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Education assistant

The US Education system in Global Perspective

Some Issues we prefer to Ignore

Agenda

Building Blocks of a World-Class Education System

Problematic Comparisons

Real causes of US underachievement

Comparison of India and China

Goals for Improving Chinese Education

Next Week’s Assignment

Question: What are some key elements of a world class school system?

Write a complete sentence related to these elements and then place them in a list in terms of their importance

Disadvantaged students

Health care

Early childhood

Curriculum

Assessments

Post Secondary pathways

Teachers:

School Leadership

Some answers

Improving Supports to Address Problems Faced Outside School

Access to high-quality healthcare and childcare

Ensure students will be able to profit from a high-quality education with access to good jobs

Resources focused toward students from less-advantaged backgrounds

Attempt to get the best teachers into the schools with students who need the most support

Improving Pathways to Postsecondary Success

Issue qualifications showing courses and grades rather than simple high school diplomas

Provide effective systems of vocational education that enroll at least 40% of students

Emphasize training in real-world settings

Encourage the involvement of industry and apprenticeships

Teachers

Improving Teachers

Recruit teachers from the top ranks of graduating high school classes

High-quality teacher education programs that only accept the best candidates

Teachers develop a mastery of the subject they teach

At least one year is devoted to on-the-job training for teachers

Teachers receive training in research methods

Teacher salaries are competitive with high status professions

Career ladders are available for teachers to increase pay, authority, and status throughout their careers

More experienced teachers serve as mentors for younger teachers

Teachers meet regularly to collaborate on teaching techniques and lesson designs

Continuous professional development is emphasized

A large portion of a teacher’s day is devoted planning and preparation rather than instruction

Leadership

Improving School Leadership

Choose leaders who can: recruit highly capable staff, incentivize staff, and create a growth mindset within schools

Recruit principals who have demonstrated themselves to be high-quality teachers

Train principals on the job

Provide access to mentors for new principals

Provide principals the opportunity to regularly visit other schools to observe and learn

Improving Accountability and Governmental Systems

Develop coherent standards that are competitive with other high-performing countries

Emphasize a deep, conceptual understanding of subject matter

Develop strong curriculum frameworks that are connected across grades

Administer between one and three summative assessments during a student’s K-12 schooling

Have policy-makers who are accountable for the success of the educational system

US issues

Watch this 1-minute video clip

What are some key issues with US education?/poor schools are poor because their property taxes related to poor schools.

Why are comparisons sometimes problematic?

What are some issues related to Chinese schooling?

US Stagnation

“The United States’ standings haven’t improved dramatically because we as a nation haven’t addressed the main cause of our mediocre PISA performance — the effects of poverty on students,” Dennis Van Roekel, president of the National Education Association, the nation’s largest teachers union, said in a statement. – “American 15-Year-Olds Lag, Mainly in Math, on International Standardized Tests,” by Motoko Rich, New York Times, December 3, 2013

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More US issues

American performance isn’t just weak among our poorest, lowest-performing students. Our affluent students are mediocre, too. And despite our great wealth, our
rate of production of high achievers is barely half that of several other countries. How does “poverty” explain that? One must assume that poverty is diminishing the performance of students who aren’t poor.

High poverty schools in the US

High-poverty schools in the U.S. posted dismal scores on the PISA tests, akin to countries such as Kazakhstan, Romania and Cyprus.

Wealthy schools, by contrast, did very well on all three tests. Students in the most affluent U.S. schools — where fewer than 10 percent of children are eligible for subsidized lunches — scored so highly that if treated as a separate jurisdiction, they would have placed second only to Shanghai in science and reading and would have ranked sixth in the world in math.

Childhood poverty rates are higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country, and this rate is on the rise. As of 2014, 33 percent of all people who live in poverty were children — more than 15.4 million, or 21 percent of all children in the United States.
Another 15 million (21 percent) reside in low-income families. Between 2000 and 2014, the number of children living in poverty increased from 11.6 million to 15.5 million, or by a factor of 33 percent (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 — source: Table 3).

US History of Inequality

Americans often forget that as late as the 1960s most African-American, Latino, and Native American students were educated in wholly segregated schools funded at rates many times lower than those serving whites and were excluded from many higher education institutions entirely.

Some Progress From 1970-1990

The end of legal segregation followed by efforts to equalize spending since 1970 has made a substantial difference for student achievement. On every major national test, including the National Assessment of Educational Progress, the gap in minority and white students’ test scores narrowed substantially between 1970 and 1990, especially for elementary school students. On the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the scores of African-American students climbed 54 points between 1976 and 1994, while those of white students remained stable.

Concentration of Minority Students in Poverty

Two-thirds of minority students still attend schools that are predominantly minority, most of them located in central cities and funded well below those in neighboring suburban districts. Recent analyses of data prepared for school finance cases in Alabama, New Jersey, New York, Louisiana, and Texas have found that on every tangible measure—from qualified teachers to curriculum offerings—schools serving greater numbers of students of color had significantly fewer resources than schools serving mostly white students.

US issue–Concentrated Poverty

In 2009-2010, 9 percent of all secondary students attended high-poverty schools (where 75 percent or more of the students are eligible for free or reduced price lunch), but 21 percent of Blacks and Hispanics attended high-poverty schools, compared to 2 percent of Whites and 7 percent of Asians (Aud et al., 2012, Figure 13-2).

More than 40 years ago, famed sociologist James Coleman demonstrated that a students’ achievement is more highly related to the characteristics of other students in the school than any other school characteristic (Coleman et al., 1966)

Concentration of Poverty that Schools Compound

Community poverty also matters. Some neighborhoods, particularly those with high concentrations of African-Americans, are communities of concentrated disadvantage with extremely high levels of joblessness, family instability, poor health, substance abuse, poverty, welfare dependency and crime (Sampson, Morenoff, & Gannon-Rowley, 2002). Disadvantaged communities influence child and adolescent development through the lack of resources (playgrounds and parks, after-school programs) or negative peer influences (Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000). For instance, students living in poor communities are more likely to have dropouts as friends, which increases the likelihood of dropping out of school.

Global Rating of US Poverty

A 2005 United Nations report found that the U.S. had the highest rate of child poverty among all 24 Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD) countries exceeded only by Mexico (UNICEF, 2005). The report further found that variation in government policy — particularly the extent to which the government provides social transfer programs for low-income families — explains most of the variation in poverty rates among countries.

More UN reports

A recent follow-up report examined five dimensions of child well-being — material well-being, health and safety, education, behaviors and risks and housing and environment — in 29 developed countries, and the U.S. ranked 26th (UNICEF, 2013). Maybe it is not a coincidence that the U.S. also ranks 22nd in the world in high school graduation rates (OECD, 2112, Chart A2.1)

Gender Inequality

One of the biggest
inequalities that perpetuates the cycle of poverty is gender. When
gender inequality in the classroom is addressed, this has a ripple effect on the way women are treated in their communities. When girls are welcomed into the classroom, they can build skills, gain knowledge, and socially grow during their formative years. This establishes a foundation for lifelong learning.

An uneven story of progress, threatened by COVID-19

While women in the U.S. were surpassing men in earning doctoral degrees
in the early 2000s, the number of illiterate women in low-income countries was actually increasing
by 20 million between 2000 and 2016)—although this trend was primarily the result of decades of exclusion from education as girls aged into adulthood. During this same period, access to education for successive cohorts of girls began to increase as the era of the Millennium Development Goals ushered political attention to address gender gaps in education. Indeed, in just under two decades, gender gaps in education closed tremendously. Between 2000 and 2018, the number of primary school aged girls out of school
fell by 44%, and by 2019 nearly
two-thirds of countries had achieved gender parity in primary education. However, progress
has plateaued over the last decade. Conflict in Northern Africa and Western Asia have made the region furthest from parity in primary education, and gender gaps in secondary education persist in sub-Saharan Africa.

Support for Disadvantaged Students Lacking

Only a quarter of education systems use a wide range of measures to support disadvantaged schools.

Disadvantaged schools – those enrolling high proportions of students from low socio-economic backgrounds – still exist in many education systems, and they often experience problems in terms of academic performance and school climate. To reduce the differences in performance between schools, top-level authorities can use several policy options: redressing the imbalance in the socio-economic composition of schools, providing targeted support to disadvantaged schools and encouraging good teachers to work in these schools.

While more than half of all systems allocate additional financial or non-financial support to disadvantaged schools, measures to improve the socio-economic composition of schools and incentives to attract teachers to disadvantaged schools are less common.

Reducing academic segregation

Standardisation policies (linked to different levels of school autonomy and the use of accountability tools), financial and pedagogical support for disadvantaged schools, or support for low achievers and additional opportunities to learn, cannot, on their own, offset the impact of the stratification policies.

Nevertheless, given the important role of academic segregation in explaining levels of equity in both primary and secondary education, early public investment reducing such academic segregation has the potential to have a lasting impact.

https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/sites/default/files/equity_2020_0.pdf

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China, India and China Comparisons

Review this video

What are some key interviews/points?

