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fuel project

GEOL1403 Research Project Instructions

STEP 5: Read through the synopses, choose 2 articles to use and write your paper (100 points)

Read through all the synopses on the discussion board.

Select 2 articles. One article should be pro renewables, one against renewables. It is OK if one of the articles you choose is your own.

To begin writing your paper:

· Scroll down to the “Research Paper” link (under “Course Work” in our eCampus course). Click on the attached file: “APA Template for GEOL 1403 Research Paper” and download the file.

· Besides downloading the APA template, when writing your paper, download this document again, as it will be necessary to have it open as it has detailed directions that accompany the template so you will know what to write about in each section. The directions below explain paragraph by paragraph what to write about. Please understand that if you do not utilize BOTH of these documents (this one you are reading now and the APA template), you will fail this assignment.

· Write the paper see detailed directions below (pages 3-6) of what to include.

· Optional: Upload your paper to” Plagiarism Checker/Research Paper Rough Draft” link. This link is provided for you to submit your paper to check for plagiarism. I will NOT be checking nor grading these. It is only there for your benefit to check that the plagiarism (matching) rate is not too high (20% or higher).

· To submit your finished paper, click on the link “Research Paper Template Download and Location to Upload Your Completed Paper”. (This is the same location from where you downloaded the template). Then within the “Assignment Submission” area, click on the “Browser My Computer” link in the “Attach Files” area. Choose the file that is your completed paper. Click the small box in the “Plagiarism Tools” area. Lastly, click on the “Submit” button on the bottom-right hand side of the webpage.

IMPORTANT: How to write the paper using the provided template

· The correct margins and fonts (Times New Roman) are already set up in the template.

· Header titles: Type in an abbreviated name of your paper in ALL CAPS on page 1 (leave the words “Running head” as shown on page 1 only) and again on page 2.

· Page 1 title page: Type in a title for your paper, your name, and section and semester information (ie. Summer 2020).

· Type in your title again at the top of page 2 in upper and lower case letters.

· Include the bold words of all the SUBTITLES (ie. “Introduction to the Controversy”).

· Indent each paragraph and use double spacing for all text in the paper.

· Do not add any extra spacing between paragraphs or between sections.

· Cite your sources throughout your paper by using in-text citations as needed (APA format is the author’s last name, year). Here is an example of a sentence with an in-text citation (Fields, 2015).

· If you use a direct quote, add the page number where the quote is located (Fields, 2015, p125). No more than 2 quotes total for this paper should be used.

What to include in the “Introduction to the Controversy” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Explain the purpose of writing this paper.

· It should include both a detailed description of what renewable energy is and what fossil fuels are.

· Include an in-text citation(s).

What to include in the “Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against” section:

· This should be at least four 6-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Using the information from the 2 articles you chose from the discussion board, put together an argument for why renewable energy sources ARE and ARE NOT necessary- you will need to argue both sides of the issue.

· Please remember you are not citing any of your classmates, as they are not experts, but you need to download both articles (source) you chose to use in your paper.

· It is important that you WRITE CRITICALLY ABOUT THESE VIEWPOINTS, be precise regarding why the articles are directly and indirectly making a case for renewable fuel vs non-renewable. To obtain full credit for this section, look for specific viewpoints in the sources that might be inaccurate. In the articles you read, did you spot any assumptions made by the author or ‘experts’ quoted in the article?

· Include in-text citations.

What to include in the “Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection” section:

· You need to discuss how well you and the other students assigned to your discussion board forum worked together.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This paragraph should be at least 10 sentences long that carefully describes how well the group worked together based on the following five (5) categories:

· Contributes to the discussion: Did the students in your assigned discussion board all contribute a synopsis? Did everyone contribute to the discussion comments?

· Group Encouragement: Did you notice any students encouraging others to contribute to the discussions?

· Deadlines: Did everyone seem to post their synopsis and add to the comments by the assigned deadlines? Did you notice any posts encouraging and motivating everyone to get the work done on time?

· Communication: How did your group seem to do as far as treating each other respectfully by being polite and constructive in communication.

· Conflict: If conflict arose within the discussion, did anyone respond to the conflict? Did they help to manage/resolve it in a way so that the work of the group could be completed peaceably and well?

What to include in the “Summary” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This is a “critical thinking paragraph”. Answer the following questions inside of this paragraph, but DO NOT include the questions:

· What preconceived ideas about renewable fuel vs non-renewable fuel debate did you have BEFORE reading the articles that you cited in this paper?

· How have your ideas changed after reading the cited articles? For example, what is YOUR opinion/position on whether or not renewable fuel is necessary? Explain what specifically influenced your position and any items that limit your understanding and ability to form an opinion on this topic.

· Why do you believe that continued research by experts on this subject is important? (Explain the relevance and complexity of the research findings.)

· What question(s) has this research paper raised for you?  What are you still wondering about? (NOTE:  nothing is not an acceptable answer.)

· As you type, the “References” page will always make itself your last page. You don’t have to do anything for this to happen. Double-check that you do not have any blank pages at the end, and that your reference page is its very own last page.

· Do not delete the word “References” at the top last page (your reference page).

· The “References” page (last page of paper) is a list of all the sources you used and got your information from to write your paper. The sources must be properly cited using APA style format.

· Please use the following website for help completing this step: www.citefast.com

· Save your paper as a Word doc or PDF and submit in our course in eCampus (see directions above on page 3 on how to submit your paper).

fuel project

GEOL1403 Research Project Instructions

STEP 5: Read through the synopses, choose 2 articles to use and write your paper (100 points)

Read through all the synopses on the discussion board.

Select 2 articles. One article should be pro renewables, one against renewables. It is OK if one of the articles you choose is your own.

To begin writing your paper:

· Scroll down to the “Research Paper” link (under “Course Work” in our eCampus course). Click on the attached file: “APA Template for GEOL 1403 Research Paper” and download the file.

· Besides downloading the APA template, when writing your paper, download this document again, as it will be necessary to have it open as it has detailed directions that accompany the template so you will know what to write about in each section. The directions below explain paragraph by paragraph what to write about. Please understand that if you do not utilize BOTH of these documents (this one you are reading now and the APA template), you will fail this assignment.

· Write the paper see detailed directions below (pages 3-6) of what to include.

· Optional: Upload your paper to” Plagiarism Checker/Research Paper Rough Draft” link. This link is provided for you to submit your paper to check for plagiarism. I will NOT be checking nor grading these. It is only there for your benefit to check that the plagiarism (matching) rate is not too high (20% or higher).

