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Criminal homework help

Instructions

A little background: As you have learned, Criminal Justice is a system comprised of police, courts and corrections.  As such, decisions made by one person/group of people in one part of the system affects the others. It is important to understand the various components of the system to be able to analyze the impact that their interactions and inter- relatedness have on the administration of justice. The study of Criminal Justice involves cumulative learning and thought. At this point, you have learned about the different systems and now it is time to apply what you have learned!

Directions:  For this assignment you are to reflect upon the course material that you read. Please answer each of the following questions as thoroughly as possible and be sure to back up your answers with scholarly resources. 

1. What are the main components of the Criminal Justice system?

2. How are these components interrelated?

3. How might these components conflict?

4. Based off of your answers in questions 1-3; describe the steps of the criminal justice process and the role that each component plays within each step.  Specifically describe the decision making points that influence the next step in the process. (hint: be sure to look at the chart of the steps of Criminal justice contained in the week 1 readings).

5. In your opinion, how does the interrelatedness and interactions between the components affect the administration of justice?

Format Requirements:

· Paper must be double spaced, 11 or 12 pt font and 1”margins all around.

· All APA 7th edition format requirements must be followed (cover page, in text citations, reference page). Refer to APA/UMGC – learning resources found in the content page of this course.

· You must have resources to support your thoughts/opinions/information.  These must be cited both in text as well as at the end of the document. Your paper should not contain direct quotes, sourced material must be paraphrased.

· Questions should be answered in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 format

· While there is not a firm page requirement, it is expected that to thoroughly answer these questions, your assignment will likely be a minimum of 2 pages and a maximum of 5

Criminal homework help

The Topic Sentence Revisited

Author(s): Frank J. D’Angelo

Source: College Composition and Communication , Dec., 1986, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Dec., 1986),
pp. 431-441

Published by: National Council of Teachers of English

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The Topic Sentence Revisited

Frank J. D’Angelo

Historically considered, the concept of the topic sentence seems to be related
to the concept of the topoi in classical rhetoric-in the sense of a topos or topic
as subject matter treated in a speech or a portion of a discourse, as a method of
reasoning about a subject, and as a place or heading from which arguments are
drawn. All of these senses of the word seem to have been maintained in the

kind of advice given by 19th-century textbook writers about methods of con-
structing paragraphs. In order to construct a paragraph, the advice goes, the
writer should embody the main idea of the paragraph (its subject) in a topic
sentence. Then, drawing upon a list of commonplace methods of reasoning about
the subject (in the form of headings, such as comparison, contrast, and cause
and effect, that label relationships), the writer should develop the central idea
contained in the topic sentence into a unified and coherent paragraph.

This connection between the topic sentence and the classical topoi is emi-
nently suggestive, but however interesting it may be, the fact is that as an in-
dependent concept the topic sentence did not begin to emerge until the
mid-19th century. It first appeared in Alexander Bain’s discussion of the para-
graph in 1866, and it attained fuller development in the late 19th and early
20th century. But the 19th-century conception of the topic sentence has come
under considerable attack in recent years because of its deductive origins and
because one kind of research has revealed that many contemporary professional
writers do not use topic sentences in their writing. I would like to argue,
however, that in some kinds of writing the topic sentence can be a valuable
rhetorical strategy because it can help writers to organize their ideas and it can
help readers to follow the logical development of the writer’s ideas. As a
means of developing my argument, I would like to look briefly at the origin
and development of the concept of the topic sentence, consider the criticisms
that have been made of the topic sentence in the 20th century, and then,
drawing upon readability research that discusses the topic sentence and
schema theory, argue that this kind of research supports the value of using
topic sentences in expository prose.

Frank J. D’Angelo is Professor of English at Arizona State University. A past chair of
CCCC, he is the author of numerous essays on composing and on rhetorical theory, and of a
textbook, Process and Thought in Composition.

College Composition and Communication, Vol. 37, No. 4, December 1986 431

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432 College Composition and Communication

Origin and Development of the Concept of the Topic Sentence

In his text English Composition and Rhetoric, Alexander Bain does not use the
term topic sentence to refer to the sentence within the paragraph that states the
main idea. Bain conceives of a paragraph as “a collection of sentences with
unity of purpose” (108) which “handles and exhausts a distinct topic” (108).
But in his discussion of the principles that govern the construction of the
paragraph, he presents the reader with a concept very much like that of the
traditional topic sentence: “The opening sentence,” he writes, “unless so con-
structed as to be obviously preparatory, is expected to indicate with promi-
nence the subject of the Paragraph” (116).
Like Alexander Bain, A. D. Hepburn does not use the term topic sentence to

refer to the sentence that states the main idea in a paragraph. Since Hepburn
considers “the general laws governing the construction of a paragraph” to be
“the same as those governing the composition of an entire discourse” (147), he
uses the word theme to refer to the main idea. (Although Hepburn uses the
word theme in his discussion of the paragraph, he means by it what later writ-
ers call the topic sentence.) Hepburn seems to have been the first rhetorician to
discuss the placement of the topic sentence in the paragraph. Although he
concedes that the topic sentence is not always stated explicitly in the para-
graph, he maintains that it may be stated in a brief sentence near the begin-
ning of the paragraph or withheld until the end of the paragraph. It may also
be stated at the beginning and repeated at the end for emphasis (153). In ad-
dition to Hepburn, there were a number of 19th-century rhetoricians who dis-
cussed the placement of the topic sentence in the paragraph, calling it by that
term. These include David Hill (73), Albert Raub (18 1), John F. Genung
(196, 197), and Sarah Lockwood and Mary Emerson (240-243).
John McElroy seems to have been the first rhetorician to “label” the main

idea of the paragraph the topic sentence. In his text The Structure of English Prose,
McElroy writes: “Unity requires that every statement in the paragraph be sub-
servient to one principal affirmation. This principal affirmation is, of course,
the topic-sentence, which sets forth the subject of the paragraph” (216).
More often than not, the discussion of the topic sentence emerges from a

discussion of paragraph unity. For example, in her discussion of the paragraph,
Virginia Waddy gives this kind of advice to the composer of paragraphs:

In order that a paragraph shall possess the quality of unity, it is requisite
that the sentence composing it shall relate, each and all, to the one defi-
nite division of the subject which they illustrate and explain. A paragraph
should have but a single theme-one central thought,-and all digressions
from this principal thought should be excluded. No sentence has any
right to a position in connection with others, unless it is closely related to
the preceding sentence or to the one following (256).

