holiday time. In 1996, purchasing managers ad-
mitted to an interviewer from Inc. magazine that after
having accepted a gift from a supplier, they were willing
to purchase products and services they would have oth-
erwise declined. Gifts also have a startling effect on re-
tention. I have encouraged readers of my book to send me
examples of the principles of influence at work in their
own lives. One reader, an employee of the State of Ore-
gon, sent a letter in which she offered these reasons for
her commitment to her supervisor:

He gives me and my son gifts for Christmas and gives
me presents on my birthday. There is no promotion for
the type of job I have, and my only choice for one is to
move to another department. But I find myself resist-
ing trying to move. My boss is reaching retirement age,
and I am thinking I will be able to move out after he re-
tires.…[F]or now, I feel obligated to stay since he has
been so nice to me.
Ultimately, though, gift giving is one of the cruder

applications of the rule of reciprocity. In its more sophis-
ticated uses, it confers a genuine first-mover advantage
on any manager who is trying to foster positive attitudes

and productive personal relationships in the office:
Managers can elicit the desired behavior from cowork-
ers and employees by displaying it first. Whether it’s a
sense of trust, a spirit of cooperation, or a pleasant de-
meanor, leaders should model the behavior they want to
see from others.

The same holds true for managers faced with issues of
information delivery and resource allocation. If you lend
a member of your staff to a colleague who is shorthanded
and staring at a fast-approaching deadline, you will sig-
nificantly increase your chances of getting help when you
need it. Your odds will improve even more if you say,
when your colleague thanks you for the assistance, some-
thing like, “Sure, glad to help. I know how important it is
for me to count on your help when I need it.”

Social creatures that they are, human beings rely heav-
ily on the people around them for cues on how to think,
feel, and act. We know this intuitively, but intuition has
also been confirmed by experiments, such as the one first
described in 1982 in the Journal of Applied Psychology. A
group of researchers went door-to-door in Columbia,
South Carolina, soliciting donations for a charity cam-
paign and displaying a list of neighborhood residents who
had already donated to the cause. The researchers found
that the longer the donor list was, the more likely those
solicited would be to donate as well.

To the people being solicited, the friends’ and neigh-
bors’ names on the list were a form of social evidence
about how they should respond. But the evidence would
not have been nearly as compelling had the names been
those of random strangers. In an experiment from the
1960s, first described in the Journal of Personality and So-
cial Psychology, residents of New York City were asked to
return a lost wallet to its owner. They were highly likely
to attempt to return the wallet when they learned that an-
other New Yorker had previously attempted to do so. But
learning that someone from a foreign country had tried
to return the wallet didn’t sway their decision one way or
the other.

The lesson for executives from these two experiments
is that persuasion can be extremely effective when it
comes from peers. The science supports what most sales
professionals already know: Testimonials from satis-
fied customers work best when the satisfied customer

october 2001 75

H a r n e s s i n g t h e S c i e n c e o f P e r s u a s i o n

The Principle of

Social Proof:
People follow the lead of similar others.

The Application:

Use peer power whenever it’s available.

The Principle of

Reciprocity:
People repay in kind.

The Application:

Give what you want to receive.

and the prospective customer share similar circum-
stances. That lesson can help a manager faced with the
task of selling a new corporate initiative. Imagine that
you’re trying to streamline your department’s work
processes. A group of veteran employees is resisting.
Rather than try to convince the employees of the move’s
merits yourself, ask an old-timer who supports the initia-
tive to speak up for it at a team meeting. The compatriot’s
testimony stands a much better chance of convincing the
group than yet another speech from the boss. Stated sim-
ply, influence is often best exerted horizontally rather
than vertically.

Liking is a powerful force, but the work of persuasion in-
volves more than simply making people feel warmly to-
ward you, your idea, or your product. People need not
only to like you but to feel committed to what you want
them to do. Good turns are one reliable way to make peo-
ple feel obligated to you. Another is to win a public com-
mitment from them.

My own research has demonstrated that most people,
once they take a stand or go on record in favor of a posi-
tion, prefer to stick to it. Other studies reinforce that find-
ing and go on to show how even a small, seemingly triv-
ial commitment can have a powerful effect on future
actions. Israeli researchers writing in 1983 in the Person-
ality and Social Psychology Bulletin recounted how they
asked half the residents of a large apartment complex to
sign a petition favoring the establishment of a recreation
center for the handicapped. The cause was good and the
request was small, so almost everyone who was asked
agreed to sign. Two weeks later, on National Collection
Day for the Handicapped, all residents of the complex
were approached at home and asked to give to the cause.
A little more than half of those who were not asked to
sign the petition made a contribution. But an astounding
92% of those who did sign donated money. The residents
of the apartment complex felt obligated to live up to their
commitments because those commitments were active,
public, and voluntary. These three features are worth con-
sidering separately.

There’s strong empirical evidence to show that a choice
made actively – one that’s spoken out loud or written
down or otherwise made explicit – is considerably more

likely to direct someone’s future conduct than the same
choice left unspoken. Writing in 1996 in the Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, Delia Cioffi and Randy Gar-
ner described an experiment in which college students in
one group were asked to fill out a printed form saying
they wished to volunteer for an AIDS education project
in the public schools. Students in another group volun-
teered for the same project by leaving blank a form stat-
ing that they didn’t want to participate. A few days later,
when the volunteers reported for duty, 74% of those who
showed up were students from the group that signaled
their commitment by filling out the form.

The implications are clear for a manager who wants to
persuade a subordinate to follow some particular course
of action: Get it in writing. Let’s suppose you want your
employee to submit reports in a more timely fashion.
Once you believe you’ve won agreement, ask him to sum-
marize the decision in a memo and send it to you. By
doing so, you’ll have greatly increased the odds that he’ll
fulfill the commitment because, as a rule, people live up
to what they have written down.

Research into the social dimensions of commitment
suggests that written statements become even more pow-
erful when they’re made public. In a classic experiment,
described in 1955 in the Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, college students were asked to estimate the
length of lines projected on a screen. Some students were
asked to write down their choices on a piece of paper, sign
it, and hand the paper to the experimenter. Others wrote
their choices on an erasable slate, then erased the slate im-
mediately. Still others were instructed to keep their deci-
sions to themselves.

The experimenters then presented all three groups
with evidence that their initial choices may have been
wrong. Those who had merely kept their decisions in their
heads were the most likely to reconsider their original es-
timates. More loyal to their first guesses were the students
in the group that had written them down and immedi-
ately erased them. But by a wide margin, the ones most re-
luctant to shift from their original choices were those who
had signed and handed them to the researcher.

This experiment highlights how much most people
wish to appear consistent to others. Consider again the
matter of the employee who has been submitting late re-
ports. Recognizing the power of this desire, you should,
once you’ve successfully convinced him of the need to be
more timely, reinforce the commitment by making sure it
gets a public airing. One way to do that would be to send
the employee an e-mail that reads, “I think your plan is
just what we need. I showed it to Diane in manufacturing
and Phil in shipping, and they thought it was right on tar-
get, too.” Whatever way such commitments are formal-
ized, they should never be like the New Year’s resolutions
people privately make and then abandon with no one the
wiser. They should be publicly made and visibly posted.

76 harvard business review

H a r n e s s i n g t h e S c i e n c e o f P e r s u a s i o n

The Principle of

Consistency:
People align with their clear commitments.

The Application:

Make their commitments active,
public, and voluntary.

More than 300 years ago, Samuel Butler wrote a cou-
plet that explains succinctly why commitments must be
voluntary to be lasting and effective: “He that complies
against his will/Is of his own opinion still.” If an undertak-
ing is forced, coerced, or imposed from the outside, it’s not
a commitment; it’s an unwelcome burden. Think how you
would react if your boss pressured you to donate to the
campaign of a political candidate. Would that make you
more apt to opt for that candidate in the privacy of a vot-
ing booth? Not likely. In fact, in their 1981 book Psycho-
logical Reactance (Academic Press), Sharon S. Brehm and
Jack W. Brehm present data that suggest you’d vote the
opposite way just to express your resentment of the boss’s
coercion.

This kind of backlash can occur in the office, too. Let’s
return again to that tardy employee. If you want to pro-
duce an enduring change in his behavior, you should
avoid using threats or pressure tactics to gain his compli-
ance. He’d likely view any change in his behavior as the
result of intimidation rather than a personal commitment
to change. A better approach would be to identify some-
thing that the employee genuinely values in the work-
place – high-quality workmanship, perhaps, or team
spirit – and then describe how timely reports are consis-
tent with those values. That gives the employee reasons
for improvement that he can own. And because he owns
them, they’ll continue to guide his behavior even when
you’re not watching.

Two thousand years ago, the Roman poet Virgil offered
this simple counsel to those seeking to choose correctly:
“Believe an expert.” That may or may not be good advice,
but as a description of what people actually do, it can’t be
beaten. For instance, when the news media present an ac-
knowledged expert’s views on a topic, the effect on pub-
lic opinion is dramatic. A single expert-opinion news story
in the New York Times is associated with a 2% shift in pub-
lic opinion nationwide, according to a 1993 study de-
scribed in the Public Opinion Quarterly. And researchers
writing in the American Political Science Review in 1987
found that when the expert’s view was aired on national
television, public opinion shifted as much as 4%. A cynic
might argue that these findings only illustrate the docile
submissiveness of the public. But a fairer explanation is

that, amid the teeming complexity of contemporary life,
a well-selected expert offers a valuable and efficient short-
cut to good decisions. Indeed, some questions, be they
legal, financial, medical, or technological, require so much
specialized knowledge to answer, we have no choice but
to rely on experts.

Since there’s good reason to defer to experts, execu-
tives should take pains to ensure that they establish their

own expertise before they attempt to exert influence. Sur-
prisingly often, people mistakenly assume that others rec-
ognize and appreciate their experience. That’s what hap-
pened at a hospital where some colleagues and I were
consulting. The physical therapy staffers were frustrated
because so many of their stroke patients abandoned their
exercise routines as soon as they left the hospital. No mat-
ter how often the staff emphasized the importance of
regular home exercise – it is, in fact, crucial to the process
of regaining independent function – the message just
didn’t sink in.

Interviews with some of the patients helped us pin-
point the problem. They were familiar with the back-
ground and training of their physicians, but the patients
knew little about the credentials of the physical therapists
who were urging them to exercise. It was a simple matter
to remedy that lack of information: We merely asked the
therapy director to display all the awards, diplomas, and
certifications of her staff on the walls of the therapy
rooms. The result was startling: Exercise compliance
jumped 34% and has never dropped since.

What we found immensely gratifying was not just how
much we increased compliance, but how. We didn’t fool
or browbeat any of the patients. We informed them into
compliance. Nothing had to be invented; no time or re-
sources had to be spent in the process. The staff’s exper-
tise was real – all we had to do was make it more visible.

The task for managers who want to establish their
claims to expertise is somewhat more difficult. They can’t
simply nail their diplomas to the wall and wait for every-
one to notice. A little subtlety is called for. Outside the
United States, it is customary for people to spend time in-
teracting socially before getting down to business for the
first time. Frequently they gather for dinner the night be-
fore their meeting or negotiation. These get-togethers can

october 2001 77

H a r n e s s i n g t h e S c i e n c e o f P e r s u a s i o n

The Principle of

Authority:
People defer to experts.

The Application:

Expose your expertise; don’t assume
it’s self-evident.

Surprisingly often, people mistakenly

assume that others recognize and

appreciate their experience.

make discussions easier and help blunt disagreements –
remember the findings about liking and similarity – and
they can also provide an opportunity to establish exper-
tise. Perhaps it’s a matter of telling an anecdote about
successfully solving a problem similar to the one that’s on
the agenda at the next day’s meeting. Or perhaps dinner
is the time to describe years spent mastering a complex
discipline – not in a boastful way but as part of the ordi-
nary give-and-take of conversation.

Granted, there’s not always time for lengthy introduc-
tory sessions. But even in the course of the preliminary
conversation that precedes most meetings, there is almost
always an opportunity to touch lightly on your relevant
background and experience as a natural part of a sociable
exchange. This initial disclosure of personal information
gives you a chance to establish expertise early in the
game, so that when the discussion turns to the business at
hand, what you have to say will be accorded the respect it
deserves.

Study after study shows that items and opportunities are
seen to be more valuable as they become less available.
That’s a tremendously useful piece of information for
managers. They can harness the scarcity principle with
the organizational equivalents of limited-time, limited-
supply, and one-of-a-kind offers. Honestly informing a
coworker of a closing window of opportunity–the chance
to get the boss’s ear before she leaves for an extended va-
cation, perhaps – can mobilize action dramatically.

Managers can learn from retailers how to frame their
offers not in terms of what people stand to gain but in
terms of what they stand to lose if they don’t act on the in-
formation. The power of “loss language” was demon-
strated in a 1988 study of California home owners written
up in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Half were told
that if they fully insulated their homes, they would save
a certain amount of money each day. The other half were
told that if they failed to insulate, they would lose that
amount each day. Significantly more people insulated
their homes when exposed to the loss language. The same
phenomenon occurs in business. According to a 1994
study in the journal Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes, potential losses figure far more heavily
in managers’ decision making than potential gains.

78 harvard business review

H a r n e s s i n g t h e S c i e n c e o f P e r s u a s i o n

The Principle of

Scarcity:
People want more of what they can have less of.

The Application:

Highlight unique benefits and
exclusive information.

Thanks to several decades of rigorous empirical
research by behavioral scientists, our understand-
ing of the how and why of persuasion has never
been broader, deeper, or more detailed. But these
scientists aren’t the first students of the subject.
The history of persuasion studies is an ancient
and honorable one, and it has generated a long
roster of heroes and martyrs.

A renowned student of social influence,
William McGuire, contends in a chapter of the
Handbook of Social Psychology, 3rd ed. (Oxford
University Press, 1985) that scattered among the
more than four millennia of recorded Western
history are four centuries in which the study of
persuasion flourished as a craft. The first was the
Periclean Age of ancient Athens, the second oc-
curred during the years of the Roman Republic,
the next appeared in the time of the European
Renaissance, and the last extended over the hun-
dred years that have just ended, which witnessed
the advent of large-scale advertising, information,
and mass media campaigns. Each of the three
previous centuries of systematic persuasion study
was marked by a flowering of human achieve-
ment that was suddenly cut short when political
authorities had the masters of persuasion killed.
The philosopher Socrates is probably the best
known of the persuasion experts to run afoul of
the powers that be.

Information about the persuasion process is a
threat because it creates a base of power entirely
separate from the one controlled by political au-
thorities. Faced with a rival source of influence,
rulers in previous centuries had few qualms
about eliminating those rare individuals who
truly understood how to marshal forces that
heads of state have never been able to monopo-
lize, such as cleverly crafted language, strategi-
cally placed information, and, most important,
psychological insight.

It would perhaps be expressing too much faith
in human nature to claim that persuasion experts
no longer face a threat from those who wield politi-
cal power. But because the truth about persuasion
is no longer the sole possession of a few brilliant,
inspired individuals, experts in the field can pre-
sumably breathe a little easier. Indeed, since most
people in power are interested in remaining in
power, they’re likely to be more interested in ac-
quiring persuasion skills than abolishing them.

Persuasion Experts, Safe at Last

In framing their offers, executives should also remem-
ber that exclusive information is more persuasive than
widely available data. A doctoral student of mine, Amram
Knishinsky, wrote his 1982 dissertation on the purchase
decisions of wholesale beef buyers. He observed that they
more than doubled their orders when they were told that,
because of certain weather conditions overseas, there was
likely to be a scarcity of foreign beef in the near future.
But their orders increased 600% when they were in-
formed that no one else had that information yet.

The persuasive power of exclusivity can be harnessed
by any manager who comes into possession of informa-
tion that’s not broadly available and that supports an idea
or initiative he or she would like the organization to
adopt. The next time that kind of information crosses
your desk, round up your organization’s key players. The
information itself may seem dull, but exclusivity will give
it a special sheen. Push it across your desk and say, “I just
got this report today. It won’t be distributed until next
week, but I want to give you an early look at what it
shows.” Then watch your listeners lean forward.

Allow me to stress here a point that should be obvious.
No offer of exclusive information, no exhortation to act
now or miss this opportunity forever should be made un-
less it is genuine. Deceiving colleagues into compliance is
not only ethically objectionable, it’s foolhardy. If the de-
ception is detected – and it certainly will be – it will snuff
out any enthusiasm the offer originally kindled. It will
also invite dishonesty toward the deceiver. Remember the
rule of reciprocity.

Putting It All Together
There’s nothing abstruse or obscure about these six prin-
ciples of persuasion. Indeed, they neatly codify our intu-
itive understanding of the ways people evaluate informa-
tion and form decisions. As a result, the principles are
easy for most people to grasp, even those with no formal
education in psychology. But in the seminars and work-
shops I conduct, I have learned that two points bear re-
peated emphasis.

First, although the six principles and their applications
can be discussed separately for the sake of clarity, they
should be applied in combination to compound their im-
pact. For instance, in discussing the importance of ex-
pertise, I suggested that managers use informal, social
conversations to establish their credentials. But that con-
versation affords an opportunity to gain information as
well as convey it. While you’re showing your dinner com-
panion that you have

Management homework help

Running head: Coca-Cola 1

Coca-Cola

Unit II

Colombia Southern University

Coca-Cola 2

The Coca-Cola Firm is a soda retail outlet, production company, and marketing company

of non-alcoholic drink blends and syrups. Atlanta, Georgia is home to Coca-Cola. The company’s

stock is traded on the New York Stock Market. Coca-Cola was first initiated in the 1800s by

John Pemberton. Coca-Cola recipe was created at Eagle, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia,

which deals exclusively with drugs and chemicals. Pemberton labeled it “French coca wine” at

first. He could’ve been a Mariani beverage, an Italian origin for coca wine, for his tremendous

results. The first sales took place at Jacob’s Atlanta Pharmacy in 1886 (Brondoni et al., 2019).

Throughout Atlanta, they had set the rate at five cents per bottle. They were not blending with

water, either, and the test was flawless. It was marketed as a drug to help individuals who were

sick, and some users used it as a beverage. It was named after the French beverage coca of

Pemberton. In the United States, it was once marketed at soda fountains.

Following the development of Coca-Cola by Pemberton, the approach was kept a

carefully guarded mystery, communicated with a privileged few, and not formalized. After

obtaining the rights, Asa Candler was the sole owner. The company was acquired from Candler

by Ernest Woodruff and some other investors. Coca-Cola is the company’s most well-known

commodity, but it also distributes over 500 other items in more than 200 countries, feeding 1.6

billion individuals daily (Brondoni et al., 2019). Coca-Cola is a worldwide drink corporation

headquartered in Delaware that was founded under the General Corporation Law of the state.

Coca-Cola has maintained excellent financial discipline, as well as a robust capital

framework, over the years. Coca-Cola was valued at about $244.5 billion in November 2021.

Coca-Cola is valued at $22.179 billion by its stockholders (the number of funds that would be

repaid to owners if all of the assets were dissolved). In terms of debt financing, the liabilities are

$66.473 billion, which is the opposite side of the capital management coin Serôdio et al., 2018).

2

Coca-Cola 3

As evidenced by the liquidity ratios, the company’s ability to pay off liabilities has increased,

while its debt-to-equity proportion has declined. The Banking System has kept interest rates at

historically low levels since the financial meltdown of 2008. As a result, many businesses,

including Coca-Cola, have considered it beneficial to expand their debt by offering low-interest

bonds, bringing Coke’s total remaining debt to $45.19 billion (Serôdio et al., 2018). Coca-ability

Cola’s to meet its current obligations has increased, notwithstanding its debt. The stock turnover

is 1.44, which is considered normal; it has risen slightly from 1.24 in 2016, indicating that assets

have expanded faster than short-term loans.

Coca-Cola has many great marketing strategies that allows them to be the largest soda

manufacturer in the world, and has set itself apart from its competition since 1896 by cultivating

a loyal consumer base. The Company’s marketing machine continues to come up with fresh,

exciting, and inventive ways to keep customers coming back. They were able to put the

marketing strategy into action as well as create a great marketing mix. When you join everything

else with the Company’s positive community participation, you have a recipe that the firm has

come to know and love. Coca-Cola is a timeless staple in many households; it remains one of the

most popular soda drinks, despite some having mixed feelings and opinions over its product.

Cola-Cola intends to study many cultures, religions, and languages to become a Multinational

Corporation.

3

Coca-Cola 4

References

Brondoni, S. M. (2019). Shareowners, stakeholders & the global oversize economy. The

coca-cola company case. Symphonya, (1), 16-27.

Serôdio, P. M., McKee, M., & Stuckler, D. (2018). Coca-Cola–a model of transparency in

research partnerships? A network analysis of Coca-Cola’s research funding (2008–2016).

Public health nutrition, 21(9), 1594-1607.