· To submit your finished paper, click on the link “Research Paper Template Download and Location to Upload Your Completed Paper”. (This is the same location from where you downloaded the template). Then within the “Assignment Submission” area, click on the “Browser My Computer” link in the “Attach Files” area. Choose the file that is your completed paper. Click the small box in the “Plagiarism Tools” area. Lastly, click on the “Submit” button on the bottom-right hand side of the webpage.

IMPORTANT: How to write the paper using the provided template

· The correct margins and fonts (Times New Roman) are already set up in the template.

· Header titles: Type in an abbreviated name of your paper in ALL CAPS on page 1 (leave the words “Running head” as shown on page 1 only) and again on page 2.

· Page 1 title page: Type in a title for your paper, your name, and section and semester information (ie. Summer 2020).

· Type in your title again at the top of page 2 in upper and lower case letters.

· Include the bold words of all the SUBTITLES (ie. “Introduction to the Controversy”).

· Indent each paragraph and use double spacing for all text in the paper.

· Do not add any extra spacing between paragraphs or between sections.

· Cite your sources throughout your paper by using in-text citations as needed (APA format is the author’s last name, year). Here is an example of a sentence with an in-text citation (Fields, 2015).

· If you use a direct quote, add the page number where the quote is located (Fields, 2015, p125). No more than 2 quotes total for this paper should be used.

What to include in the “Introduction to the Controversy” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Explain the purpose of writing this paper.

· It should include both a detailed description of what renewable energy is and what fossil fuels are.

· Include an in-text citation(s).

What to include in the “Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against” section:

· This should be at least four 6-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Using the information from the 2 articles you chose from the discussion board, put together an argument for why renewable energy sources ARE and ARE NOT necessary- you will need to argue both sides of the issue.

· Please remember you are not citing any of your classmates, as they are not experts, but you need to download both articles (source) you chose to use in your paper.

· It is important that you WRITE CRITICALLY ABOUT THESE VIEWPOINTS, be precise regarding why the articles are directly and indirectly making a case for renewable fuel vs non-renewable. To obtain full credit for this section, look for specific viewpoints in the sources that might be inaccurate. In the articles you read, did you spot any assumptions made by the author or ‘experts’ quoted in the article?

· Include in-text citations.

What to include in the “Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection” section:

· You need to discuss how well you and the other students assigned to your discussion board forum worked together.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This paragraph should be at least 10 sentences long that carefully describes how well the group worked together based on the following five (5) categories:

· Contributes to the discussion: Did the students in your assigned discussion board all contribute a synopsis? Did everyone contribute to the discussion comments?

· Group Encouragement: Did you notice any students encouraging others to contribute to the discussions?

· Deadlines: Did everyone seem to post their synopsis and add to the comments by the assigned deadlines? Did you notice any posts encouraging and motivating everyone to get the work done on time?

· Communication: How did your group seem to do as far as treating each other respectfully by being polite and constructive in communication.

· Conflict: If conflict arose within the discussion, did anyone respond to the conflict? Did they help to manage/resolve it in a way so that the work of the group could be completed peaceably and well?

What to include in the “Summary” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This is a “critical thinking paragraph”. Answer the following questions inside of this paragraph, but DO NOT include the questions:

· What preconceived ideas about renewable fuel vs non-renewable fuel debate did you have BEFORE reading the articles that you cited in this paper?

· How have your ideas changed after reading the cited articles? For example, what is YOUR opinion/position on whether or not renewable fuel is necessary? Explain what specifically influenced your position and any items that limit your understanding and ability to form an opinion on this topic.

· Why do you believe that continued research by experts on this subject is important? (Explain the relevance and complexity of the research findings.)

· What question(s) has this research paper raised for you?  What are you still wondering about? (NOTE:  nothing is not an acceptable answer.)

· As you type, the “References” page will always make itself your last page. You don’t have to do anything for this to happen. Double-check that you do not have any blank pages at the end, and that your reference page is its very own last page.

· Do not delete the word “References” at the top last page (your reference page).

· The “References” page (last page of paper) is a list of all the sources you used and got your information from to write your paper. The sources must be properly cited using APA style format.

· Please use the following website for help completing this step: www.citefast.com

· Save your paper as a Word doc or PDF and submit in our course in eCampus (see directions above on page 3 on how to submit your paper).

fuel project

Renewable Energy Is Beneficial for the Environment

“Renewable Energy Is Beneficial for the Environment.” Renewable Energy, edited by Jacqueline Langwith, Greenhaven Press, 2009.

Renewable energy, also called ‘green energy,’ or ‘clean energy,’ does not deplete natural resources and creates little to no pollution when it is generated.”

In the following viewpoint, Science Clarified discusses the benefits of renewable energy and claims that the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) for energy production is harmful to the environment and depletes natural resources. According to Science Clarified, humans must seek environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and limitless and virtually pollution-free renewable energy offers the best hope for our future energy needs. Science Clarified is an online encyclopedia.

As you read, consider the following questions:

According to Science Clarified, what percentage of the world’s nitrous oxide emissions come from burning fossil fuels?

According to Science Clarified, how many barrels of oil were consumed in the year 2000?

What are the key benefits of renewable energy when compared to burning fossil fuels, according to Science Clarified?

Weighing the benefits and drawbacks of one power source versus another is a complicated process. There are many factors to consider, including everything from understanding the environmental effects of a particular type of power production and consumption, to addressing the power needs of the people and finding methods for delivering the power. Throughout this process, decision makers rely upon scientists to supply the necessary data to make informed decisions. What forms the basis of this science includes the knowledge that carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned, is creating a lot of harm to the planet and its systems.

Burning Fossil Fuels Emits Harmful Gases

Gases that form the atmosphere completely surround the planet. A part of the atmosphere called the ozone layer acts as a sort of shield from the sun, filtering out harmful radiations. Today, human activities release about 433,000 metric tons of nitrous oxide into the atmosphere each year. Nearly 40 percent of the world’s nitrous oxide emissions come from burning fossil fuels. The atmosphere has a certain amount of nitrous oxide naturally, but too much nitrous oxide causes a depletion of the ozone layer. Over the last decade scientists have reported that the hole in the ozone layer is growing rapidly.

Carbon dioxide is another harmful gas released into the atmosphere. It comes back to the surface as acid rain, poisoning water supplies, killing plants and animals, and eroding and blackening buildings. In addition, carbon dioxide reflects light and heat back to the planet’s surface. As the carbon dioxide levels increase in the atmosphere, more heat from the sun is held in, changing the climate of the entire planet by making it warmer. This is called the greenhouse effect and is considered a form of pollution. [Naturalist] Laughton Johnston claims that, “Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are at their highest in 20 million years.”