To what extent does that change your point of view about what are the important areas for improvement for the US, India and China?

India’s Right to Education Act

The Right to Education (RTE) Act guaranteed free education for all Indian children up to age 14, marking a watershed moment in the country’s history.

Its passage enabled enrolment at the primary level and promoted standards for school infrastructure. However, the law’s exclusion of upper secondary education and slow implementation prevent RTE from having widespread impact. India is still home to more than 30 million out-of-school children; 40% are adolescent girls.

Gender inequality and cultural norms continue to impact girls’ access to education. Limited access to local secondary schools subject girls to potential harassment, violence or sexual assault on the long trip to and from campus. Families fearing for their daughters’ safety don’t believe their education is worth the risk or added cost.

Assignment for Next Week

Contemporary Issues in American & Chinese Education

Choose 2 countries of interest

Find at least 2 scholarly articles to support your comparisons

Have your writing peer-reviewed prior to submission and include the feedback you received at the end of your paper (after the references)

Also include the name of the person who provided the feedback

Be prepared to share your findings with your group and the class next time!

Reading for Next Week

Beyond PD: Teacher Professional Learning in High-Performing Systems

Executive Summary (pp. 3-8)

Education Assistant

 

Introduction

This assignment provides you an opportunity to reflect on the course and the key things you learned.

Directions

1. Reflect on the value of studying global education. Suppose you are trying to convince someone as to why he or she should take this or a similar comparative education course. What would you say?

2. What are some of the two or three things that you have you learned during your global education studies you might apply to your own teaching or eventual policy making?

due in 12 h

apa

800 words

Education assistant

An Attainable Global Perspective

Author(s): Robert G. Hanvey

Source: Theory Into Practice , Summer, 1982, Vol. 21, No. 3, Global Education (Summer,
1982), pp. 162-167

Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

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Theory Into Practice

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Robert G. Hanvey

An Attainable Global Perspective

The need for education that promotes a global
perspective is increasingly apparent. What is less
clear is just what constitutes such a perspective,
particularly one which young people might actually
be able to attain in the course of their formal and

informal education. In what follows, I will describe
certain modes of thought, sensitivities, intellectual
skills, and explanatory capacities which might in
some measure contribute to the formation of a

global perspective.
What is a global perspective? As conceived

here a global perspective is not a quantum, some-
thing you either have or don’t have. It is a blend
of many things and any given individual may be
rich in certain elements and relatively lacking in
others. The educational goal broadly seen may be
to socialize significant collectivities of people so
that the important elements of a global perspective
are represented in the group. Viewed in this way,
a global perspective may be a variable trait pos-
sessed in some form and degree by a population,
with the precise character of that perspective de-
termined by the specialized capacities, predispo-
sitions, and attitudes of the group’s members. The
implications of this notion, of course, is that di-
versified talents and inclinations can be encouraged
and that standardized educational effects are not

required. Every individual does not have to be
brought to the same level of intellectual and moral
development in order for a population to be moving
in the direction of a more global perspective.

Robert G. Hanvey, a writer and educator with a special
interest in global education, resides in the Bloomington,
Indiana, area.

With these thoughts in mind we can identify
five dimensions of a global perspective. These are:

1. Perspective Consciousness
2. “State of the Planet” Awareness

3. Cross-Cultural Awareness

4. Knowledge of Global Dynamics
5. Awareness of Human Choices

Perspective Consciousness

The recognition or awareness on the part of the
individual that he or she has a view of the world

that is not universally shared, that this view of the
world has been and continues to be shaped by
influences that often escape conscious detection,
and that others have views of the world that are

profoundly different from one’s own.

Few of us in our lives can actually transcend
the viewpoint presented by the common carriers of
information and almost none of us can transcend

the cognitive mapping presented by the culture in
which we grew up. But with effort we can at least
develop a dim sense that we have a perspective,
that it can be shaped by subtle influences, and that
others have different perspectives. This recognition
of the existence, the malleability, and the diversity
of perspective we might call perspective conscious-
ness. Such an acknowledgement is an important
step in the development of a perspective that can
legitimately be called global.

One must make a distinction between opinion
and perspective. Opinion is the surface layer, the
conscious outcropping of perspective. But there are
deep and hidden layers of perspective that may be
more important in orienting behavior. For example,

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in the deep layers of Western civilization has been
the assumption that human dominance over nature
is both attainable and desirable. This, until recently,
has not been a matter of opinion but assumed as
a given.

One of the interesting things that reform and
protest movements do is to carry out mining op-
erations in the deep layers. They dredge to the
surface aspects of perspective that have never be-
fore seen the light of day. Once made visible, these
may become the foci of debate, matters of opinion.
The environmental movement surfaced the as-

sumption of man’s right to dominion over nature
and thus posed some philosophical choices that
had previously escaped notice. The feminist move-
ment raised the consciousness of women and men

with respect to “women’s place.” They labeled the
most commonplace behaviors and attitudes “chau-
vinist,” and thus revealed the deeper layers of
perspective in action.

I have suggested that with effort we can de-
velop in the young at least a dim sense, a groping
recognition of the fact that they have a perspective.
And this is very different from knowing that they
have opinions. At the present time the schools and
the media socialize all of us to be traders in opinion.
We learn this through discussion and debate, through
the contentious format of forums and organizational
meetings, through talk shows and newspaper col-
umnists. We learn, especially, that the individual is
expected to have opinions and to be willing to
assert them. And we learn tacit rules about “tol-

erating” differences in opinions so asserted.
We can also learn, if we approach the task

with a sure sense of purpose, how to probe the
deep layers of perspective. A variety of specialists
and social commentators regularly operate in these
realms and there are well-developed methods and
techniques. Some of these methods can be learned
and practiced. For example, some (but not all) val-
ues clarification exercises can heighten awareness
of otherwise unrevealed aspects of perspective. At
the very least it should be possible to teach almost
any young person to recognize a probe of the deep
layers when he sees it. Such probes come in many
forms, from the ironic humor of a “Doonesbury”
cartoon strip to the pop sociology of a book like
Future Shock.

“State of the Planet” Awareness

Awareness of prevailing world conditions and de-
velopments, including emergent conditions and
trends, e.g. population growth, migrations, eco-

nomic conditions, resources and physical environ-
ment, political developments, science and
technology, law, health, inter-nation and intra-nation
conflicts, etc.

For most people in the world, direct experience
beyond the local community is infrequent-or non-
existent. It is not uncommon to meet residents of

Chicago’s neighborhoods who have never traveled
the few miles to the central business district, or

sophisticated New York taxicab drivers who have
never been further south than Philadelphia. If this
is true for a geographically mobile society like the
United States, it is even more a fact for other parts
of the world. Tourism, urban migrations, commerce,
and business travel notwithstanding, most people
live out their lives in rather circumscribed local

surroundings.

Communication Media and Planet Awareness

Direct experience is not the way that contem-
porary peoples learn about their world. Nonliterate
village or suburban housewife, it doesn’t matter
that one stays close to home. Information travels
rapidly and far through the mass media. News of
a border crisis in the Middle East reaches within

hours the shopkeeper in Nairobi, the steel worker
in Sweden, the Peruvian villager. There is now a
demonstrated technical capacity for simultaneous
transmission of messages to almost the entire hu-
man species. The character of the messages is
something else again. Here we must ask, do the
messages received on those millions of transistor
radios and television sets contribute meaningfully
to a valid picture of world conditions? That question
matters because it is difficult to imagine a global
perspective that does not include a reasonably de-
pendable sense of what shape the world is in.

Generally speaking, the media in almost every
country will transmit news from around the world.
Unfortunately, the fundamental quality of news is
its focus on the extraordinary event. An outbreak
of influenza is news; endemic malaria is not. A rapid
decline in values on the world’s stock exchanges
is news; the long-standing poverty of hundreds of
millions is not. So, there are significant limits and
distortions in the view of the world conveyed by
news media. Nonetheless, the prospect is not en-
tirely bleak. For one thing, the characteristic inter-
ests of the news media can be exploited; events
can be staged in such a way as to call attention
to world conditions not ordinarily judged newswor-
thy. A world conference can be convened on food
or population or pollution problems. The conference

Volume XXI, Number 3 163

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itself is news. More importantly, the condition that
gives rise to the conference takes on a new level
of visibility-worldwide. And the news media are
the instruments of this increased awareness.

Limits to Understanding

There are other sources of distortion. Political

ideology chokes off the flow of some information,
the defense and security syndrome of nations blocks
still other information, and the selective disinterest
of audiences constricts yet other channels. As an
instance of the first, Americans until recently have
had little access to information about Cuba under

Castro. As an example of the second, the testing
of nuclear weapons by the French and the Indians
in recent years produced few hard details about
site, yield, fallout, etc. (Governments have ways to
obtain the information; publics do not.) As for pat-
terns of audience interest and disinterest, consider
how little attention is paid to the affairs of small
nations, or to conditions in the rural areas of the
world; and with no complaint from the audience.