4

Management homework help

IIRP Tips on Writing Reflection Papers

A reflection paper is not a summary of the course readings or a stream of
conscious mind dump on paper.

Main themes
Readings

Integrate

Effects on:
Thinking
Practice

Classroom
Experience

1. As the diagram suggests, a reflection paper is your identification of the main
themes of the readings integrated with your classroom experience and how both
affect your thinking and practice.

2. A reflection paper is your chance to add your thoughts and analysis to what
you have read and experienced.

3. A reflection paper is meant to illustrate your understanding of the material and
how it affects your ideas and possible practice in future.

4. Begin by jotting down some of the reading material and class experiences that
stand out in your mind. Decide why they stand out to you.

5. It may be helpful to use the restorative questions to generate some of your
thoughts and feelings about the course experience.

6. Using the first person singular (“I”), relate the readings and classes to your
previous knowledge and experience.

7. Consider if and how what you have read and learned changes your thinking
and might affect your practice in both personal and professional situations.

8. Review the readings and class notes to be sure you’ve included all the
relevant information you can and made all the connections you can.

9. Give your reflection paper structure with an opening paragraph, main body,
and conclusion.

10. It may be helpful to write the body of the paper first by using Steps 4-7, and
then decide what your opening paragraph should say. The opening paragraph
may be brief, only a sentence or two, but it should offer some overall statement
of your perspective based on what you’ve learned (e.g., Before I read the articles
for YC/ED 501, I had never considered that I was an authoritative supervisor, that
is, someone who gives my staff firm direction but little support.). Then you could
go on to describe which readings or class experiences affected your thinking and
why. You could disagree with some of the readings or ideas. The conclusion of

IIRP/4/6/10MM/BR/SO

your reflection may also be brief (e.g., I realize that I must learn how to be more
supportive to get the best from my staff.). Or it could be uncertain (e.g., I don’t
agree with everything I learned but I am going to consider using some of the
practices in future to see if they change my office environment.).

11. Include in-text references and a reference page for any materials you cite
using APA citation formatting.

Management homework help

Running head: DOMINO’S PIZZA 1

DOMINO’S PIZZA 2


Domino’s Pizza, Inc. (DPZ)

Student Name

Institution Affiliation

Domino’s Pizza, Inc. (DPZ)

According to Domino’s, the year of 2021 will be a “transformational” one because of its digital technology and the introduction of its “Domin-Oh-Hoo-Hoo” campaign (Akers, 2022). Increased funding for the promotion, which began in May to happen without plans during the pandemic especially after lifting the restrictions, followed the brands first-ever holiday commercial. As a result of hiring Sarah Barron as new CMO, Domino’s digital team now reports directly to the marketing department for the first time. Digital sales will account for 91.2 percent of the corporation’s total revenue in 2021, the company claims (Akers, 2022). With the debut of its new app, which allows for group orders and greater promotion of promotions, this was made possible. 42 percent of system sales came from the app, a 2.2% increase over 2020. For the next three years, Domino’s will invest roughly $25.5 million to help accelerate the company’s digital growth (Akers, 2022). Personalization and e-commerce app development, as well as in-store innovation, will be part of this investment. As a result of reaching an agreement with franchisees, it has also agreed to increase marketing investment in support of new national campaigns and incentives.

Resolving issues with franchisees will “unlock tremendous latent potential,” as well as promoting both short and long-term growth, according to the firm. With the partnership, Domino’s CEO Dominic Paul expects a new era of collaboration, with the system working together closer than ever before (Tesseras, 2022). Domino’s has urged franchisees to commit to new national promotional offerings focusing on both delivery and collection in exchange for this investment they have made in their businesses. For the first time in “many years,” Domino’s was able to launch a national price offer in January, 2022 with a clear value message. As part of their agreement with the corporation, franchisees must agree to test and implement new technology and product advancements, such as GPS tracking. Domino’s growth strategy was launched in March, 2021, and this is all part of it. With a successful start to the year 2022 and a solid senior leadership team in place, we’re well-positioned to keep moving the company ahead. To ensure a brighter future, we must work together to accelerate the sustainable growth of our system.”

I believe that the Domino’s Pizza, Inc. (DPZ) would succeed with the strategy because it has already developed a strong foundation in the technological growth of the firm. Working towards driving a growth strategy through technology where apps that promote group orders and promotions works in the interest of the customer. The e-commerce app has been personalized and this is what contribute to the growth of the sales in the company to grow because the focus has been directed towards meeting the customer needs. A customized technology that considers the nature of the company customers makes it possible for the customers to get their tastes and preferences in terms of the quality of the pizza products delivered to them and also promoting the time management to deliver the product within a short timeline. The growth strategy that the company launched for three years is perfect in making it possible for the company to succeed because it requires consistency and a continuous funding and implementing in stages to ensure that there is a success in the project. There is a high chances of success in the strategy because the hired team that are handling the work are professionals that understand the industry better making it possible to succeed. The current strategy that focuses on technological apps in streamlining operations and the collaboration with the franchisees targeting on focusing on national promotions together brings about uniformity that makes the business succeed in the different markets. The collaboration between franchisees and the main office of Dominos makes marketing easy and reaching the clients successful and the business succeeds in the market.

Long-Term Objectives

The Domino Pizza’s long-term objective is to become Pizza delivery giant and the company has set a 2025 goal of opening 25,000 locations and grossing $25 billion in revenue (Littman, 2018) (Kelso, 2019). The long term objective is achievable in my opinion and this is based on the strategies that the organization has in place in making sure that they meet. There is a competent team in place that runs the marketing and sales department and this makes it possible for the organization to strive and generate the revenue in the three years period. The long-term goal can be achieved because the Domino’s Pizza has invested into digital technology for advertisement and also sales making it possible to increase the number of sales that translate to revenue generation. The investment in technology that the firm has done especially the digital sales has already paid off and it represents the 65% United States sales and this confirms that the firm would be meet the long term goals (Kelso, 2019). The expansion strategy of attaining 25,000 locations in my opinion would be a success for the firm because of their already agreement with the franchisees to work together in building the brand and organization where they would also contribute in making the expansion and benefit from a good profit that the national management agreed. There was discussion about how the franchisees would conduct business and this promotes the possibility of expansion because they would be having a significant share.

Organization

A flat organizational structure is used in this domino’s pizza company. The store manager supervises a staff of 14 (Lucas, 2022). Information is transmitted from the top management to the lower level following hierarchy. The company has a CEO (Chief Executive Officer) who is responsible for overseeing and monitoring every aspect of the organization. “The chairman, the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), and the Non-Executive Director are the other top-level executives, three committees make up the company’s Board of Governors. Nomination, remuneration, and audit are the main focuses of these committees” (Lucas, 2022). Such committees enable the company run better. The firm’s layout is also backed by this organization culture. In order to enhance the company’s business plan, the above mentioned leaders design specific legislation and models. In addition, they research and put into action the most efficient methods of financial regulation. The organizational structure of the company is divided into several senior management groups (SMTs) (Lucas, 2022). It is the job of these SMTs to advocate for the finest practices and positions in the industry. The teams keep tabs on the responsibilities of each stakeholder. Research is conducted extensively by these teams in order to identify the finest methods. In a wide spectrum of corporate decisions, they keep the board informed. The major duty of each committee is to make recommendations for the best business practices. Certain rules must be adhered to in order to maximize productivity. When it comes to Domino’s organization, less really is more.

Summary of Top Current Trends

In spite of the fact that its business approach is cutting-edge, Domino’s has had to cope with franchisee concerns. It was recently under investigation for allegedly aiding franchisees in defrauding their employees of their wages. The issues that the company is experiencing especially with the franchisees violating the culture and legislation that contribute to incompliance to laws and ethics damages the reputation of the brand and also threatens the future of the company (Pratap, 2021). Managing the increasing number of the Domino’s Pizza franchisees is becoming a challenge and they are continuing to grow and failure to put the best strategies in managing the firms would result to a failure in the systems. There are strategies that are in place for the company to cooperate with franchisees and when they enter the agreement then the risks would be reduced. An innovative business model has been built by Domino’s. Quality control and other operational difficulties have to be dealt with because there are so many franchised stores. There are challenges of compliance and legal that are likely to be experienced in future because the company is entering different markets and countries and have complex laws structures and this might commonly occur on the aspects of labor and also franchisees laws and regulation that should be complied with.

Top 3 Competitors

Pizza Hut (YUM), QSR companies and McDonald’s are top three of Domino’s competitors. Additionally, these companies are challenging Dominos in profitability, quality, product innovation, marketing and customer service in addition to selling similar products. Furthermore, they are all in it for the same prize: a sizable slice of the market (Pratap, 2022). Apart from many QSR companies operating abroad, there are more local QSR brands operating in several major economies. The QSR sector has grown extremely competitive. Quality, product innovation, technology innovation, marketing, and customer service have become more important as a result of increased competition. It is because of these causes that Domino’s operating costs have risen and its profitability has decreased. The competition of the top three firms are a potential threat to the Domino’s Pizza in future because the competitors comes with different tastes and preferences that targets similar customers and they reduce the market share making it challenging for the firm to reach its targets (Pratap, 2022). Competition is healthy but comes with huge challenges that include decreasing the sales and also forcing the firm to consider the competitors during pricing and also when developing products to always look unique and competitive to remain relevant.

Competition is a threat because the customers would have a strong influence about pricing and their buying behavior because of the presence of alternative solutions. In a market where customers has to consider choosing from variety firms becomes a threat to the business in making sure that the products developed are of high quality as compared to competitors and are appealing meeting the customer demands. There are possibilities that the top competitors increases the company expense in the form of advertisement, branding and pricing strategies to be competitive reducing profits. Additional resources must be allocated to marketing, logistics, and human resources (HR) in order to remain competitive and sustain market scope to experience a stiff competition (Saraf, 2022). In significant markets, competition can also act as a roadblock to expansion, necessitating increased marketing and other efforts on the part of the organization.

References

Akers, C. (2022). Domino’s raises targets. Investorschronicle.co.uk. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.investorschronicle.co.uk/news/2022/03/08/domino-s-raises-targets/.

Clifford, T., 2021. Domino’s Pizza CEO says phone ordering is near obsolete as digital sales continue to climb.

Kelso, A. (2019). How Domino’s Plans To Continue Dominating The Pizza Market. Forbes. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/aliciakelso/2019/01/22/how-dominos-plans-to-gain-even-more-market-share/?sh=31f6f4f95132.

Littman, J. (2018). Domino’s aims for $25B in retail sales by 2025. Restaurant Dive. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.restaurantdive.com/news/dominos-aims-for-25b-in-retail-sales-by-2025/546338/.

Lucas, A. (2022). RESTAURANTS Domino’s Pizza forecasts soaring food costs in 2022, reiterates long-term sales outlook. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.cnbc.com/2022/01/11/dominos-pizza-expects-soaring-food-costs-in-2022-backs-long-term-outlook.html#:~:text=Domino’s%20Pizza%20is%20expecting%20%E2%80%9Cunprecedented,some%20of%20its%20national%20promotions.

Pratap, A. (2021). Domino’s SWOT Analysis. notesmatic. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://notesmatic.com/dominos-swot-analysis/.

Pratap, A. (2022). DOMINO’S SWOT ANALYSIS 2021. notesmatic. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://notesmatic.com/dominos-swot-analysis-2021/.

Saraf, S. (2022). A Closer Look at Domino’s Newly Added Risk Factors. TipRanks Financial. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.tipranks.com/news/a-closer-look-at-dominos-newly-added-risk-factors/.

SWOT Analysis Template. (2022). SWOT Analysis of Domino’s | Domino’s Strengths & Weaknesses 2021. Swot Analysis Template. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.swotanalysistemplate.com/swot-analysis-of-dominos/.

Tesseras, L. (2022). Domino’s to invest £20m in digital acceleration. marketing week. Retrieved 25 April 2022, from https://www.marketingweek.com/dominos-invest-20m-digital-acceleration/.

Management homework help

Intel Corporation

1.

Human Resource Theory

Cost Objectives of Human Resource Management  

3

(HR Theories, n.d.).

HR departments can help businesses manage costs by measuring the effectiveness of benefits, training, and employee turnover.

Human resource management is the practice of finding and employing new people to fill positions in a company.

Human Resource Management focuses on how to make sure that employees aren’t overloaded while still giving them enough to do.

HRM (Leveraging Potential)

HR must balance the needs of employees with those of the employer. Overworking employees can lead to burnout and absenteeism.

Human resource departments develop policies governing the employment of new personnel.

The ability of a corporation to manage its people is the most crucial part of its operation.

4

(HR Theories, n.d.).

2.
Human Resource Management

Staffing

Hiring staff is an important part of human resources management. This includes developing a staffing plan, developing policies to encourage diversity, and recruiting new employees.

Human Resource Management

Workplace Policies

Every organization has policies to ensure fair treatment and continuity within the organization. These policies include the employee handbook, benefits, compensation, diversity, etc.

6

(Chai, 2020)

Compensation & Benefits

Compensation covers everything an employee gets for his or her work, including salary, benefits, bonuses, stock options, etc.

Employee Retention

Retention is important because employee turnover costs companies millions every year. Managers should focus on retaining their best employees by making sure they feel valued, appreciated, and challenged.

Hiring

Employees are hired based on their qualifications and prior work experience.

Human Resource Management

The Goal

The ability of a corporation to manage its people is the most crucial part of its operation. This involves everything from hiring new staff to training them, keeping them satisfied, and terminating them as required.

7

(Chai, 2020).

3.

Marketing

Marketing

Activities

Marketing is comprised of the activities of advertising, selling, and delivering things to clients and a marketing campaign is a coordinated effort to promote the sale of a product or service

Process

Marketing is the process of promoting a product or service using various communication channels.

Relationships

Marketing is establishing relationships with prospective or existing clients, writing thank-you notes, responding to phone calls and emails quickly, and meeting with clients over coffee or lunch to discuss business.

9

(Twin, 2021).

4.

The Four P’s of Marketing

Four P’s of Marketing

Product

Refers to an item or service that a corporation intends to provide for sale to customers.

Price

Relates to the amount of money it will be sold for.

Place

Referred to as its distribution location.

11

Promotion

An action that is intended to raise awareness of a particular brand, product, service, or idea through increased public exposure.

(Twin, 2021).

5.

Importance of Technology In Business

Technology In Business

Connect

Businesses can connect with their clients more efficiently and effectively thanks to technological advancements.

Methods

Businesses interact with their consumers in a variety of ways including email, video conferencing, texts, and websites.

Safety

Technology may be utilized to protect corporate data, financial information, and the secrecy of company choices in a safe and secure environment.

13

(Importance of Technology in Business, 2020).

6.

Business Accounting

What they do

Accountants are responsible for the processing of bills, the preparation of checks, and the recording of transactions.

Business Accounting

Qualifications

Before being able to practice, a management accountant must complete a certification examination. Accountants can be classified into three categories: certified internal auditors, certified management accountants, and certified public accountants (CPAs).

15

(Tuovila, 2020)

What they do

Accountants also conduct audits of businesses and government organizations to ensure that everything is in compliance with the law.

Business Accounting

How they help

Assist consumers in completing their tax returns and provide advice on how to save money.

16

(Tuovila, 2020)

7.
Stocks, Securities, Bonds, and the risks.

Stocks

“Share” refers to a unit of stock.

Stock can be defined as equity and is a financial instrument that reflects ownership of a portion of a company.

18

(Downie, 2021)

The Risk

Bonds are not insured by the United States government, and as a result, they entail a higher level of risk than stocks.

Bonds

The Reward

A callable bond allows investors to purchase them at a discount and subsequently sell them at a higher price before the bond’s maturity date

19

(Curtis, 2017)

What Is It?

Security futures contracts are agreements to acquire or sell assets at a future date.

Securities

Equity Securities

Represent ownership interests held by shareholders in an enterprise. Equity securities include shares of both common and preferred stock.

20

(Kenton, 2019)

Debt Security

Represents borrowed money.

Hybrid securities

combine some of the characteristics of both debt and equity securities, such as options and warrants.

Risks

Compound positions can be just as risky as a single long position in the stock market. Computer system failures can result in trading halts, and news regarding the company that issues the stock can generate large movements in the price of the stock, among other things.

(Security Futures…, n.d.)

Works Cited

HR Theories. (HR Theories, n.d.). Peoplehum. https://www.peoplehum.com/glossary/hr-theories

Chai, W. (Chai, 2020). What is Human Resource Management (HRM)? https://www.techtarget.com/searchhrsoftware/definition/human-resource-management-HRM

University of Minnesota (University of Minnesota, 2016) 1.1 What Is Human Resources? Umn.edu; https://open.lib.umn.edu/humanresourcemanagement/chapter/1-1-what-is-human-resources/

Twin, A. (Twin, 2021). Marketing. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marketing.asp

‌Importance of Technology in Business. (Importance of Technology in Business, 2020). Market Business News. https://marketbusinessnews.com/importance-of-technology-in-business/241669/

‌Tuovila, A. (Tuovila, 2020). Accounting. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/accounting.asp

Downie, R. (Downie, 2021). 4 Real Risks of Investing (and What to Do About Them). The Motley Fool. https://www.fool.com/investing/2021/08/07/4-real-risks-of-investing-and-what-to-do-about-the/

Curtis, G. (Curtis, 2017). Six biggest bond risks. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/bonds/08/bond-risks.asp

21

Works Cited

Kenton, W. (2019). Security. Investopedia. (Kenton, 2019) https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/security.asp

Security Futures—Know Your Risks, or Risk Your Future | FINRA.org. (Security Futures…, n.d.). https://www.finra.org/investors/learn-to-invest/types-investments/security-futures

22

Management homework help

 Examine the packaging of some of your favorite consumer packaged goods (i.e., foods, household products, etc.). Choose a product and include a photo of EITHER its packaging OR a single static ad (no videos). How does the packaging/ad currently use Cialdini’s principles of persuasion? Use at least three principles to suggest some specific improvements to the packaging/ad. Make sure you keep in mind the target audience. Please bold the names of the principles you discuss.

Management homework help

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page iv

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page i

————————————————– ————————————————–

———————————————————- ———————————————————-

T h e

Power
of

Positive
Leadership
H o w a n d W h y P o s i t i v e Le a d e r s

T r a n s f o r m T e a m s a n d Or g a n i z a t i o n s

and C h an ge t h e W o r l d

JON GORDON

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page ii

Cover image:  abzee/iStockphoto
Cover design: Wiley

Copyright  2017 by Jon Gordon. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Published simultaneously in Canada.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of
the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission
of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy
fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
(978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests
to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011,
fax (201) 748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have
used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or
warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book
and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives
or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be
suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate.
Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom.

For general information about our other products and services, please contact our
Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the
United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand.
Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included
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that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material
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visit www.wiley.com.

ISBN (cloth) 9781119351979; ISBN 9781119351702 (ePub); ISBN 9781119352037 (ePDF)

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page iii

To Ken Blanchard, for teaching me and showing me
how a true positive leader lives and leads.

Your example and support changed my life and
I am forever grateful.