The planet Earth operates on delicate systems of natural balance. Scientists believe warming the atmosphere by even a few degrees could cause enormous changes to the environment. Some scientists also believe an increase in the temperature of the planet, brought on by the greenhouse effect, will lead to more weather-related natural disasters such as tornadoes, floods, droughts, and hurricanes. Scientists also predict a significant rise in sea level, which will reduce land size. Considering that half of the human population lives near a coastline, the effects could be dramatic. In the future, many nations may need to struggle with the question of where all of their people should live if their towns and cities become submerged under oceanic water.

For example, according to a report released by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2003, the Arctic ice cover is shrinking by an area the size of the Netherlands every year. The Arctic ice cap has thinned from an average thickness of more than nine feet to less than six feet in…thirty years. In 2002, for the first time in recorded history, a twelve-thousand-year-old ice shelf the size of Luxembourg came adrift from the Antarctic and melted into pieces in just thirty-five days. The glaciers of Kilimanjaro, a mountain in Africa, and of the tropical Andes mountains in South America are melting so fast that experts believe they could disappear within…twenty years. In October 2001 about eleven thousand people in Tuvalu, a group of nine islands in the Pacific Ocean, tried to abandon their homes because of the rising ocean. The Australian government refused to let them into Australia and so most of the people have remained on the islands, living in fear of being submerged in the ocean.

Burning fossil fuels for energy releases much of the harmful gases that exist today. Scientists estimate that about 35 percent of the greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, being released into the atmosphere are from the United States. With only about 5 percent of the world’s population, the United States consumes about one quarter of the world’s energy production. At this rate, according to [space engineer] Ralph Nansen, “we will destroy both the breathable air and the energy reserves of our only home.” In fact, according to a recent BBC Radio Scotland report on global climate change, if the rest of the world consumed energy at the same rate as the United States, “we would need at least two more planet earth’s to sustain us all.”

Fossil Fuel Supplies Depleted

Not only are these high levels of consumption causing equally high levels of pollution, but the world’s fossil fuel supplies are quickly being used up. For example, [the] total oil supply is estimated at between 2,000 and 2,800 billion barrels. About 900 billion barrels of oil have already been consumed, 28 million barrels of that just in the year 2000. Addressing resource depletion is not an easy task. As Tom Hansen, vice president of Tucson Electric Power, says, “It is like trying to change the wings of an airplane while you are in flight.” He describes a difficult process, but one with what he considers a great payoff. “We have to wean ourselves off traditional fuels, because it is going to get harder for us to build more power plants and install more transmission lines.”

The future of energy production will certainly determine what the overall health of the planet will be. Most scientists agree that the choices that support fossil fuel use will only worsen the environmental damage that has already occurred. Instead, choosing to look to renewable energy sources and energy conservation techniques offers the potential to improve the health of the planet. This belief concerning the future of renewable energy is voiced by author Melvin A. Benarde in his book, Our Precarious Habitat. “There are no instant cures, no ready-made solutions,” Benarde writes. “This does not mean there is no hope for a future. On the contrary, there is a great deal; but it will take time and money—lots of money—and a willingness on the part of the people to see it through.”

Renewable Energy Does Not Run Out

Because energy is usable power, the form that the energy is in can be used up. When a combustion engine car runs out of gasoline, it loses its power and can no longer operate until more fuel is put into the system. If a power plant that generates electricity by burning coal runs out of coal, then it can no longer generate electricity until more coal is put into the power plant burners.

Renewable energy, on the other hand, is energy that is replaced at the same rate that it is used. Renewable energy is replaced through natural processes or through sound management practices, and so it is a source of power that does not run out. A perfect example of renewable energy is energy from the sun, which comes in an abundant supply every day.

Other examples of renewable sources of energy include the wind, the waves and tides, the gravitational pull of the earth, the heat at the earth’s core (geothermal energy), landfill gases, and, to a limited degree, trees and plant material. Many of these renewable sources of energy can be used in their raw form. They are natural forces that create energy without the help of humans. All that is needed is for someone to decide how that energy can be used. Building a sail for a boat makes use of the wind. Building a waterwheel on a river makes use of the flowing water that is pulled downhill by the earth’s gravity. Building a house out of glass—a greenhouse—traps the heat from sunlight inside, providing warmth and allowing plants to grow where they might not otherwise grow.

Renewable Energy Creates Little or No Pollution

Renewable energy, also called “green energy,” or “clean energy,” does not deplete natural resources and creates little to no pollution when it is generated. Throughout history, renewable sources of energy have been used by various peoples to supply power for their specific needs, but always on a small scale. The unique challenge of today is finding a way to supply renewable energy to entire populations. Large-scale energy production requires specialized equipment such as energy storage and transmission facilities. The technology for generating the power must also be efficient and cost-effective to produce and operate.

In the face of big-oil-company interests and the politics of government, it has taken a long time for renewable energy options to even be considered on a large scale. The scientific and technological development of solar power, for example, looked promising when in 1977 President Jimmy Carter initiated a plan to develop solar energy and other alternative fuels. His goal for the nation was to have 20 percent of its power coming from solar power generation by the year 2000, and he started by putting solar panels on the White House. By the late 1970s, however, big oil companies had bought up most of the patents for the solar technologies being developed. The Reagan administration took the solar panels off of the White House and spent billions of dollars on the military, foreign aid, and for research and production of atomic weapons instead of on renewable energy.

Since that time, government support for the research and development of renewable energy has not been easy to get, and the technology has been slow to come into its own. Despite these setbacks, independent companies are now making renewable energy products that, while still costly to purchase, offer cheap, clean, renewable energy to the consumer. In his book Charging Ahead, writer, teacher, and environmental science and policy consultant John J. Berger says of renewable energy sources that “modern science and engineering technology have of late made them much more efficient, convenient, and economical.” Steve Kretzmann, coordinator for the Greenpeace Global Warming Campaign, shares a similar point of view: “One of the greatest myths surrounding clean energy is that it is not ready to do the job. Renewables are ready—the technical barriers are almost entirely removed. The true barriers to energy reform are now, and always have been, political.”

Many experts agree that renewable energy would provide numerous benefits. Berger, for example, says that:

Because renewables do not use fossil fuels (most are entirely fuel-free) they are largely immune to the threat of future oil or gas shortages and fossil fuel price hikes. For the same reason, because most renewable technologies require no combustion, they are far kinder to the environment than coal, oil, and natural gas. Smog and acid rain could be eliminated with renewables. The collective lungs of America could breathe a sigh of relief.