Barrett Wendell is more direct: “A paragraph has unity when you can state its
substance in a single sentence; otherwise it is very apt to lack it” (124).

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 433

In almost all of the early discussions of the paragraph in 19th-century text-
books, the term topic sentence is seldom used. Some textbook writers refer to it
as the theme of the paragraph; others, as the main thought; still others, as the
main sentence. The term topic sentence does not begin to appear with any frequen-
cy until the end of the century. Fred Newton Scott and Joseph Villiers Den-
ney, in their text Paragraph Writing: A Rhetoric for Colleges, devote several
pages to a discussion of the topic sentence and to its position in the paragraph.
However, they use the term topic-statement to refer to the sentence that an-
nounces the main idea of the paragraph (28-34). In his text Composition and
Rhetoric, William Williams uses the term almost incidentally: “Sometimes one
or more sentences at the beginning of a paragraph are intended to connect it
with the one that precedes, or to prepare the way for the topic sentence”
(146). Finally, in their composition textbook, Sara E. H. Lockwood and Mary
Alice Emerson not only give a full presentation of the topic sentence, but they
also italicize the term to give it its proper importance:

Since every paragraph is the development of a single topic, it must have a
clearly defined central idea upon which every one of its sentences directly
bears. This central idea is usually expressed definitely in one of the sen-
tences of the paragraph, called the topic-sentence (240).

From 1902 until the mid-20th century, the treatment of the topic sentence in
composition textbooks seems to be merely a repetition of the theoretical ideas
articulated in the middle and late 19th century.

Criticisms of the Topic Sentence

In the mid-20th century, however, some textbook writers and scholars began
to question not only the efficacy of the topic sentence, but even its existence.
For example, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren maintained:

It is frequently said that every paragraph contains a topic sentence, stated
or implied. A more accurate statement, however, is that some paragraphs
have topic sentences and that others do not; for an “implied” topic sen-
tence is one which the reader must construct for himself as a way of sum-
marizing the paragraph in question. Obviously any piece of composition
possessing even a minimum of unity may be summed up in some kind of
sentence. The “implied” topic sentence, therefore, is an abstraction-a
not very useful kind of ghost sentence (220).

Harold C. Martin and Richard M. Ohmann put the matter more forcefully:

The topic sentence (or thesis statement, as it is sometimes called) is a
more or less fictitious entity. It does sometimes make an appearance in so
many words, of course, but fully as often it is not something written but
what is meant by what has been written. That is, the topic sentence is
something a reader extracts from a paragraph and something a writer has
in mind as the unity he wants to achieve. The schoolboy notion of a topic
sentence as the big firecracker, from which a string of little firecrackers is
ignited, has little relationship to the truth (207).

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434 College Composition and Communication

Leo Rockas not only rejected the concept of the topic sentence, but the con-
cept of the paragraph itself. “There is no basic unit larger than the sentence,”
he argued:

The paragraph is an arbitrary and conventional unit, susceptible of exten-
sive editorial tampering. Indeed, in recording conversations, the para-
graph has not even a conventional status. There the unit is the “line”-
not the poetic or typographical line, but “those chunks of talk that are
marked off by a shift of speaker.” The paragraph is no more bounded
than this “line” or “utterance unit,” and includes, according to the whim
of author or editor, one to any number of sentences. … the paragraph is
simply a convenient grouping of sentences. In a progression of sentences a
few places will be more suited to indentations than others, but you can
justify an indentation before almost any sentence of sophisticated prose
(6).

One of the earliest scholarly articles to criticize the deductive origins of
19th-century paragraph theory was Paul Rodgers’ essay “Alexander Bain and
the Rise of the Organic Paragraph.” After briefly tracing the development of a
paragraph theory, Rodgers complained:

At this point the modern paragraph fully emerges: an organic structure
distinguished by the qualities of unity, coherence, emphasis; devoted to
the amplification and enforcement of the single idea announced in its top-
ic sentence; composed of sentences organically conceived; and itself par-
ticipating in the larger organic structure of the discourse. Bain’s “collec-
tion of sentences with unity of purpose” may seem a far cry from the
foregoing prescription, but his influence and ultimate responsibility for
its formulation is clear-as, too, is his responsibility for placing 20th
century paragraph rhetoric in a deductive cage, from which it has yet to
extricate itself (408).

One of the most severe critics of the concept of the topic sentence was Vir-
ginia Burke. In her article “The Paragraph: Dancer in Chains,” after briefly
reviewing recent theories of paragraph theory, she concluded: “Where are we,
then, in our understanding of the paragraph? Not much further than our col-
leagues were seventy years ago” (42). Then she continued:

Our problem is dramatized, I think in our confusions over the term
topic sentence. To some, topic sentence is synonymous with thesis sentence, a
term too narrow and demanding to dominate practice; indeed, it does not
dominate practice outside the classroom. To others, topic sentence is widely
inclusive, ranging from those sentences which express the major idea of
the paragraph to those sentences which merely signal some sort of
change. This is stretching the familiar meaning of topic quite a bit it
seems. To still others, topic sentence means “top” sentence, which, in turn,
may have no other meaning than “first”-the first sentence in the para-
graph-or may mean “topic sentence” expressing the main idea. Aware of
these ambiguities, we have added a few more terms: introductory and tran-
sitional … At the end of a paragraph which, before we took it out of
context, was probably related to a larger field of meaning, we struggle to
find a concluding sentence and grieve when it is not there. Many para-
graphs do not conclude much of any thing. But we want them to (42).

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 435

In his essay “A Generative Rhetoric or the Paragraph,” Francis Christensen
was equally severe in his criticism of the traditional concept of the topic sen-
tence:

The chapters on the paragraph in our textbooks are so nearly alike in
conception that one could almost say that, apart from the examples, the
only striking difference is in the choice of . . . indention. The prescription
is always the same: the writer should work out a topic sentence and then
choose one of the so-called methods of paragraph development to substan-
tiate it. The topic sentence may appear at the beginning or at the end of
the paragraph or anywhere in between, or it may be merely “implied,” a
sort of ectoplasmic ghost hovering over the paragraph (54).