WEBFFIRS 03/30/2017 17:8:6 Page iv

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:48 Page v

Contents

1 From Negative to Positive 1

2 Real Positive 7

3 Positive Leaders Drive Positive
Cultures 13
Your Most Important Job 16

Culture Beats Strategy 17

Know What You Stand For 19

More than Words 21

Positively Contagious 22

Create a Culture that People Feel 23

Invest in the Root if You Want the Fruit 24

You Must Keep Building Your Culture 26

4 Positive Leaders Create and Share
a Positive Vision 29
A North Star 32

A Telescope and Microscope 34

Dabo Swinney’s Vision 34

Keep the Vision Alive 38

Make the Vision Come Alive 38

My Vision 40

v

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:49 Page vi

5 Positive Leaders Lead with Optimism,
Positivity, and Belief 45
Believe It and You’ll See It 50

If You Don’t Have It, You Can’t Share it 51

Feed the Positive Dog 51

Talk to Yourself 52

It’s All How You See It 53

Tell Yourself a Positive Story 54

Challenge or Opportunity 56

Shark or Goldfish 56

Think Like a Rookie 57

Defeating Murphy 59

Inside Out 59

Distort Reality 60

Leadership Is a Transfer of Belief 61

Lead with Faith Instead of Fear 63

Be an Over-Believer 64

Don’t Stop Believing 66

Your Leadership Journey 67

6 Positive Leaders Confront, Transform,
and Remove Negativity 69
Your Positivity Must Be Greater than All

the Negativity 72

No Energy Vampires Allowed 73

Why Wait? 74

The First Step Is to Transform 75

Start at the Culture Level 75

Remove the Negativity 77

Sooner or Later 77

vi

Contents

WEBFTOC 04/06/2017 11:42:46 Page vii

Lead from Where You Are 79

Implement the No Complaining Rule 79

Michael Phelps’s Positive Leadership 82

Don’t Be Negative about Negativity 83

7 Positive Leaders Create United
and Connected Teams 85
Connection Is the Difference 88

Team Beats Talent When Talent Isn’t a Team 91

Dabo Swinney’s Safe Seat 93

Collaborate and Facilitate 94

Don’t Let Your Reptile Eat Your Positive Dog 95

8 Positive Leaders Build Great Relationships
and Teams 99
Love Does 101

Love Is the Greatest Leadership Principle on

Where There Is a Void in Communication,

Believe in Others More than They Believe in

the Planet 103

Rules without Relationship Lead to Rebellion 104

Communication Builds Trust 104

Negativity Fills It 106

Leading by Walking Around 108

Listening Is Communicating 110

Enhance Your Positive Communication 110

Be an Encourager 113

Themselves 114

Help Your Team Become Unstoppable 115

Connect One on One 117

Be Committed 118

vii

Contents

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:49 Page viii

Serve to Be Great 119

Doing the Laundry 120

It’s Not About You 123

Commit to Coach 124

Commitment Requires Sacrifice 125

When You Help Others Improve, You Improve 126

Elite of the Elite 127

Positive Leaders Care 128

Develop Your Caring Trademark 129

The Sandwich 133

9 Positive Leaders Pursue Excellence 135
Humble and Hungry 137

There Is No Finish Line 139

Demanding without being Demeaning 139

Love and Accountability 140

Love Tough 143

Craftsmen and Craftswomen 144

The One Percent Rule 145

Clarity and Action 146

10 Positive Leaders Lead with Purpose 149
Find and Live Your Purpose 153

Share the Purpose 155

Inspire Others to Live Their Purpose 155

Purpose Driven Goals 156

One Word 159

Life Word 160

Leave a Legacy 161

Give People Great Stories to Tell 162

Life and Death 164

viii

Contents

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:50 Page ix

11 Positive Leaders Have Grit 167
Know What You Want 171

Know Your Why 171

Love It 172

Embrace Failure 173

Keep Doing Things the Right Way: Trust the Process 174

Ignore the Critics; Do the Work 175

12 Lead the Way Forward 177

Notes 189

Acknowledgments 191

Bring the Power of Positive Leadership to

Your Organization 193

Power of Positive Leadership Resources 194

Other Books by Jon Gordon 195

ix

Contents

FTOC 03/30/2017 1:34:50 Page x

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 1

Chapter 1

From Negative to
Positive

Being positive doesn’t just make you better;

it makes everyone around you better.

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C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 3

I ’m not naturally a positive person. People think I ambecause of my books and talks, but the truth is that I
have to work hard to be positive. It doesn’t come naturally

to me. In fact, I find it ironic that I would write a book like this—

and that my life’s work centers on the importance of positivity.

It’s true that we teach what we need to learn. I know that my

quest to become a more positive person and better leader has

made me a better teacher.

I grew up in Long Island, New York, in a Jewish-Italian

family; with a lot of food and a lot of guilt; a lot of wine and a lot

of whining. My parents were very loving but they were not the

most positive people in the world. My dad was a New York City

police officer who worked in undercover narcotics. He fought

crime every day and wasn’t a big fan of positivity. I remember

waking up in the morning and saying, “Good morning, Dad.”

He would say in his thick New York accent, “What’s so good

about it?” My dad was Al Bundy before Al Bundy was Al Bundy.

By the age of 31, I was a fearful, negative, stressed-out, and

miserable husband and father to two young children. My wife

had had enough. She gave me an ultimatum: Change or our

marriage was over. I knew she was right that I needed to

change. I knew that I was allowing the stress of life and the fear

3

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 4

of not being able to provide for my family to get the best of me.

I told my wife I would change and began researching ways I

could be more positive. At the time, positive psychology was an

emerging field, and I read everything I could about it. I began to

practice positivity and write about the things I was doing. I met

Ken Blanchard, who became my role model. I began taking

“thank you” walks to practice gratitude, enjoy the outdoors,

and feel grateful instead of stressed. This was a life-changing

practice that not only energized me physically, emotionally,

and spiritually, but also provided time for many profound

insights and ideas to come to me.

One of these ideas was The Energy Bus. In case you haven’t

read it, it’s about a guy named George who is miserable and

negative. His team at work is in disarray and he has problems at

home. George was easy for me to write about because he was

based on me and my struggle with negativity and adversity.

George wakes up one Monday morning to discover his car has

a flat tire and he has to take the bus to work. On the bus, he

meets Joy the bus driver, who, along with a cast of characters,

teaches George the 10 rules for the ride of his life. Their advice

not only helps him become a more positive person, but also a

better father, husband, and leader at work. On one level,

George demonstrates that positivity is a difference maker in

business, education, life, and sports. On another level, George

represents the fact that every one of us will have to overcome

negativity, adversity, and challenges to ultimately define our­

selves and our team’s success.

Since The Energy Bus was published in 2007, I’ve had the

opportunity to work with many Fortune 500 companies, busi­

nesses, professional and college sports teams, hospitals, schools,

4

The Power of Positive Leadership

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 5

and nonprofits that have utilized the book. I’ve met many

amazing positive leaders and have witnessed firsthand the power

of positive leadership. I’ve seen how they have led, inspired, and

transformed their teams and organizations. I’ve observed the

impact they have had and the results they have achieved. I’ve

also researched many positive leaders throughout history and

learned about their paths to success. There is indeed a power

associated with positive leadership, and my goal with this book

is twofold. First, I aim to explain how and why positive leaders

make a difference. Second, I intend to provide a simple frame­

work filled with practical ideas that will help anyone become a

positive leader. It’s one of the most important things a person

can do because one positive leader will inspire many others to

become positive leaders as well. My daughter wrote her college

admission essay last year and it said, “When I was young my mom

struggled with her health and my dad struggled with himself.

But over the years I watched my dad work to become a more

positive person. Then he started writing and speaking about it

and sharing his message with others. I saw people change for the

better and I know that if he can change, and they can change, the

world can change.” Her words brought tears to my eyes because

I realized that my one decision to be a positive leader not only

impacted my life but also my marriage, my children, my team at

work, and everyone around me. My hope is that you too will

discover the power of positive leadership in your own life.

I know that being a positive leader doesn’t just make you better;

it makes everyone around you better. You can start today!

5

From Negative to Positive

C01 03/29/2017 21:10:46 Page 6

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 7

Chapter 2

Real Positive

We are not positive because life is easy.

We are positive because life can be hard.

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 8

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 9

I t takes a lot of work to create a world-class organization. It’shard to develop a successful team. It’s not easy to build a
great culture. It’s challenging to work toward a vision and

create a positive future. It’s difficult to change the world. As

a leader, you will face all kinds of challenges, adversity,

negativity, and tests. There will be times when it seems as if

everything in the world is conspiring against you. There will be

moments you’ll want to give up. There will be days when your

vision seems more like a fantasy than a reality. That’s why

positive leadership is so essential. When some people hear the

term positive leadership they roll their eyes because they

think I’m talking about Pollyanna positivity, where life is full

of unicorns and rainbows. But the truth is that we are not

positive because life is easy. We are positive because life can be

hard. Positive leadership is not about fake positivity. It is the

real stuff that makes great leaders great. Pessimists don’t change

the world. Critics write words but they don’t write the future.

Naysayers talk about problems but they don’t solve them.

Throughout history we see that it’s the optimists, the believers,

the dreamers, the doers, and the positive leaders who change

the world. The future belongs to those who believe in it

9

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 10

and have the belief, resilience, positivity, and optimism to

overcome all the challenges in order to create it.

Research by Manju Puri and David Robinson, business

professors at Duke University, shows that optimistic people

work harder, get paid more, are elected to office more often,

and win at sports more regularly.1 Research by psychologist

Martin Seligman also shows that optimistic salespeople perform

better than their pessimistic counterparts.2 And psychologist

Barbara Fredrickson’s research demonstrates that people who

experience more positive emotions than negative ones are

more likely to see the bigger picture, build relationships, and

thrive in their work and career, whereas people who experi­

ence mostly negative emotions are more likely to have a

narrower perspective and tend to focus more on problems.3

Daniel Goleman’s research demonstrates that positive teams

perform at higher levels than negative teams.4 John Gottman’s

pioneering research on relationships found that marriages are

much more likely to succeed when the couple experiences a

five-to-one ratio of positive to negative interactions; when the

ratio approaches a one-to-one ratio, marriages are more likely

to end in divorce.5 Additional research also shows that work­

groups with positive-to-negative interaction ratios greater than

three to one are significantly more productive than teams that

do not reach this ratio. Teams with more negative interactions

are more likely to be stagnant and unproductive. The positive

energy you share with your team is significant. According to

Wayne Baker, the research he and Robert Cross conducted

shows that “the more you energize people in your workplace,

the higher your work performance.” Baker says that this occurs

because people want to be around you. You attract talent and

10

The Power of Positive Leadership

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 11

people are more likely to devote their discretionary time to your

projects. They’ll offer new ideas, information, and opportuni­

ties to you before others.

Baker adds that the opposite is also true. If you de-energize

others, people won’t go out of their way to work with or help

you.6 Gallup estimates that negativity costs the economy

$250–$300 billion a year and affects the morale, performance,

and productivity of teams.

The research is clear. Positivity is about more than having a

positive state of mind. It’s also a life changer and gives people

a competitive advantage in business, sports, and politics.

While the pessimists are complaining about the future, the

energy vampires are sabotaging it, and the realists are talking

about it, the optimists are working hard with others to create it.

Puri and Robinson’s research shows that our attitude helps

create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Because optimists believe in a

positive future, they actually delude themselves into working

more to make it possible. Their belief makes them willing to

take actions to achieve it. As a result, positive leaders invest

their time and energy in driving a positive culture. They create

and share the vision for the road ahead. They lead with

optimism and belief and address and transform the negativity

that too often sabotages teams and organizations. They take

on the battle, overcome the negativity, face the adversity, and

keep moving forward. They devote all their energy and effort

to uniting and connecting their organization and invest in

relationships that truly build great teams. They believe in their

principles. They believe in their people. They believe in

teamwork. They believe in the future. They believe in what’s

11

Real Positive

C02 03/29/2017 21:32:31 Page 12

possible, so they act and do, connect and create, build and

transform their team and organization—and change the world.

In the following chapters I’m going to take you through a

simple, powerful model and framework you can utilize and

implement to enhance your leadership capabilities and put

your positive leadership into action.

12

The Power of Positive Leadership

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:16 Page 13

Chapter 3

Positive Leaders
Drive Positive

Cultures

Culture is not just one thing. It’s everything.

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C03 03/29/2017 21:39:16 Page 15

P ositive leaders drive positive cultures. I use the worddrive here because as a leader you are the driver of your
bus and you have a big role and responsibility in creating the

kind of journey you and your team will experience. One year

I spoke at a school district and talked with all their leaders,

mostly school principals. I shared the same principles and

strategies with everyone. At the end of the year, I heard from

two principals from the district. One principal had given

every member of her staff The Energy Bus to read and

followed up with staff meetings where she discussed and

reinforced the principles each month. She focused all of her

energy on creating a positive culture, one meeting, one conver­

sation, one interaction, one positive message, one teacher, and

one student at a time. She completely transformed the morale,

engagement, energy, and culture of her school. The other

principal I heard from was very disappointed and told me

that she had handed a copy of The Energy Bus to all her teachers,

encouraged them to read it, and wondered why it didn’t have

much of an impact on her school and culture. I realized in that

moment that you can give a team a bus, but unless you have

drivers, it doesn’t move. It’s not a book that makes a difference.

15

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:16 Page 16

It’s not a lecture or a keynote. It’s the leader that makes the

difference. It’s the leader that must drive the culture.

Your Most Important Job

Your most important job as a leader is to drive the culture—and

not just any culture. You must create a positive culture that

energizes and encourages people, fosters connected relation­

ships and great teamwork, empowers and enables people to

learn and grow, and provides an opportunity for people to do

their best work. Culture is not just one thing; it’s everything.

Culture drives expectation and beliefs. Expectations and beliefs

drive behaviors. Behaviors drive habits. And habits create the

future. It all starts with the culture you create and drive

throughout the organization. That’s where all success and great

results begin.

Driving your culture is not something you can delegate.

You are the leader and you must spend your time, energy, and

effort creating and building the culture of your team and

organization. Nancy Koeper, the retired president of UPS for

the Northwest Region, made culture her number-one priority as

she drove a positive culture through an organization that was,

literally, full of drivers. She wanted to improve engagement and

morale, so she rolled out The Energy Bus to the 1,000 leaders

she led with the intent of enhancing positive leadership, posi­

tive interactions, and improved relationships with the UPS

drivers. Her leaders all read the book, then discussed ways

to implement the ideas. They then rolled out The Energy Bus to

their 11,000 drivers in the district by simply focusing on

positivity, positive interactions, and improved relationships. I

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The Power of Positive Leadership

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:16 Page 17

had yet to have a company measure results after utilizing The

Energy Bus, so it was exciting to hear from Nancy a year later.

She reported that engagement, morale, and performance had

risen while disengagement and absenteeism had fallen. Nancy

drove the UPS bus and it made all the difference.

Alan Mulally, the former CEO of Ford, led one of the most

incredible corporate turnarounds in history. In 2006, when he

stepped into the CEO role, the automaker had just suffered an

annual loss of $12.7 billion and was on the verge of bankruptcy.

In just a few short years under his leadership, Ford was back in

the black and the company saw an annual profit every year

since 2009. Mulally credited this improbable feat on the organi­

zation’s focus on driving and building a “One Ford” culture that

was centered on the idea of “One Team” where everyone in the

organization was committed to the enterprise and to each other.

A cultural shift like this doesn’t happen by accident. Mulally

shared with me his management system, a simple but powerful

set of principles, philosophies, behaviors, and processes he

designed to create a culture at Ford that fostered unity, team­

work, appreciation, transparency, safety, and even joy. I’ll share

more of what I learned from Mulally, who defines his leadership

as positive leadership, throughout the book because he’s one of

history’s greatest examples of positive leadership and he dem­

onstrates that great cultures happen when positive leaders know

their most important job is to drive the culture.

Culture Beats Strategy

When Apple was just the two Steves (Jobs and Wozniak), they

knew the culture they wanted to create. They would be the

17

Positive Leaders Drive Positive Cultures

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:16 Page 18

culture that challenged the status quo. Everything they did,

including hiring people, running campaigns, and creating

products, was influenced by this culture. Even after Steve Jobs’s

death, the culture continues to influence everything they do. It’s

why Apple is famous for stating the maxim that “culture beats

strategy.” You have to have the right strategy of course, but it is

your culture that will determine whether your strategy is

successful. I believe Apple will be successful as long as they

innovate and create from the strength of their culture. If they

lose their culture they will lose their way and, like many of the

mighty that have come before them, they will fall.

Very few people understand the importance of culture

more than Rick Hendrick, the owner and founder of Hendrick

Automotive Group and Hendrick Motorsports. In a world

where there are thousands of car dealerships and many NAS­

CAR racing teams, Hendrick Automotive is the largest privately

owned dealer group in the United States, and Hendrick Motor-

sports is the winningest racing organization in the modern

NASCAR era. Through speaking to the leaders of Hendrick

Automotive and Jimmie Johnson’s racing team (owned by

Hendrick Motorsports), I have witnessed the incredible culture

in both organizations. It’s clear that they are driven by the same

person. Rick Hendrick’s signature leadership and drive are

ingrained in everything they do. His people are humble,

hungry, thankful, kind, and appreciative. They are on a quest

for greatness. Their buildings are spotless. Their energy is

always positive and contagious. Everyone wants to be the

best and win. When you spend time with two companies—

when you see the success of his automotive dealerships and

the Jeff Gordon, Jimmie Johnson, and Dale Earnhardt, Jr. racing

18

The Power of Positive Leadership

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:17 Page 19

teams—you realize that culture not only beats strategy, but it

also fuels it and drives people and organizations to record

growth and performance.

Know What You Stand For

You might be wondering where to start when driving and

building a culture. I believe it starts with two questions: 1) What

do we stand for? 2) What do we want to be known for? While

visiting Hendrick Automotive, I asked several of Rick’s leaders

what they stood for, and they all said servant leadership. They

told me that Rick leads the way and, in doing so, puts himself

last in every decision he makes for his organization. He is very

focused on making sure everyone’s voice is heard because it is

the team that shapes the company today, tomorrow, and in the

future. His executive staff knows that Rick expects them to

serve the people they lead in the same way. Teamwork through

trust and respect is also one of Hendrick’s core organizational

values. One of Rick’s mantras is “None of us is as smart as all of

us.” He constantly states, “People are our biggest asset! If we

take care of our people they will take care of our customers,

and if we work together we will all accomplish more.” This

principle comes to life through weekly and monthly meetings

where employees share best practices. Having the high per­

formers share how they win in the market lifts the whole

company.

As you would expect, Rick is all about integrity and doing

the right thing, doing what you say you will do, and being

honest and telling the truth regardless of the situation. Leaders

at Hendrick Automotive and Hendrick Motorsports also told me

19

Positive Leaders Drive Positive Cultures

C03 03/29/2017 21:39:17 Page 20

they have a passion for winning and don’t give up until they do

so. Accountability and commitment to continuous improve­

ment help them improve individually and collectively as a team

and organization. They want to be known for their culture and

winning ways. They celebrate their past success and make it

very clear they expect future success. Yet, despite all their

success, they are a culture that believes in developing champi­

ons who serve others. They want to be known for making a

difference in the lives of others and their community. Hendrick

leaders are extremely selective in whom they hire. Only people

who fit their culture, embrace the same values, and possess a

high level of professionalism are added to the team. Because, as

an organization, Hendrick knows what their culture stands for,

they are able to choose the right people who fit their culture

and who stand for the same things. They also invest heavily to

train and develop their people in order to sustain success and

retain their talent. Brad Stevens, the head coach of the Boston

Celtics, once told me that your culture is not only your tradition,

but also the people in the locker room who c

Management homework help

5

WK3 Pepsi Company Analysis

Trae Clavo

Doctor of Business, University of Trevecca

Cur Topics/ Business Strategy (BUS-8020-O06.2)

Dr. Rick Mann

April 3, 2022

With goods available in more than 200 countries, this American diet and drink firm are one of the world’s most enormous. Pepsi-Cola Firm and Frito-Lay, Inc. merged in the year nineteen sixty-five to develop Pepsi-Lay, Inc. Buying; the Firm’s HQs are in New York. The major PepsiCo was fashioned by a pharmacologist called Caleb D. Bradham from New Bern. In the year eighteen ninety-eight, Bradham entitled his soft drink PepsiCo, trusting in emulating Coca-massive Cola’s success. Bradham fashioned the PepsiCo firm in 1902 due to the beverage’s prominence (PepsiCo. Inc,2015). The Firm’s Product and rights 1931 was bought by Guth, the originator of advanced drink. He founded a different Enterprise, engaged a laboratory to develop a more extraordinary beverage, established other bottling infrastructure, and started vending a $5 12-ounce magnum. Guth served as the commander of Loft, Amalgamated, a toffee and beverage-fountain business initiated in 1919. In 1936–39, he misplaced a majority place in the PepsiCo Business to Loft’s new supervision because of authorized matters. As soon as the Pepsi-Cola Firm and Loft merged in nineteen forty-one, the title was altered to PepsiCo Enterprise.

In nineteen ninety-eight, Pepsi company purchased the Tropicana and Dole juice products from the Seagram organization. The Quaker Foods and Drinks concept was defined in the year two thousand and when it integrated with the Quaker Oats organization. PepsiCo’s most significant products were bought as part of the agreement, including Pepsico, Frito-Lay snacks, Lipton Tea, Mango juices, Pepsi sports drinks, Quaker Oats grains, and Rold Gold crackers are just a few of the brands available. In the primeval twenty-first period, PepsiCo concentrated on enlarging its dealings in other states, especially Russia, its second-biggest industry (PepsiCo. Inc, 2015). In two thousand and eight, it purchased a dominant share in JSC Lebedyansky, Russia’s biggest juice processor, and three decades afterward, and it accomplished the purchase of Wimm-Bill-Dann Foodstuffs. Pepsi-Cola was capable of being Russia’s most potent stuff and Drink firm as an outcome of these activities.

Here are the features of the Pepsi industry. The first one is that Pepsi has a purposeful performance. Pepsi-Cola workers strive for excellence for the firm, its consumers, society, and surroundings. This feature of Pepsi-Cola’s business philosophy replicates the firm’s obligation to complete its company’s shared duty. Workers are effectively forced to reply to matters elevated by Pepsi-Cola’s shareholders. The maximum significant contribution of this corporate philosophy element is that it inspires individuals to advance their achievements. PepsiCo employees, for instance, are motivated to be the greatest at what they carry out and to promise that their contributions help the business and its clients. Second, in the real world, there is leadership. The organizational culture at Pepsi Co prioritizes leadership that is concentrated on what employees, investors, consumers, and societies need (Alvesson, 2012).