In addition to being virtually nonpolluting, renewable energy is thought to be cheaper for producers and consumers. As reported in a book commissioned in 1992 by the United Nations Solar Energy Group on Environment and Development, “Given adequate support, renewable energy technologies can meet much of the growing demand at prices lower than those usually forecast for conventional energy.” As the human population continues to increase and the energy needs of the world climb, renewable energy is seen more and more as the only alternative.

fuel project

GEOL1403 Research Project Instructions

Question to be considered: Is renewable energy really necessary?!

The purpose of this paper is to analyze two (2) articles that represent the argument of both sides of the dispute over whether renewable energy is necessary.

How to complete the research project:

STEP 1: Watch the following You Tube video:

If Green Energy Is So Great, Why Aren’t We Using It? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=io6LZiEgZ5U

STEP 2: Complete ‘Fuels Project Background’ (40 points)

This assignment is designed to provide background information for the fuels project. The student will learn about the annual total of fossil fuels produced and consumed in the US compared to the annual total of renewable energy produced and consumed.

STEP 3: Discussion Board (15 points)

Choose ONE of the articles posted in the discussion board forum ‘Fuels Project’. Write a synopsis your chosen article and explain how the article might be a good source for a paper about whether or not renewable energy is necessary.

The purpose of the discussion board is for each student to share with the class a synopsis (short summary) of their chosen article. Later on in this project, students will be selecting 2 articles from each discussion board and the synopses should help students decide which articles to use for the research paper.

It is very important that every student does their part on the discussion board.

To complete this part of the project: You can get to the Discussion Board links by either clicking on the “Discussion Board” link (under “Course Work” on left-hand side of eCampus course page and then scrolling down to the two fracking discussion boards) OR within the “Research Project” link (under “Course Work” on left-hand side of eCampus course page and then scrolling down to the two fracking discussion boards).

· Scroll down and read the titles of each article in the threads

· Choose one to read and summarize (first come, first served), click on the article title to open the “thread” or article and click on the link, then click “Reply” and write the following in the “Message” area: 

. Summarize the article in two paragraphs- 4-5 sentences per paragraph.

1. Paragraph 1: A synopsis of the article

1. Paragraph 2: Explain how the article might be a good source for the essay portion of the project.

STEP 4: Discussion Board Comments to other students (5 points)

Read through the summaries written by the other students on discussion board and make comments on a least 5 other summaries-

. Remarks might include specific questions asking for clarification, a request for more details, or perhaps an observation. All comments should be positive, constructive, and polite.

IMPORTANT: PLEASE KEEP THE FOLLOWING IN MIND WHILE COMPLETING THIS ASSIGNMENT- part of the research paper consists of an assessment of how well you and your team members worked together in the forum according to the five (5) categories below:

1) Contributes to the discussion: Did the students in your assigned discussion board all contribute a synopsis? Did everyone contribute to the discussion comments?

2) Group Encouragement: Did you notice any students encouraging others to contribute to the discussions?

3) Deadlines: Did everyone seem to post their synopsis and add to the comments by the assigned deadlines? Did you notice any posts encouraging and motivating everyone to get the work done on time?

4) Communication: How did your group seem to do as far as treating each other respectfully by being polite and constructive in communication.

5) Conflict: If conflict arose within the discussion, did anyone respond to the conflict? Did they help to manage/resolve it in a way so that the work of the group could be completed peaceably and well?

STEP 5: Read through the synopses, choose 2 articles to use and write your paper (100 points)

Read through all the synopses on the discussion board.

Select 2 articles. One article should be pro renewables, one against renewables. It is OK if one of the articles you choose is your own.

To begin writing your paper:

· Scroll down to the “Research Paper” link (under “Course Work” in our eCampus course). Click on the attached file: “APA Template for GEOL 1403 Research Paper” and download the file.

· Besides downloading the APA template, when writing your paper, download this document again, as it will be necessary to have it open as it has detailed directions that accompany the template so you will know what to write about in each section. The directions below explain paragraph by paragraph what to write about. Please understand that if you do not utilize BOTH of these documents (this one you are reading now and the APA template), you will fail this assignment.

· Write the paper see detailed directions below (pages 3-6) of what to include.

· Optional: Upload your paper to” Plagiarism Checker/Research Paper Rough Draft” link. This link is provided for you to submit your paper to check for plagiarism. I will NOT be checking nor grading these. It is only there for your benefit to check that the plagiarism (matching) rate is not too high (20% or higher).

· To submit your finished paper, click on the link “Research Paper Template Download and Location to Upload Your Completed Paper”. (This is the same location from where you downloaded the template). Then within the “Assignment Submission” area, click on the “Browser My Computer” link in the “Attach Files” area. Choose the file that is your completed paper. Click the small box in the “Plagiarism Tools” area. Lastly, click on the “Submit” button on the bottom-right hand side of the webpage.

IMPORTANT: How to write the paper using the provided template

· The correct margins and fonts (Times New Roman) are already set up in the template.

· Header titles: Type in an abbreviated name of your paper in ALL CAPS on page 1 (leave the words “Running head” as shown on page 1 only) and again on page 2.

· Page 1 title page: Type in a title for your paper, your name, and section and semester information (ie. Summer 2020).

· Type in your title again at the top of page 2 in upper and lower case letters.

· Include the bold words of all the SUBTITLES (ie. “Introduction to the Controversy”).

· Indent each paragraph and use double spacing for all text in the paper.

· Do not add any extra spacing between paragraphs or between sections.

· Cite your sources throughout your paper by using in-text citations as needed (APA format is the author’s last name, year). Here is an example of a sentence with an in-text citation (Fields, 2015).

· If you use a direct quote, add the page number where the quote is located (Fields, 2015, p125). No more than 2 quotes total for this paper should be used.

What to include in the “Introduction to the Controversy” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Explain the purpose of writing this paper.

· It should include both a detailed description of what renewable energy is and what fossil fuels are.

· Include an in-text citation(s).

What to include in the “Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against” section:

· This should be at least four 6-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Using the information from the 2 articles you chose from the discussion board, put together an argument for why renewable energy sources ARE and ARE NOT necessary- you will need to argue both sides of the issue.

· Please remember you are not citing any of your classmates, as they are not experts, but you need to download both articles (source) you chose to use in your paper.

