• Home

Journal#10

Research the below topics- write a 2 page reflection of your learning and include any experiences you’ve had with this population. Include any questions you have to approach working with the given population. Consider the following questions:

· What are the issues that this population encounters?

· What socio-emotional issues does this population have to deal with?

· What, if any, are the academic implications?

· What can you do to best serve the population better?

· Why is it important to serve this population?

Journal 10: What are the socio-emotional benefits of a bilingual education program *Article in Google Classroom

Journal#10

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 1/21

H O U R LY N E W S

L I S T E N L I V E

P L AY L I S T

5 M I L L I O N V O I C E S

DONATE

nprEd

6 Potential Brain Benefits Of Bilingual Education
November 29, 2016 · 6:00 AM ET

ANYA KAMENETZ

Chelsea Beck/NPR

Part of our ongoing series exploring how the U.S. can educate the nearly 5 million
students who are learning English.

WNYC Radio
On Air Now

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 2/21

Sponsor Message

Brains, brains, brains. One thing we’ve learned at NPR Ed is that people are fascinated
by brain research. And yet it can be hard to point to places where our education
system is really making use of the latest neuroscience findings.

But there is one happy nexus where research is meeting practice: bilingual education.
“In the last 20 years or so, there’s been a virtual explosion of research on
bilingualism,” says Judith Kroll, a professor at the University of California, Riverside.

Again and again, researchers have found, “bilingualism is an experience that shapes
our brain for a lifetime,” in the words of Gigi Luk, an associate professor at Harvard’s
Graduate School of Education.

At the same time, one of the hottest trends in public schooling is what’s often called
dual-language or two-way immersion programs.

5 Million Voices

N P R E D

How We Teach English Learners: 3 Basic Approaches

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 3/21

Traditional programs for English-language learners, or ELLs, focus on assimilating
students into English as quickly as possible. Dual-language classrooms, by contrast,
provide instruction across subjects to both English natives and English learners, in
both English and in a target language.

The goal is functional bilingualism and biliteracy for all students by middle school.

New York City, North Carolina, Delaware, Utah, Oregon and Washington state are
among the places expanding dual-language classrooms.

The trend flies in the face of some of the culture wars of two decades ago, when
advocates insisted on “English first” education. Most famously, California passed
Proposition 227 in 1998. It was intended to sharply reduce the amount of time that
English-language learners spent in bilingual settings.

Proposition 58, passed by California voters on Nov. 8, largely reversed that decision,
paving the way for a huge expansion of bilingual education in the state that has the
largest population of English-language learners.

Some of the insistence on English-first was founded in research produced decades ago,
in which bilingual students underperformed monolingual English speakers and had
lower IQ scores.

Today’s scholars, like Ellen Bialystok at York University in Toronto, now say that
research was “deeply flawed.”

“Earlier research looked at socially disadvantaged groups,” agrees Antonella Sorace at
the University of Edinburgh, in Scotland. “This has been completely contradicted by
recent research” that compares more similar groups to each other.

So what does recent research say about the potential benefits of bilingual education?
NPR Ed called up seven researchers in three countries — Sorace, Bialystok, Luk, Kroll,

N P R E D

Bilingual Education Returns To California. Now What?

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 4/21

Jennifer Steele, and the team of Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier — to find out.

Attention

It turns out that, in many ways, the real trick to speaking two languages consists in
managing not to speak one of those languages at a given moment — which is
fundamentally a feat of paying attention.

Saying “Goodbye” to mom and then “Guten tag” to your teacher, or managing to ask
for a crayola roja instead of a red crayon, requires skills called “inhibition” and “task
switching.” These skills are subsets of an ability called executive function.

People who speak two languages often outperform monolinguals on general measures
of executive function. “[Bilinguals] can pay focused attention without being distracted
and also improve in the ability to switch from one task to another,” says Sorace.

Do these same advantages accrue to a child who begins learning a second language in
kindergarten instead of as a baby? We don’t yet know. Patterns of language learning
and language use are complex. But Gigi Luk at Harvard cites at least one brain-
imaging study on adolescents that shows similar changes in brain structure when
compared with those who are bilingual from birth, even when they didn’t begin
practicing a second language in earnest before late childhood.

Empathy

Young children being raised bilingual have to follow social cues to figure out which
language to use with which person and in what setting. As a result, says Sorace,
bilingual children as young as age 3 have demonstrated a head start on tests of
perspective-taking and theory of mind — both of which are fundamental social and
emotional skills.

Reading (English)

About 10 percent of students in the Portland, Ore., public schools are assigned by
lottery to dual-language classrooms that offer instruction in Spanish, Japanese or
Mandarin, alongside English.

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 5/21

Jennifer Steele at American University conducted a four-year, randomized trial and
found that these dual-language students outperformed their peers in English-reading
skills by a full school year’s worth of learning by the end of middle school.

Such a large effect in a study this size is unusual, and Steele is currently conducting a
flurry of follow-up studies to tease out the causality: Is this about a special program
that attracted families who were more engaged? Or about the dual-language
instruction itself?

“If it’s just about moving the kids around,” Steele says, “that’s not as exciting as if it’s a
way of teaching that makes you smarter.”

Steele suspects the latter. Because the effects are found in reading, not in math or
science where there were few differences, she suggests that learning two languages
makes students more aware of how language works in general, aka “metalinguistic
awareness.”

The research of Gigi Luk at Harvard offers a slightly different explanation. She has
recently done a small study looking at a group of 100 fourth-graders in Massachusetts
who had similar reading scores on a standard test, but very different language
experiences.