Finally, there is the matter of the technical
nature of world data. There are now unprecedented
resources for generating information about the state
of the planet, and for sharing and processing the
information in order to obtain a sense of the im-

portant patterns. But the procedures are highly
technical and the results expressed in technical
terms. A certain level of education is required to
see the full significance of the data.

Overcoming the Limitations

This is an instance where the energies of the
schools, properly directed, might resolve the ques-
tion in favor of the general populace. If from the
earliest grades on students examined and puzzled
over cases where seemingly innocent behaviors-
the diet rich in animal protein, the lavish use of
fertilizer on the suburban lawn and golf course-
were shown to have effects that were both unin-

tended and global in scope, then there could be a
receptivity for that kind of technical information
necessary to understand many global issues. Sit-
uations such as the depletion of ozone in the at-
mosphere from aerosol sprays would not seem
forbidding, it would be another instance of a model
already documented. Students would have a frame-
work within which to handle it. As for the technical
aspects of something like the ozone situation, these
do not seem beyond the reach of science and social
studies departments that focus cooperatively on
the technical dimensions of significant planetary
conditions. It may be true that school programs are

164 Theory Into Practice

not typically organized for such a task, but it is not
outside the boundaries of our predilections or our
capacities.
Cross-Cultural Awareness

Awareness of the diversity of ideas and practices
to be found in human societies around the world,
of how such ideas and practices compare, and
including some limited recognition of how the ideas
and ways of one’s own society might be viewed
from other vantage points.

This may be one of the more difficult dimen-
sions to attain. It is one thing to have some knowl-
edge of world conditions. The air is saturated with
that kind of information. It is another thing to com-
prehend and accept the consequences of the basic
human capacity for creating unique cultures-with
the resultant profound differences in outlook and
practice manifested among societies. These differ-
ences are widely known at the level of myth, prej-
udice, and tourist impression. But they are not
deeply and truly known, in spite of the well-worn
exhortation to “understand others.” Such a fun-

damental acceptance seems to be resisted by pow-
erful forces in the human psychosocial system.

Several million years of evolution seem to have
produced in us a creature that does not easily
recognize the members of its own species. That is
stated in rather exaggerated form but it refers to
the fact that human groups commonly have difficulty
in accepting the humanness of other human groups.

The practice of naming one’s own group “the
people” and by implication relegating all others to
not-quite-human status has been documented in
nonliterate groups all over the world. But it is simply
one manifestation of a species trait that shows
itself in modern populations as well. It is there in
the hostile faces of the white parents demonstrating
against school busing. You will find it lurking in the
background as Russians and Chinese meet at the
negotiating table to work out what is ostensibly a
boundary dispute. And it flares into the open during
tribal disputes in Kenya.

There was a time when the solidarity of small
groups of humans was the basis for the survival
of the species. But in the context of mass popu-
lations and weapons of mass destructiveness, group
solidarity and the associated tendency to deny the
full humanness of other peoples pose serious threats
to the species. When we speak of “humans” it is
important that we include not only ourselves and
our immediate group but all four and one half billion
of those other bipeds, however strange their ways.

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This is the primary reason for cross-cultural
awareness. If we are to admit the humanness of

those others, then the strangeness of their ways
must become less strange; must, in fact, become
believable. Ideally, that means getting inside the
heads of those strangers and looking out at the
world through their eyes. Then the strange becomes
familiar and totally believable. This is a most difficult
trick to pull off, but there may be methods that will
increase the probability of success. Further, there
are lesser degrees of cross-cultural awareness than
getting inside the head; these more modest degrees
of awareness are not to be scorned.

Knowledge of Global Dynamics

Some modest comprehension of key traits and
mechanisms of the world system, with emphasis
on theories and concepts that may increase intel-
ligent consciousness of global change.

How does the world work? Is it a vast, whirring
machine spinning ponderously around a small yel-
low sun? Is there a lever we can push to avert
famine in South Asia, or one that will cure world
inflation, or one to slow the growth of world pop-
ulation? Is it our ignorance of which lever to move
that results in tragedy and crisis? Is it our ignorance
of how the gears intermesh that causes breakdowns
in the stability of the system?

Or is the machine useful as a metaphor? Is it
perhaps better to think of the world as an organism,
evolving steadily in response to the programming
in its germ plasm? Are wars and famines merely
minor episodes in the biological history of a planet
serenely following a script already written?

The latter view is not a comfortable one for

people in industrial societies, raised to believe that
almost anything can be engineered, including the
destiny of the world. But the machine image doesn’t
quite work, either, although we continue (as I have
done) to speak of “mechanisms.” The idea of a
machine suggests an assembly of parts that inter-
connect in a very positive fashion, so positive that
when you manipulate one part you get immediate,
predictable, and quantifiable response in other parts.
That does not seem to describe the world as we
know it.

But both machines and organisms are systems
of interconnected elements and it is the idea of

system that now prevails. How does the world
work? As a system. What does that mean? It means
we must put aside simple notions of cause and
effect. Things interact, in complex and surprising
ways. “Effects” loop back and become “causes”

which have “effects” which loop back … It means
that simple events ramify-unbelievably.

But let’s begin to talk in more concrete terms.
What exactly might the schools teach about global
dynamics? The answer proposed here is very se-
lective, with the criterion of selection being, does
the particular learning contribute to an understand-
ing of global change; because the control of change
is the central problem of our era. There are changes
we desire and seem unable to attain. There are

changes we wish to constrain and, as yet, cannot.
There is also another kind of change: in spite of
our difficulties we are growing in our capacities to
detect and manipulate change. A global perspective
that fails to comprehend both the problems of change
and promise of improved control will not be worthy
of the name.

Three categories of learning about change sug-
gest themselves:

1. Basic principles of change in social systems
-the ramifications of new elements in social

systems
-unanticipated consequences
-overt and covert functions of elements

-feedback, positive and negative
2. Growth as a form of change

-desired growth in the form of economic
development

-undesired growth in the form of exponential
increase in population, resource depletion,
etc.

3. Global planning
-national interests and global planning
-attempts to model the world system as re-
lated to national policy formulation

Awareness of Human Choices

Some awareness of the problems of choice con-
fronting individuals, nations, and the human species
as consciousness and knowledge of the global sys-
tem expands.

Throughout I have talked of changes in aware-
ness. Awareness of our own cultural perspective,
awareness of how other peoples view the world,
awareness of global dynamics and patterns of
change. In this final section I wish to emphasize
that such heightened awareness, desirable as it is,
brings with it problems of choice. As an instance,
in a “pre-awareness” stage the undoubted benefits
of pesticides in agriculture, forestry, and the control
of diseases such as malaria provide clear justifi-
cation for prolific application.

Volume XXI, Number 3 165

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But then information about the dangers of pes-
ticides begins to accumulate. DDT is found in the
tissues of organisms far removed from the points
of application. Some species are threatened with
extinction. Risks not only to present human pop-
ulations but to future generations are identified. In
some countries the use of certain pesticides is
halted altogether. A change of awareness has oc-
curred and new behaviors have resulted-in some

parts of the world.
Where is the problem of choice? It lies in the

fact that pesticides like DDT are still in use. Widely.
Hundreds of millions of people depend on DDT to
control malaria and agricultural pests. Ask someone
in the developed countries if DDT is still in use and
he will likely say no, answering in terms of his own
country’s practices. But pose the question on a
world basis and the answer is yes. Viewed as a
collectivity, the human species continues to use
DDT.

This continued use constitutes a de facto hu-

man choice. In a conflict between the rights of living
populations to control obvious and immediate threats
to health and the rights of other living and future
populations to freedom from subtle and long-term
threats to health and subsistence, the former wins
out. The immediate and the obvious triumph over
the long-term and subtle. But although the choice
seems to have been made, the problem of choice
remains. There is a new cognition in the world. We
now know that there are long-term and subtle risks.
Once we did not. We now admit that other people
and future generations have rights. Once we did
not. This new knowledge has not had the power
to halt the use of DDT where life and health are

under severe threat, but it has had the effect of
blocking its use in many other parts of the world.
To put it simply, there are now two possible be-
haviors with respect to DDT:

-if it will solve a problem, use it
-even if it will solve a problem, don’t use it

The second of these behaviors originates in the
new cognition, the new awareness of risks and
rights.

The DDT situation is simply an instance, a small
manifestation of the major cognitive revolution that
is now under way. But it is a representative one.
Many practices once essentially automatic, whose
benefits were assumed, are now questioned. They
are questioned because we know new things. We
know how to measure minute quantities. We know
that factors interconnect in complex ways. We know

166 Theory Into Practice

there are limits to the resources and carrying ca-
pacity of the planet. In the context of the new
cognition, action does not proceed automatically.
Calculations of advantage and disadvantage be-
come explicit and detailed. Choosing a course of
behavior becomes a more reasoned process. That
shift-from the automatic to the calculated-is a

very important expression of the cognitive revolu-
tion we are now experiencing.

That cognitive revolution involves a shift from
a pre-global to a global cognition. In the pre-global
stage, rational consideration of goals, methods, and
consequences tends to be limited to the near-the
near in time and social identity. The preoccupation
with the short-term and the neglect of the long-
term has been particularly characteristic of Western
industrial societies.