· It is important that you WRITE CRITICALLY ABOUT THESE VIEWPOINTS, be precise regarding why the articles are directly and indirectly making a case for fracking being the cause of earthquakes. To obtain full credit for this section, look for specific viewpoints in the sources that might be inaccurate. In the articles you read, did you spot any assumptions made by the author or ‘experts’ quoted in the article?

· Include in-text citations.

What to include in the “Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection” section:

· You need to discuss how well you and the other students assigned to your discussion board forum worked together.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This paragraph should be at least 10 sentences long that carefully describes how well the group worked together based on the following five (5) categories:

· Contributes to the discussion: Did the students in your assigned discussion board all contribute a synopsis? Did everyone contribute to the discussion comments?

· Group Encouragement: Did you notice any students encouraging others to contribute to the discussions?

· Deadlines: Did everyone seem to post their synopsis and add to the comments by the assigned deadlines? Did you notice any posts encouraging and motivating everyone to get the work done on time?

· Communication: How did your group seem to do as far as treating each other respectfully by being polite and constructive in communication.

· Conflict: If conflict arose within the discussion, did anyone respond to the conflict? Did they help to manage/resolve it in a way so that the work of the group could be completed peaceably and well?

What to include in the “Summary” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This is a “critical thinking paragraph”. Answer the following questions inside of this paragraph, but DO NOT include the questions:

· What preconceived ideas about renewable fuel vs non-renewable fuel debate did you have BEFORE reading the articles that you cited in this paper?

· How have your ideas changed after reading the cited articles? For example, what is YOUR opinion/position on whether or not renewable fuel is necessary? Explain what specifically influenced your position and any items that limit your understanding and ability to form an opinion on this topic.

· Why do you believe that continued research by experts on this subject is important? (Explain the relevance and complexity of the research findings.)

· What question(s) has this research paper raised for you?  What are you still wondering about? (NOTE:  nothing is not an acceptable answer.)

· As you type, the “References” page will always make itself your last page. You don’t have to do anything for this to happen. Double-check that you do not have any blank pages at the end, and that your reference page is its very own last page.

· Do not delete the word “References” at the top last page (your reference page).

· The “References” page (last page of paper) is a list of all the sources you used and got your information from to write your paper. The sources must be properly cited using APA style format.

· Please use the following website for help completing this step: www.citefast.com

· Save your paper as a Word doc or PDF and submit in our course in eCampus (see directions above on page 3 on how to submit your paper).

fuel project

Renewable Energy Is Beneficial for the Environment

“Renewable Energy Is Beneficial for the Environment.” Renewable Energy, edited by Jacqueline Langwith, Greenhaven Press, 2009.

Renewable energy, also called ‘green energy,’ or ‘clean energy,’ does not deplete natural resources and creates little to no pollution when it is generated.”

In the following viewpoint, Science Clarified discusses the benefits of renewable energy and claims that the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) for energy production is harmful to the environment and depletes natural resources. According to Science Clarified, humans must seek environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and limitless and virtually pollution-free renewable energy offers the best hope for our future energy needs. Science Clarified is an online encyclopedia.

As you read, consider the following questions:

According to Science Clarified, what percentage of the world’s nitrous oxide emissions come from burning fossil fuels?

According to Science Clarified, how many barrels of oil were consumed in the year 2000?

What are the key benefits of renewable energy when compared to burning fossil fuels, according to Science Clarified?

Weighing the benefits and drawbacks of one power source versus another is a complicated process. There are many factors to consider, including everything from understanding the environmental effects of a particular type of power production and consumption, to addressing the power needs of the people and finding methods for delivering the power. Throughout this process, decision makers rely upon scientists to supply the necessary data to make informed decisions. What forms the basis of this science includes the knowledge that carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned, is creating a lot of harm to the planet and its systems.

Burning Fossil Fuels Emits Harmful Gases

Gases that form the atmosphere completely surround the planet. A part of the atmosphere called the ozone layer acts as a sort of shield from the sun, filtering out harmful radiations. Today, human activities release about 433,000 metric tons of nitrous oxide into the atmosphere each year. Nearly 40 percent of the world’s nitrous oxide emissions come from burning fossil fuels. The atmosphere has a certain amount of nitrous oxide naturally, but too much nitrous oxide causes a depletion of the ozone layer. Over the last decade scientists have reported that the hole in the ozone layer is growing rapidly.

Carbon dioxide is another harmful gas released into the atmosphere. It comes back to the surface as acid rain, poisoning water supplies, killing plants and animals, and eroding and blackening buildings. In addition, carbon dioxide reflects light and heat back to the planet’s surface. As the carbon dioxide levels increase in the atmosphere, more heat from the sun is held in, changing the climate of the entire planet by making it warmer. This is called the greenhouse effect and is considered a form of pollution. [Naturalist] Laughton Johnston claims that, “Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are at their highest in 20 million years.”

The planet Earth operates on delicate systems of natural balance. Scientists believe warming the atmosphere by even a few degrees could cause enormous changes to the environment. Some scientists also believe an increase in the temperature of the planet, brought on by the greenhouse effect, will lead to more weather-related natural disasters such as tornadoes, floods, droughts, and hurricanes. Scientists also predict a significant rise in sea level, which will reduce land size. Considering that half of the human population lives near a coastline, the effects could be dramatic. In the future, many nations may need to struggle with the question of where all of their people should live if their towns and cities become submerged under oceanic water.

For example, according to a report released by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2003, the Arctic ice cover is shrinking by an area the size of the Netherlands every year. The Arctic ice cap has thinned from an average thickness of more than nine feet to less than six feet in…thirty years. In 2002, for the first time in recorded history, a twelve-thousand-year-old ice shelf the size of Luxembourg came adrift from the Antarctic and melted into pieces in just thirty-five days. The glaciers of Kilimanjaro, a mountain in Africa, and of the tropical Andes mountains in South America are melting so fast that experts believe they could disappear within…twenty years. In October 2001 about eleven thousand people in Tuvalu, a group of nine islands in the Pacific Ocean, tried to abandon their homes because of the rising ocean. The Australian government refused to let them into Australia and so most of the people have remained on the islands, living in fear of being submerged in the ocean.

Burning fossil fuels for energy releases much of the harmful gases that exist today. Scientists estimate that about 35 percent of the greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, being released into the atmosphere are from the United States. With only about 5 percent of the world’s population, the United States consumes about one quarter of the world’s energy production. At this rate, according to [space engineer] Ralph Nansen, “we will destroy both the breathable air and the energy reserves of our only home.” In fact, according to a recent BBC Radio Scotland report on global climate change, if the rest of the world consumed energy at the same rate as the United States, “we would need at least two more planet earth’s to sustain us all.”