Finally, Richard Braddock’s often-cited study “The Frequency and Place-
ment of Topic Sentences in Expository Prose” seemed to put the proverbial
nail in the coffin of the concept of the topic sentence. After examining a
number of expository paragraphs in a sampling of contemporary professional
writers, Braddock discovered that fewer than half of the paragraphs had ex-
plicit topic sentences, that only 13% began with a topic sentence, and that
only 3% ended with a topic sentence (299-301). However, what many teach-
ers of composition have overlooked was Braddock’s surprising conclusion:

This sample of contemporary professional writing . . . does not at all
mean that composition teachers should stop showing their students how
to develop paragraphs from clear topic sentences. Far from it. In my
opinion, often the writing in the 25 essays would have been clearer and
more comfortable to read if the paragraphs had presented more explicit
topic sentences. But what this study does suggest is this: While helping
students use clear topic sentences in their writing and identify variously
presented topical ideas in their reading, the teacher should not pretend
that professional writers largely follow the practices he is advocating
(301).

Readability Research on the Topic Sentence

Braddock’s study appeared in the winter of 1974, just when reading research
was beginning to support the value of using topic sentences in expository
prose. (To readability researchers, the topic sentence is the sentence within the
paragraph that states the main idea.) For example, in their study “Effects of a
Superordinate Context on Learning and Retention of Facts,” Robert Gagne
and Virginia Wiegand report that topic sentences can influence the way a
reader will process the sentences that follow in a paragraph. The topic sen-
tence not only acts as an advance organizer of the ideas in a paragraph, but it
also helps the reader to remember the content of the paragraph (409).

In his article “Perceiving the Structure of Written Materials,” James
Coomber argues that readers who read each paragraph in an essay, sentence by
sentence, without regard for the main idea of that paragraph or some larger
structural pattern, may recall details, but miss the main ideas that the para-

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436 College Composition and Communication

graphs are trying to convey. His study investigated the ability of college stu-
dents to perceive main ideas in paragraphs (264-265). And in his study of the
reading comprehension of sixth grade students, Mark Aulls discloses that the
students who read paragraphs containing topic sentences obtained higher re-
call scores than those who read paragraphs that contained no topic sentences
(391).

In two separate studies investigating the location of topic sentences in para-
graphs, John Richards (599) and Paul Clements (8-9) report that readers re-
member more of what they read when topic sentences are placed first in the
paragraph. They reasoned that topic sentences prepare the memories of readers
to receive the subsequent ideas. In her study of the reading comprehension of
college students, Ann Fishman reaches a similar conclusion. When topic sen-
tences are placed in the initial position in paragraphs, they simplify the men-
tal operations of the reader because the reader knows in advance the content of
the paragraphs (159-169).
In a series of articles dealing with his research on reading comprehension,

David Kieras argues for the importance of global coherence in constructing
paragraphs and longer stretches of discourse. Good paragraphs, according to
Kieras, contain topic sentences in initial position in the paragraph, followed
by connected, coherent sentences. Good essays contain both global topics that
help to organize the entire discourse and paragraph topics that help to orga-
nize the individual paragraphs. Bad paragraph construction results in longer
reading time, lower recall of the content of passages, and an inability to grasp
the main ideas in paragraphs and other units. If, in constructing a text, a
writer does not present readers with topic sentences or some other form of top-
ical propositional structure, then they must engage in the time-consuming
process of making inferences and constructing topical propositions of their
own.

Readability Research and Schema Theory

Readability research, then, shows the value of topic sentences in organizing
paragraphs; research in schema theory demonstrates the importance of verbal
schemata and macropropositions in organizing complete texts. According to
this theory, a schema is a mental representation of concepts stored in memory.
A verbal schema is a network of propositions that is abstract and general and
that is stored in long-term memory. These schemata influence the way we per-
ceive and remember things. To schema theorists, reading comprehension re-
quires skill in following the organization of a passage. Understanding the con-
tent of a passage will be more complete if the reader has a general idea of the
author’s intention. One of the most important ways of signaling that intention
is by supplying the reader with an appropriate frame of reference so that new
information can be related to information the reader already possesses. Cog-
nitive psychologists call the kind of organizational framework on which the
content of a passage is built a macrostructure.

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 437

A macrostructure is an organizational pattern consisting of the most abstract
and general sentences in a discourse. These sentences are called macroproposi-
tions. Macropropositions resemble topic sentences in many respects. Like topic
sentences, they express main ideas. Like topic sentences, they divide a dis-
course into meaningful units. Like topic sentences, they can be directly ex-
pressed in a discourse, or they can be inferred from the semantic content of a
passage. Unlike topic sentences, however, they more frequently organize
chunks or sections of a discourse, rather than individual paragraphs. Mac-
ropropositions are usually higher-level propositions than topic sentences, but
in a specific context, a macroproposition and a topic sentence may be one and
the same thing. (These are relative rather than absolute distinctions, of course.
If a topic sentence helps to organize not only the specific paragraph in which
it has been placed, but also the paragraphs that follow, then it serves as a mac-
roproposition in that particular discourse.) If a writer does not use a mac-
rostructure to organize a text or uses an organizational pattern that is not easi-
ly identifiable, or is inefficient, then the reader must impose a pattern on the
text. The result may be a longer reading time, difficulty in understanding the
text, and poorer retention of the text content.
Many of the early studies that deal with macrostructures and text com-

prehension have to do with summarizing stories. However, the studies con-
ducted by Bonnie Meyer and her associates focus almost exclusively on ex-
pository prose. In these studies, Meyer and her associates argue for the use of
macropropositions as a means of clearly signaling the author’s intention. These
macropropositions function in a discourse much as topic sentences do. Not
only do they divide a piece of writing into meaningful units, but they also
summarize the main ideas of these units.

In one study, Meyer and her co-researchers gave 102 ninth grade students
passages of expository prose to read. One passage was organized by comparison
and contrast; the other, by means of problem and solution. Further, one ver-
sion of each text had a clearly defined organizational pattern in the form of a
global macrostructure appropriately signaled to the reader. This macrostruc-
ture consisted of a sequence of macropropositions which, like the topic sen-
tences they resemble, summarized the main ideas of the paragraph or para-
graphs that followed. The other version did not have a clearly defined
organizational plan, nor did it contain topic sentences or macropropositions
(82-96).