The firm’s leadership is bolstered by employee experience. People are promoted to positions of leadership at Pepsi Co. in particular. As seen by its internal professional development, PepsiCo’s organizational philosophy inspires workers to utilize their job-based empirical awareness to drive corporate management and achievement. As a result, Pepsi Co’s corporate culture encourages the company’s cognitive development. Collaboration is also an option. Teamwork is stressed in Pepsi-Cola’s philosophy. As per the corporation, collaboration allows the firm to attain outstanding accomplishments. Pepsi appreciates specific employees’ capabilities, but the firm’s management philosophy pushes them to moral use through teamwork. All through the business, for instance, groups are utilized. Instead of depending entirely on a person’s hard work, Pepsi Company enhances interaction in its human properties through this feature of the company philosophy. Pepsi Co’s corporate philosophy has the benefit of inspiring workers. Emphasis on the focused act and inside guidance progress gives employees’ contributions to the firm meaning. Additionally, teamwork improves worker happiness, decreasing job churn at Pepsi Company.

Pepsi Company has a reputation for continually offering incredibly enticing goods in the industry. The company has been up against severe competition from companies that produce comparable brands. Despite the continued production of various beverages, the market has become a battleground for brand wars amongst products that have established positions and gained consumer loyalty. Pepsi products are distributed in more than 200 countries worldwide, and the firm is constantly producing new brands to preserve its market share. The marketplace share of competing beverages has an essential impact on Pepsi Company’s established market position. Customers have readily incorporated other beverage brands, and new products have been readily purchased. In this case, the creation of additional products impacts Pepsi Company, irrespective of if the beverages are sodas or stimulants (Steenhuis et al., 2010). Pepsi’s attitude to evolving items other than beverages, such as sports beverages and tropical drinks, has facilitated the firm to avoid the weakening of its brands and the producing firm itself. PepsiCo is today renowned for its Pepsi soda and a diversity of other items that have become well-known among consumers. Pepsi Company has gained competitive advantages over rival beverage and food companies through developing new things other than soft drinks, rebranding current products, and upgrading and modifying product packaging.

References

Alvesson, M. (2012). Understanding organizational culture Sage.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=BDsV8eHp0_MC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=Alvesson,+M.+(2012).%C2%A0Understanding+organizational+culture+Sage.&ots=765ofmxJIC&sig=2EZz5gnTfbtYlMekMcsw3CdHNsw

Chirkova, A. (2011). Pepsi across cultures: analysis and cross-cultural comparison of Pepsi websites.https://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/26744

PepsiCo. Inc, (2015). Diversity & Inclusion.https://www.torrossa.com/gs/resourceProxy?an=5017880&publisher=FZ7200#page=297

Steenhuis, I. H., Leeuwis, F. H., & Vermeer, W. M. (2010). Small, medium, large or supersize: trends in food portion sizes in The Netherlands. Public health nutrition13(6), 852-857.https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/small-medium-large-or-supersize-trends-in-food-portion-sizes-in-the-netherlands/07758CE506885299EEAA61B22EF95D17

Management homework help


Earned Value Management Explained

Earned Value Management (EVM) helps project managers to measure project performance. It is a systematic project management process used to find variances in projects based on the comparison of worked performed and work planned. EVM is used on the cost and schedule control and can be very useful in project forecasting. The project baseline is an essential component of EVM and serves as a reference point for all EVM related activities. EVM provides quantitative data for project decision making.

A baseline in project management is a clearly defined starting point for your project plan. It is a fixed reference point to measure and compare your project’s progress against. This allows you to assess the performance of your project over time.

For example, let’s say your project is on target to finish in six weeks. Is that good or bad? If your schedule baseline has a four-week completion, you can tell that there is a problem, and your team may need to make adjustments to speed up your progress. A project baseline typically has three components: schedule, cost, and scope

Common abbreviations



EV = earned value

AC = actual cost

PV = Planned value

BAC= Budget at Completion

VAC = Variance at Completion

EAC= Estimate at Completion

ETC = Estimate to complete

EVM Measures

EVM consists of the following primary and derived data elements. Each data point value is based on the time or date an EVM measure is performed on the project.

Primary Data Points

· Budget At Completion (BAC)

Total cost of the project

· Budgeted Cost for Work Scheduled (BCWS) / Planned Value (PV)

The amount expressed in Pounds (or hours) of work to be performed as per the schedule plan

PV = BAC * % of planned work.

· Budgeted Cost for Work Performed (BCWP) / Earned Value (EV)

The amount expressed in Pounds (or hours) on the actual worked performed

EV = BAC * % of Actual work

· Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) / Actual Cost (AC)

The sum of all costs (in Pounds) actually accrued for a task to date

Cost Forecasting:

· Estimate At Completion (EAC)

The expected TOTAL cost required to finish complete work

EAC = BAC / CPI

· = AC + ETC

· Estimate to complete (ETC)

The expected cost required to finish all the REMAINING work: below ETC is made the subject of the formula to find EAC above

ETC  = EAC – AC

Reminder

EV = earned value

AC = actual cost

PV = Planned value

BAC= Budget at Completion

VAC = Variance at Completion

EAC= Estimate at Completion)

ETC = Estimate to complete

Variances:

· Cost Variances (CV)

How much under or over budget

CV = EV-AC

NEGATIVE is over budget, POSITIVE is under budget

· Schedule Variances (SV)

How much ahead or behind schedule

SV = EV-PV

NEGATIVE is behind schedule, POSITIVE is ahead of schedule

· Variance At Completion (VAC)

Variance of TOTAL cost of the work and expected cost

VAC = BAC – EAC

Performance Indices:

· Cost Performance Index

CPI = EV / AC

Over (< 1) or under (> 1) budget

· Schedule Performance Index

SPI = EV / PV

Ahead (> 1) or behind (< 1) schedule

To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) is a forecasting technique of Project Management (PM). It is the cost efficiency required to complete a project within a defined budget.

TCPI = [BAC-EV]

[EAC-AC]

TCPI Definitions

It is a measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget. (PMBOK Guide)

Difference Between CPI And TCPI

Both CPI and TCPI provide a measure of Project’s cost efficiency. However there are basic differences between these two figures.

Cost Performance Index (CPI) is defined as ratio of EV and AC (EV / AC). It is project’s current cost efficiency on the Control Date.

The project CPI could be any one of the following:

· CPI < 1 – it means that value earned value is less than the money spent. Project is over budget.

· CPI = 1 – it means that value earned value is equal to the money spent. Project is going as per the budget.

· CPI > 1 – it means that value earned value is more than the money spent. Project is under budget.

CPI is a measure of current cost efficiency of the project. If CPI ≥ 1, then the project is (most probably) doing well. On the other hand, if CPI < 1 then the project is likely to be in trouble. In the latter case, the project team needs to take a corrective action(s) to bring the future costs in-line with the budget. This can be done by increasing the future cost efficiency.

As discussed earlier, TCPI is the estimated future cost efficiency.

CPI = (monetary value of completed work)/(expenditure till control date)

TCPI = (monetary value of remaining work)/(remaining funds)

The main differences between CPI & TCPI….

· CPI represents project’s current cost efficiency, whereas TCPI estimates project’s future cost efficiency.

· CPI is actual efficiency of the completed project work, whereas TCPI is estimated forecast of efficiency of the remaining project work.

A. You are managing a software project with an initial budget estimate of 2 million dollars. During your interim cost and schedule performance analysis, you figured out that:

· You should have spent $500,000 based on your initial plans and 1,000 man/days of schedule activities

· You spent $600,000 and completed 1,100 man/days of schedule activities which should have cost $450,000 based on your initial plans.

· You re-estimated the budget for the remaining work to be done as $1,500,000.

Calculate the following:

· BAC (Budget at Completion) = 2 million dollars

· PV (Planned Value) = $500,000 for cost related EVM calculations, PV=1,000 man/days for schedule related EVM calculations

· AC (Actual Cost) = $600,000

· EV (Earned Value) = 1,100 man/days for schedule related EVM calculations, EV = $450,000 for cost related EVM calculations.

· ETC (Estimate to Complete) = $1.5 million dollars

a. What is the Cost performance index (CPI ) and schedule performance index (SPI) of the project respectively?

· CPI = EV/AC = $450,000/$600,000 = 0.75

· SPI = EV/PV = 1,100/1,000 = 1.10


(4 marks)

b. What is the Cost variance (CV) and schedule variance ( SV) of the project respectively?

· CV = EV – AC = $450,000 – $600,000 = -$150,000

· SV = EV – PV = 1,100 man/days – 1,000 man/days = 100 man/days


(4 marks)

c. What is the Variance at Completion?

VAC (Variance at Completion) = BAC – EAC

= 2 million dollars – EAC

We know that EAC (Estimate at Completion) = AC + ETC

= $600,000 + $1,500,000

= $2,100,000

Therefore VAC = $2,000,000 – $2,100,000 = -$100,000


(4 marks)

d. What is the TCPI based on your new Estimate at Completion value?

TCPI based on EAC is calculated as below:

TCPI = [BAC-EV] / [EAC-AC]

= [$2,000,000-$450,000] / [$2,100,000-$600,000]

TCPI (based on EAC) = 1.03


(2 marks)

e. What is the status of your project?

Project is ahead of schedule, over budget, and it is harder to complete the project on new EAC


(2 marks)

We can calculate

CPI = EV / AC = 450,000 / 600000 =

Over (< 1) or under (> 1) budget

Students’ Problem:

Eg. A Company has initial budget estimate of 3 million dollars. During your interim cost and schedule performance analysis, it was realized:

· You should have spent $600,000 based on your initial plans and 2,000 man/days of schedule activities

· You spent $700,000 and completed 2,100 man/days of schedule activities which should have cost $550,000 based on your initial plans.

· You re-estimated the budget for the remaining work to be done as $2,500,000.

Therefore:

· BAC (Budget at Completion) = 3 million dollars

· PV (Planned Value) = $600,000 for cost related EVM calculations, at PV=2,000 man/days for schedule related EVM calculations

· AC (Actual Cost) = $700,000

· EV (Earned Value) = 2,100 man/days for schedule related EVM calculations, EV = $550,000 for cost related EVM calculations.

ETC (Estimate to Complete) = $2.5 million dollars

Find the following:

a. What is the CPI and SPI of the project respectively?

f. What is the CV and SV of the project respectively?

g. What is the Variance at Completion?

h. What is the TCPI based on your new Estimate at Completion value?

i. What is the status of your project?

Reference

Dwivedi U., (2015). Earned Value Management Explained. Retrieved from


https://www.projectsmart.co.uk/earned-value-management-explained.php

Malik P., (2020). How To Use To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) Formulas In PMP? Retrieved from https://www.pmbypm.com/tcpi-to-complete-performance-index/

Management homework help

• Project Management Institute. Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) —
Sixth Edition and Agile Practice Guide. Newtown Square.
PA. 2017.

• Part 1: Section 12.1, “Plan Procurement
Management,” pages 459–481.

• Part 3: Section X6.2, “Tools & Techniques Groups,”
pages 686–687.

• Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: A systems
approach to planning, scheduling and controlling (12th
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

• Section 19.0, “Introduction,” 661–667.
• Section 19.6, “Types of Contracts,” pages 673–683.

• De Clerck, D., & Demeulemeester, E. (2016). A
sequential procurement model for a PPP project
pipeline. OR Spectrum, 38(2), 427–457.

• Manley, K., & Chen, L. (2016). The impact of client
characteristics on the time and cost performance of
collaborative infrastructure projects. Engineering,
Construction and Architectural Management, 23(4), 511–
532.

• This article may be available in the Capella
University Library.

• Project Management Institute. Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) —
Sixth Edition and Agile Practice Guide. Newtown Square.
PA. 2017.

• Part 1: Section 12.1.3.4, “Procurement Statement of
Work,” pages 477–478.

• Part 3: Section X6.2, “Tools & Techniques Groups,”
pages 686–687.

• Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: A systems
approach to planning, scheduling and controlling (12th
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

• Section 11.10, “Statement of Work,” pages 361–
364.

• Torvinen, H., & Ulkuniemi, P. (2016). End-user
engagement within innovative public procurement
practices: A case study on public–private partnership
procurement. Industrial Marketing Management, 58, 58–
68.

• Purchasing & Procurement Center. (n.d.). What is
statement of work (SOW)? Retrieved from https://
www.purchasing-procurement-center.com/what-is-
statement-of-work.html

• Chung, E. (2017). Statement of work (SOW) vs. project
scope statement for PMP exam. Retrieved from https://
edward-designer.com/web/project-statement-of-work-
sow-vs-project-scope-statement/

Management homework help

4.2 Discussion: Psychological Safety and Fear in the Workplace

Getting Started

While the term “psychological safety” is a relatively newer one, the concepts it describes likely have been around since human beings began working together in teams. The list of significant errors, loss of life, and even disasters, is long when individuals and teams feel unsafe or uncomfortable speaking up. Beyond the negative outcomes that often result, other consequences result from a lack of psychological safety: lack of motivation and innovation are just a couple of examples.

Using the TEDx Talk by Dr. Amy Edmondson, we’ll explore how psychological safety can enhance the organization’s environment, productivity, and goals…as well as how the lack of psychological safety can result in great harm. We also will consider elements of psychological safety in the assigned white paper reading.

Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

· Explain the concept of psychological safety and how motivation and innovation are affected by high and low levels of psychological safety.

· Describe strategies for enhancing psychological capital and resilience among both leaders and followers.

Instructions

1. Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.

2. Review the information in the Getting Started section.

3. View the YOUTUBE TEDx Talk video with Dr. Amy Edmondson

4. Read these short articles in 
Forbes(new tab)

 and 
Talent Development(new tab)

 magazines.

5. Frame your initial post of 250-300 words no later than Day Four around the following thought-starter questions:

a. How does your understanding of psychological safety help explain why leaders and followers make decisions and behave as they do?

b. How might motivation and innovation be affected when psychological safety is low?

c. Describe an example of when you did or did not feel that sufficient psychological safety existed in your organization, such that you were able to (or not able to) speak up about something of consequence.

d. What could you do to foster greater psychological safety in your organization? What would that require of you?

Management homework help

2.1 Devotion: Biblical Perspective

1. Read the following passages in your Bible:

a. Matthew 5:21–22, 27–28, 31–32, 33–37, 38–42, and 43–48

b. Matthew 6:20–21 and 31–33

c. 2 Corinthians 6:14–18

2. After reading, think about how you would answer the following questions:

a. In the Matthew passages, you see just a few ways that Christ says the values of believers will be internalized as compared to the external norms established by societies. What are some of these differences?

b. In 2 Corinthian 6:14–18, Paul tells those who have believed in Christ that they are different. In what ways? What is his point?

c. 1 Corinthians 8 is a challenge for those who live in other cultures who have expectations of Christians (that may not even be correct). Why?

2.2 Discussion: Power Distance (Part B)

1. Review the video “10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on Power Distance.”

2. Review the Power Distance file.

3. By the end of this workshop, respond to two of your classmates.

a. Consider the validity of their assertions related to high and low power distance.

b. Evaluate the descriptions, examples, and characterizations provided in the posts of your classmates.

c. Offer alternate perspectives and provide additional clarifying commentary to add to the discussion.

4. Each response should be at least 150 words.

2.3 Discussion: Individualist/Collectivist Assessment (Part A)

1. Complete the Are You More of an Individualist or Collectivist Self Assessment. (I got Collectivist)

a. You will obtain an evaluation for individualism or collectivism. Save a copy of your results.

2. Navigate to the discussion below and post a substantive response to the following questions:

a. Did your self-assessment reveal a higher score for individualism or collectivism? Share your scores for each.

b. Do you believe that this assessment is an accurate reflection of your sense of individualism and collectivism? Why or why not?

c. What do your results indicate about the manner in which you were raised and the attitudes within your family on the values of individualism and collectivism?

d. Assume you are a manager within a multicultural workplace environment such that the backgrounds and upbringings within your work group are varied. What actions might you take to develop a cohesive team characterized by “individual commitment to a group effort,” as described in the quote from Vince Lombardi?

3. Your initial response should:

a. Be 200–300 words in length

b. Include a minimum of two properly cited references. For questions on APA style, go to the APA Style Guide.

2.4 Discussion: SWOT Analysis (Part A)

1. Download the SWOT analysis template.

2. Complete a SWOT analysis on yourself. 

2.5 Assignment: ACER Case Study

1. Read the articles “MarketLine Industry Profile: IT Services in South Africa” and “MarketLine Report: ACER Incorporated.”

2. Watch the video “Overwhelmed” by the artist Big Daddy Weave. This video is filmed in Tanzania, Africa, a collectivist culture.

3. You will write a five- to six-page paper following APA style. For questions on APA style, go to the APA Style Guide.

4. In your paper, address the following:

a. Develop a cultural profile of South Africa. Culture profiles are shown as beneficial tools to improve cultural awareness in global knowledge sharing and learning processes. Culture profiles describe cultural characteristics on different levels, such as national, organizational or individual characteristics. The concept is related to existing specifications and standards in order to implement an innovative concept in an interoperable way.

b. Describe the IT industry in South Africa.

c. What type of organization is ACER?

d. What strategy did the company ACER implement to enter the South Africa market? Was this strategy successful? Why or why not?

e. Are there additional alliances ACER could employ? 

f. Discuss the importance of integrating a Christian worldview in South Africa, which is a more collectivist society than the United States.

Management homework help

AS LONG AS 40 HOURS OF PREPARING AND FOURTEEN DAYS OF COMPLETE

CLOCKS PREPARING.

5 SIGNIFICANT WAGES AND COMPENSATIONS TYPICALLY JOINED BY

SUBSTANTIAL AND THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES, LIKE STAFF

ADVANCEMENT, APPRECIATION, DEVELOPMENT AS WELL AS EMPLOYER

STABILITY, PAY REPRESENTATIVES IN GENERAL. 4 WITH TEN STORES

YEARLY OPENED AND SPOTLESS AND RESPECTABLE STAFF LOADED WITH

CLIENTS, FAST TRIP LOOKS TO ACCOMPLISH UPPER HAND.

6 THE TECHNIQUE ASSISTED THE ORGANIZATION WITH BUILDING CLIENT

STEADFASTNESS AND KEEP UP WITH THE NEW BUSINESS SECTORS

THROUGH ECONOMICALLY. 4 THE BUSINESS RECRUITS SOMETHING LIKE

50% OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD POPULACE TO MOVE QUITE A BIT OF ITS SET

OF EXPERIENCES TO NEW BUSINESS SECTORS. 5 IT LIKEWISE ASSISTS THE

ASSOCIATION WITH EMPLOYING PROFICIENT AND LEARNED PEOPLE

OVERALL. THIS ADDITIONALLY HANDLES HIGH-FINANCIAL AND POPULACE-

BASED REGIONS LIKE NORTH CALIFORNIA. 6 THE FIRM ACCEPTS THAT A

FULFILLED WORKER IS THE ESSENTIAL DETERMINANT OF CONSUMER

LOYALTY.

3 ANALYZE HOW OPERATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES AFFECT THE

CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE. 8 SELECT TWO (2) OPERATION MANAGEMENT

CHALLENGES AND PROVIDE THE SOLUTIONS FOR CONFRONTING THEM.

Activity the board impacts a chain of cycles including laying out viable buyer experience and

customer maintainability. 6 AS PER CORDON, SUNDTOFT AND SEIFERT, THE

VITAL EXERCISES OF ACTIVITY THE BOARD INCORPORATE LIMIT THE

EXECUTIVES, ASSET ARRANGING, QUALITY CONTROL, LABOR AND

PRODUCTS PLAN, AND STOCK CONTROL. THESE EXERCISES

STRAIGHTFORWARDLY INFLUENCE THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE

CUSTOMERS AND THE ORGANIZATION, SUBSEQUENTLY THEIR RESULTS. 5

ACTIVITY THE BOARD PROCESSES SPINS AROUND EXERCISES THAT TARGET

CONVEYING QUALITY ADMINISTRATIONS AND ITEMS TO THE CLIENTS.

THE QUALITY LEVEL OF ITS ADMINISTRATIONS CONSIDERING THE

CLIENTS’ point of view has not entirely settled by the functional exercises of Fast Trip. 5

THE UNDERTAKING THE BOARD EXERCISES ARE OVERSEEN FROM THE

BASE BY CREATION CYCLES AND ADMINISTRATION CONVEYANCE. SUCH

EXERCISES SUPPORT THE QUALITY AND EXECUTION ASSESSMENT OF THE

ORGANIZATION. SUBSEQUENTLY, THE ADMINISTRATION OF

ADMINISTRATION CONVEYANCE FRAMEWORKS IS THE ESSENTIAL

COMPONENT THAT ADJUSTS REQUESTS OF EXCELLENT ADMINISTRATIONS

FROM CLIENT COMMITMENT OPEN DOORS (HAMILTON, 2020).