Fossil Fuel Supplies Depleted

Not only are these high levels of consumption causing equally high levels of pollution, but the world’s fossil fuel supplies are quickly being used up. For example, [the] total oil supply is estimated at between 2,000 and 2,800 billion barrels. About 900 billion barrels of oil have already been consumed, 28 million barrels of that just in the year 2000. Addressing resource depletion is not an easy task. As Tom Hansen, vice president of Tucson Electric Power, says, “It is like trying to change the wings of an airplane while you are in flight.” He describes a difficult process, but one with what he considers a great payoff. “We have to wean ourselves off traditional fuels, because it is going to get harder for us to build more power plants and install more transmission lines.”

The future of energy production will certainly determine what the overall health of the planet will be. Most scientists agree that the choices that support fossil fuel use will only worsen the environmental damage that has already occurred. Instead, choosing to look to renewable energy sources and energy conservation techniques offers the potential to improve the health of the planet. This belief concerning the future of renewable energy is voiced by author Melvin A. Benarde in his book, Our Precarious Habitat. “There are no instant cures, no ready-made solutions,” Benarde writes. “This does not mean there is no hope for a future. On the contrary, there is a great deal; but it will take time and money—lots of money—and a willingness on the part of the people to see it through.”

Renewable Energy Does Not Run Out

Because energy is usable power, the form that the energy is in can be used up. When a combustion engine car runs out of gasoline, it loses its power and can no longer operate until more fuel is put into the system. If a power plant that generates electricity by burning coal runs out of coal, then it can no longer generate electricity until more coal is put into the power plant burners.

Renewable energy, on the other hand, is energy that is replaced at the same rate that it is used. Renewable energy is replaced through natural processes or through sound management practices, and so it is a source of power that does not run out. A perfect example of renewable energy is energy from the sun, which comes in an abundant supply every day.

Other examples of renewable sources of energy include the wind, the waves and tides, the gravitational pull of the earth, the heat at the earth’s core (geothermal energy), landfill gases, and, to a limited degree, trees and plant material. Many of these renewable sources of energy can be used in their raw form. They are natural forces that create energy without the help of humans. All that is needed is for someone to decide how that energy can be used. Building a sail for a boat makes use of the wind. Building a waterwheel on a river makes use of the flowing water that is pulled downhill by the earth’s gravity. Building a house out of glass—a greenhouse—traps the heat from sunlight inside, providing warmth and allowing plants to grow where they might not otherwise grow.

Renewable Energy Creates Little or No Pollution

Renewable energy, also called “green energy,” or “clean energy,” does not deplete natural resources and creates little to no pollution when it is generated. Throughout history, renewable sources of energy have been used by various peoples to supply power for their specific needs, but always on a small scale. The unique challenge of today is finding a way to supply renewable energy to entire populations. Large-scale energy production requires specialized equipment such as energy storage and transmission facilities. The technology for generating the power must also be efficient and cost-effective to produce and operate.

In the face of big-oil-company interests and the politics of government, it has taken a long time for renewable energy options to even be considered on a large scale. The scientific and technological development of solar power, for example, looked promising when in 1977 President Jimmy Carter initiated a plan to develop solar energy and other alternative fuels. His goal for the nation was to have 20 percent of its power coming from solar power generation by the year 2000, and he started by putting solar panels on the White House. By the late 1970s, however, big oil companies had bought up most of the patents for the solar technologies being developed. The Reagan administration took the solar panels off of the White House and spent billions of dollars on the military, foreign aid, and for research and production of atomic weapons instead of on renewable energy.

Since that time, government support for the research and development of renewable energy has not been easy to get, and the technology has been slow to come into its own. Despite these setbacks, independent companies are now making renewable energy products that, while still costly to purchase, offer cheap, clean, renewable energy to the consumer. In his book Charging Ahead, writer, teacher, and environmental science and policy consultant John J. Berger says of renewable energy sources that “modern science and engineering technology have of late made them much more efficient, convenient, and economical.” Steve Kretzmann, coordinator for the Greenpeace Global Warming Campaign, shares a similar point of view: “One of the greatest myths surrounding clean energy is that it is not ready to do the job. Renewables are ready—the technical barriers are almost entirely removed. The true barriers to energy reform are now, and always have been, political.”

Many experts agree that renewable energy would provide numerous benefits. Berger, for example, says that:

Because renewables do not use fossil fuels (most are entirely fuel-free) they are largely immune to the threat of future oil or gas shortages and fossil fuel price hikes. For the same reason, because most renewable technologies require no combustion, they are far kinder to the environment than coal, oil, and natural gas. Smog and acid rain could be eliminated with renewables. The collective lungs of America could breathe a sigh of relief.

In addition to being virtually nonpolluting, renewable energy is thought to be cheaper for producers and consumers. As reported in a book commissioned in 1992 by the United Nations Solar Energy Group on Environment and Development, “Given adequate support, renewable energy technologies can meet much of the growing demand at prices lower than those usually forecast for conventional energy.” As the human population continues to increase and the energy needs of the world climb, renewable energy is seen more and more as the only alternative.

fuel project

GEOL1403 Research Project Instructions

Question to be considered: Is renewable energy really necessary?!

The purpose of this paper is to analyze two (2) articles that represent the argument of both sides of the dispute over whether renewable energy is necessary.

How to complete the research project:

STEP 1: Watch the following You Tube video:

If Green Energy Is So Great, Why Aren’t We Using It? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=io6LZiEgZ5U

STEP 2: Complete ‘Fuels Project Background’ (40 points)

This assignment is designed to provide background information for the fuels project. The student will learn about the annual total of fossil fuels produced and consumed in the US compared to the annual total of renewable energy produced and consumed.

STEP 3: Discussion Board (15 points)

Choose ONE of the articles posted in the discussion board forum ‘Fuels Project’. Write a synopsis your chosen article and explain how the article might be a good source for a paper about whether or not renewable energy is necessary.

The purpose of the discussion board is for each student to share with the class a synopsis (short summary) of their chosen article. Later on in this project, students will be selecting 2 articles from each discussion board and the synopses should help students decide which articles to use for the research paper.

It is very important that every student does their part on the discussion board.

To complete this part of the project: You can get to the Discussion Board links by either clicking on the “Discussion Board” link (under “Course Work” on left-hand side of eCampus course page and then scrolling down to the two fracking discussion boards) OR within the “Research Project” link (under “Course Work” on left-hand side of eCampus course page and then scrolling down to the two fracking discussion boards).