The students participating in this study were divided into groups of good,
average, and poor readers on the basis of reading achievement tests. After
reading one version of each passage, they were asked to write down all they
could remember in their own words. In addition, they took a recognition test
consisting of sentences taken directly from the text, paraphrases of such sen-
tences, inferences, and statements completely unrelated to the text. Students
who tested high in reading comprehension tended to use top-level sentences and
global structures similar to those used by the author of the passage to organize
their own recall protocols. Students with low reading comprehension skills did

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438 College Composition and Communication

not. Students who used the top-level structure of the text recalled more infor-
mation than those who did not. These top level structures, like the topic sen-
tences in the Gagne and Wiegand study, acted as advance organizers of the
ideas in the subsequent paragraphs and helped the students to remember the
content of the passages read (82-96).
In a related study, Brendan Bartlett gave ninth-grade students two passages

of expository text to read and to recall. One passage was organized by means
of comparison and contrast. The other had an attributive (description) organi-
zational pattern. In this study, one group of students was taught to identify
comparison and contrast and attributive top-level structures and to use them
to organize their recalls. A second group was not given formal instruction in
the use of these patterns. The result was that students who were given formal
instruction in the use of top-level structures recalled more than students who
were not. Further, after a delay period of three weeks, the students given for-
mal instruction could still use the strategies they had learned and could recall
more of the text than students who were not given formal instruction (42-53,
128-129). As in the study by Meyer and her associates, in this study the top-
level sentences enabled students to remember more of what they read and to
organize their recalls more effectively.
Harriet Salatas Waters, in a more recent study, asked 48 college students to

read and then to recall short passages of description. In addition, they had to
rank the sentences on the basis of their relative importance in the text. Half of
the students rated the macropropositions the most important. One-fourth saw
no relationship between rank and importance. However, according to Waters,
all of the students recalled the macropropositions (those sentences which sum-
marized the main ideas of single paragraphs or a sequence of paragraphs) bet-
ter than they could recall the subordinate sentences (294-299).
Finally, in a study conducted by Raymond Guindon and Walter Kintsch,

subjects were asked to read paragraphs which contained macropropositions
that summarized text content. They were then given a word recognition test
consisting of pairs of words, two from the macropropositions (the topic-
sentence-like summarizing statements) and two from the micropropositions
(the sentences that supplied the supporting details). Subjects remembered
more words from the macropropositions than from the micropropositions. Fur-
ther, their responses to the words taken from the macropropositions were fast-
er and more correct than were their responses to word pairs taken from subor-
dinate statements (508). In sum, all of these studies support the value of what
is conventionally called the topic sentence.

Implications for the Teaching of Writing

What, then, does this survey reveal about the usefulness of the topic sentence
in the teaching of writing? Readability research demonstrates that if writers
use topic sentences or macropropositions to divide a text into meaningful units
and to summarize the main ideas in the paragraphs that follow, then their

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 439

readers will recall more of what they have read and will read more efficiently
(i.e., read faster) than they would if writers presented the same information in
a less organized or random fashion. In brief, topic sentences and mac-
ropropositions can help writers to organize their ideas more effectively and
readers to follow the logical development of the writer’s thoughts.
If we base the teaching of writing on the way people actually write (i.e., on

rhetorical performance), then the topic sentence will be of limited use in the
teaching of writing, since many professional writers do not use topic sen-
tences. But if we base our teaching on what people can accomplish with lan-
guage (i.e. on rhetorical competence), as it seems to me 19th-century com-
position theorists did, then the topic sentence can be a useful resource that
writers can turn to if the need arises. What human beings can accomplish
through language is not circumscribed by their previous performances. Al-
though these performances may constitute the history of their use of that abil-
ity, they do not establish its limits.
I am not suggesting that we should tell students that every paragraph must

have a topic sentence or that all topic sentences should be placed in the initial
position in paragraphs. What I am suggesting, however, is that if the occa-
sion, audience, intention, and kind of discourse warrant it (as, for example, in
some kinds of expository writing whose aim is to give clear directions or ad-
vice for a general audience), then students might profitably use topic sentences
or macropropositions or some other form of explicit representation of global
structure to organize their writing. Since composition characteristically deals
with the discovery of the available means of exposition and persuasion, it
makes little sense not to teach the available means simply because some writ-
ers don’t choose to avail themselves of those means.

Works Consulted

Aulls, Mark W. “Expository Paragraph Properties That Influence Literal Recall.” Journal of
Reading Behavior, 7 (Winter, 1975), 391-399.

Bain, Alexander. English Composition and Rhetoric. London: Longmans, 1868.

Bartlett, Brendan John. Top-Level Structure as an Organizational Strategy for Recall of Classroom
Text. Research Report No. 1. Arizona State University, 1978.

Braddock, Richard. “The Frequency and Placement of Topic Sentences in Expository
Prose.” Research in the Teaching of English, 8 (Winter, 1974), 287-302.

Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren. Modern Rhetoric. Shorter ed. New York: Har-
court, 1961.

Burke, Virginia M. “The Paragraph: Dancer in Chains.” Rhetoric: Theories for Application.
Ed. Robert M. Gorrell. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, pp. 37-44.

Christensen, Francis. “A Generative Rhetoric of the Paragraph.” Notes Toward a New Rhet-
oric. New York: Harper, 1967, pp. 52-81.

Clements, Paul. “The Effects of Staging on Recall of Prose.” Reading Research Quarterly, 14
(1978-79), 8-9.

Coomber, James E. “Perceiving the Structure of Written Material.” Research in the Teaching
of English, 9 (Winter, 1975), 263-266.

D’Angelo, Frank J. “Topoi, Paradigms and Rhetorical Enthymemes.” Oldspeak/Newspeak:
Rhetorical Transformations. Ed. Charles W. Kneupper. Arlington, TX: Rhetoric Society, 1985,
pp. 208-216.