Some were foreign-language dominant and others were English natives. Here’s what’s
interesting. The students who were dominant in a foreign language weren’t yet
comfortably bilingual; they were just starting to learn English. Therefore, by
definition, they had much weaker English vocabularies than the native speakers.

Yet they were just as good at decoding a text.

“This is very surprising,” Luk says. “You would expect the reading comprehension
performance to mirror vocabulary — it’s a cornerstone of comprehension.”

N P R E D

‘Invisible’ Children: Raised In The U.S., Now Struggling In Mexico

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 6/21

How did the foreign-language dominant speakers manage this feat? Well, Luk found,
they also scored higher on tests of executive functioning. So, even though they didn’t
have huge mental dictionaries to draw on, they may have been great puzzle-solvers,
taking into account higher-level concepts such as whether a single sentence made
sense within an overall story line.

They got to the same results as the monolinguals, by a different path.

School performance and engagement.

Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier, a husband and wife team of professors emeritus
at George Mason University in Virginia, have spent the past 30 years collecting
evidence on the benefits of bilingual education.

“Wayne came to our research with skepticism, thinking students ought to get
instruction all day in English,” says Virginia Collier. “Eight million student records
later, we’re convinced,” Wayne Thomas chimes in.

In studies covering six states and 37 districts, they have found that, compared with
students in English-only classrooms or in one-way immersion, dual-language students
have somewhat higher test scores and also seem to be happier in school. Attendance is
better, behavioral problems fewer, parent involvement higher.

Diversity and integration.

American public school classrooms as a whole are becoming more segregated by race
and class. Dual-language programs can be an exception. Because they are composed of
native English speakers deliberately placed together with recent immigrants, they tend
to be more ethnically and socioeconomically balanced. And there is some evidence
that this helps kids of all backgrounds gain comfort with diversity and different
cultures.

Several of the researchers I talked with also pointed out that, in bilingual education,
non-English-dominant students and their families tend to feel that their home
language is heard and valued, compared with a classroom where the home language is
left at the door in favor of English.

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 7/21

This can improve students’ sense of belonging and increase parent involvement in
their children’s education, including behaviors like reading to children.

“Many parents fear their language is an obstacle, a problem, and if they abandon it
their child will integrate better,” says Antonella Sorace of the University of Edinburgh.
“We tell them they’re not doing their child a favor by giving up their language.”

Protection against cognitive decline and dementia.

File this away as a very, very long-range payoff. Researchers have found that actively
using two languages seems to have a protective effect against age-related dementia —
perhaps relating to the changes in brain structure we talked about earlier.

Specifically, among patients with Alzheimer’s in a Canadian study, a group of bilingual
adults performed on par with a group of monolingual adults in terms of cognitive tests
and daily functioning. But when researchers looked at the two groups’ brains, they
found evidence of brain atrophy that was five to seven years more advanced in the
bilingual group. In other words, the adults who spoke two languages were carrying on
longer at a higher level despite greater degrees of damage.

The coda, and a caution

One theme that was striking in speaking to all these researchers was just how strongly
they advocated for dual-language classrooms.

Thomas and Collier have advised many school systems on how to expand their dual-
language programs, and Sorace runs “Bilingualism Matters,” an international network
of researchers who promote bilingual education projects.

This type of advocacy among scientists is unusual; even more so because the “bilingual
advantage hypothesis” is being challenged once again. A review of studies published
last year found that cognitive advantages failed to appear in 83 percent of published
studies, though in a separate meta-analysis, the sum of effects was still significantly
positive.

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 8/21

Sign Up For The NPR Ed Newsletter
Get shareable insights, innovative ideas and the latest education news, sent weekly.

SUBSCRIBE

By subscribing, you agree to NPR’s terms of use and privacy policy. NPR may share your name and email address with your NPR station. See
Details. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

More Stories From NPR

One potential explanation offered by the researchers I spoke with is that advantages
that are measurable in the very young and very old tend to fade when testing young
adults at the peak of their cognitive powers.

And, they countered that no negative effects of bilingual education have been found.
So, they argue that even if the advantages are small, they are still worth it.

Not to mention one obvious, outstanding fact underlined by many of these
researchers: “Bilingual children can speak two languages! That’s amazing,” says
Bialystok.

What’s your email?

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 9/21

N P R E D
We’ve Moved! Check Out Our Convenient New Location

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 10/21

E D U C AT I O N
For Teens, Dystopian Fiction Seems Pretty Real — And That’s Why They Like It

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 11/21

E D U C AT I O N
More Colleges Go Test-Optional; Google Launches College Search Tool

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 12/21

E D U C AT I O N
Making Schools Safer: Harsh Consequences, Or Second Chances?

E D U C AT I O N
What Teens Really Say About Sex, Drugs And Sadness

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 13/21

y y , g

E D U C AT I O N
The Most Popular High School Plays And Musicals

Popular on NPR.org

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 14/21

H E A LT H
What Fauci sees coming with the BA.2 coronavirus subvariant in the U.S.

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 15/21

S P O R TS
NFL quarterback Dwayne Haskins dies after being struck by a truck

H E A LT H
What to do if you test positive for COVID at this point in the pandemic

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits : NPR Ed : NPR

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/11/29/497943749/6-potential-brain-benefits-of-bilingual-education 16/21

E L E C T I O N S
Cawthorn’s inflammatory comments have some Republicans in his district tiring of him

M E D I C A L T R E AT M E N TS
The Capitol fox fascinated folks. But no one mentioned the cost of rabies treatment

4/10/22, 10:04 AM Bilingual Education: 6 Potential Brain Benefits :