· Scroll down and read the titles of each article in the threads

· Choose one to read and summarize (first come, first served), click on the article title to open the “thread” or article and click on the link, then click “Reply” and write the following in the “Message” area: 

. Summarize the article in two paragraphs- 4-5 sentences per paragraph.

1. Paragraph 1: A synopsis of the article

1. Paragraph 2: Explain how the article might be a good source for the essay portion of the project.

STEP 4: Discussion Board Comments to other students (5 points)

Read through the summaries written by the other students on discussion board and make comments on a least 5 other summaries-

. Remarks might include specific questions asking for clarification, a request for more details, or perhaps an observation. All comments should be positive, constructive, and polite.

IMPORTANT: PLEASE KEEP THE FOLLOWING IN MIND WHILE COMPLETING THIS ASSIGNMENT- part of the research paper consists of an assessment of how well you and your team members worked together in the forum according to the five (5) categories below:

1) Contributes to the discussion: Did the students in your assigned discussion board all contribute a synopsis? Did everyone contribute to the discussion comments?

2) Group Encouragement: Did you notice any students encouraging others to contribute to the discussions?

3) Deadlines: Did everyone seem to post their synopsis and add to the comments by the assigned deadlines? Did you notice any posts encouraging and motivating everyone to get the work done on time?

4) Communication: How did your group seem to do as far as treating each other respectfully by being polite and constructive in communication.

5) Conflict: If conflict arose within the discussion, did anyone respond to the conflict? Did they help to manage/resolve it in a way so that the work of the group could be completed peaceably and well?

STEP 5: Read through the synopses, choose 2 articles to use and write your paper (100 points)

Read through all the synopses on the discussion board.

Select 2 articles. One article should be pro renewables, one against renewables. It is OK if one of the articles you choose is your own.

To begin writing your paper:

· Scroll down to the “Research Paper” link (under “Course Work” in our eCampus course). Click on the attached file: “APA Template for GEOL 1403 Research Paper” and download the file.

· Besides downloading the APA template, when writing your paper, download this document again, as it will be necessary to have it open as it has detailed directions that accompany the template so you will know what to write about in each section. The directions below explain paragraph by paragraph what to write about. Please understand that if you do not utilize BOTH of these documents (this one you are reading now and the APA template), you will fail this assignment.

· Write the paper see detailed directions below (pages 3-6) of what to include.

· Optional: Upload your paper to” Plagiarism Checker/Research Paper Rough Draft” link. This link is provided for you to submit your paper to check for plagiarism. I will NOT be checking nor grading these. It is only there for your benefit to check that the plagiarism (matching) rate is not too high (20% or higher).

· To submit your finished paper, click on the link “Research Paper Template Download and Location to Upload Your Completed Paper”. (This is the same location from where you downloaded the template). Then within the “Assignment Submission” area, click on the “Browser My Computer” link in the “Attach Files” area. Choose the file that is your completed paper. Click the small box in the “Plagiarism Tools” area. Lastly, click on the “Submit” button on the bottom-right hand side of the webpage.

IMPORTANT: How to write the paper using the provided template

· The correct margins and fonts (Times New Roman) are already set up in the template.

· Header titles: Type in an abbreviated name of your paper in ALL CAPS on page 1 (leave the words “Running head” as shown on page 1 only) and again on page 2.

· Page 1 title page: Type in a title for your paper, your name, and section and semester information (ie. Summer 2020).

· Type in your title again at the top of page 2 in upper and lower case letters.

· Include the bold words of all the SUBTITLES (ie. “Introduction to the Controversy”).

· Indent each paragraph and use double spacing for all text in the paper.

· Do not add any extra spacing between paragraphs or between sections.

· Cite your sources throughout your paper by using in-text citations as needed (APA format is the author’s last name, year). Here is an example of a sentence with an in-text citation (Fields, 2015).

· If you use a direct quote, add the page number where the quote is located (Fields, 2015, p125). No more than 2 quotes total for this paper should be used.

What to include in the “Introduction to the Controversy” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Explain the purpose of writing this paper.

· It should include both a detailed description of what renewable energy is and what fossil fuels are.

· Include an in-text citation(s).

What to include in the “Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against” section:

· This should be at least four 6-sentence paragraphs.

· Write in 3rd person. (Please do not use any 1st or 2nd person statements such as “you”, “I”, “we”, “us”)

· Using the information from the 2 articles you chose from the discussion board, put together an argument for why renewable energy sources ARE and ARE NOT necessary- you will need to argue both sides of the issue.

· Please remember you are not citing any of your classmates, as they are not experts, but you need to download both articles (source) you chose to use in your paper.

· It is important that you WRITE CRITICALLY ABOUT THESE VIEWPOINTS, be precise regarding why the articles are directly and indirectly making a case for fracking being the cause of earthquakes. To obtain full credit for this section, look for specific viewpoints in the sources that might be inaccurate. In the articles you read, did you spot any assumptions made by the author or ‘experts’ quoted in the article?

· Include in-text citations.

What to include in the “Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection” section:

· You need to discuss how well you and the other students assigned to your discussion board forum worked together.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This paragraph should be at least 10 sentences long that carefully describes how well the group worked together based on the following five (5) categories:

· Contributes to the discussion: Did the students in your assigned discussion board all contribute a synopsis? Did everyone contribute to the discussion comments?

· Group Encouragement: Did you notice any students encouraging others to contribute to the discussions?

· Deadlines: Did everyone seem to post their synopsis and add to the comments by the assigned deadlines? Did you notice any posts encouraging and motivating everyone to get the work done on time?

· Communication: How did your group seem to do as far as treating each other respectfully by being polite and constructive in communication.

· Conflict: If conflict arose within the discussion, did anyone respond to the conflict? Did they help to manage/resolve it in a way so that the work of the group could be completed peaceably and well?

What to include in the “Summary” section:

· This should be at least two 5-sentence paragraphs.

· Please write in 1st person.

· This is a “critical thinking paragraph”. Answer the following questions inside of this paragraph, but DO NOT include the questions:

· What preconceived ideas about renewable fuel vs non-renewable fuel debate did you have BEFORE reading the articles that you cited in this paper?

· How have your ideas changed after reading the cited articles? For example, what is YOUR opinion/position on whether or not renewable fuel is necessary? Explain what specifically influenced your position and any items that limit your understanding and ability to form an opinion on this topic.

· Why do you believe that continued research by experts on this subject is important? (Explain the relevance and complexity of the research findings.)