6 OVERSEEING ACTIVITIES LIKE HELP RECUPERATION AND QUALITY

PRINCIPLES, FOR INSTANCE, SUPPLEMENTS THE INDISPENSABLE

COMPONENTS WHICH ADD TO CLIENT DEVOTION AND EXPERIENCE. 7

FUNCTIONAL ARRANGEMENT, FOR EXAMPLE, GETTING READY OF STAFF

AND THE ACCESSIBILITY OF ASSETS, FREQUENTLY PUSHES LABORERS TO

CONVEY TOP NOTCH ADMINISTRATIONS. 6 CLIENTS HAVE AN

EXCEPTIONAL INVOLVEMENT IN HELP RECUPERATION AND QUALITY

ASSUMPTIONS. 7 THE TWO EXERCISES ARE BASIC TO THE CREATION AND

OBSERVING OF DATA WHICH CONTROLS THE LIMIT OF CUSTOMERS TO GET

TO ORGANIZATION OFFICES OR DATA. 6 JUST BY GETTING THE HELPFUL

INFORMATION THE ASSOCIATION HAS FOR IT COULD THE CLIENT AT ANY

POINT DECIDE HIS BUYING POWER AND EXPERIENCE.

5 AUTHORITATIVE ARRANGING PROCESSES LIKE STAFF READINESS, SCOPE

ORGANIZATION AND EXAMINATION ARE LIKEWISE ESSENTIAL FOR

FUNCTIONAL ADMINISTRATION PROCESSES THAT EMPOWER LABORERS

STRAIGHTFORWARDLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE ASSEMBLING AND

ADMINISTRATION CONVEYANCE EXERCISES OF THE ORGANIZATION. THE

FULFILLMENT AND BUYING FORCE OF PURCHASERS IS, WITHOUT

UNCERTAINTY, PROFOUNDLY SUBJECT TO THE DEGREE OF

COLLABORATION OF REPRESENTATIVES WITH CLIENTS OF THE

ORGANIZATION IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATION AND ITEM

DESIGN. THEREFORE, IT IS BASIC FOR AN ASSOCIATION, FOR INSTANCE A

GREAT WORKING ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORTATION OF REPRESENTATIVE

SPECIALISTS AND PERSONAL SATISFACTION, TO PERMIT WORKER

STRENGTHENING EXERCISES. FOR INSTANCE, THROUGH THEIR SKILL AND

CAPACITY TO ADJUST OR CUSTOMIZE THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIENTS,

PURCHASERS DISTINGUISH AND EVALUATE THEIR PURCHASING POWER

AND FULFILLMENT (HAMILTON, 2020).

The shoppers ‘ 5 PURCHASING PROPENSITIES AND ABILITIES ARE BEST

SETTLED BY PROACTIVE VITAL PROCEDURE AND REPRESENTATIVE

STRENGTHENING. QUICK TRIP HAS TRACKED DOWN THESE TASKS TO

WORK FAIR AND SQUARE OF MINDFULNESS AND BUYING CONDUCT OF ITS

CUSTOMERS. 6 WHILE THE ASSOCIATION HAS EFFECTIVELY

ACCOMPLISHED CLIENT FAITHFULNESS THROUGH AMAZING FUNCTIONAL

ADMINISTRATION REHEARSES, THERE ARE VARIOUS MARKET MOVES THAT

ARE THE AFTEREFFECT OF SIGNIFICANT DIFFICULTIES FOR FUNCTIONAL

ADMINISTRATION FRAMEWORKS AROUND THE WORLD. The fast-moving

innovative climate and globalization are two of the greatest obstructions (Madhani, 2021).

5 CORDON ET.AL IMPARTED THE INSIGHT THAT THESE TWO WORRIES

URGE MOST ORGANIZATIONS TO CHANGE VITAL METHODOLOGIES FOR

ENDURANCE AND UPPER HAND BY THE UTILIZATION OF FLEXIBLE

SPECIALIZED ADVANCEMENTS AND WORKING FRAMEWORKS.

GLOBALIZATION LEAVES ORGANIZATIONS POWERLESS, FOR INSTANCE, BY

PRESENTING THEM TO SERIOUS TENSIONS FROM DIFFERENT

ASSOCIATIONS WORLDWIDE. DUE TO GLOBALIZATION, NUMEROUS

ORGANIZATIONS APPROACH A HUGE NUMBER OF CUSTOMERS BUNCHES

WITH RESTRICTIVE ARRANGEMENTS. ANY BUSINESS UNDERTAKING

TRYING TO SUPPORT ITS BENEFIT AND ITS SITUATION AVAILABLE MUST

ACCORDINGLY GROW ITS EXERCISES TO GLOBAL BUSINESS SECTORS TO

ACCOMPLISH EFFICIENCY THROUGH COST DECREASE AND BENEFIT

MAXIMIZATION (HAMILTON, 2020).

SIMILARLY, ADVANCEMENTS IN COMPUTERIZED INNOVATION FURTHER

DEVELOP DATA QUALITY AND CONVENIENCE FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN

ARRANGING AND ADMINISTRATION PLAN TO TAKE SUITABLE CHOICES. 7

BY AND BY, BY OUTDATING CURRENT FRAMEWORKS, THE INEXORABLY

DEVELOPING SPECIALIZED STRATEGY REPRESENTS A SIGNIFICANT TEST.

THE FUNCTIONAL DIRECTORS ARE HENCE OBLIGED TO TRACK DOWN WAYS

OF CULTIVATING A CULTURE OF DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATIVENESS

THAT WILL EMPOWER THE BUSINESS TO ADJUST AND RESPOND

SATISFACTORILY TO PROGRESSING MECHANICAL CHANGES (MADHANI,

2021).

3 EXAMINE QUICKTRIP VALUE CHAIN AND EVALUATE ITS EFFECTIVENESS

TO OPERATIONS IN TERMS OF QUALITY, VALUE CREATION, AND CUSTOMER

SATISFACTION

5 AN ASSOCIATION’S WORTH CHAIN REQUIRES A CHAIN BREAKDOWN

CYCLE OR PROGRAM. THE FRAMEWORK GOES FROM NATURAL SUBSTANCES

TO CLIENTS AND RELATED VITAL MEASURES TO IMPROVE COST

PRODUCTIVITY AND ASSET SEPARATION. VARIOUS CYCLES INCORPORATE

THE FOUNDATION OF QUICK TRIPS KITCHENS (QTKS), THE PRODUCTION

AND DISPERSION OF NEW FOOD SOURCES AND DRINKS, THE CHECKING OF

STAPLES AND REFRESHMENTS AS WELL AS COUNSEL WITH SPECIALISTS

AND A WIDE ASSORTMENT OF OPTIONS ACCESSIBLE AT EACH RETAIL

OUTLET. 6 THE EXERCISES ARE POINTED TOWARD TRANSFORMING THE

UNREFINED SUBSTANCES AND THE INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE INTO

MERCHANDISE GIVING SHOPPER NEEDS ARRANGEMENTS. 5 THE

COMPLETED LABOR AND PRODUCTS ARE ESTIMATED HIGHER THAN THE

RESULT, PERMITTING THE ORGANIZATION TO CREATE SIGNIFICANT GAINS

FROM THE INCOME IT PRODUCES FOR ITS CUSTOMERS AND DIFFERENT

FINANCIAL BACKERS.

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE BUSINESS IS TO MAKE SIGNIFICANT

COMMITMENTS FOR ALL PARTNERS TO ACCOMPLISH A DEFINITIVE WORTH

TO CLIENTS. QUICK TRIP ACCORDINGLY INTEGRATES ALL MEMBERS INTO

THE STANDARDS AND CYCLES OF ITS WORTH CHAIN. 6 THE

ORGANIZATION MAKES A HUGE COMMITMENT TO ITS WORKERS AS THE

UPGRADE OF THE NATURE OF ITS REPRESENTATIVES GUARANTEES THAT

THE LAST MERCHANDISE IS GIVEN TO THE CLIENT THE BEST ASSISTANCE

AND THE BOARD. 5 FAST TRIP CAN LIKEWISE SUPPORT THE NATURE OF ITS

ADMINISTRATIONS AND MERCHANDISE. 7 THE POINT OF BASIC STORE

NETWORK THE EXECUTIVES’ TASKS, FOR EXAMPLE, THE ACQUISITION OF

UNREFINED COMPONENTS, ASSEMBLING OF AND PROVIDING TO BUYERS IN

LABOR AND PRODUCTS, IS TO ADDRESS THE CLIENT’S ISSUES. 5 THE

CLIENT CARE AND SHOWCASING DRIVES SUPPLEMENT THE PRODUCTS: 6

PETROLEUM MERCHANDISE, FOOD AND DRINK, FOR THIS SITUATION, AND

IMPROVE CUSTOMER COLLABORATIONS (MADHANI, 2021).

9 DETERMINE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS

THAT CAN BE USED TO MEASURE QUIKTRIP SERVICE-DELIVERY SYSTEM

DESIGN. 8 SELECT AT LEAST TWO (2) TYPES THAT CAN BE APPLIED AND

PROVIDE JUSTIFICATIONS FOR THE SELECTION.

6 THERE ARE DIFFERENT KINDS OF EXECUTION ESTIMATIONS THAT CAN

BE UTILIZED TO ASSESS AN ASSOCIATION’S ADMINISTRATION CONVEYANCE

FRAMEWORK. 7 ONE CLASSIFICATION OF THESE ESTIMATIONS IS THE

DECENT SCORECARD THAT UTILIZES CUSTOMER VIEWPOINT

MEASUREMENTS, INNER CYCLES MEASUREMENTS, MONETARY

MEASUREMENTS, CLIENT THE BOARD MEASUREMENTS AND MONETARY

EXECUTION MEASUREMENTS. 6 THE ORGANIZATION’S ADMINISTRATION

CONVEYANCE FRAMEWORK CAN BE ESTIMATED INVOLVING ANY OF THE

SCORECARD MEASUREMENTS AS THEY SURVEY THE MORE EXTENSIVE

PERSPECTIVE ON THE EXHIBITION. 4 THE APPRAISAL MIGHT ZERO IN ON

THE ITEM AND ADMINISTRATION QUALITY, SECURITY THE CYCLES, IDEAL

CONVEYANCE, WORKPLACE, AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ADMINISTRATIONS

(MADHANI, 2021).

ELABORATION MIGHT INCORPORATE THE UTILIZATION OF STOCK, THE

PROGRAM COST STRUCTURE, SHAREHOLDERS’ TOTAL ASSETS AND INCOME

AMAZING OPEN DOORS FOR MONETARY APPRAISALS OF ADMINISTRATION

CONVEYANCE. 5 CLIENT POTENTIAL MEASUREMENTS INCORPORATE ITEM

AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESSIBILITY, CLIENT DEVOTION, COST AND

ASSEMBLING JOINT EFFORTS. 4 INWARD ESTIMATION STRATEGIES

INCORPORATE EFFECTIVENESS, REQUEST ADAPTABILITY AND STREAM

TIME. EXPLICIT HELP CONVEYANCE EXECUTION MEASUREMENTS CAN

LIKEWISE BE UTILIZED, FOR INSTANCE OPERATIONS AND PROVIDER

QUALITY MARKERS (MADHANI, 2021).

5 FAST TRIP WILL UTILIZE INWARD INTERACTION AND BUYER

EXPERIENCE SCORECARD MEASUREMENTS. INWARD CYCLES ARE

SIGNIFICANT, AS THE ASSOCIATION CONSIDERS THE INTERIOR

PERSPECTIVE THOSE ARRANGEMENTS WITH MAJOR CHOICES ABOUT THE

ADVANCEMENT OF ITS ADMINISTRATIONS AND PRODUCTS TO BE THE VITAL

COMPONENT OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF TASKS. QUICK TRIPS LIKEWISE

REGARDS THE ASSESSMENTS OF CLIENTS AS THE ORGANIZATION’S

ESSENTIAL MOVER. IT LIKEWISE CENTERS AROUND CONSUMER LOYALTY

MEASUREMENTS LIKE FAITHFULNESS, ADMINISTRATION QUALITY AND

MAINTENANCE.

References

Madhani, P. M. (2021). 10 ENHANCING RETAIL WORKFORCE PERFORMANCE

WITH REAL OPTIONS APPROACH. THE JOURNAL OF TOTAL REWARDS, 30(3),

77-93.

Madhani, P. M. (2021). 10 ENHANCING RETAIL WORKFORCE PERFORMANCE

WITH REAL OPTIONS APPROACH. THE JOURNAL OF TOTAL REWARDS, 30(3),

77-93.

Hamilton, D. E. (2020). Retention and Turnover of Millennials in the Workplace: A Qualitative

and Phenomenological Methodology (Doctoral dissertation, California Baptist University).

Citations (10/10)

Matched Text

1 Another student’s paper: Author: Renee Bermudez; Submitted: Mon, Nov 01 2021, 7:48 AM; Filename:
Qucktrip Case Study.pdf

2 Another student’s paper: Author: Kimberly Raven; Submitted: Thu, Jan 27 2022, 6:04 PM; Filename:
Submission_Text.html

3 https://acedessays.com/an-analysis-of-the-quicktrip/

4 Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021, 11:17 AM;
Filename: Assigment .docx

5 Another student’s paper: Author: Danell Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM; Filename: SWS
Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

6 Another student’s paper: Author: Soni Preston; Submitted: Sun, Jan 31 2021, 11:49 PM; Filename:
quiktrip.docx

7 Another student’s paper: Author: Kathya Aristil-Exume; Submitted: Mon, Dec 21 2020, 11:01 PM;
Filename: BUS430 A1.docx
8 Another student’s paper: Author: Diedra Spivey; Submitted: Wed, Nov 04 2020, 12:13 PM; Filename:

SWS Template A1(2).docx
9 Another student’s paper: Author: Tiana Bruce; Submitted: Mon, Mar 07 2022, 9:34 PM; Filename: Tiana M

bruce case study.docx
10 Another student’s paper: Author: Jameela Leonard; Submitted: Mon, Jan 31 2022, 8:36 AM; Filename:
Operations Management QuikTrip.docx

Suspected Entry: 62% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

BUS430 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Renee
Bermudez; Submitted: Mon, Nov 01 2021, 7:48 AM;
Filename: Qucktrip Case Study.pdf

operations management.”

Suspected Entry: 67% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

MAY 1, 2022

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Kimberly
Raven; Submitted: Thu, Jan 27 2022, 6:04 PM;
Filename: Submission_Text.html

1/27/2022

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
EVALUATE QUICKTRIP OPERATIONS STRATEGY
AND EXPLAIN HOW THE ORGANIZATION SEEKS
TO GAIN A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN TERMS
OF SUSTAINABILITY

Source – https://acedessays.com/an-analysis-of-the-
quicktrip/

Evaluate QuickTrip operations strategy and explain
how the organization seeks to gain a competitive
advantage in terms of sustainability

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

ANALYZE HOW OPERATION MANAGEMENT
ACTIVITIES AFFECT THE CUSTOMER
EXPERIENCE

Source – https://acedessays.com/an-analysis-of-the-
quicktrip/

Analyze how operation management activities affect
the customer experience

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

EXAMINE QUICKTRIP VALUE CHAIN AND
EVALUATE ITS EFFECTIVENESS TO OPERATIONS
IN TERMS OF QUALITY, VALUE CREATION, AND
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Source – https://acedessays.com/an-analysis-of-the-
quicktrip/

Examine QuickTrip value chain and evaluate its
effectiveness to operations in terms of quality, value
creation, and customer satisfaction

Suspected Entry: 86% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THE CORPORATE ARRANGEMENT OF QUICK
TRIP DEPENDS ON THE REPRESENTATIVES
STRAIGHTFORWARDLY

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

The corporate arrangement of Quick Trip depends on
the workers straightforwardly

Suspected Entry: 88% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
RATHER OF REGARDING THEM AS WARES THE
ORGANIZATION PUTS INTENSELY IN ITS
REPRESENTATIVES AND OFFERS THEM MORE
OBLIGATIONS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

Rather than regarding them as wares, the organization
puts intensely in its workers and offers them more
obligations

Suspected Entry: 88% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

THE BUSINESS PUTS RESOURCES INTO AND
ANTICIPATES THAT SPECIALISTS SHOULD
SUPPLY AND SUPPORT IT

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

The business puts resources into and anticipates that
workers should supply and support it

Suspected Entry: 98% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
WITH TEN STORES YEARLY OPENED AND
SPOTLESS AND RESPECTABLE STAFF LOADED
WITH CLIENTS, FAST TRIP LOOKS TO
ACCOMPLISH UPPER HAND

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

With ten stores yearly opened and spotless and
respectable staff loaded with clients, Fast Trip looks to
accomplish an upper hand

Suspected Entry: 82% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

THE BUSINESS RECRUITS SOMETHING LIKE 50%
OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD POPULACE TO MOVE
QUITE A BIT OF ITS SET OF EXPERIENCES TO
NEW BUSINESS SECTORS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

The business recruits, in any event, 50% of the nearby
populace to move quite a bit of its set of experiences
to new business sectors

Suspected Entry: 75% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THE APPRAISAL MIGHT ZERO IN ON THE ITEM
AND ADMINISTRATION QUALITY, SECURITY THE
CYCLES, IDEAL CONVEYANCE, WORKPLACE,

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

The appraisal may zero in on the item and
administration quality, the security of the cycles,

AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ADMINISTRATIONS
(MADHANI, 2021)

opportune conveyance, workplace, and productivity of
administrations

Suspected Entry: 75% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

ELABORATION MIGHT INCORPORATE THE
UTILIZATION OF STOCK, THE PROGRAM COST
STRUCTURE, SHAREHOLDERS’ TOTAL ASSETS
AND INCOME AMAZING OPEN DOORS FOR
MONETARY APPRAISALS OF ADMINISTRATION
CONVEYANCE

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

Elaboration may incorporate the utilization of stock, the
program cost structure, Shareholders’ total assets, and
income openings for economic evaluations of
administration conveyance

Suspected Entry: 67% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

INWARD ESTIMATION STRATEGIES
INCORPORATE EFFECTIVENESS, REQUEST
ADAPTABILITY AND STREAM TIME

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

Inside estimation strategies incorporate proficiency,
request flexibility, and stream time

Suspected Entry: 74% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
EXPLICIT HELP CONVEYANCE EXECUTION
MEASUREMENTS CAN LIKEWISE BE UTILIZED,
FOR INSTANCE OPERATIONS AND PROVIDER
QUALITY MARKERS (MADHANI, 2021)

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Jatnna
Jimenez Santana; Submitted: Wed, May 05 2021,
11:17 AM; Filename: Assigment .docx

Specific assistance conveyance execution
measurements can likewise be utilized, for instance,
coordination and provider quality markers

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

AS INDICATED BY THE HARVARD BUSINESS
SCHOOL REPORT, “100 BEST ORGANIZATIONS
TO WORK FOR”

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

As indicated by the Harvard Business School report,
“100 best organizations to work for”

Suspected Entry: 72% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

HAVE BEEN REMEMBERED FOR FORTUNE’S
FAST TRIP CONSISTENTLY BEGINNING AROUND
2003

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

have been remembered for Fortune’s Fast Trip each
year since 2003

Suspected Entry: 80% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
SIGNIFICANT WAGES AND COMPENSATIONS
TYPICALLY JOINED BY SUBSTANTIAL AND
THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES, LIKE STAFF
ADVANCEMENT, APPRECIATION, DEVELOPMENT
AS WELL AS EMPLOYER STABILITY, PAY
REPRESENTATIVES IN GENERAL

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Significant wages and compensations are generally
joined by substantial and theoretical advantages, such
as staff advancement, appreciation, development, and
professional stability pay representatives

Suspected Entry: 86% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
IT LIKEWISE ASSISTS THE ASSOCIATION WITH
EMPLOYING PROFICIENT AND LEARNED PEOPLE
OVERALL

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

It likewise assists the association with recruiting
proficient and learned people overall

Suspected Entry: 79% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THIS ADDITIONALLY HANDLES HIGH-FINANCIAL
AND POPULACE-BASED REGIONS LIKE NORTH
CALIFORNIA

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

This likewise handles high-monetary and populace-
based regions like North California

Suspected Entry: 76% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

ACTIVITY THE BOARD PROCESSES SPINS
AROUND EXERCISES THAT TARGET CONVEYING
QUALITY ADMINISTRATIONS AND ITEMS TO THE
CLIENTS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Activity, the executives, measures spin around
exercises that target conveying quality administrations
and items to the clients

Suspected Entry: 80% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THE QUALITY LEVEL OF ITS ADMINISTRATIONS
CONSIDERING THE CLIENTS&APOS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

The quality level of its administrations is dependent on
the clients&apos

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THE UNDERTAKING THE BOARD EXERCISES ARE
OVERSEEN FROM THE BASE BY CREATION
CYCLES AND ADMINISTRATION CONVEYANCE