Pre-global cognition is characterized not only
by a constricted view of the future but by a relatively
simple theory of linkages between events, a linear
theory in which some things are causes and other
things are effects. This theory leads in its most
exaggerated and magical form to the conclusion
that conditions are the result of single causes,
sometimes personified. In primitive societies this is
the basis of witchcraft and ghost beliefs. In a so-
phisticated society like our own we have the recent
example of two presidents who employed the CIA
to locate the sinister foreign influence that must
surely have been the root cause of the antiwar
movement.

The emergent global cognition contrasts sharply
with the pre-global. Long-term consequences begin
to be considered. Linkages between events are
seen in the more complex light of systems theory.
Social goals and values are made explicit and vul-
nerable to challenge. And nations begin to note that
their interests and activities are not separable from
the interests and activities of others. Further, sys-
tematic attention is given to problems that tran-
scend the national, regional, or coalitional; human
problems. A global cognition has certainly not been
achieved. Pre-global forms of knowing continue to
orient much of human behavior. But the transition

is under way, driven by the convergent energies of
a variety of social movements.

In summary, we are in a period of transition,
moving from a pre-global to a global cognition.
Global cognition is characterized by new knowledge
of system interactions, by new knowledge in plan-
ning human action. As such, knowledge and its
rational use expands, human choices expand. An
awareness of this expanded range of choice con-

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stitutes an important dimension of a global per-
spective.

I have discussed five dimensions of a global
perspective. Are there more? I am tempted to be
waggish and say no, this is it, the final crystalline
truth. But of course there are more, as many more
as anyone cares to invent. Such dimensions are
inventions, constructs of the mind. This particular
set is just one assemblage, a collage of ideas
selected and shaped by one individual’s proclivities
and prejudices. This is not to say there are not

real changes under way in human consciousness.
I am convinced there are and that they are in the
direction of something that can be called a global
perspective. But any particular description of that
phenomenon is properly suspect. Even this one
which is, by coincidence, my favorite.

Note: This essay is a summary of a more detailed
discussion of global perspectives by the author
available from Global Perspectives in Education,
218 East 18th St., New York, N.Y. 10003 at $2.00
per single copy. Bulk rates available on request.

ip

Volume XXI, Number 3 167

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  • Contents
    • image 1
    • image 2
    • image 3
    • image 4
    • image 5
    • image 6
  • Issue Table of Contents
    • Theory into Practice, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer, 1982
      • Front Matter
      • This Issue
      • Why Should American Education Be Globalized? It’s a Nonsensical Question [pp. 155 – 161]
      • An Attainable Global Perspective [pp. 162 – 167]
      • Global Education in the Classroom [pp. 168 – 176]
      • A Community-Based Approach to Global Education [pp. 177 – 183]
      • Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning for Teachers [pp. 184 – 192]
      • The Meaning and Status of International Studies in West-African Schools [pp. 193 – 199]
      • The Global Awareness Survey: Implications for Teacher Education [pp. 200 – 205]
      • Teacher Training in Global Perspectives Education: The Center for Teaching International Relations [pp. 206 – 211]
      • Developing a Global Dimension in Teacher Education: The Florida International University Experience [pp. 212 – 217]
      • Education for International Understanding: A View from Britain [pp. 218 – 223]
      • Global Education: A Report on Developments in Western Europe [pp. 224 – 227]
      • Goals for Global Education [pp. 228 – 233]
      • Back Matter [pp. 234 – 236]

Education assistant

An Attainable Global Perspective

Author(s): Robert G. Hanvey

Source: Theory Into Practice , Summer, 1982, Vol. 21, No. 3, Global Education (Summer,
1982), pp. 162-167

Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

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Robert G. Hanvey

An Attainable Global Perspective

The need for education that promotes a global
perspective is increasingly apparent. What is less
clear is just what constitutes such a perspective,
particularly one which young people might actually
be able to attain in the course of their formal and

informal education. In what follows, I will describe
certain modes of thought, sensitivities, intellectual
skills, and explanatory capacities which might in
some measure contribute to the formation of a

global perspective.
What is a global perspective? As conceived

here a global perspective is not a quantum, some-
thing you either have or don’t have. It is a blend
of many things and any given individual may be
rich in certain elements and relatively lacking in
others. The educational goal broadly seen may be
to socialize significant collectivities of people so
that the important elements of a global perspective
are represented in the group. Viewed in this way,
a global perspective may be a variable trait pos-
sessed in some form and degree by a population,
with the precise character of that perspective de-
termined by the specialized capacities, predispo-
sitions, and attitudes of the group’s members. The
implications of this notion, of course, is that di-
versified talents and inclinations can be encouraged
and that standardized educational effects are not

required. Every individual does not have to be
brought to the same level of intellectual and moral
development in order for a population to be moving
in the direction of a more global perspective.

Robert G. Hanvey, a writer and educator with a special
interest in global education, resides in the Bloomington,
Indiana, area.

With these thoughts in mind we can identify
five dimensions of a global perspective. These are:

1. Perspective Consciousness
2. “State of the Planet” Awareness

3. Cross-Cultural Awareness

4. Knowledge of Global Dynamics
5. Awareness of Human Choices

Perspective Consciousness

The recognition or awareness on the part of the
individual that he or she has a view of the world

that is not universally shared, that this view of the
world has been and continues to be shaped by
influences that often escape conscious detection,
and that others have views of the world that are

profoundly different from one’s own.

Few of us in our lives can actually transcend
the viewpoint presented by the common carriers of
information and almost none of us can transcend

the cognitive mapping presented by the culture in
which we grew up. But with effort we can at least
develop a dim sense that we have a perspective,
that it can be shaped by subtle influences, and that
others have different perspectives. This recognition
of the existence, the malleability, and the diversity
of perspective we might call perspective conscious-
ness. Such an acknowledgement is an important
step in the development of a perspective that can
legitimately be called global.

One must make a distinction between opinion
and perspective. Opinion is the surface layer, the
conscious outcropping of perspective. But there are
deep and hidden layers of perspective that may be
more important in orienting behavior. For example,

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in the deep layers of Western civilization has been
the assumption that human dominance over nature
is both attainable and desirable. This, until recently,
has not been a matter of opinion but assumed as
a given.

One of the interesting things that reform and
protest movements do is to carry out mining op-
erations in the deep layers. They dredge to the
surface aspects of perspective that have never be-
fore seen the light of day. Once made visible, these
may become the foci of debate, matters of opinion.
The environmental movement surfaced the as-

sumption of man’s right to dominion over nature
and thus posed some philosophical choices that
had previously escaped notice. The feminist move-
ment raised the consciousness of women and men

with respect to “women’s place.” They labeled the
most commonplace behaviors and attitudes “chau-
vinist,” and thus revealed the deeper layers of
perspective in action.

I have suggested that with effort we can de-
velop in the young at least a dim sense, a groping
recognition of the fact that they have a perspective.
And this is very different from knowing that they
have opinions. At the present time the schools and
the media socialize all of us to be traders in opinion.
We learn this through discussion and debate, through
the contentious format of forums and organizational
meetings, through talk shows and newspaper col-
umnists. We learn, especially, that the individual is
expected to have opinions and to be willing to
assert them. And we learn tacit rules about “tol-

erating” differences in opinions so asserted.
We can also learn, if we approach the task

with a sure sense of purpose, how to probe the
deep layers of perspective. A variety of specialists
and social commentators regularly operate in these
realms and there are well-developed methods and
techniques. Some of these methods can be learned
and practiced. For example, some (but not all) val-
ues clarification exercises can heighten awareness
of otherwise unrevealed aspects of perspective. At
the very least it should be possible to teach almost
any young person to recognize a probe of the deep
layers when he sees it. Such probes come in many
forms, from the ironic humor of a “Doonesbury”
cartoon strip to the pop sociology of a book like
Future Shock.

“State of the Planet” Awareness

Awareness of prevailing world conditions and de-
velopments, including emergent conditions and
trends, e.g. population growth, migrations, eco-

nomic conditions, resources and physical environ-
ment, political developments, science and
technology, law, health, inter-nation and intra-nation
conflicts, etc.

For most people in the world, direct experience
beyond the local community is infrequent-or non-
existent. It is not uncommon to meet residents of

Chicago’s neighborhoods who have never traveled
the few miles to the central business district, or

sophisticated New York taxicab drivers who have
never been further south than Philadelphia. If this
is true for a geographically mobile society like the
United States, it is even more a fact for other parts
of the world. Tourism, urban migrations, commerce,
and business travel notwithstanding, most people
live out their lives in rather circumscribed local

surroundings.

