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Due 48 hours

I need 4 short essays written, each essay should be 1 pgs long.

The questions should be addressed in the essay.

readings attached

Essay 1 (Plato’s Phaedo, 69e-88c focus)

Plato’s Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul (1) What is the specific purpose of Plato’s “Cyclical Argument”? In other words, how does it contribute to showing that the soul is immortal? Explain the reasoning of Plato’s “Cyclical Argument.” Your answer should: (i) identify the premises and final conclusion of the argument, (ii) explain how the argument uses the Oppositional Generation Principle (make sure to define this principle), and (iii) a specific explanation of how the Plato uses these points to show that our soul must have existed prior to our birth.

(2) Plato’s “Cyclical Argument” is not enough to show that the soul is immortal. Why is this? How does adding the “Affinity Argument” help Plato overcome this deficiency of the “Cyclical Argument”? Explain, and criticize, Plato’s Affinity Argument. Your answer should explain: (a) why things that are metaphysically simple are indestructible, (b) why things that are immutable are metaphysically simple, (c) why things that are invisible are immutable (make sure to explain the difference between invisible and visible realities), and (d) why points (a)-(c) show that the soul is immortal.

Essay 2 (Apology)

Socrates’ Criticism of Euthyphro’s Third Definition of Piety (1) What is Euthyphro’s third definition of piety? How is this definition different from his second definition of piety (consider the context of the dialogue when answering this)? How does Euthyphro’s third definition of piety make the discussion of the dialogue relevant for both monotheism and polytheism?

(2) Socrates rejects Euthyphro’s third definition of piety in the below passage. Explain how Socrates rejects Euthyphro’s third definition of piety by making reference to that passage where appropriate. Your answer should include discussion of (i) the difference between essential properties and accidental properties, (ii) should make clear why Socrates believes that the property of being “god-loved” cannot be an essential property of something, and (iii) explain why it matters for Euthyphro’s third definition of piety that the property of being “god-loved” cannot be an essential property of something.

“But if the god-loved and the pious were the same, my dear Euthyphro, then if the pious was being loved because it was pious, the god-loved would also be being loved because it was godloved; and if the god-loved was god-loved because it was being loved by the gods, then the pious would also be pious because it was being loved by the gods. But now you see that they are in opposite cases as being altogether different from each other: the one is such as to be loved because it is being loved, the other is being loved because it is such as to be loved.”

Essay 3 (Plato, the Crito)

Socrates’ Arguments for the “Persuade or Obey Doctrine” (1) In the Crito Socrates argues for the “Persuade or Obey Doctrine.” What is this doctrine? If this doctrine is correct, then why does it imply that it would be wrong of Socrates to escape prison? The first argument that Socrates gives for the “Persuade or Obey Doctrine” is the “Argument from Paternal Authority.” Explain, and criticize, this argument. Your answer should: (i) identify the premises and conclusion of the argument, (ii) explain

what it means to be in a relation of paternal authority, (iii) describe the reasons Socrates gives for why he is in a relation of paternal authority with the state, and (iv) provide a criticism of this argument.

(2) The second argument that Socrates gives for the “Persuade or Obey Doctrine” is the Argument from Just Agreement. Explain, and criticize, this argument. You answer should: (a) identify the premises and conclusion of the argument, (b) explain how “the Laws” justify their claim that Socrates made a “just agreement” with the state through “tacit consent” (make sure to explain what tacit consent is), and (c) provide a criticism of this argument

Exam 4 (Plato’s Phaedo)

The Philosophical Attitude toward Death and the Argument from True Philosophy (1) In the “Argument from True Philosophy” Plato argues for the philosophical attitude toward death. Explain this argument. Your answer should: (i) identify the premises and final conclusion of the argument, (ii) explain the philosophical attitude toward death, (iii) explain how Plato defines death, and (iv) explain the purpose of the “true philosopher.” Why does Plato believe that accurately understanding death shows that the “true philosopher” should not fear death? Why, by contrast, are non-philosophers so fearful of death?

(2) A crucial premise of the “Argument from True Philosophy” states that “one can attain knowledge only if one’s soul is separated from one’s body.” Explain why Plato believes this. Your answer should include: (a) a complete explanation of the Platonic Theory of Forms, (b) why the Platonic Theory of Forms implies that we cannot attain knowledge while we are alive, and (c) an explanation of the specific reasons why Plato believes the body is an obstacle to the attainment of knowledge