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440 College Composition and Communication

D’Angelo, Frank J. “Topoi and Form in Composition.” The Territory of Language: Linguistics,
Stylistics and the Teaching of Composition. 2nd ed. Ed. Donald McQuade. Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press, 1986.

D’Angelo, Frank

Criminal homework help

Discussion – Week 4

Responses to Human Rights Violations

Responding to human rights violations is a complex undertaking. Deciding factors, such as foreign policy, fiscal limitations, and human rights policies influence whether a response to human rights violations will occur. There are numerous ways to respond to human rights violations. Depending on the violation, response may come from international, national, or local community resources. Sometimes a joint effort is needed to appropriately respond to a violation. For this Discussion, a thorough review of the Learning Resources is required, given the complexity of responses to human rights violations.

Resources

Access Resources

Learning Resources

Please read and view (where applicable) the following Learning Resources before you complete this week’s assignments.

Media

Map of International Human Rights Violations Around the World

Click on the above link to view a map indicating areas where human rights violations occur. Click on each flashing icon to learn about responses to those human rights violations.

Note: For a transcript of this map, please click here Click for more options .

Video: Docherty, N. (Producer). (2007). On our watch: The first genocide of the 21st century [Documentary Film]. In Frontline. Boston, MA: PBS. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/darfur/view/

Chapter 6, “Seven More U.N. Resolutions are Passed” (3:55 minutes)

Chapter 7, “Eight More U.N. Resolutions are Passed” (8:02 minutes)

Chapter 8, “A Flicker of Hope, Finally” (10 minutes)

Readings

Course Text: Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice

Chapter 11, “International Human Rights Regimes”

Chapter 12, “Human Rights and Foreign Policy”

Article: Walden University Writing Center. (2009). Prewriting. Retrieved from http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/325.htm

Article: Walden University Writing Center. (2009). Topic sentences. Retrieved from http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/666.htm

Optional Resources

Video: Docherty, N. (Producer). (2007). On our watch: The first genocide of the 21st century. In Frontline. Boston, MA: PBS. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/darfur/view/

Chapter 1, “The First Genocide of the 21st Century” (6:59 minutes)

Chapter 2, “Darfur Becomes a Burgeoning Crisis” (5:28 minutes)

Chapter 3, “A U.N. Official Presses the World to Act” (5:30 minutes)

Chapter 4, “History Repeats Itself” (7:53 minutes)

Chapter 5, “Darfur Reaches the U.N. Security Council” (8:20 minutes)

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review Chapters 11 and 12 in your course text, Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. Think about the development of human rights regimes, policy, and joint efforts to respond to violations.

View Chapters 6, 7, and 8 of the Frontline video and consider various responses to human rights violations in Darfur.

Use the map to view human rights violations around the globe. Make sure to pay attention to the responses to violations.

Use the human rights violation that you selected in Week 2 for this Discussion.

Think about how one community (international, national, or local) might or did respond to the human rights violation.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post a brief description of the human rights violation you selected. Then explain how one community (international, national, or local) might or did respond to the human rights violation. Be specific and use examples to illustrate your explanation.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources. TEXTBOOK REFERENCE

Criminal homework help

MODULE 6: DUE PROCESS & THE DISCIPLINARY SYSTEM, FOURTH AMENDMENT RIGHTS, AND VISITATION

LISTEN TO: COMMENTARY ON MODULE 6

READ:

1. Chapters 5 & 7 in the textbook (you read chapter 7 for Module 5)

1. To see the disciplinary rules for Texas prisoners: Texas Department of Criminal Justice-Institutional Division Offender Orientation Handbook, pages 11-24 AND 71-73:

https://www.tdcj.texas.gov/documents/Offender_Orientation_Handbook_English.pdf

Module 6 Assignment (due 3/30, no later than 11:59 pm)

Worth a maximum of 22.5 points toward the final grade

QUESTION 1

Prisoner Harrison is housed in administrative segregation. He has been charged with threatening an officer. The disciplinary “ticket” states the offense:

On 12/4/2020 at 0800, Inmate Harrison, from his cell, yelled at Officer Dunner as he walked past Harrison’s cell, that he planned to attack him later that day. He intended “to f— him up”, and Dunner better be scared “because it was going to be bloody.” Harrison’s comments were loud and could be heard throughout the cell block. Other inmates yelled in support of his threats. Harrison in currently assigned to administrative segregation for attacking a correctional officer when he was housed in general population.

At his disciplinary hearing, Harrison is allowed to testify on his behalf and denies the charges. He states that he never made the threat, and he did not hear any other prisoner make that threat on 12/4/2020 at 0800 as charged. He further states that has never made such a threat or heard such a threat made by another prisoner while being housed in administrative segregation. He is trying very hard to follow all of the rules so his custody level can eventually be lowered, and he can return to the general population.

Prisoner Harrison is represented by a counsel substitute who follows the appropriate procedures and makes a formal request on Harrison’s behalf that every prisoner housed in his cellblock be permitted to appear before the disciplinary hearing and testify on Harrison’s behalf. The counsel tells the disciplinary committee that according to Prisoner Harrison, the prisoners will testify that he did not threaten Officer Dunner or any other officer. They will testify that they did not hear anyone threaten an officer.

The disciplinary committee considers Harrison’s request. He wants 20 prisoners in his cellblock to appear before the committee. Escorting 20 prisoners from administrative segregation is a time-intensive process because each inmate would be escorted in handcuffs and leg chains by 2 officers. The prisoners in Harrison’s cellblock have poor disciplinary records. The hearing office is not located near Harrison’s cellblock. The committee concludes that Harrison can have only one prisoner from his cellblock testify on his behalf. The committee sticks to its decision of allowing only one inmate. Harrison asks for Prisoner Jones to testify. Jones appears before the committee and supports Harrison’s narrative. Officer Dunner appears before the committee and testifies that Harrison threatened him, using the words that appear in the disciplinary ticket.

The committee convicts Harrison of the disciplinary infraction of threatening an officer. He has 360 days of good time taken away.

Harrison follows the grievance process as set up by the state prison system, complaining that his request for witnesses was denied and, as a result, he was not able to meaningfully defend himself. He loses at each level of the grievance system. His only option left is to file a lawsuit, which he does.