Communication Media and Planet Awareness

Direct experience is not the way that contem-
porary peoples learn about their world. Nonliterate
village or suburban housewife, it doesn’t matter
that one stays close to home. Information travels
rapidly and far through the mass media. News of
a border crisis in the Middle East reaches within

hours the shopkeeper in Nairobi, the steel worker
in Sweden, the Peruvian villager. There is now a
demonstrated technical capacity for simultaneous
transmission of messages to almost the entire hu-
man species. The character of the messages is
something else again. Here we must ask, do the
messages received on those millions of transistor
radios and television sets contribute meaningfully
to a valid picture of world conditions? That question
matters because it is difficult to imagine a global
perspective that does not include a reasonably de-
pendable sense of what shape the world is in.

Generally speaking, the media in almost every
country will transmit news from around the world.
Unfortunately, the fundamental quality of news is
its focus on the extraordinary event. An outbreak
of influenza is news; endemic malaria is not. A rapid
decline in values on the world’s stock exchanges
is news; the long-standing poverty of hundreds of
millions is not. So, there are significant limits and
distortions in the view of the world conveyed by
news media. Nonetheless, the prospect is not en-
tirely bleak. For one thing, the characteristic inter-
ests of the news media can be exploited; events
can be staged in such a way as to call attention
to world conditions not ordinarily judged newswor-
thy. A world conference can be convened on food
or population or pollution problems. The conference

Volume XXI, Number 3 163

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itself is news. More importantly, the condition that
gives rise to the conference takes on a new level
of visibility-worldwide. And the news media are
the instruments of this increased awareness.

Limits to Understanding

There are other sources of distortion. Political

ideology chokes off the flow of some information,
the defense and security syndrome of nations blocks
still other information, and the selective disinterest
of audiences constricts yet other channels. As an
instance of the first, Americans until recently have
had little access to information about Cuba under

Castro. As an example of the second, the testing
of nuclear weapons by the French and the Indians
in recent years produced few hard details about
site, yield, fallout, etc. (Governments have ways to
obtain the information; publics do not.) As for pat-
terns of audience interest and disinterest, consider
how little attention is paid to the affairs of small
nations, or to conditions in the rural areas of the
world; and with no complaint from the audience.

Finally, there is the matter of the technical
nature of world data. There are now unprecedented
resources for generating information about the state
of the planet, and for sharing and processing the
information in order to obtain a sense of the im-

portant patterns. But the procedures are highly
technical and the results expressed in technical
terms. A certain level of education is required to
see the full significance of the data.

Overcoming the Limitations

This is an instance where the energies of the
schools, properly directed, might resolve the ques-
tion in favor of the general populace. If from the
earliest grades on students examined and puzzled
over cases where seemingly innocent behaviors-
the diet rich in animal protein, the lavish use of
fertilizer on the suburban lawn and golf course-
were shown to have effects that were both unin-

tended and global in scope, then there could be a
receptivity for that kind of technical information
necessary to understand many global issues. Sit-
uations such as the depletion of ozone in the at-
mosphere from aerosol sprays would not seem
forbidding, it would be another instance of a model
already documented. Students would have a frame-
work within which to handle it. As for the technical
aspects of something like the ozone situation, these
do not seem beyond the reach of science and social
studies departments that focus cooperatively on
the technical dimensions of significant planetary
conditions. It may be true that school programs are

164 Theory Into Practice

not typically organized for such a task, but it is not
outside the boundaries of our predilections or our
capacities.
Cross-Cultural Awareness

Awareness of the diversity of ideas and practices
to be found in human societies around the world,
of how such ideas and practices compare, and
including some limited recognition of how the ideas
and ways of one’s own society might be viewed
from other vantage points.

This may be one of the more difficult dimen-
sions to attain. It is one thing to have some knowl-
edge of world conditions. The air is saturated with
that kind of information. It is another thing to com-
prehend and accept the consequences of the basic
human capacity for creating unique cultures-with
the resultant profound differences in outlook and
practice manifested among societies. These differ-
ences are widely known at the level of myth, prej-
udice, and tourist impression. But they are not
deeply and truly known, in spite of the well-worn
exhortation to “understand others.” Such a fun-

damental acceptance seems to be resisted by pow-
erful forces in the human psychosocial system.

Several million years of evolution seem to have
produced in us a creature that does not easily
recognize the members of its own species. That is
stated in rather exaggerated form but it refers to
the fact that human groups commonly have difficulty
in accepting the humanness of other human groups.

The practice of naming one’s own group “the
people” and by implication relegating all others to
not-quite-human status has been documented in
nonliterate groups all over the world. But it is simply
one manifestation of a species trait that shows
itself in modern populations as well. It is there in
the hostile faces of the white parents demonstrating
against school busing. You will find it lurking in the
background as Russians and Chinese meet at the
negotiating table to work out what is ostensibly a
boundary dispute. And it flares into the open during
tribal disputes in Kenya.

There was a time when the solidarity of small
groups of humans was the basis for the survival
of the species. But in the context of mass popu-
lations and weapons of mass destructiveness, group
solidarity and the associated tendency to deny the
full humanness of other peoples pose serious threats
to the species. When we speak of “humans” it is
important that we include not only ourselves and
our immediate group but all four and one half billion
of those other bipeds, however strange their ways.

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This is the primary reason for cross-cultural
awareness. If we are to admit the humanness of

those others, then the strangeness of their ways
must become less strange; must, in fact, become
believable. Ideally, that means getting inside the
heads of those strangers and looking out at the
world through their eyes. Then the strange becomes
familiar and totally believable. This is a most difficult
trick to pull off, but there may be methods that will
increase the probability of success. Further, there
are lesser degrees of cross-cultural awareness than
getting inside the head; these more modest degrees
of awareness are not to be scorned.

Knowledge of Global Dynamics

Some modest comprehension of key traits and
mechanisms of the world system, with emphasis
on theories and concepts that may increase intel-
ligent consciousness of global change.

How does the world work? Is it a vast, whirring
machine spinning ponderously around a small yel-
low sun? Is there a lever we can push to avert
famine in South Asia, or one that will cure world
inflation, or one to slow the growth of world pop-
ulation? Is it our ignorance of which lever to move
that results in tragedy and crisis? Is it our ignorance
of how the gears intermesh that causes breakdowns
in the stability of the system?

Or is the machine useful as a metaphor? Is it
perhaps better to think of the world as an organism,
evolving steadily in response to the programming
in its germ plasm? Are wars and famines merely
minor episodes in the biological history of a planet
serenely following a script already written?

The latter view is not a comfortable one for

people in industrial societies, raised to believe that
almost anything can be engineered, including the
destiny of the world. But the machine image doesn’t
quite work, either, although we continue (as I have
done) to speak of “mechanisms.” The idea of a
machine suggests an assembly of parts that inter-
connect in a very positive fashion, so positive that
when you manipulate one part you get immediate,
predictable, and quantifiable response in other parts.
That does not seem to describe the world as we
know it.

But both machines and organisms are systems
of interconnected elements and it is the idea of

system that now prevails. How does the world
work? As a system. What does that mean? It means
we must put aside simple notions of cause and
effect. Things interact, in complex and surprising
ways. “Effects” loop back and become “causes”

which have “effects” which loop back … It means
that simple events ramify-unbelievably.

But let’s begin to talk in more concrete terms.
What exactly might the schools teach about global
dynamics? The answer proposed here is very se-
lective, with the criterion of selection being, does
the particular learning contribute to an understand-
ing of global change; because the control of change
is the central problem of our era. There are changes
we desire and seem unable to attain. There are

changes we wish to constrain and, as yet, cannot.
There is also another kind of change: in spite of
our difficulties we are growing in our capacities to
detect and manipulate change. A global perspective
that fails to comprehend both the problems of change
and promise of improved control will not be worthy
of the name.

Three categories of learning about change sug-
gest themselves:

1. Basic principles of change in social systems
-the ramifications of new elements in social

systems
-unanticipated consequences
-overt and covert functions of elements

-feedback, positive and negative
2. Growth as a form of change

-desired growth in the form of economic
development

-undesired growth in the form of exponential
increase in population, resource depletion,
etc.

3. Global planning
-national interests and global planning
-attempts to model the world system as re-
lated to national policy formulation

Awareness of Human Choices

Some awareness of the problems of choice con-
fronting individuals, nations, and the human species
as consciousness and knowledge of the global sys-
tem expands.

Throughout I have talked of changes in aware-
ness. Awareness of our own cultural perspective,
awareness of how other peoples view the world,
awareness of global dynamics and patterns of
change. In this final section I wish to emphasize
that such heightened awareness, desirable as it is,
brings with it problems of choice. As an instance,
in a “pre-awareness” stage the undoubted benefits
of pesticides in agriculture, forestry, and the control
of diseases such as malaria provide clear justifi-
cation for prolific application.

Volume XXI, Number 3 165

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But then information about the dangers of pes-
ticides begins to accumulate. DDT is found in the
tissues of organisms far removed from the points
of application. Some species are threatened with
extinction. Risks not only to present human pop-
ulations but to future generations are identified. In
some countries the use of certain pesticides is
halted altogether. A change of awareness has oc-
curred and new behaviors have resulted-in some

parts of the world.
Where is the problem of choice? It lies in the

fact that pesticides like DDT are still in use. Widely.
Hundreds of millions of people depend on DDT to
control malaria and agricultural pests. Ask someone
in the developed countries if DDT is still in use and
he will likely say no, answering in terms of his own
country’s practices. But pose the question on a
world basis and the answer is yes. Viewed as a
collectivity, the human species continues to use
DDT.