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

The undertaking the board exercises are overseen
from the base by creation cycles and administration
conveyance

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

SUCH EXERCISES SUPPORT THE QUALITY AND
EXECUTION ASSESSMENT OF THE
ORGANIZATION

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Such exercises support the quality and execution
assessment of the organization

Suspected Entry: 70% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
SUBSEQUENTLY, THE ADMINISTRATION OF
ADMINISTRATION CONVEYANCE FRAMEWORKS
IS THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENT THAT ADJUSTS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

REQUESTS OF EXCELLENT ADMINISTRATIONS
FROM CLIENT COMMITMENT OPEN DOORS
(HAMILTON, 2020)

Therefore, the administration of administration
conveyance frameworks is the essential factor that
adjusts requests of fantastic administrations from client
commitment openings

Suspected Entry: 69% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

AUTHORITATIVE ARRANGING PROCESSES LIKE
STAFF READINESS, SCOPE ORGANIZATION AND
EXAMINATION ARE LIKEWISE ESSENTIAL FOR
FUNCTIONAL ADMINISTRATION PROCESSES
THAT EMPOWER LABORERS
STRAIGHTFORWARDLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE
ASSEMBLING AND ADMINISTRATION
CONVEYANCE EXERCISES OF THE
ORGANIZATION

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Authoritative arranging measures like faculty
arrangement, scope organization, and examination are
crucial for functional administration measures that
empower employees straightforwardly engaged with
the organization’s assembling and administration
conveyance exercises

Suspected Entry: 64% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THE FULFILLMENT AND BUYING FORCE OF
PURCHASERS IS, WITHOUT UNCERTAINTY,
PROFOUNDLY SUBJECT TO THE DEGREE OF
COLLABORATION OF REPRESENTATIVES WITH
CLIENTS OF THE ORGANIZATION IN THE
IMPROVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATION AND ITEM
DESIGN

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

The fulfillment and buying force of buyers is, without
question, exceptionally reliant upon the degree of
collaboration of workers with clients of the organization
to improve administration and item plans

Suspected Entry: 84% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

THEREFORE, IT IS BASIC FOR AN ASSOCIATION,
FOR INSTANCE A GREAT WORKING
ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORTATION OF
REPRESENTATIVE SPECIALISTS AND PERSONAL
SATISFACTION, TO PERMIT WORKER
STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

In this manner, it is essential for an association, for
instance, a great working environment, transportation
of representative employees, and personal
satisfaction, to permit worker strengthening exercises

Suspected Entry: 70% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

FOR INSTANCE, THROUGH THEIR SKILL AND
CAPACITY TO ADJUST OR CUSTOMIZE THEIR
RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIENTS, PURCHASERS
DISTINGUISH AND EVALUATE THEIR
PURCHASING POWER AND FULFILLMENT
(HAMILTON, 2020)

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

For instance, through their aptitude and capacity to
adjust or customize their relationship with customers,
purchasers recognize and survey their purchasing
force and fulfillment

Suspected Entry: 91% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

PURCHASING PROPENSITIES AND ABILITIES
ARE BEST SETTLED BY PROACTIVE VITAL
PROCEDURE AND REPRESENTATIVE
STRENGTHENING

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

purchasing propensities and abilities are best settled
by vital proactive methodology and representative
strengthening

Suspected Entry: 71% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

QUICK TRIP HAS TRACKED DOWN THESE TASKS
TO WORK FAIR AND SQUARE OF MINDFULNESS
AND BUYING CONDUCT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Fast Trip has discovered these activities to work fair
and square of mindfulness and buying conduct of its
clients

Suspected Entry: 73% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

CORDON ET.AL IMPARTED THE INSIGHT THAT
THESE TWO WORRIES URGE MOST
ORGANIZATIONS TO CHANGE VITAL
METHODOLOGIES FOR ENDURANCE AND UPPER
HAND BY THE UTILIZATION OF FLEXIBLE
SPECIALIZED ADVANCEMENTS AND WORKING
FRAMEWORKS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

imparted the insight that these two concerns urge most
organizations to change essential techniques for
endurance and the upper hand by utilizing adaptable
specialized advancements and working frameworks

Suspected Entry: 67% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
GLOBALIZATION LEAVES ORGANIZATIONS
POWERLESS, FOR INSTANCE, BY PRESENTING
THEM TO SERIOUS TENSIONS FROM DIFFERENT
ASSOCIATIONS WORLDWIDE

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Globalization leaves organizations helpless, for
instance, by presenting them to extreme pressing
factors from different associations around the world

Suspected Entry: 67% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

DUE TO GLOBALIZATION, NUMEROUS
ORGANIZATIONS APPROACH A HUGE NUMBER
OF CUSTOMERS BUNCHES WITH RESTRICTIVE
ARRANGEMENTS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Because of globalization, numerous organizations
approach a large number of shoppers bunches with
selective arrangements

Suspected Entry: 73% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
ANY BUSINESS UNDERTAKING TRYING TO
SUPPORT ITS BENEFIT AND ITS SITUATION
AVAILABLE MUST ACCORDINGLY GROW ITS
EXERCISES TO GLOBAL BUSINESS SECTORS TO
ACCOMPLISH EFFICIENCY THROUGH COST
DECREASE AND BENEFIT MAXIMIZATION
(HAMILTON, 2020)

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Any business endeavor trying to support its benefit
and its situation should extend its exercises to
worldwide business sectors to accomplish usefulness
through cost decrease and benefit Maximization

Suspected Entry: 78% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

SIMILARLY, ADVANCEMENTS IN COMPUTERIZED
INNOVATION FURTHER DEVELOP DATA QUALITY
AND CONVENIENCE FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN
ARRANGING AND ADMINISTRATION PLAN TO
TAKE SUITABLE CHOICES

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Moreover, advancements in computerized innovation
further develop data quality and convenience for
organizations in arranging and administration
configuration to make proper choices

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

AN ASSOCIATION’S WORTH CHAIN REQUIRES A
CHAIN BREAKDOWN CYCLE OR PROGRAM

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

An association’s worth chain requires a chain
breakdown cycle or program

Suspected Entry: 78% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx
THE FRAMEWORK GOES FROM NATURAL
SUBSTANCES TO CLIENTS AND RELATED VITAL
MEASURES TO IMPROVE COST PRODUCTIVITY
AND ASSET SEPARATION

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

The framework goes from crude materials to clients
and related vital measures to improve cost-
effectiveness and asset separation

Suspected Entry: 85% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

VARIOUS CYCLES INCORPORATE THE
FOUNDATION OF QUICK TRIPS KITCHENS
(QTKS), THE PRODUCTION AND DISPERSION OF
NEW FOOD SOURCES AND DRINKS, THE
CHECKING OF STAPLES AND REFRESHMENTS
AS WELL AS COUNSEL WITH SPECIALISTS AND
A WIDE ASSORTMENT OF OPTIONS ACCESSIBLE
AT EACH RETAIL OUTLET

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

Various cycles incorporate the foundation of Quick
Trips Kitchens (QTKs), assembling and disseminating
new food sources and refreshments, checking staples
and drinks, and counsel with gasologist specialists and
a wide assortment of choices accessible at each retail
outlet

Suspected Entry: 86% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

THE COMPLETED LABOR AND PRODUCTS ARE
ESTIMATED HIGHER THAN THE RESULT,
PERMITTING THE ORGANIZATION TO CREATE
SIGNIFICANT GAINS FROM THE INCOME IT
PRODUCES FOR ITS CUSTOMERS AND
DIFFERENT FINANCIAL BACKERS

Source – Another student’s paper: Author: Danell
Williams; Submitted: Sun, Aug 01 2021, 9:42 PM;
Filename: SWS Template A1_Williams_BUS430.docx

The completed labor and products are estimated
higher than the yield, permitting the organization to
make significant benefits from the income it produces
for its customers and different financial backers

Suspected Entry: 100% match

Uploaded – quicktrip.docx

THE OBJECTIV

Management homework help


What is Motivation?

1. A reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.

2. A general desire, need or want that generates the energy required for someone to behave in a particular way. (This means that there’s actually a motive behind the action)

3. Motivation is an employee’s intrinsic enthusiasm about and drive to accomplish activities related to work. Motivation is that internal drive that causes an individual to decide to take action. (An individual’s motivation is influenced by biological, intellectual, social, and emotional factors).

4. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.
Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as:

a) intensity of desire or need

b) incentive or reward value of the goal

c) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers.

Motivating employees

Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that work unit goals and objectives are achieved. Critical to fulfilling this responsibility is motivating employees to successfully accomplish assigned activities. Supervisors can use a number of motivation techniques, including:

· Providing positive feedback on employee achievements

· Assigning interesting and challenging work

· Providing effective guidance, support and training

· Recognizing and rewarding positive performance

· Tailoring work assignments, rewards and recognition to individual employee needs and desires

· Leading by example (nothing is more de-motivating than a supervisor who expects employees to “do what I say” not “what I do”)

Successfully motivating employees requires:

· Identifying the results and behaviours expected of employees

· Discussing these expectations with employees to ensure mutual understanding and employee buy-in

· Aligning motivating techniques accordingly

· Celebrating success

Specific Actions to Increase Employee Motivation

1) A manager or supervisor can create a work environment that will foster and influence increases in employee motivation – quickly.

2) Communicate responsibly and effectively any information employees need to perform their jobs most effectively.

3) Employees find interaction and communication with and attention from senior and executive managers motivational.

4) Provide the opportunity for employees to develop their skills and abilities.

5) Employees gain a lot of motivation from the nature of the work itself. Employees seek autonomy and independence in decision making and in how they approach accomplishing their work and job.

6) Elicit and address employee concerns and complaints before they make an employee or workplace dysfunctional. Listening to employee complaints and keeping the employee informed about how you are addressing the complaint are critical to producing a motivating work environment.

7) Recognition of employee performance is high on the list of employee needs for motivation. Many supervisors equate reward and recognition with monetary gifts. While employees appreciate money, they also appreciate praise, a verbal or written thank you, out-of-the-ordinary job content opportunities, and attention from their supervisor.

8) Employees appreciate a responsive and involved relationship with their immediate supervisor.

Factors to Encourage Motivation

· Management and leadership actions that empower employees

· Transparent and regular communication about factors important to employees

· Treating employees with respect

· Involving employees in decisions about their work and job

· Minimizing the number of rules and policies in an environment that demonstrate trust for employees and treats employees like adults

· Providing regular employee recognition

· Feedback and coaching from managers and leaders

· Above industry average benefits and compensation

· Providing employee perks and company activities

· Managing employees within a doable framework of goals, measurements, and clear expectations

Theories of Motivation

Overview

At a simple level, it seems obvious that people do things, such as go to work, in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don’t want. 

Why exactly they want what they do and don’t want what they don’t is still something a mystery. It’s a black box and it hasn’t been fully penetrated.

Overall, the basic perspective on motivation looks something like this:

http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/images/motiva1.gif

In other words, you have certain needs or wants (these terms will be used interchangeably), and this causes you to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction), and this can then change which needs/wants are primary (either intensifying certain ones, or allowing you to move on to other ones). 

A variation on this model, particularly appropriate from an experimenter’s or manager’s point of view, would be to add a box labeled “reward” between “behavior” and “satisfaction”. So that subjects (or employees), who have certain needs do certain things (behavior), which then get them rewards set up by the experimenter or manager (such as raises or bonuses), which satisfy the needs, and so on.

Many theories posit a hierarchy of needs, in which the needs at the bottom are the most urgent and need to be satisfied before attention can be paid to the others. 

1. Maslow’s hierarchy

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.

Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.

maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramid

Maslow initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. However, he later clarified that satisfaction of a needs is not an “all-or-none” phenomenon, admitting that his earlier statements may have given “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges”

When a deficit need has been ‘more or less’ satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs. However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged.

Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of a job, may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.

Specific examples of these types are given below, in both the work and home context.

Need

Home

Job

self-actualization

education, religion, hobbies, personal growth

training, advancement, growth, creativity

esteem

approval of family, friends, community

recognition, high status, responsibilities

belongingness

family, friends, clubs

teams, depts, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinates

safety

freedom from war, violence

work safety, job security, health insurance

physiological

food water sex

Heat, air, base salary

According to Maslow, lower needs take priority. They must be fulfilled before the others are activated. There is some basic common sense here — it’s pointless to worry about whether a given color looks good on you when you are dying of starvation, or being threatened with your life. There are some basic things that take precedence over all else.

2. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

The Two-Factor Theory of motivation (otherwise known as dual-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory) was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s.

Analysing the responses of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked about their positive and negative feelings about their work, Herzberg found 2 factors that influence employee motivation and satisfaction…

1. Motivator factors – Simply put, these are factors that lead to satisfaction and motivate employees to work harder. Examples might include enjoying your work, feeling recognised and career progression.
2. Hygiene factors – These factors can lead to dissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are absent. Examples include salary, company policies, benefits, relationships with managers and co-workers.

According to Herzberg’s findings, while motivator and hygiene factors both influenced motivation, they appeared to work completely independently of each other…

While motivator factors increased employee satisfaction and motivation, the absence of these factors didn’t necessarily cause dissatisfaction. Likewise, the presence of hygiene factors didn’t appear to increase satisfaction and motivation but their absence caused an increase in dissatisfaction.

How to apply it to the workplace

This theory implies that for the happiest and most productive workforce, you need to work on improving both motivator and hygiene factors.

To help motivate your employees, make sure they feel appreciated and supported. Give plenty of feedback and make sure your employees understand how they can grow and progress through the company.

To prevent job dissatisfaction, make sure that your employees feel that they are treated right by offering them the best possible working conditions and fair pay. Make sure you pay attention to your team and form supportive relationships with them.

Don’t forget that all of your employees are different and what motivates one person might not motivate another.

3.  Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne Effect was first described by Henry A. Landsberger in 1950 who noticed a tendency for some people to work harder and perform better when they were being observed by researchers.

The researchers changed a number of physical conditions over the course of the experiments including lighting, working hours and breaks. In all cases, employee productivity increased when a change was made. The researchers concluded that employees became motivated to work harder as a response to the attention being paid to them, rather than the actual physical changes themselves.

How to apply it to the workplace

The Hawthorne Effect studies suggest that employees will work harder if they know they’re being observed. While I don’t recommend hovering over your employees watching them all day, you could try providing regular feedback, letting your team know that you know what they’re up to and how they’re doing.

Showing your employees that you care about them and their working conditions may also motivate them to work harder. Encourage your team to give you feedback and suggestions about their workspace and development.

4. Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory proposes that people will choose how to behave depending on the outcomes they expect as a result of their behaviour. In other words, we decide what to do based on what we expect the outcome to be. At work, it might be that we work longer hours because we expect a pay rise.

However, Expectancy Theory also suggests that the process by which we decide our behaviours is also influenced by how likely we perceive those rewards to be. In this instance, workers may be more likely to work harder if they had been promised a pay rise (and thus perceived that outcome as very likely) than if they had only assumed they might get one (and perceived the outcome as possible but not likely)

Expectancy Theory is based on three elements:

1. Expectancy – the belief that your effort will result in your desired goal. This is based on your past experience, your self confidence and how difficult you think the goal is to achieve.
2. Instrumentality – the belief that you will receive a reward if you meet performance expectations.
3. Valence – the value you place on the reward.

Therefore, according to Expectancy Theory, people are most motivated if they believe that they will receive a desired reward if they hit an achievable target. They are least motivated if they don’t want the reward or they don’t believe that their efforts will result in the reward.

How to apply it to the workplace

The key here is to set achievable goals for your employees and provide rewards that they actually want.

Rewards don’t have to come in the form of pay rises, bonuses or all-expenses paid nights out. Rewards can come in the form of Praise, opportunities for progression and “employee of the month” style rewards can all go a long way in motivating your employees.

5. Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Alderfer classifies needs into three categories, also ordered hierarchically:

· growth needs (development of competence and realization of potential)

· relatedness needs (satisfactory relations with others)

· existence needs (physical well-being)

This is very similar to Maslow — can be seen as just collapsing into three tiers. But maybe a bit more rational. For example, in Alderfer’s model, sex does not need to be in the bottom category as it is in Maslow’s model, since it is not crucial to (the individual’s) existence. (Remember, this about individual motivation, not species’ survival.) So by moving sex, this theory does not predict that people have to have sex before they can think about going to school, like Maslow’s theory does. 

Alderfer believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense (e.g., the power you get the more you want power), like an addiction.

Do any of these theories have anything useful to say for managing businesses? Well, if true, they suggest that

· Not everyone is motivated by the same things. It depends where you are in the hierarchy (think of it as a kind of personal development scale) 

· The needs hierarchy probably mirrors the organizational hierarchy to a certain extent: top managers are more likely to motivated by self-actualization/growth needs than existence needs.

6. Acquired Needs Theory (mcclellan)

Some needs are acquired as a result of life experiences

· need for achievement, accomplish something difficult. as kids encouraged to do things for themselves.

· need for affiliation, form close personal relationships. as kids rewarded for making friends.

· need for power, control others. as kids, able to get what they want through controlling others.

Again similar to maslow and alderfer.

These needs can be measured using the TAT (thematic apperception test), which is a projection-style test based on interpreting stories that people tell about a set of pictures. 

7. Cognitive Evaluation Theory

This theory suggests that there are actually two motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsic that correspond to two kinds of motivators:

· intrinsic motivators:  Achievement, responsibility and competence. motivators that come from the actual performance of the task or job — the intrinsic interest of the work.

· extrinsic:  pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions — things that come from a person’s environment, controlled by others.

One or the other of these may be a more powerful motivator for a given individual.

Intrinsically motivated individuals perform for their own achievement and satisfaction. If they come to believe that they are doing some job because of the pay or the working conditions or some other extrinsic reason, they begin to lose motivation.

The belief is that the presence of powerful extrinsic motivators can actually reduce a person’s intrinsic motivation, particularly if the extrinsic motivators are perceived by the person to be controlled by people. In other words, a boss who is always dangling this reward or that stick will turn off the intrinsically motivated people.

Note that the intrinsic motivators tend to be higher on the Maslow hierarchy.

8. Reinforcement Theory


Operant Conditioning
is the term used by
B.F. Skinner
to describe the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior. There are four types of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen behavior while both Punishment and Extinction weaken behavior.

· Positive reinforcement.  Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of getting goodies as a consequence of a behavior. You make a sale, you get a commission. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion. 

· Negative reinforcement. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a  consequence of a behavior. Long-term sanctions are removed from countries when their human rights records improve. (you see how successful that is!). Low status as geek at Salomon Brothers is removed when you make first big sale.

· Extinction. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting no goodies when do a behavior. So if person does extra effort, but gets no thanks for it, they stop doing it.

· Punishment. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Example: having your pay docked for lateness. 

 

Apply

Withhold

Reward

positive reinforcement (raise above baseline)

negative reinforcement (raise up to baseline)

Stressor

punishment (bring down below baseline)

extinction (stay at baseline)

9. Three-Dimensional Theory of Attribution

Attribution Theory explains how we attach meaning to our own, and other people’s, behaviour. There are a number of theories about attribution.

Bernard Weiner’s Three-Dimensional theory of attribution assumes that people try to determine why we do what we do. According to Weiner, the reasons we attribute to our behaviour can influence how we behave in the future.

For example, a student who fails an exam could attribute their failure to a number of factors and it’s this attribution that will affect their motivation in the future.

Weiner theorised that specific attributions (e.g. bad luck, not studying hard enough) were less important than the characteristics of that attribution. According to Weiner, there are three main characteristics of attributions that can affect future motivation.

1. Stability – how stable is the attribution? For example, if the student believes they failed the exam because they weren’t smart enough, this is a stable factor. An unstable factor is less permanent, such as being ill.

According to Weiner, stable attributions for successful achievements, such as passing exams, can lead to positive expectations, and thus higher motivation, for success in the future.

However, in negative situations, such as failing the exam, stable attributions can lead to lower expectations in the future.

2. Locus of control – was the event caused by an internal or an external factor?

For example, if the student believes it’s their own fault they failed the exam, because they are innately not smart enough (an internal cause), they may be less motivated in the future. If they believed an external factor was to blame, such as poor teaching, they may not experience such a drop in motivation.

3. Controllability – how controllable was the situation? If an individual believes they could have performed better, they may be less motivated to try again in the future than someone who believes they failed because of factors outside of their control.

How to apply it to the workplace

Weiner’s Three-Dimensional theory of attribution has implications for employee feedback.

Make sure you give your employees specific feedback, letting them know that you know they can improve and how they can about it. This, in theory, will help prevent them from attributing their failure to an innate lack of skill and see that success is controllable if they work harder or use different strategies.

You could also praise your employees for showing an improvement, even if the outcome was still not correct. For example, you might praise someone for using the correct methodology even though the results weren’t what you wanted. This way, you are encouraging employees to attribute the failure to controllable factors, which again, can be improved upon in the future.