Analyze how the Supreme Court cases you have read about concerning the inmate disciplinary system help or do not help Harrison’s chances of winning his lawsuit. Rely on the Supreme Court cases only. This is not a question about the Texas rules. Minimum 1 page minimum, double-spaced.

QUESTION 2

Emmie (short for Emerald) Sparkle has never been incarcerated, but her cousin Gemm Sparkle is currently incarcerated at Best Correctional Facility. Emmie lives with her aunt Ruby, Gemm’s mother, who is currently incarcerated for drug distribution. Emmie, however, has never been arrested and is a straight “A” college student.

Emmie is on Gemm’s approved visitor list. During her visit to Gemm last week, correctional officers saw suspicious activity. It appeared that Emmie was trying to give Gemm something through the mesh barrier between them in the visiting room. Gemm is incarcerated for drug distribution. After Emmie’s visit was over, officials conducted a strip body cavity search on Gemm and found no contraband of any sort. Several hours after the visit, officers noticed Gemm appeared glassy-eyed and disoriented. Officials did not test Gemm’s urine or blood for possible drug use. Within a few hours, Gemm’s appearance and behavior returned to normal.

Emmie shows up a week later for another visit with Gemm. Officers were on the alert. They told Emmie that in order to visit Gemm she must submit to a body cavity search. Emmie refused and left, saying she was insulted and intended to contact an attorney.

Officers decided to search Gemm’s cell after Emmie left. After turning the cell and its contents upside down, they found 3 valium tablets hidden in the mattress lining. Gemm does not have a prescription for Valium from the prison doctor.

Officials filed a disciplinary charge against Gemm, alleging possession of drugs in violation of the prison rules. The pills found by officers in her mattress are the only physical evidence against Gemm. The only witnesses for the state are the 2 officers who conducted her cell search. Gemm asserts that the officers planted the pills in her cell in order to harass her. In fact, she asserts the only reason officials searched her cell was to harass her. She alleges that prison officials harassed her because they are worried that Emmie will sue them for denying her visit with Gemm. She asks to call 2 inmates who live in cells next to hers (one on either side) who will testify that they heard the officers discuss where to plant the Valium. The disciplinary hearing officer who presides over the hearing refuses her request on the grounds that security concerns require he deny their testimony.

These are the 3 legal issues for you to address:

1. Discuss the legal issues raised when officials required Emmie to undergo a strip search before she could visit Gemm.

2. Discuss the legal issues raised by the cell search of Gemm’s cell – what are her Fourth Amendment rights when it comes to cell searches?

3. Discuss Gemm’s right to call witnesses in her behalf at a disciplinary hearing.

Discuss ALL of the legal issues involved in the 3 sub-questions. Minimum 1 and ½ page, double-spaced. Offer arguments in favor of the prison administration’s position AND arguments in support of Gemm and Emmie.

Criminal homework help

CJUS 520

Policy Development Research Paper: Final Assignment Instructions

Overview

Review the feedback you received from your instructor for the Policy Development Draft. Make the necessary changes to your work and resubmit the Policy Development Research Paper: Final Assignment.

Law enforcement organizations are facing a tremendous problem with social media. On one hand, social media such as Facebook, My Space, and Twitter can be extremely useful for effective and efficient communication. On the other hand, law enforcement executives are constantly facing situations in which employee misconduct is occurring through social media. Police officers are accessing social media from their workstations and patrol cars during their shifts. Police officers are posting information that is unbecoming for an officer as well as degrading and disrespectful to the profession. Police unions and police officer organizations such as the Fraternal Order of Police and the PBA are opposed to departmental policies that infringe on police officers’ constitutional rights. How do law enforcement organizations regulate the use of social media? Just about every major law enforcement organization has a Facebook account associated with the organization’s website. Therefore, should law enforcement organizations regulate individual officer’s social media activity?

Instructions

· As the policy manager for your law enforcement organization, please research the best practices related to the regulation of police officers’ use of social media and develop a department policy. This research should include interviews with your local law enforcement leaders to determine how they are addressing this issue. In addition, please read the “Social Media” study conducted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police; it can be found in the Policy Development Research Paper: Draft Resources section.

The paper must consist of the following:

· Minimum of 5 full pages excluding the title page, abstract, and reference pages.

· Minimum of at least 3 scholarly/governmental sources.

· Current APA formatting.

· Acceptable sources (course textbooks, academic books, peer-reviewed journal articles published within the last 5-10 years only). 

This assignment requires that students follow a template. Students must review and follow the template carefully. Students must include a running header, title page, abstract (between 120-250 words), proper APA headings/subheadings and a reference page.  Please note that students are asked not to omit any of the bold headings that are already clearly named in the template.  Students are only asked to add/rename the APA headings/subheadings to keep the paper organized, and to insert their written content into the appropriate sections of the template.   

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Criminal homework help

The Topic Sentence Revisited

Author(s): Frank J. D’Angelo

Source: College Composition and Communication , Dec., 1986, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Dec., 1986),
pp. 431-441

Published by: National Council of Teachers of English

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The Topic Sentence Revisited

Frank J. D’Angelo

Historically considered, the concept of the topic sentence seems to be related
to the concept of the topoi in classical rhetoric-in the sense of a topos or topic
as subject matter treated in a speech or a portion of a discourse, as a method of
reasoning about a subject, and as a place or heading from which arguments are
drawn. All of these senses of the word seem to have been maintained in the

kind of advice given by 19th-century textbook writers about methods of con-
structing paragraphs. In order to construct a paragraph, the advice goes, the
writer should embody the main idea of the paragraph (its subject) in a topic
sentence. Then, drawing upon a list of commonplace methods of reasoning about
the subject (in the form of headings, such as comparison, contrast, and cause
and effect, that label relationships), the writer should develop the central idea
contained in the topic sentence into a unified and coherent paragraph.