This continued use constitutes a de facto hu-

man choice. In a conflict between the rights of living
populations to control obvious and immediate threats
to health and the rights of other living and future
populations to freedom from subtle and long-term
threats to health and subsistence, the former wins
out. The immediate and the obvious triumph over
the long-term and subtle. But although the choice
seems to have been made, the problem of choice
remains. There is a new cognition in the world. We
now know that there are long-term and subtle risks.
Once we did not. We now admit that other people
and future generations have rights. Once we did
not. This new knowledge has not had the power
to halt the use of DDT where life and health are

under severe threat, but it has had the effect of
blocking its use in many other parts of the world.
To put it simply, there are now two possible be-
haviors with respect to DDT:

-if it will solve a problem, use it
-even if it will solve a problem, don’t use it

The second of these behaviors originates in the
new cognition, the new awareness of risks and
rights.

The DDT situation is simply an instance, a small
manifestation of the major cognitive revolution that
is now under way. But it is a representative one.
Many practices once essentially automatic, whose
benefits were assumed, are now questioned. They
are questioned because we know new things. We
know how to measure minute quantities. We know
that factors interconnect in complex ways. We know

166 Theory Into Practice

there are limits to the resources and carrying ca-
pacity of the planet. In the context of the new
cognition, action does not proceed automatically.
Calculations of advantage and disadvantage be-
come explicit and detailed. Choosing a course of
behavior becomes a more reasoned process. That
shift-from the automatic to the calculated-is a

very important expression of the cognitive revolu-
tion we are now experiencing.

That cognitive revolution involves a shift from
a pre-global to a global cognition. In the pre-global
stage, rational consideration of goals, methods, and
consequences tends to be limited to the near-the
near in time and social identity. The preoccupation
with the short-term and the neglect of the long-
term has been particularly characteristic of Western
industrial societies.

Pre-global cognition is characterized not only
by a constricted view of the future but by a relatively
simple theory of linkages between events, a linear
theory in which some things are causes and other
things are effects. This theory leads in its most
exaggerated and magical form to the conclusion
that conditions are the result of single causes,
sometimes personified. In primitive societies this is
the basis of witchcraft and ghost beliefs. In a so-
phisticated society like our own we have the recent
example of two presidents who employed the CIA
to locate the sinister foreign influence that must
surely have been the root cause of the antiwar
movement.

The emergent global cognition contrasts sharply
with the pre-global. Long-term consequences begin
to be considered. Linkages between events are
seen in the more complex light of systems theory.
Social goals and values are made explicit and vul-
nerable to challenge. And nations begin to note that
their interests and activities are not separable from
the interests and activities of others. Further, sys-
tematic attention is given to problems that tran-
scend the national, regional, or coalitional; human
problems. A global cognition has certainly not been
achieved. Pre-global forms of knowing continue to
orient much of human behavior. But the transition

is under way, driven by the convergent energies of
a variety of social movements.

In summary, we are in a period of transition,
moving from a pre-global to a global cognition.
Global cognition is characterized by new knowledge
of system interactions, by new knowledge in plan-
ning human action. As such, knowledge and its
rational use expands, human choices expand. An
awareness of this expanded range of choice con-

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All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms

stitutes an important dimension of a global per-
spective.

I have discussed five dimensions of a global
perspective. Are there more? I am tempted to be
waggish and say no, this is it, the final crystalline
truth. But of course there are more, as many more
as anyone cares to invent. Such dimensions are
inventions, constructs of the mind. This particular
set is just one assemblage, a collage of ideas
selected and shaped by one individual’s proclivities
and prejudices. This is not to say there are not

real changes under way in human consciousness.
I am convinced there are and that they are in the
direction of something that can be called a global
perspective. But any particular description of that
phenomenon is properly suspect. Even this one
which is, by coincidence, my favorite.

Note: This essay is a summary of a more detailed
discussion of global perspectives by the author
available from Global Perspectives in Education,
218 East 18th St., New York, N.Y. 10003 at $2.00
per single copy. Bulk rates available on request.

ip

Volume XXI, Number 3 167

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  • Contents
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  • Issue Table of Contents
    • Theory into Practice, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer, 1982
      • Front Matter
      • This Issue
      • Why Should American Education Be Globalized? It’s a Nonsensical Question [pp. 155 – 161]
      • An Attainable Global Perspective [pp. 162 – 167]
      • Global Education in the Classroom [pp. 168 – 176]
      • A Community-Based Approach to Global Education [pp. 177 – 183]
      • Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning for Teachers [pp. 184 – 192]
      • The Meaning and Status of International Studies in West-African Schools [pp. 193 – 199]
      • The Global Awareness Survey: Implications for Teacher Education [pp. 200 – 205]
      • Teacher Training in Global Perspectives Education: The Center for Teaching International Relations [pp. 206 – 211]
      • Developing a Global Dimension in Teacher Education: The Florida International University Experience [pp. 212 – 217]
      • Education for International Understanding: A View from Britain [pp. 218 – 223]
      • Global Education: A Report on Developments in Western Europe [pp. 224 – 227]
      • Goals for Global Education [pp. 228 – 233]
      • Back Matter [pp. 234 – 236]

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Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Signature
 Pedagogies
 in
 Global
 Competence
 Education:
 
 
 
Understanding
 quality
 teaching
 practice
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Veronica
 Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Flossie
 Chua
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interdisciplinary
 and
 Global
 Studies
 -­‐
 Internal
 Working
 Paper
 

 

Address
 for
 Correspondence:
 
Veronica
 Boix
 Mansilla
 

 

 

Project
 Zero
 
 
Harvard
 Graduate
 School
 of
 Education
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

2

 “What
 I
 thought,
 since
 all
 the
 movies
 that
 I
 saw,
 is
 that
 they
 would
 be
 more
 poor,
 that
 
they
 [e-­‐pals
 in
 South
 Africa]
 would
 not
 have
 a
 city,
 that
 their
 homes
 would
 be
 made
 out
 
of
 dried
 up
 mud…
 
 I
 was
 really
 surprised
 because
 they
 looked
 nothing
 like
 that…
 they
 
have
  a
  lot
  of
  the
  things
  that
  we
  do,
  they
  have
  video
  games
  and
  a
  city…
  I
  was
  really
 
surprised….
 ‘cause
 they
 have
 good
 teeth,
 real
 clothes,
 full
 hair.
 [Working
 with
 our
 South
 
African
 e-­‐Pals]
 is
 cool
 because
 we
 can
 talk
 with
 people
 from
 different
 continents…
 We
 
can
 see
 how
 people
 on
 the
 other
 side
 of
 the
 world
 live,
 and
 what
 they
 do,
 not
 at
 all
 as
 I
 
imagined
 it…”
 

Richard,
 Grade
 4
 New
 York
 
 
 

 

 

Overview
 
 

 

 
Preparing
 our
 youth
 for
 a
 time
 of
 unprecedented
 social,
 economic
 and
 environmental
 global
 interdependence
 
requires
 that
 we
 reconsider
 what
 matters
 most
 to
 teach
 and
 learn
 and
 what
 kind
 of
  learning
 might
 prove
 
most
 effective.
 A
 fast-­‐growing
 literature
 on
 global
 competence
 instruction
 and
 assessment
 is
 shedding
 light
 
on
 the
 opportunities
 and
 challenges
 we
 face.
 Introducing
 new
 countries
 and
 festivals
 into
 already
 crowded
 
curricula
 or
 proposing
 forced
 connections
 between
 quadratic
 equations
 and
 farming
 in
 Namibia
 will
 not
 yield
 
the
 deep
 learning
 we
 seek.
 Teaching
 for
 global
 competence,
 goes
 beyond
 delivering
 new
 content
 through
 
transmission-­‐centered
  pedagogies.
  Rather,
  we
  argue
  here,
  it
  calls
  for
  a
  pedagogical
  approach
  uniquely
 
tailored
 to
 nurturing
 deep,
 relevant,
 and
 sustained
 global
 learning.
 