· What question(s) has this research paper raised for you?  What are you still wondering about? (NOTE:  nothing is not an acceptable answer.)

· As you type, the “References” page will always make itself your last page. You don’t have to do anything for this to happen. Double-check that you do not have any blank pages at the end, and that your reference page is its very own last page.

· Do not delete the word “References” at the top last page (your reference page).

· The “References” page (last page of paper) is a list of all the sources you used and got your information from to write your paper. The sources must be properly cited using APA style format.

· Please use the following website for help completing this step: www.citefast.com

· Save your paper as a Word doc or PDF and submit in our course in eCampus (see directions above on page 3 on how to submit your paper).

fuel project

Rubric for Research Paper

Length of Paper

Points Range: 0 – 5

1) Concise 2) Double spaced 3) Times New Roman 12pt font 4) At least five (5) pages total, but not to exceed eight (8)

Language

Points Range: 0 – 5

Used correct grammar, spelling, and all paragraphs written in 3rd person except Paragraph 5.

Paper format & Content

Points Range: 0 – 50

Followed instructions on template. Included all the following paragraphs: 1) Introduction 2) Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against 3) Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection 4) Summary

Critical Thinking

Points Range: 0 – 30

Answered ALL questions from Paragraph 5 in template. In reference to paragraph 5: 1) Interpret and evaluate article evidence 2) Explore different sides of the issues 3) Question assumptions

Evidence

Points Range: 0 – 5

Used Two (2) Articles.

APA

Points Range: 0 – 5

Used correct APA format for citations at end of paper (this is the last page of your paper). Used in-text citations. • Cite your sources = NO plagiarism

fuel project

Rubric for Research Paper

Length of Paper

Points Range: 0 – 5

1) Concise 2) Double spaced 3) Times New Roman 12pt font 4) At least five (5) pages total, but not to exceed eight (8)

Language

Points Range: 0 – 5

Used correct grammar, spelling, and all paragraphs written in 3rd person except Paragraph 5.

Paper format & Content

Points Range: 0 – 50

Followed instructions on template. Included all the following paragraphs: 1) Introduction 2) Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against 3) Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection 4) Summary

Critical Thinking

Points Range: 0 – 30

Answered ALL questions from Paragraph 5 in template. In reference to paragraph 5: 1) Interpret and evaluate article evidence 2) Explore different sides of the issues 3) Question assumptions

Evidence

Points Range: 0 – 5

Used Two (2) Articles.

APA

Points Range: 0 – 5

Used correct APA format for citations at end of paper (this is the last page of your paper). Used in-text citations. • Cite your sources = NO plagiarism

fuel project

ABBREVIATED TITLE OF PAPER IN CAPITAL LETTERS 5

Are Renewable Fuels Necessary? (or similar title)

Submitted by

Name of Student

El Centro College

GEOL 1403, Section 5_____, Semester 20__

Running head: ABBREVIATED TITLE OF PAPER IN CAPITAL LETTERS 1

Full Title of Paper in Upper and Lower Case Letters

Introduction to the Controversy

Write the introduction to the controversy section here. Please see the “GEOL 1403 Research Paper Instructions” (specifically page 4) for detailed instructions as to what to include here.

Are Renewable Energy Sources Necessary? Arguments For and Against

Please see the “GEOL 1403 Research Paper Instructions” (specifically page 4) for detailed instructions as to what to include here.



Discussion Board Forum Teamwork Reflection

Please see the “GEOL 1403 Research Paper Instructions” (specifically page 4) for detailed instructions as to what to include here.

Summary


Please see the “GEOL 1403 Research Paper Instructions” (specifically page 4-5) for detailed instructions as to what to include here.

References

Fields, N. (2015). How to write your papers in APA formatting: A quick reference. Journal of


Professional Geology 4(2). 123-153. (This is an example. Please delete!) Please see the following website for help completing your reference page:

www.citefast.com

fuel project

Running Head: GLOBAL WARMING IS HUMANITY’S GREATEST CHALLENGE

1

GLOBAL WARMING IS HUMANITY’S GREATEST CHALLENGE 4

Global Warming is Humanity’s Greatest Challenge

Institution

Student’s Name

Date

Global warming has been referred by the author as a time bomb which needs to be defused. The climate changes that are being experience has been as a result of increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is being produced by the fossil fuels. The effects of this global warming includes the stressing of the ecosystem and also the melting of the sea ice whose effects includes the rise in levels of the seas which has the ability to cause the wiping out of the shorelines, as well as cause the extinction of countless plant and animal species and dry up freshwater supplies. To do away with the causes of global warming, there is a need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and move away from the use of fossil fuels.

According to the author, the findings that he wrote twenty years after the testimonial congress of 1988 are more or less the same with the current situation but noted that the two have one huge difference. The different exists between what the scientific community knows about global warming and what is known about the global warming by the policy makers and the general public. The arising difference is that all the schedule slack have been used in the efforts of defusing the global warming referred to as a time bomb. The incumbent President and Congress had a role of offering a defined course in the year 2009 in which the leadership of United States would commensurate with the responsibility for the current situation which seems dangerous. Otherwise it would be impractical to bring up issues of curbing atmospheric carbon dioxide, burning fossil fuels causing greenhouse gases, to levels that prevent the climate system from giving hints on the incumbent effects that will cause disaster that will be beyond the control of humans. Change necessary for the preservation of the planet is necessary according to the author.

The building of the 1988 conclusions as presented in the congress was done from an array of inputs. These inputs included planetary studies, basic physics, climate models and observations of on-going changes. The strength of the evidence allowed the author to say it was time to halt waffling. The author was sure that time would bring a similar consensus between the scientific community and the policy maker’s community. The dangerous tipping points as presented by the author are the fact that severe effects of global warming are just on the way to be felt by the world but the inevitable has been delayed by the fact that there is huge amounts of inertia on the global oceans.

To deal with the effects of global warming on the planet, human beings are needed to move to carbon-free energy promptly. This can be achieved for instance through the stabilization of sea ice in Arctic and the great ice sheets to match the current carbon dioxide levels, show that that a lot has been done so far. We must reduce the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to preserve our planet. All the carbon producing materials such as the oils that vehicles use all produce carbon dioxide and we need to move towards clean energy.

However, this has been blocked by special interests and blocking the transition towards the use of renewable energy in future. Rather than incorporating the use of energies that are renewable, fossil companies decided to play down the issues of global warming, just like tobacco companies played down the links to cancer caused by smoking. Prevention methods are complicated, for instance availing funds to aid in shaping the discussions of global warming in school textbook.