This connection between the topic sentence and the classical topoi is emi-
nently suggestive, but however interesting it may be, the fact is that as an in-
dependent concept the topic sentence did not begin to emerge until the
mid-19th century. It first appeared in Alexander Bain’s discussion of the para-
graph in 1866, and it attained fuller development in the late 19th and early
20th century. But the 19th-century conception of the topic sentence has come
under considerable attack in recent years because of its deductive origins and
because one kind of research has revealed that many contemporary professional
writers do not use topic sentences in their writing. I would like to argue,
however, that in some kinds of writing the topic sentence can be a valuable
rhetorical strategy because it can help writers to organize their ideas and it can
help readers to follow the logical development of the writer’s ideas. As a
means of developing my argument, I would like to look briefly at the origin
and development of the concept of the topic sentence, consider the criticisms
that have been made of the topic sentence in the 20th century, and then,
drawing upon readability research that discusses the topic sentence and
schema theory, argue that this kind of research supports the value of using
topic sentences in expository prose.

Frank J. D’Angelo is Professor of English at Arizona State University. A past chair of
CCCC, he is the author of numerous essays on composing and on rhetorical theory, and of a
textbook, Process and Thought in Composition.

College Composition and Communication, Vol. 37, No. 4, December 1986 431

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432 College Composition and Communication

Origin and Development of the Concept of the Topic Sentence

In his text English Composition and Rhetoric, Alexander Bain does not use the
term topic sentence to refer to the sentence within the paragraph that states the
main idea. Bain conceives of a paragraph as “a collection of sentences with
unity of purpose” (108) which “handles and exhausts a distinct topic” (108).
But in his discussion of the principles that govern the construction of the
paragraph, he presents the reader with a concept very much like that of the
traditional topic sentence: “The opening sentence,” he writes, “unless so con-
structed as to be obviously preparatory, is expected to indicate with promi-
nence the subject of the Paragraph” (116).
Like Alexander Bain, A. D. Hepburn does not use the term topic sentence to

refer to the sentence that states the main idea in a paragraph. Since Hepburn
considers “the general laws governing the construction of a paragraph” to be
“the same as those governing the composition of an entire discourse” (147), he
uses the word theme to refer to the main idea. (Although Hepburn uses the
word theme in his discussion of the paragraph, he means by it what later writ-
ers call the topic sentence.) Hepburn seems to have been the first rhetorician to
discuss the placement of the topic sentence in the paragraph. Although he
concedes that the topic sentence is not always stated explicitly in the para-
graph, he maintains that it may be stated in a brief sentence near the begin-
ning of the paragraph or withheld until the end of the paragraph. It may also
be stated at the beginning and repeated at the end for emphasis (153). In ad-
dition to Hepburn, there were a number of 19th-century rhetoricians who dis-
cussed the placement of the topic sentence in the paragraph, calling it by that
term. These include David Hill (73), Albert Raub (18 1), John F. Genung
(196, 197), and Sarah Lockwood and Mary Emerson (240-243).
John McElroy seems to have been the first rhetorician to “label” the main

idea of the paragraph the topic sentence. In his text The Structure of English Prose,
McElroy writes: “Unity requires that every statement in the paragraph be sub-
servient to one principal affirmation. This principal affirmation is, of course,
the topic-sentence, which sets forth the subject of the paragraph” (216).
More often than not, the discussion of the topic sentence emerges from a

discussion of paragraph unity. For example, in her discussion of the paragraph,
Virginia Waddy gives this kind of advice to the composer of paragraphs:

In order that a paragraph shall possess the quality of unity, it is requisite
that the sentence composing it shall relate, each and all, to the one defi-
nite division of the subject which they illustrate and explain. A paragraph
should have but a single theme-one central thought,-and all digressions
from this principal thought should be excluded. No sentence has any
right to a position in connection with others, unless it is closely related to
the preceding sentence or to the one following (256).

Barrett Wendell is more direct: “A paragraph has unity when you can state its
substance in a single sentence; otherwise it is very apt to lack it” (124).

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 433

In almost all of the early discussions of the paragraph in 19th-century text-
books, the term topic sentence is seldom used. Some textbook writers refer to it
as the theme of the paragraph; others, as the main thought; still others, as the
main sentence. The term topic sentence does not begin to appear with any frequen-
cy until the end of the century. Fred Newton Scott and Joseph Villiers Den-
ney, in their text Paragraph Writing: A Rhetoric for Colleges, devote several
pages to a discussion of the topic sentence and to its position in the paragraph.
However, they use the term topic-statement to refer to the sentence that an-
nounces the main idea of the paragraph (28-34). In his text Composition and
Rhetoric, William Williams uses the term almost incidentally: “Sometimes one
or more sentences at the beginning of a paragraph are intended to connect it
with the one that precedes, or to prepare the way for the topic sentence”
(146). Finally, in their composition textbook, Sara E. H. Lockwood and Mary
Alice Emerson not only give a full presentation of the topic sentence, but they
also italicize the term to give it its proper importance:

Since every paragraph is the development of a single topic, it must have a
clearly defined central idea upon which every one of its sentences directly
bears. This central idea is usually expressed definitely in one of the sen-
tences of the paragraph, called the topic-sentence (240).

From 1902 until the mid-20th century, the treatment of the topic sentence in
composition textbooks seems to be merely a repetition of the theoretical ideas
articulated in the middle and late 19th century.

Criticisms of the Topic Sentence

In the mid-20th century, however, some textbook writers and scholars began
to question not only the efficacy of the topic sentence, but even its existence.
For example, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren maintained:

It is frequently said that every paragraph contains a topic sentence, stated
or implied. A more accurate statement, however, is that some paragraphs
have topic sentences and that others do not; for an “implied” topic sen-
tence is one which the reader must construct for himself as a way of sum-
marizing the paragraph in question. Obviously any piece of composition
possessing even a minimum of unity may be summed up in some kind of
sentence. The “implied” topic sentence, therefore, is an abstraction-a
not very useful kind of ghost sentence (220).

Harold C. Martin and Richard M. Ohmann put the matter more forcefully:

The topic sentence (or thesis statement, as it is sometimes called) is a
more or less fictitious entity. It does sometimes make an appearance in so
many words, of course, but fully as often it is not something written but
what is meant by what has been written. That is, the topic sentence is
something a reader extracts from a paragraph and something a writer has
in mind as the unity he wants to achieve. The schoolboy notion of a topic
sentence as the big firecracker, from which a string of little firecrackers is
ignited, has little relationship to the truth (207).