 
 

 
In
 this
 paper,
 we
 propose
 that
 successful
 preparation
 of
 our
 youth
 for
 the
 contemporary
 world
 requires
 that
 
we
 seriously
 address
 four
 fundamental
 questions:
 
 

 

1. What
 are
 the
 global
 competence
 learning
 outcomes
 we
 seek?
 
2. What
 kind
 of
 instruction
 effectively
 nurtures
 deep
 and
 relevant
 global
 learning?
 
 
3. What
 does
 quality
 teaching
 for
 global
 competence
 look
 like?
 
 
4. How
 do
 we
 prepare
 teachers
 to
 teach
 for
 global
 competence
 with
 depth?
 
 
 

 
To
 address
 these
 questions
 we
 draw
 on
 an
 empirical
 study
 of
 exemplary
 practices
 in
 global
 competence
 
education.1
  Through
  a
  series
  of
  case
  studies,
  we
  investigated
  how
  award-­‐winning
  global
  education
 
teachers
 create
 conditions
 to
 foster
 global
 competence.
 To
 understand
 the
 promise
 and
 power
 of
 their
 
pedagogy,
 we
 visited
 their
 classrooms,
 documented
 selected
 lessons
 and
 interviewed
 them
 before
 during
 
and
 after
 their
 units.
 We
 also
 interviewed
 students,
 analyzed
 
 student
 work
 and
 curricular
 materials.
 Close
 
analysis
  of
  these
  master
  teachers’
  practices
  in
  the
  form
  of
  individual
  case
  studies
  and
  comparatively
 

1 This
 study
 was
 made
 possible
 by
 the
 Longview
 foundation.
 We
 thank
 Jennifer
 Manise
 for
 he
 unwavering
 
support
 of
 this
 multi-­‐year
 investigation and her leadership in the field of Global Education.

Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

3

across
  cases
  has
  enabled
  us
  to
  identify
  and
  illustrate
  a
  series
  of
  signature
  pedagogies
  in
  global
 
education—i.e.
  units
  of
  instructional
  practice
  that
  may
  prove
  uniquely
  potent
  in
  nurturing
  globally
 
competent
 youth.
 
 

 
Here,
 we
 introduce
 a
 “signature
 pedagogies”
 approach
 to
 global
 education
 and
 illustrate
 it
 with
 two
 cases
 
of
 exemplary
 teaching
 in
 elementary
 public
 school
 classrooms.
 
 We
 first
 revisit
 global
 competence
 as
 the
 
capacity
 and
 disposition
 to
 understand
 and
 act
 on
 issues
 of
 global
 significance
 (Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Jackson,
 
2011)
 and
 place
 this
 definition
 in
 the
 larger
 context
 of
 the
 learning
 theories
 that
 inform
 it.
 
 Next,
 we
 turn
 
to
  quality
  instructional
  designs
  by
  introducing
  a
  signature
  pedagogy
  approach
  to
  teaching
  for
  global
 
competence.
  We
  then
  illustrate
  signature
  pedagogies
  [herein
  SP]
  using
  two
  elementary
  school
  case
 
studies.
  We
  conclude
  by
  examining
  the
  implications
  of
  a
  SP
  approach
  for
  teacher
  education,
  share
 
currently
 unanswered
 questions,
 and
 outline
 next
 steps.
 

 

I.
 Educating
 for
 “Global
 Competence”-­‐
 What
 are
 the
 learning
 outcomes
 
we
 seek?
 

 

A
 constructivist
 view
 of
 deep,
 long-­‐lasting,
 and
 relevant
 learning
 

 
We
 define
 global
 competence
 as
 the
 capacity
 and
 disposition
 to
 understand
 and
 act
 on
 issues
 of
 global
 
significance
  (Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Jackson
 2011)2.
 Developed
 collaboratively
 by
 Asia
 Society
 and
 the
 CCSSO,
 
and
 informed
 by
 Harvard
 Project
 Zero’s
 research
 on
 learning
 and
 instruction,
 this
 definition
 builds
 on
 a
 
few
  key
  premises
  about
  the
  kind
  of
  learning
  necessary
  for
  preparing
  our
  youth
  for
  the
  world.
  Firstly,
 
global
  competence
  is
  cast
  as
  a
  capacity
  to
  understand
  -­‐-­‐
  to
  use
  disciplinary
  concepts,
  theories,
  ideas,
 
methods
  or
  findings
  in
  novel
  situations,
  to
  solve
  problems,
  produce
  explanations,
  create
  products
  or
 
interpret
  phenomena
  in
  novel
  ways
  (Boix
  Mansilla
  &
  Gardner
  1999,
  Wiske
  1999).
  With
  its
  focus
  on
 
disciplinary
 and
 interdisciplinary
 understanding,
 this
 definition
 embodies
 deep
 subject
 matter
 learning.
 
 

 
Secondly,
  if
  “understanding”
  speaks
  of
  depth
  and
  flexibility
  in
  subject
  matter
  expertise,
  “global
 
competence”
  as
  a
  disposition
  speaks
  of
  depth
  in
  terms
  of
  student
  ownership
  and
  transformation.
 
Dispositions
 involve
 the
 ability
 to
 think
 with
 information,
 the
 sensitivity
 to
 opportunities
 in
 the
 real
 world
 
to
 do
 that,
 and
 an
 inclination
 to
 do
 so
 over
 time
 (Perkins,
 Tishman,
 Ritchhart,
 Donis,
 &
 Andrade,
 2000).
 
Dispositions
 are
 about
 the
 ‘residuals’
 of
 learning
 beyond
 formal
 contexts
 (Sizer
 1984);
 they
 are
 about
 the
 
“kind
 of
 person”
 a
 student
 will
 become
 (Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Gardner
 2000).
 Focusing
 on
 dispositions
 directs
 

2
 This
 definition
 was
 developed
 at
 the
 Council
 of
 Chief
 State
 School
 Officers.
 The
 Global
 Competence
 committee
 was
 led
 by
 
Asia
 Society’s
 Tony
 Jackson.
 Its
 published
 articulation
 and
 exemplification
 was
 informed
 by
 research
 conducted
 by
 
Veronica
 Boix
 Mansilla
 at
 Project
 Zero,
 Harvard
 Graduate
 School
 of
 Education.
 
 
 

Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

4

our
  educational
  efforts
  to
  nurturing
  young
  people’s
  habits
  of
  mind
  or
  orientation
  towards
  globally
 
competent
 thinking
 and
 behaviors.
 
 
 
 

 
Finally,
 as
 global
 competence
 focuses
 on
 issues
 of
 global
 significance
 and
 action
 to
 improve
 conditions,
 
learning
  must
  be
  visibly
  relevant
  to
  students
  and
  the
  world.
  When
  significance
  is
  considered,
  global
 
competence
 curricula
 becomes
 a
 call
 for
 authenticity,
 for
 carefully
 looking
 to
 the
 contemporary
 world
 for
 
topics
 that
 matter
 most
 to
 examine.
 
 

 

 

 

 
Beyond
 knowledge,
 skills,
 attitudes
 and
 behaviors
 

 
Our
 treatment
 of
 global
 competence
 also
 favors
 an
 integrated
 view
 of
 learning,
 targeting
 a
 complement
 of
 
practices
 such
 as
 “investigating
 the
 world,”
 “taking
 perspective”,
 “communicating
 across
 difference”,
 and
 
“taking
 action”
 (see
 Graphic
 1).
 
 Such
 characterization
 puts
 a
 premium
 on
 meaningful
 and
 purposeful
 units
 

•  Recognize)and)express)how)diverse)
audiences)perceive))meaning)and)
how)that)affects)communica7on.)

•  Listen)to)and)communicate)
effec7vely)with)diverse)people.)

•  Select)and)use)appropriate)
technology)and)media)to)
communicate)with)diverse)
audiences.)

•  Reflect)on)how)effec7ve)
communica7on)affects)
understanding)and)collabora7on)in)
an)interdependent)world.))

•  Recognize)and)express)their)own)
perspec7ve)and)iden7fy)influences)
on)that)perspec7ve.)

•  Examine)others’)perspec7ves)and)
iden7fy)what)influenced)them.)

•  Explain)the)impact)of)cultural)
interac7ons.)

•  Ar7culate)how)differen7al)access)
to)knowledge,)technology,)and)
resources)affects)quality)of)life)and)
perspec7ves).)

•  Iden7fy)an)issue,)generate)
ques7ons,)and)explain)its)
significance.)

•  Use)variety)of)languages,)sources)
and)media)to)iden7fy)and)weigh)
relevnt)evidence.)

•  Analyze,)integrate,)and)synthesize)
evidence)to)construct)coherent)
responses.)

•  Develop)argument)based)on)
compelling)evidence)and)draws)
defensible)conclusions.)

•  Iden7fy)and)create)opportuni7es)for)
personal)or)collabora7ve)ac7on)to)
improve)condi7ons.)

•  Assess)op7ons)and)plan)ac7ons)
based)on)evidence)and)poten7al)for)
impact.)

•  Act,)personally)or)collabora7vely,)in)
crea7ve)and)ethical)ways)to)
contribute)to)improvement,)and)
assess)impact)of)ac7ons)taken.)

•  Reflect)on)capacity)to)advocate)for)
and)contribute)to)improvement.))

Inves&gate*the*
World*
Learners))inves7gate)the)
world)beyond)their)
immediate)environment.)

Recognize*
Perspec&ves*
Learners)recognize)their)
own)and)others’)
perspec7ves.)

Take*Ac&on*
Learners)translate)their)
ideas)into)appropriate)
ac7ons)to)improve)
condi7ons.)

Communicate*
Ideas*
learners)communicate)their)
ideas)effec7vely)with))
diverse)audiences.)