Work attitude and Employee Morale

Workplace attitudes have an effect on every person in the organization, from the employees to the company owner. Attitudes help to develop the prevailing workplace environment that determines employee morale, productivity and team-building abilities.

Description of the emotions, attitude, satisfaction, and overall outlook of employees during their time in a workplace environment. Part of effective productivity is thought to be directly related to the morale of the employees. Employees that are happy and positive at work are said to have positive or high employee morale. Companies that maintain employees who are dissatisfied and negative about their work environment are said to have negative or low employee morale.

The employee morale in a workplace can depend on many factors, such as work hours, work load, pay and rewards, etc


Five signs of low employee morale in the workplace

Changes in attitude

If you have unhappy employees on your team, it will show. Look for red flags — increased negativity, high or increased rates of absenteeism, or reduced cooperation or commitment. Checking in with workers on a regular basis will help you gauge employee morale and address budding problems.

2. An active grapevine

When communication is scarce, gossip, misinformation and conflict flourish. Even if you have bad news to share or don’t have all the answers, honesty is still the best policy. The more team members can rely on accurate information, the less grist they’ll have for the rumor mill. Good communication will help turn the negative into positive.

3. Lack of initiative

Unmotivated employees go through the motions rather than taking an active seat at the table. Foster an ownership environment in which people have the expectations that they should take the initiative, demonstrate leadership and solve problems in creative ways. Not only will that improve employee morale at your company, but it will help your workforce thrive in any kind of economy.

4. Scarce rewards

Step up efforts to recognize accomplishments with praise, low-cost awards and spot bonuses. Make rewards personal, and give them as soon as possible after an achievement to raise workplace morale and lower employee turnover.

5. Poor performance

Employee morale problems can quickly affect a team’s quality of work. Signs of trouble include missed deadlines, an increase in mistakes or a decline in service levels. Ask your team members if they feel burdened by the amount of work they have to do.

Management homework help

Key concepts:

Change Leadership: 
◦ Articulate a vision for the future 
◦ Mobilize resources needed 
◦ Put an engine on the whole change process 
◦ Making the change go faster and smarter 
◦ Works well in the context of large scale  
changes 
◦ Creating a sense of urgency 
◦ Empowering people  
◦ Has the potential to get things out of control 

 

Managing Resistance to Change: 
Communication: Reduce the misunderstanding and confusions  
associated with the change 
Participation and Empowerment: Involve those affected in planning  
and implementing the change 
Employee Counseling and Support: Providing training, resources, and  
autonomy needed to make the change happen 
Bargaining and Negotiation: Give some, take some, adjustments 

 

1.Establishing a sense of urgency 
3.Developing a Vision & Strategy 
4.Communicating the Change Vision 
5.Empowering broad-based Action 
6.Generating Short-term Wins 
7.Consolidating Gains and Producing more Change 

Management homework help

IMD-1085
12.05.2020

IS NETFLIX BUILDING
A HOUSE OF CARDS?

François-Xavier Cart-Tanneur, Hannes Rupprecht, Jan Söderström and Joris van
Raak (IMD EMBA 2019) prepared this case under the supervision of Professor Stefan
Michel as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or
ineffective handling of a business situation.

Copyright © 2020 by IMD – Institute for Management Development, Lausanne, Switzerland (www.imd.org). No
part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means
without the prior written permission of IMD.

For the exclusive use of J. Li, 2022.

This document is authorized for use only by Jia ye Li in MIS 441 – Global E-Commerce-1 taught by Richard Johnson, Washington State University from Jan 2022 to Jun 2022.

IMD-7-2185
IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

Reed Hastings, Netflix’s CEO, was thinking, “After the quarter is before the quarter,” as
he started preparing his storyline for 2019’s fourth quarter reporting. In 2019’s third
quarter, Reed, together with his chief finance officer Spencer Neumann, his chief content
officer Ted Sarandos and his chief product officer Greg Peters, confidently reported
strong financial results with revenues up 31% and operating income doubled versus the
previous year’s same period. Even though Netflix was slightly short of its net additions
of paying subscribers, the market reacted much better than after its second quarter
results. Reaching only 2.7 million global paid net adds versus the targeted 5.0 million for
the quarter made the media generate quite a few negative comments.

After more than twenty years of running Netflix, Reed had become stoic when reading
negative coverage on his company. But the Forbes article – “All the reasons Why Netflix
is Doomed”1 – may have held some elements of truth if Reed was honest with himself.
With good reason, Reed hired Rachel Whitestone as the new chief communications
manager in August 2018, Spencer in January 2019 and Jackie Lee-Joe as the new chief
marketing officer in September 2019.

Maybe the next quarter’s announcement presented an opportunity to change people’s
perceptions about Netflix’s dependency on licensed content as well as a number of other
issues, including the increasing cost of securing creative talent, the growing price
sensitivity of customers and the impact of new competition. With the right mix of skills
and experience in the new leadership team, could Netflix reinvent itself once more and
address those issues with a different strategy?

It wasn’t just that subscriber growth was slowing and the financing of its own content was
getting increasingly scrutinized. Had the company grown so fast mainly due to a lack of
real competition? Reed had hired some very competent people, so it was about time to
come up with a holistic answer to this existential question: Is there a better way to remain
attractive to customers? Does Netflix need to transform itself despite its current growth?

Netflix initially transformed itself from a DVD distributor into an online streaming
business; it then went on to vertically integrate into content production – Netflix Originals.
After the disastrous Qwikster launch cancellation, Netflix kept a close eye on what its
customers wanted. The first Netflix Original – “House of Cards” – became an instant
success, and many other series won both the customers’ hearts and the critics’
appreciation. In truth, profoundly understanding its customers had become its core.
Somehow, Reed had hoped that these skills would be a massive entry barrier, yet the
high-quality content that was streaming had attracted new competition of significant size
and with considerable spending power. Netflix had to decide if investing heavily in
content production continued to be a sufficient competitive advantage.

© 2020 by IMD 2

For the exclusive use of J. Li, 2022.

This document is authorized for use only by Jia ye Li in MIS 441 – Global E-Commerce-1 taught by Richard Johnson, Washington State University from Jan 2022 to Jun 2022.

IMD-7-2185
IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
Netflix was facing, for the first time ever, competition with deeper pockets, such as
Amazon, Apple, Disney, YouTube (owned by Google’s parent company Alphabet) and
others. Each one of these players fought for screen time, were well established, tech-
savvy and had to be successful in the accelerating “streaming war.”

• Disney Plus. Disney’s titles had been a real asset to Netflix, but when Disney
launched its streaming service, it started pulling its content from Netflix. According
to CNET, when Disney launched in November 2019, it focused on the US, Canada
and Netherlands in the first round and went live with 500 films and 7,500 television
episodes, reaching more than 10 million sign-ups in a single day. By comparison,
it took HBO three years to reach five million users (2019).2 CNBC said that Disney
Plus was likely to grow to 160 million subscribers thanks to the company’s
unmatched brand recognition, extensive premium content and unparalleled
ecosystem to market the service.3

Disney, prior to launching its own streaming services, had focused on gathering
relevant content through the acquisitions of Marvel Studios and 21st Century Fox.
With the latter came an indirect 65% stake in Hulu, a subscription video-on-demand
(SVoD) service with around 30 million subscribers. Different from Netflix, Disney did
not seem to believe in the value of so-called binge viewing; instead, it released
episodes of its original series on a weekly basis following the traditional TV schedule.
There were two more fundamental differences: Pricing started at $7 a month and
customers were offered a bundle of Disney’s three streaming platforms, all running
on the same technology, including Hulu and ESPN Plus for $13 a month.

• Apple TV Plus. In November 2019, Apple entered the stage with its own streaming
service – Apple TV Plus. Being one of the market leaders in content selling and
distribution, Apple now also integrated content production and streaming. To get
the ball rolling, as the Financial Times wrote, Apple hosted a star-studded event in
March 2019 at which Hollywood heavyweights including Oprah Winfrey and Steven
Spielberg joined Mr Cook on stage to promote the streaming service. “They are in
a billion pockets, y’all – a billion pockets,” Ms. Winfrey said of Apple, as she
launched her plans for new documentaries and live book club shows that would be
exclusive to the iPhone maker (2019).4

Through its Apple TV app, Apple launched in over 100 countries for $4.99 a month,
making it the cheapest add free streaming service so far, and with the ability to
share between six different family members.5 Less competitive is the content
library, which started out with less than 20 announced original shows. And within
the first two weeks of launching, the head of programming left Apple. Apple TV
Plus will not host any licensed content as Apple intends to continue to sell it on
Apple TV (pay-per-view model). But like Amazon Prime, Apple TV Channels will
be launched in 2020.6

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• Amazon Prime Video. Launched at the end of 2016 across most markets,
Amazon Prime Video went through different iterations, eventually evolving into a
stand-alone streaming service. For $7.99 a month, subscribers got access to not
only Amazon Studios content but also third-party content such as HBO, Showtime
and Cinemax through Amazon Channels. Amazon was the leader in offering a
channel experience, similar to cable TV. Further, Amazon entered the hybrid SVoD
market by extending its offering to live sports, capturing one of the last appointment
TV events in order to directly engage with the audience. i Sports perhaps sat
outside of the normal SVoD saturation.7 As for Amazon’s number of streaming
subscribers, Netflix would have to go with the public estimates of around 100
million across 200 countries because Amazon did not report them separately.

• Other Hollywood and Silicon Valley competitors. There were other players
Netflix needed to keep an eye on. In fact, other industry players had entered the
content creation space in order to compete in the changing media and
entertainment industry. Former distributors of content like AT&T did so by acquiring
Time Warner, which included HBO, for more than $85 billion in October 2016. And
in 2018, Comcast won the bid for Sky for almost $40 billion against 21st Century
Fox, after failing to buy the latter earlier in the year.8

Coming from the opposite side, Google’s YouTube TV, with its live TV offer with all
major channels but without the cable hassle, launched in 2017, which made
Netflix’s domestic expansion harder. YouTube pulled out of content creation and
entered the TV distribution space, going after the audiences that were willing to cut
the cable for SVoD but still wanted live TV as they knew it. For $49.99 a month,
YouTube provides 70+ channels including local sports and news but without the
cable box, contracts or any additional hidden fees.

Where and how to compete begged the question: What is Netflix? Is Netflix a data
analytics company that drove return on investment (ROI) through better customer
insights, or a media company streaming movies and TV shows or a content creator?
Netflix needed to have a close look at its resources and capabilities to be able to redefine
its competitive advantage.

i Appointment TV is when people watch a TV show at the time of its original broadcast.

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IMD-7-2185
IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

NETFLIX’S KEY STRENGTHS
Reed felt comfortable considering himself a visionary who has been at the forefront of
artificial intelligence (AI). His approach to risk taking and innovation had shaped Netflix
into a technology company that was able to reinvent itself several times over, winning
investors’ confidence and attracting and retaining talent.

Netflix was still building on the foundations that were laid when it pivoted into SVoD, a
small market at the time. In fact, according to the Motion Picture Association of America,
subscriptions to online video services (613 million) surpassed cable (556 million) for the
first time in 2018.9 The company understood the opportunities linked to the rise of high-
speed broadband and mobile media devices such as smart phones and tablets. Netflix’s
ability to spread quickly was its integration into the rising smart TVs, connected gaming
consoles and set-top-box of the internet service providers (ISP). Since Netflix accounted
for substantial internet traffic, the digital infrastructure was essential for the experience
of its customers. At the time, Reed had to ensure that Netflix would get the bandwidth it
needed. Hence, he developed Netflix’s content delivery network (CDN), which allowed
the company to improve its content delivery and reduce delivery costs by giving the ISP
the choice to either pair directly with Netflix or install proprietary equipment in their
networks. This laid the foundation to continue increasing the quality of Netflix’s video
content to full HD and possibly even further, making Netflix the most efficient and reliable
streaming service.

Another element of Netflix’s success was the introduction of binge viewing. According to
Moffett Nathanson, “Breaking Bad” was 10 times more popular once it started streaming
on Netflix.10 Reed remembered an interview he gave at the time to the New York Times
where he explained his insight: “We found an inefficiency.”11 Netflix knew from the
experience in DVD rentals that people rented whole seasons of TV shows, so it
transferred that knowledge to online streaming.

Netflix also had the ability to understand and predict customer behavior. The data that
had been built over many years and applied across a large user base had helped Netflix
with everything from customer retention to content development including release date
scheduling, product schedule optimization, demand modeling and evaluation. In 2012,
Netflix revealed to Wired magazine, “We know what people watch on Netflix and we’re
able with a high degree of confidence to understand how big a likely audience is for a
given show based on people’s viewing habits.”12 Netflix knew how to create a detailed
subscriber profile far better than conventional marketing practices. Knowing how people
behave and tailoring what each subscriber saw helped them with their retention. Direct
feedback models with A/B testing have also helped Netflix to continuously improve the
personalized experience.

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IMD-7-2185
IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

Part of the experience was the content quality and availability. Netflix produced content
today with tomorrow’s needs in mind. In order to secure the content for the future, all
Netflix productions were filmed in 6K, although it was streamed in 4K. By comparison,
HBO only streamed in 1080p.13 Netflix also digitized and developed production
processes. One of Netflix’s tools was “Move,” which facilitated tracking a production
schedule for all the people involved. Another one was a mark-up tool for script reading,
as content engineering product director Chris Goss said to Variety, “We want to take the
script and turn it into an interactive breakdown tool.”14

Reed felt there was more to be said on Netflix’s content strategy. Its technological
advancements shaped not only Netflix into the global company it had become, but also
the industry ecosystem – particularly the relationships with content partners and vice
versa.

CONTENT STRATEGY
Reed understood there was no long-term business in being a rerun company, just as
there was no long-term business in being a DVD-rental company. He remembered vividly
the allegory used by Ted in 2012: “If we were going to start having to fend for ourselves
in content, we had better start exercising that muscle now.”15

But it was not a lighthearted choice for Netflix to take on the large studios it so much
depended on. As Netflix grew more successful, studios raised their prices, killing
margins. In-house production became a hedge against ever rising licensing costs,
making it easier for Netflix to say no. Reed smirked when Reuters in 2013 neatly
summarized Netflix’s strategic intent, explaining that “… the thing that Netflix aspires to,
which HBO already has, is an exclusive library of shows … it also becomes the only
place to watch certain shows with cultural-touchstone status. And presto, the decision is
no longer whether Netflix is worth the subscription price; rather, the question is whether
you can afford not to have it.”16

And it all started in 2013 with “House of Cards.” Reed kept the article snippet of CNBC,
writing at the time, “This is a big deal: It’s Netflix’s first big debut in the premium original
content space, and it puts the streaming video player into direct competition with HBO,
Showtime and Starz, for both content and viewers. It’s a total transformation of the way
Netflix conceives of its relationship with content.”17

Of course, Netflix’s content strategy was built on its ability to analyze what people wanted
to watch, how and when they watched it and how to make sense out of it. Mario Gavira,
an industry expert, wrote: “It took them six years to collect enough viewer data to
engineer a show that became a worldwide success: House of Cards. Since then, Netflix
has increasingly used this formula for content creation achieving success rates of 80%
compared to 30%–40% success rates of traditional TV shows.”18

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IMD-7-2185
IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

According to The Economist, “House of Cards” – for which the cost of the first two
seasons amounted to $100 million – was a widely derided statement of intent at the time.
How could a mail-order video store take on networks and studios? By becoming an
industry in and of itself, as The Economist stated.19 Later in 2017, Netflix won its first
Oscar; Reed was proud to beat HBO at its own game.

Netflix’s content library had grown broad and deep with award winning original content.
But could Reed say, hand on heart, that Netflix’s own content had become the subscriber
magnet they were hoping for? In October 2018, 63% of Netflix’s viewing was still from
licensed content, with NBC’s “The Office” still being number one and Warner Bros.
owned “Friends” coming in third.20 To aggravate the situation, Forbes, in 2019, wrote that
in 2017, over 40% of Netflix subscribers in the US almost exclusively watched licensed
content and that in 2018, 85% of the $13 billion content spending went to originals.
Forbes thus argued that for that much money, Netflix should have been more than just
“on track” to have originals be the majority of viewing. And in the second quarter 2019
investor letter, Reed had to agree: “We think Q2’s content slate drove less growth in paid
net adds than we anticipated.”21 At the same time, to successfully replace licensed
content and keep and attract new customers, Netflix had to continue investing in its own
content. Reed realized he needed to do a fresh sense check with his new CFO on the
sustainability of financing Netflix’s original content.

CONTENT INVESTMENTS
At the Q4 2018 investor interview, Reed explained that the sustained content production
growth fueled a “virtuous cycle,” “The more investment you’re putting in, the more people
are finding content that they love and the more they have value in the service.22”
Therefore, in 2016, Netflix spent $8.7 billion on content vs. $13 billion in 2018 (refer to
Exhibit 1) and expected $15 billion to stay on course with Reed’s plan.23 But investors
were showing increasing concern about Netflix’s ability to meet its subscriber targets.
With that, some voices challenged the sustainability of content spending.

Looking at his 2018 consolidated income statement (refer to Exhibit 2), Reed was
positive despite the market noise. Netflix’s revenues had grown from $8.8 billion in 2016
to $15.8 billion in 2018, demonstrating solid top-line growth. For the first time, the
international streaming business with $7.78 billion in revenues overtook the domestic
one (refer to Exhibits 3 and 4). Reed made sure to point out in the annual report that
the increase in consolidated revenues was primarily driven by the growth in the average
number of streaming paid memberships globally, mainly arising from non-US markets.
But he also knew that further price increases due to increasing competition and the lower
purchasing power of new markets were increasingly less likely to succeed, so future
revenue growth needed to come from additional subscribers. In fact, for the financial
analysts, subscriber numbers were considered the key indicator for Netflix’s business
prospects.24 More subscribers meant more revenues and thus cash to be spent on
content used to attract new subscribers.

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IMD-7-2185
IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

Well aware of the investors’ views, Reed proudly looked back on close to 30 million more
subscribers added in 2018 alone, 10 million more than the year before, reaching almost
140 million paying members at the end of 2018 (refer to Exhibit 5). However, the future
was volatile. In July 2019, Netflix’s shares dropped 10% when it had to report a loss in
domestic paid subscribers during the second quarter for the first time since 2011, after
rolling out price hikes earlier in the year. Reed remained calm as he knew that strong
viewership of its new seasons of “Stranger Things,” “The Crown” and “Orange is the New
Black,” among other hits, helped buoy its subscriber growth.25 In fact, for its 3Q19, CNBC
reported that the streaming giant crushed Wall Street’s earnings projections and added
slightly more paid subscribers internationally than expected during the period. However,
this was the last quarter before new Netflix’s rivals went live, starting with Apple TV Plus
and Disney Plus in November.26

The continued content investments, as recorded in the balance sheet (refer to Exhibit 6),
had piled up $20 billion in content assets and $10.4 billion in long-term debt by the end
of 2018. What the statement did not show were Netflix’s content obligations (refer to
Exhibit 7) of around $20 billion as they only showed up when projects went on stream.
The management team and Reed were probably not concerned as sales and income
were moving up faster than those costs.

Investing in original content was not enough, though. Netflix’s “must-have” library also
needed to be promoted. Hence, the marketing spending reached $2.4 billion in 2018 vs.
only $1.1 billion in 2016, largely to promote those originals, as Reed explained to
investors in the annual report. Analysts expected even more in 2019 with $2.9 billion.27

Reed kept telling investors that thanks to higher revenues and expanding operating
profits, positive cash flows would pay for the investments. But 2019 would be seen as
another year where Netflix would reach a record negative $3 billion in free cash flow,
using debt markets to fund the spending rate. While the cash flow statement (refer to
Exhibit 1 shows net income growing from $187 million in 2016, to $559 million in 2017
and to $1.2 billion in 2018, the additions to streaming content assets weigh heavy with
$8.7 billion in 2016, $9.8 billion in 2017 and $13 billion in 2018. Net cash used in
operating activities was, therefore, negative at $1.5 billion in 2016, $1.8 billion in 2017
and $2.7 billion in 2018. Only the issuance of new debt of $1.0 billion in 2016, $3.0 billion
in 2017 and $4.0 billion in 2018 kept the available cash at the end of the year positive.
Investors would have a close eye on the operating profits needed to service Netflix’s
growing debt. Looking at Netflix’s interest coverage ratio, the streaming company had
improved from a low of x2.3 in 2015 to x3.8 in 2018. But its new competitors were better
off (refer to Exhibit 9). Reed would continue to focus on adding subscribers.

To make sure the equation held up, Reed reflected on the user profitability, that is the
operating margin per paying member, and felt reassured. The last three years, from 2016
to 2018, told a story of success: By taking paid members from close to 90 million to just
under 140 million, while growing operating income from $380 million to $1.6 billion, unit
margins almost tripled from $4.3 to $11.5 (refer to Exhibit 10).