Understand*the*World*through*
Disciplinary*and*Interdisciplinary*Study*

Global)Competence:))

BoixNMansilla)&)Jackson)2011)

Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

5

of
  practice
  in
  the
  world,
  thus
  moving
  global
  competence
  beyond
  itemized
  lists
  of
  “knowledge,
  skills,
 
attitudes
 and
 behaviors”
 (Lagerman
 1989,
 Gibonne
 2006).
 While
 such
 lists
 may
 help
 teachers
 navigate
 the
 
complex
  multidisciplinary
  space
  of
  global
  education,
  rich
  and
  deep
  global
  competence
  learning
  pays
 
attention
 to
 the
 inseparable
 interaction
 of
 knowledge,
 skills,
 attitudes
 and
 behaviors.
 This
 holistic
 view
 of
 
global
 competence
 learning
 makes
 authentic
 purposes
 for
 learning
 more
 visible
 to
 students,
 whether
 they
 
seek
 to
 understand
 human
 impact
 on
 the
 environment
 as
 an
 example
 of
 “investigating
 the
 world”
 or
 make
 
sense
 of
 belief
 systems
 different
 from
 their
 own
 as
 a
 way
 to
 “take
 perspective”.
 Integrated
 practices
 of
 
global
 competence
 like
 the
 ones
 proposed
 add
 relevance
 and
 meaning
 to
 students’
 learning
 experiences,
 
facilitating
 meaningful
 transfer
 of
 learning
 beyond
 classroom
 walls.
 
 Quality
 teaching
 enhances
 students’
 
sensitivity
 to
 opportunities
 to
 employ
 the
 competencies
 they
 have
 developed
 productively
 in
 life
 beyond
 
school.
 
 

 
In
 sum,
 if
 we
 are
 to
 prepare
 our
 youth
 effectively
 for
 the
 world,
 we
 need
 clarity
 about
 the
 kind
 of
 learning
 
we
  are
  after.
  Our
  proposed
  constructivist
  approach
  puts
  a
  premium
  on
  global
  competence
  as
  deep,
 
relevant,
  and
  long
  lasting.
  Learning
  that
  highlights
  the
  key
  role
  of
  disciplinary
  and
  interdisciplinary
 
expertise
 foregrounds
 an
 integrated
 view
 of
 complex
 learning
 capacities
 such
 as
 investigating
 the
 world
 or
 
taking
 perspective,
 and
 aims
 at
 the
 development
 of
 habits
 of
 mind
 or
 dispositions—attending
 to
 the
 long-­‐
terms
 residuals
 of
 learning
 and
 transfer.
 
 
 

 

 

II.
 Teaching
 for
 global
 competence:
 How
 should
 we
 design
 instruction
 for
 
the
 kind
 of
 learning
 we
 are
 after?
 
 

 
Conceptions
  of
  learning
  like
  the
  ones
  described
  above
  demand
  carefully
  tailored
  pedagogical
 
approaches
 that
 effectively
 nurture
 the
 kind
 of
  learning
 we
 are
 after.
 Pedagogical
 recommendations
 
abound
  in
  the
  global
  education
  literature
  today.
  They
  address
  generic
  teaching
  practices
  such
  as
 
cooperative
  learning,
  interdisciplinary
  themes,
  community-­‐based
  learning
  and
  portfolio
  assessment
 
(Asia
  Society,
  2011;
  Appleyard
  and
  McLean,
  2011;
  Longview
  Foundation
  2008,
  Merryfield,
  1994;
 
Roberts,
 2007;
 Zhao,
 2010).
 They
 also
 include
 instruction
 specifically
 tailored
 to
 global
 content
 such
 as
 
comparing
 civilizations
 (Asia
 Society,
 2011;
 Koziol,
 2012;
 Merryfield,
 2002)
 or
 interpreting
 sources
 from
 
distant
 places
 (Lapayese,
 2003;
 Vaino-­‐Mattila,
 2009).
 
 

 
These
  recommendations
  offer
  productive
  instructional
  directions
  for
  practicing
  teachers
  and
 teacher
 
educators.
  Yet
  implementing
  them
  with
  quality
  requires
  that
  we
  understand
  how
  exactly
  a
  given
 
learning
  experience
  is
  designed
  to
  maximize
  students’
  global
  competence.
  For
  example,
  upper
 
elementary
  school
  teachers
  teaching
  about
  ancient
  civilizations
  often
  design
  compare-­‐and-­‐contrast
 
activities
  for
  student-­‐selected
  topics:
  e.g.,
  food,
  sports,
  activities,
  government,
  or
  natural
  resources.
 
Such
  activities
  might
  develop
  students’
  comparison
  skills
  and
  provide
  specific
  information
  about
 

Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

6

civilizations,
  but
  they
  fail
  to
  foreground
  why
  certain
  comparisons
  matter.
  Instead,
  comparing
 
civilizations
 to
 understand
 why
 they
 rise
 and
 collapse
 puts
 knowledge
 and
 skills
 in
 service
 of
 a
 larger
 
inquiry
 with
 clear
 past
 and
 present
 significance.
 Engaging
 in
 purposeful
 inquiry
 and
 building
 a
 robust
 
mental
 schema
 for
 the
 rise
 and
 fall
 of
 civilizations
 will
 support
 students
 to
 ‘think
 with’
 the
 information
 
they
 acquire
 to
 understand
 this
 broader
 phenomenon.
 More
 importantly,
 students
 thus
 educated
 may
 
use
  their
  understanding
  as
  a
  “lens”
  to
  understanding
  contemporary
  developments
  –from
  climate
 
instability,
 to
 overfishing,
 population
 explosion,
 war-­‐-­‐
 that
 might
 put
 our
 civilization
 at
 risk.
 
 

 
What
 makes
 for
 more
 versus
 less
 compelling
 learning
 experiences
 in
 global
 education?
 
 How
 can
 we
 
design
 instruction
 that
 goes
 beyond
 information
 acquisition
 and
 nurtures
 young
 people’s
 capacity
 and
 
disposition
 to
 understand
 and
 act
 in
 the
 world?
 
 

 

 
Signature
 pedagogies
 in
 global
 education:
 
 our
 contribution
 
 

 
“Signature
  pedagogy,”
  a
  term
  advanced
  by
  Lee
  Shulman
  (2005)
  in
  the
  post-­‐secondary
  education
 
context,
 refers
 to
 a
 pervasive
 set
 of
 practices
 used
 to
 prepare
 scholarly
 practitioners
 to
 “think,
 perform
 
and
  act
  with
  integrity”
  in
  their
  professional
  domain
  (Shulman,
  2005,
  p.52).
 
  Examples
  of
  signature
 
pedagogies
 vary
 greatly
 across
 professional
 domains,
 and
 include
 diagnostic
 rounds
 in
 medicine,
 case
 
method
  in
  law
  and
  business,
  critiques
  in
  engineering
  and
  art
  studios.
  In
  its
  original
  application
  to
 
professional
  learning,
  a
  signature
  pedagogy
  approach
  assumes
  that
  quality
  teaching
  is
  deliberate,
 
pervasive
  and
  persistent;
  teaching
  reveals
  learners’
  prior
  assumptions,
  it
  engages
  them
  in
 
transformative
  actions
  and
  requires
  ongoing
  assessment.
  Signature
  pedagogies
  organize
  learners’
 
experience
 to
 familiarize
  and
 acculturate
 them
 with
 the
 hallmark
 habits
 of
 mind
 and
 practices
 that
 
they
 are
 expected
 to
 develop
 as
 a
 result
 of
 their
 education
 in
 a
 given
 field
 or
 discipline.
 While
 earlier
 
research
 on
 signature
 pedagogies
 examined
 teaching
 practices
 in
 disciplinary
 and
 professional
 tertiary
 
contexts,
 our
 work
 extends
 the
 notion
 of
 signature
 pedagogies
 to
 K-­‐12
 environments
 and
 particularly
 
to
 global
 education.
 
 

 
We
 define
 signature
 pedagogies
 in
 global
 education
 as
 a
 pervasive
 set
 of
 teaching
 practices
 that
 nurture
 
students’
 capacity
 and
 disposition
 to
 understand
 and
 act
 on
 matters
 of
 global
 significance.
 They
 represent
 
characteristic
 instructional
 “tropes”,
 “paths”,
 or
 “motifs”
 that
 are
 repeated
 over
 time
 in
 learners’
 
education
 to
 familiarize
 them
 with
 hallmark
 globally
 competent
 habits
 of
 mind:
 investigating
 the
 world,
 
taking
 perspective,
 communicating
 across
 difference,
 and
 taking
 action
 in
 ways
 that
 are
 informed
 by
 
disciplinary
 and
 interdisciplinary
 perspectives.
 
 In
 this
 paper
 we
 introduce
 two
 SPs:
 
 “research
 
expeditions”
 (also
 seen
 as
 a
 “travel
 pedagogy”)
 and
 “purposeful
 comparisons”.
 
 
 

 

Boix
 Mansilla
 &
 Chua,
 2016
 
 

 

7

A
  “research
  expedition
  pedagogy”
  focuses
  on
  understanding
  a