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IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

It was true that adding subscribers was becoming increasingly costly, yet operating costs
had grown more slowly than revenues. This led to a heated topic between Reed and the
chief financial officer (CFO) who kept urging him to revise his approach to marketing as
the retain and acquisition costs of customers had grown almost twice as much as the
overall revenues. To make his concern more real, the CFO showed him that adding close
to 30 million subscribers would result in an additional $3.3 billion in costs, taking the unit
cost per new paying member to $117. A unit margin of $11.5 per member meant it would
take ten years to break even (refer to Exhibits 11 and 12).

Of course, Netflix’s financial fate not only depended on its individual performance but
also on the changing competitive landscape. How did its financial position stack up
against its competitors? Apple, Amazon, Disney and YouTube all had an abundance of
investment potential. And Disney perhaps did not even need to spend much. If these
companies had recently shifted their strategic focus, was it about time to rethink Netflix’s?
Reed kept hearing from his investors success stories about the rise of platforms like
YouTube, Uber, Alibaba, or Amazon Marketplace. But could Netflix not be more
successful if it kept on serving its customers the best video content experience?

NEXT STRATEGIC MOVES
To make accessing Netflix as easy as possible through as many channels as possible
had been part of Netflix’s fast rise. Now that Netflix had become the number one
streaming service, Reed felt less pain when deciding to stop allowing people to sign up
for its service through Apple’s iTunes store. After all, the platform had been charging him
15% on every sale, a blanket condition of being in the App Store.28

Upon reflection, these platforms brought certain advantages with them. YouTube now
had more than 1 billion29 users with more and more people, including artists, having their
own channels. About 300 hours of new videos were uploaded every minute for free,
perpetually driving content growth. Google in fact had decided to pull back YouTube’s
attempt to go into its own premium content.30 By comparison, Netflix counted 152
million31 paying subscribers in 2Q19 across 190 countries32 while likely ramping up to
$15 billion in content spending in the same year.

Content was not equal to content and thus users were not equal to subscribers. Reed was
convinced that it was the way videos were made available to customers that made the
difference. And Netflix had developed a unique technology that helped customize that
experience. There was a high level of personalization33 that a specific team within Netflix
Research was continuously improving. Thanks to a better understanding of what Netflix’s
users wanted to see, Netflix was able to understand what new content they would like to
discover. This not only held true for global blockbusters but also content around specific
local themes. And Reed felt proud that Netflix’s approach had helped them keep an
impressive 93% retention rate34 and build strong international brand recognition.

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IS NETFLIX BUILDING A HOUSE OF CARDS?

Although technology was essential to keeping a competitive advantage, Reed wondered
if video would be enough to retain Netflix’s customers going forward. In 2020, Netflix
planned to release its third mobile game35 with Next Games based on the series
“Stranger Things.” Could video games be the next venture for Netflix? It could deploy its
know-how in creating content and offer video studios direct access to a wide base of
potential customers? Microsoft with Project xCloud and Google with its video platform
Stadia had been going in that direction since 2019. A recent McKinsey study on
platforms, which argued that platform business models generated better payoffs,36 was
also giving him some concerns about his strategy.

Then there was advertising. But the user experience had always been at the heart of
Netflix’s development, so Reed struggled to embrace the idea. However, he could agree
to brand placement in shows like “Queer Eye for the Straight Guy” because it was less
intrusive and met consumers’ expectations of ad-free video consumption.37 For the

Management homework help

Deliverable 3: Engaging Stakeholders

1

Table 1 Strategy Map

Stakeholder

Specialists

Patients

Employees

Dynamic Insurance Firm

Colfax brand

Community wellness

Representation

Physicians

Users

Users

Insurance companies

Pharmaceutical

companies

Wellness

Roles/Responsibilities

Provide users with quality care.

Assess quality during interactions.

Provide feedback on quality assurance.

Provide feedback on quality during care.

Articulate quality improvement required.

Ensure services are quality oriented.

Provide feedback on workplace quality.

Financing cover plans on timely basis.

Review quality with insurance plans.

Provide supplies on timely basis for quality.

Articulate quality through brand products.

Review quality measures.

Evaluate quality perspectives from community participants.

Stakeholder Power

Care providers

Users

Users

Financial providers

Medication providers

Influencer

Meeting times

Weekly

Daily

Daily

Monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Timeline

Entire project time

Entire project time

Entire project time

Six months

Six months

Entire project time

The project will consider the inclusion of cultural diversity among the key stakeholders. For instance, specialists and employees as per the organizational policy are recruited considering age, gender, ethnicity, and race (Johnson & Orr, 2020). This already shows the internal stakeholders reflect diversity. Social interactions between shareholders and interest groups provide dimensions in expectations and mobilizing interests to meet organizational needs (Johnson & Orr, 2020). Patients to be selected as participants in the project will also be considered under cultures and conditions (Neto & Borges, 2019). The pharmaceuticals and community wellness organizations will be required to provide the diversity and inclusivity policy to depict diversity considerations (Neto & Borges, 2019). Adaptive factors displayed by institutions in the macro context foster acceptance of current market dynamics (Neto & Borges, 2019). Thus, considering inclusivity policy would explore organizational adaptations of diversity (Neto & Borges, 2019).

Ensuring fairness and equity will entail the selection stakeholders through random sampling. This is after an evaluation of their reputation in the community (for the organizations). Final approval depends on adequacy of settlement in respect to participation, opportunities, and allocation schemes (McGovern & Rubenstein, 2020). Further, the process will entail fair background evaluations to avoid discriminatory instances. Alternatively, employees and specialists will be selected by their colleagues in different departments for representation. The selected individuals are required to build commitment and prioritize the mission. Internal stakeholders play an imperative role in influencing changes required in the strategy plan. Allowing the team mates to select their preferred candidates would effectively lead to fairness and equity (Jasti et al., 2019).

Stakeholder Survey

Key Questions

1. What do you think is critical in ensuring quality healthcare standards are met?

2. What are your organizational standards in meeting quality assurance?

3. What measurements could be deployed to measure, review, and evaluate? (Jasti et al., 2019).

4. Are KPI’s effective in measuring healthcare quality?

5. How will incorporating quality KPI’s in the organization impact operations, processes, and outcomes?

6. How do your internal stakeholders perceive of the current quality measures?

7. Will the workplace culture allow quality measure changes and how will they be integrated in a span of three months?

8. Do the current quality measures and quality integration levels up to the expected standard?

9. In your organization what necessitates quality assurance and how is it effectively embedded in your workplace policy? (McGovern & Rubenstein, 2020).

Effectiveness Questions

1. What are your thoughts on what should be included in our agenda for the next meeting?

2. How would you influence changes you feel are required to improve quality standards and measures?

3. What reviews would you provide in our current quality focus strategy?

4. Which measures would you incorporate in our organization to influence quality assurance?

5. What would you term as a satisfactory meeting regarding this project? (Neto & Borges, 2019).

References

Jasti, B., Livesye, J., Oppenheimer, P., Boyce, E. & Long, T. (2019). Development, implementation, and assessment of a comprehensive strategy plan in a school pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical education, 83(6) 6899. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6899

Johnson, S. & Orr, K. (2020). What is business school research for? Academic and stakeholder perspectives, politics, and relationability. Studies in higher education, 45(3) 557-578. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1564901

McGovern, F. & Rubenstein, W. (2020). The negotiation class: a cooperative approach to class actions involving large stakeholders. Texas law review, 99(73). https://web.p.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=12&sid=14d30bf6-a12f-4064-ba50-d36f17499a73%40redis

Neto, J. & Borges, J. (2019). Narratives of stakeholders under the perspective of the strategy as social practice. Revista de Administracao Mackenzie, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-6971/eRAMR190118

Management homework help

1

4

5.2 Assignment – Leader2Leader Dialogue

Delsa Christian

4FA2021 Critical Thinking for Leaders

Professor Randy Savage

November 9, 2021

In my Leader2Leader dialogue, I got an opportunity to engage Mary Parker on matters of leadership. I narrowed my discussion with Mary Parker into this week’s material on critical thinking skills. Mary Parker is a local businesswoman with several businesses. She is a renowned business owner who successfully runs multiple businesses, making her a suitable candidate, having managed hundreds of employees. The meeting was conducted via Skype at 2:00 pm. During the interview, I was able to engage Mary Parker with the following questions;

i. In your own words, how do you understand critical thinking?

“I understand critical thinking as the ability to think rationally and clearly, understanding the logic between ideas. Critical thinking is the analysis of facts or factual evidence to form a judgement. Critical thinking is self-disciplined, self-corrective thinking, self-directed and self-monitored”.

ii. Is critical thinking necessary in leadership?

“I strongly believe critical thinking is essential in leadership since it helps leaders understand the impact of their decisions on the company and the people they lead. Organizations need leaders who can think independently without bias and judgment; this way, their decisions will be aimed at helping the organization to be successful. As leaders, critical thinking is crucial as it helps us express our ideas, thoughts, and beliefs. Besides, critical thinking fosters creative thinking, which is important for any leader”.

iii. Describe a situation where critical thinking skills helped you solve a problem.

“As a leader, critical thinking skills have helped me solve problems on several occasions. One of my recent situations was when I was looking for a competent supplier for one of my restaurants. One of my friends recommended an online application that links business people with suppliers. Upon opening the application, I found many suppliers with whom I could work with. However, I did not know which one I could trust since I was looking forward to a long-term contract. After much thought, I decided to look at their reviews, which saved me from a bunch of conmen posing as competent suppliers. Luckily, I was able to locate one supplier with a good rating and review. Upon reviewing his credentials and consulting some local businesses, I found out that he was a legit supplier. Furthermore, since he started supplying, I have not received any complaints from my restaurant manager”.

iv. How can employees improve their critical thinking skills?

“Having employees with great critical thinking skills is significant for any organization since they can make detailed and wise decisions. Some of the ways that employees can use to improve their critical thinking skills include developing foresight, becoming more self-aware, understanding their mental process, asking questions, and evaluating the existing evidence”.

v. Which areas of leadership is critical thinking essential?

“The areas of leadership where critical thinking is essential are; organizational well-being, goal setting, and effective process. Any leader needs critical thinking skills when it comes to organizational well-being since this area deals with the organization’s internal development. Goal setting is also another critical area since a leader must align personal and department goals with the company’s mission and vision. The final area of focus is the process. Leaders need critical thinking skills to ensure efficiency in the day to day operations of the company”.

vi. Describe a time when you demonstrated to your employees how to employ critical thinking skills effectively.

“At one point, I found a commotion in my workplace; apparently, two employees were fighting for a parking slot. The argument had attracted the whole organization since most people were reporting for work. Upon arriving at the scene, the two employees immediately stopped arguing, and everyone started looking in my direction. I enquired what was happening, and I was informed that the two were fighting for a parking slot that was near the entrance of the building. Since both employees were claiming ownership of the slot and I wanted to remain neutral to both sides, I decided to give the slot to a new employee who used to park his car at the far end of the building”.

vii. Describe one of the most difficult decisions you had to make as an employer.

“At one time. I was selecting vendors to print our promotional materials. We’ve always had a long-time vendor whom we have been working with for over a decade. However, being one of our biggest print jobs, another vendor came to us with a lower bid. At this time, I did not want to take away the work that we have been giving our company vendor; however, I could not justify picking him out of loyalty since someone else was offering the same services but at a lower bid. So I opened up to the old vendor to hear what he had to say. Our long-time vendor agreed to lower his bid, and the company ended up saving a lot of money”.

Management homework help

5/1/22, 10:21 AM Module Seven Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric – MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022928/viewContent/17973069/View 1/3

Module Seven Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric

Overview

Organiza�onal crea�vity and innova�on have proven to be challenging concepts to measure. There is not a par�cular output that

indicates organiza�onal levels of innova�on. To flourish, innova�on and crea�vity must be fostered within the organiza�on. They

must be established as cultural values in order for the organiza�on to see the benefits.

Prompt

Write a paper evalua�ng business metrics for innova�on. Although business metrics generally measure symptoms or outputs of an

organiza�on’s culture, we can find correla�ons between some business metrics and the quality of an organiza�on’s innova�on

culture. Review the table shown below and answer the following ques�ons.

Consider the metrics in the table and evaluate if each is a good measure of innova�on and crea�vity.

Is the number of ac�ve products an indicator of innova�on, or an indicator of whether the innova�on is incremental

or discon�nuous?

Is research and development (R&D) headcount an indicator of innova�on or labor efficiency?

What would it mean if any of these metrics increased over �me?

Evaluate and select which company (INAGG, Inc. or AMMB, Inc.) is most likely to have a culture that supports innova�on

and crea�vity.

How might non-R&D staff �me dedicated to experimen�ng with new products be an indicator of an innova�on

culture?

What are some scenarios in which having more patents would not be a good indicator of an innova�on culture?

Discuss the ability, and limita�ons, of metrics such as the ones in the table and business intelligence (BI) to measure the

ability of an organiza�on to innovate or support employee crea�vity.

What are the limita�ons of the metrics that you think are the best indicators of innova�on culture?

Could some of the limita�ons be avoided by using a combina�on of metrics?

How could business intelligence be used to evaluate limita�ons of metrics?

Metric INAGG, Inc. AMMB, Inc.

Number of ac�ve products 12 6

Research and development (R&D) budget $10M $14M

R&D headcount 52 33

% of sales from products introduced in the past four years 15% 35%

Number of new products launched in the past four years 7 3



MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22… TM

5/1/22, 10:21 AM Module Seven Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric – MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22TW4

https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/content/1022928/viewContent/17973069/View 2/3

Employee �me dedicated to experimen�ng with new products Not tracked 10%

Number of patents in the last four years 7 23

Note: Both companies are in the same industry and make similar products. They have the same number of total employees,
revenue, and length of �me in business.

Guidelines for Submission

Submit a two-page Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. You are not

required to use sources; however, if you choose to use sources, they should be cited in APA format. Consult the Shapiro Library APA

Style Guide for more informa�on on cita�ons.

Module Seven Short Paper Rubric

Criteria
Exemplary (100%) Proficient (90%)

Needs
Improvement

(70%)
Not Evident (0%) Value

Metrics Evalua�on Exceeds
proficiency in an
excep�onally clear,
insigh�ul,
sophis�cated, or
crea�ve manner

Evaluates each
metric in the chart
as to whether it is
a good measure of
innova�on and
crea�vity

Shows progress
toward proficiency,
but with errors or
omissions; areas
for improvement
may include
evalua�ng all of
the listed metrics

Does not a�empt
criterion

30

Company
Evalua�on

Exceeds
proficiency in an
excep�onally clear,
insigh�ul,
sophis�cated, or
crea�ve manner

Evaluates and
selects which
company is most
likely to have a
culture that
supports
innova�on and
crea�vity

Shows progress
toward proficiency,
but with errors or
omissions; areas
for improvement
may include
evalua�on of both
companies

Does not a�empt
criterion

30

Ability and
Limita�ons of
Metrics and BI

Exceeds
proficiency in an
excep�onally clear,
insigh�ul,
sophis�cated, or
crea�ve manner

Discusses the
ability and
limita�ons of
metrics, such as
the ones in the
chart, and
business
intelligence to
measure the ability
of an organiza�on
to innovate or
support employee
crea�vity

Shows progress
toward proficiency,
but with errors or
omissions; areas
for improvement
may include
iden�fying the
limita�ons of
metrics and
business
intelligence to
measure the ability
of an organiza�on
to innovate or
support employee
crea�vity

Does not a�empt
criterion

30

Ar�cula�on of
Response

Exceeds
proficiency in an
excep�onally clear,
insigh�ul,
sophis�cated, or
crea�ve manner

Clearly conveys
meaning with
correct grammar,
sentence
structure, and
spelling,
demonstra�ng an
understanding of
audience and
purpose

Shows progress
toward proficiency,
but with errors in
grammar, sentence
structure, and
spelling, nega�vely
impac�ng
readability

Submission has
cri�cal errors in
grammar, sentence
structure, and
spelling,
preven�ng
understanding of
ideas

10

5/1/22, 10:21 AM Module Seven Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric – MBA-580-X4576 Innov/Strat High-Perform Orgs 22TW4

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Activity Details

Management homework help

Produced by Library and Learning Services
7th Edition, 2021

Harvard Referencing
Guide

1

Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
What is referencing? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

When do you need to reference? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

When is a reference not needed? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

Citing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Referring to sources within your work (citing)…………………………………………………………. 7
Citing a short quotation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Citing a long quotation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote…………………………………………………………………… 8

Making changes to quotations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Omitting part of a quotation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation. ………………………………………………. 8

Pointing out an error ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Adding your own emphasis……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Citing more than one source ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Citing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………………….. 9

Citing sources by same author in same year ……………………………………………………………… 9

Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in the same year …………………..10

Citing a corporate author ………………………………………………………………………………………10
How do I cite a source with missing publication details? ……………………………………………..10

Citing a source without a given author………………………………………………………………….10

Citing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………………….10

Updated versions…………………………………………………………………………………………………11

Abbreviating organisation names ……………………………………………………………………………11
Citing a source used within another source: secondary referencing ……………………………….11

Citing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………………12

Compiling your reference list …………………………………………………………………………………12

References list or bibliography? …………………………………………………………………………..12
Elements of a reference…………………………………………………………………………………………13

Publication information in the frontmatter of a book ………………………………………………….13

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

Reverse title page……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

How do I reference if publication details are missing? …………………………………………………14
Referencing a source without a given author………………………………………………………….14

2

Referencing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………….14

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary referencing ………………………………..15

Referencing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………….15
Referencing sources by the same author in the same year……………………………………………15

Referencing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………15

What is a DOI?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Referencing a source not listed in this guide……………………………………………………………..16
Example essay extract with citations and references list……………………………………………….16

Example reference formats for different source types………………………………………………….17

A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Act of Parliament………………………………………………………………………………………………18

App (Mobile) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………18
Archive material ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art or graffiti) ..19

Artwork (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Art installation/exhibition …………………………………………………………………………………..20
B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

Blog ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Book ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21

Book (translation) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..21

Book volume ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21
Book chapter (in an edited book) …………………………………………………………………………22

Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters) ……………………………………22

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables…………………………………………………………..23

British Standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………23

C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
Case Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Cochrane Review………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Command Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Computer game ……………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Computer program …………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Computer software code ……………………………………………………………………………………26

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students] ……………………………………………………26

Header [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………………………..26

Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students] ……………………………………………………..26

3

Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students] …………………………………………27

Method Referencing [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………27

Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students] …………………………………27
Conference paper……………………………………………………………………………………………..28

Conference poster…………………………………………………………………………………………….28

Conversation (in person)…………………………………………………………………………………….28

D………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Dance performance …………………………………………………………………………………………..29

Dance (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Dataset …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

E ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30

e-book (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
e-book (via e-book reader) …………………………………………………………………………………31

e-book chapter in an edited e-book …………………………………………………………………….31

Email………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions) ……………………………..32
F ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Facebook ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33

Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download) …………………………………………………………….33

Film (DVD: commentaries and special features) ………………………………………………………33

Film (streamed) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
G ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34

Government document ……………………………………………………………………………………..34

H………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35

Hansard ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers ……………………………………………………..35
I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (Creative Commons licensed) …………………………………………………………………….36

Informal or in-house publication………………………………………………………………………….36
International standards………………………………………………………………………………………37

Interview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………37

Instagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

J ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article…………………………………………………………………………………………………..38

4

Journal article (forthcoming) ……………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………….39

Journal article (no issue number; article number given)…………………………………………….39
L……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet (with no date)…………………………………………………………………………………………40

Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes……………………………………………………………………………………..40
Legislation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

M ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

Magazine article ……………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Magazine article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………41
Market report…………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (Digimap) …………………………………………………………………………………………………42

Map (Google Earth) …………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (printed) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
Map (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact ………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact (online)……………………………………………………………………………………44

Music (live performance/concert)…………………………………………………………………………44

Band concert: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Classical: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (lyrics) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (musical score/sheet music) ……………………………………………………………………….46

Music (recorded track)……………………………………………………………………………………….46

Music streaming……………………………………………………………………………………………….47
N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

Newspaper article …………………………………………………………………………………………….47

Newspaper article (online) ………………………………………………………………………………….47

O………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
Ofsted report …………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

Online discussion list or discussion forum ……………………………………………………………..48

Organisational documents/policies ………………………………………………………………………48

Organisational documents/policies (anonymised)……………………………………………………49

P ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49

5

Patent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49

PDFs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………50

Play ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
Podcast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50

Poem, short story or play in an anthology ……………………………………………………………..51

Poem in a collection ………………………………………………………………………………………….51

R ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
Radio broadcast ……………………………………………………………………………………………….51

Religious text …………………………………………………………………………………………………..52

S …………………………………………………