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434 College Composition and Communication

Leo Rockas not only rejected the concept of the topic sentence, but the con-
cept of the paragraph itself. “There is no basic unit larger than the sentence,”
he argued:

The paragraph is an arbitrary and conventional unit, susceptible of exten-
sive editorial tampering. Indeed, in recording conversations, the para-
graph has not even a conventional status. There the unit is the “line”-
not the poetic or typographical line, but “those chunks of talk that are
marked off by a shift of speaker.” The paragraph is no more bounded
than this “line” or “utterance unit,” and includes, according to the whim
of author or editor, one to any number of sentences. … the paragraph is
simply a convenient grouping of sentences. In a progression of sentences a
few places will be more suited to indentations than others, but you can
justify an indentation before almost any sentence of sophisticated prose
(6).

One of the earliest scholarly articles to criticize the deductive origins of
19th-century paragraph theory was Paul Rodgers’ essay “Alexander Bain and
the Rise of the Organic Paragraph.” After briefly tracing the development of a
paragraph theory, Rodgers complained:

At this point the modern paragraph fully emerges: an organic structure
distinguished by the qualities of unity, coherence, emphasis; devoted to
the amplification and enforcement of the single idea announced in its top-
ic sentence; composed of sentences organically conceived; and itself par-
ticipating in the larger organic structure of the discourse. Bain’s “collec-
tion of sentences with unity of purpose” may seem a far cry from the
foregoing prescription, but his influence and ultimate responsibility for
its formulation is clear-as, too, is his responsibility for placing 20th
century paragraph rhetoric in a deductive cage, from which it has yet to
extricate itself (408).

One of the most severe critics of the concept of the topic sentence was Vir-
ginia Burke. In her article “The Paragraph: Dancer in Chains,” after briefly
reviewing recent theories of paragraph theory, she concluded: “Where are we,
then, in our understanding of the paragraph? Not much further than our col-
leagues were seventy years ago” (42). Then she continued:

Our problem is dramatized, I think in our confusions over the term
topic sentence. To some, topic sentence is synonymous with thesis sentence, a
term too narrow and demanding to dominate practice; indeed, it does not
dominate practice outside the classroom. To others, topic sentence is widely
inclusive, ranging from those sentences which express the major idea of
the paragraph to those sentences which merely signal some sort of
change. This is stretching the familiar meaning of topic quite a bit it
seems. To still others, topic sentence means “top” sentence, which, in turn,
may have no other meaning than “first”-the first sentence in the para-
graph-or may mean “topic sentence” expressing the main idea. Aware of
these ambiguities, we have added a few more terms: introductory and tran-
sitional … At the end of a paragraph which, before we took it out of
context, was probably related to a larger field of meaning, we struggle to
find a concluding sentence and grieve when it is not there. Many para-
graphs do not conclude much of any thing. But we want them to (42).

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 435

In his essay “A Generative Rhetoric or the Paragraph,” Francis Christensen
was equally severe in his criticism of the traditional concept of the topic sen-
tence:

The chapters on the paragraph in our textbooks are so nearly alike in
conception that one could almost say that, apart from the examples, the
only striking difference is in the choice of . . . indention. The prescription
is always the same: the writer should work out a topic sentence and then
choose one of the so-called methods of paragraph development to substan-
tiate it. The topic sentence may appear at the beginning or at the end of
the paragraph or anywhere in between, or it may be merely “implied,” a
sort of ectoplasmic ghost hovering over the paragraph (54).

Finally, Richard Braddock’s often-cited study “The Frequency and Place-
ment of Topic Sentences in Expository Prose” seemed to put the proverbial
nail in the coffin of the concept of the topic sentence. After examining a
number of expository paragraphs in a sampling of contemporary professional
writers, Braddock discovered that fewer than half of the paragraphs had ex-
plicit topic sentences, that only 13% began with a topic sentence, and that
only 3% ended with a topic sentence (299-301). However, what many teach-
ers of composition have overlooked was Braddock’s surprising conclusion:

This sample of contemporary professional writing . . . does not at all
mean that composition teachers should stop showing their students how
to develop paragraphs from clear topic sentences. Far from it. In my
opinion, often the writing in the 25 essays would have been clearer and
more comfortable to read if the paragraphs had presented more explicit
topic sentences. But what this study does suggest is this: While helping
students use clear topic sentences in their writing and identify variously
presented topical ideas in their reading, the teacher should not pretend
that professional writers largely follow the practices he is advocating
(301).

Readability Research on the Topic Sentence

Braddock’s study appeared in the winter of 1974, just when reading research
was beginning to support the value of using topic sentences in expository
prose. (To readability researchers, the topic sentence is the sentence within the
paragraph that states the main idea.) For example, in their study “Effects of a
Superordinate Context on Learning and Retention of Facts,” Robert Gagne
and Virginia Wiegand report that topic sentences can influence the way a
reader will process the sentences that follow in a paragraph. The topic sen-
tence not only acts as an advance organizer of the ideas in a paragraph, but it
also helps the reader to remember the content of the paragraph (409).

In his article “Perceiving the Structure of Written Materials,” James
Coomber argues that readers who read each paragraph in an essay, sentence by
sentence, without regard for the main idea of that paragraph or some larger
structural pattern, may recall details, but miss the main ideas that the para-

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436 College Composition and Communication

graphs are trying to convey. His study investigated the ability of college stu-
dents to perceive main ideas in paragraphs (264-265). And in his study of the
reading comprehension of sixth grade students, Mark Aulls discloses that the
students who read paragraphs containing topic sentences obtained higher re-
call scores than those who read paragraphs that contained no topic sentences
(391).

In two separate studies investigating the location of topic sentences in para-
graphs, John Richards (599) and Paul Clements (8-9) report that readers re-
member more of what they read when topic sentences are placed first in the
paragraph. They reasoned that topic sentences prepare the memories of readers
to receive the subsequent ideas. In her study of the reading comprehension of
college students, Ann Fishman reaches a similar conclusion. When topic sen-
tences are placed in the initial position in paragraphs, they simplify the men-
tal operations of the reader because the reader knows in advance the content of
the paragraphs (159-169).
In a series of articles dealing with his research on reading comprehension,

David Kieras argues for the importance of global coherence in constructing
paragraphs and longer stretches of discourse. Good paragraphs, according to
Kieras, contain topic sentences in initial position in the paragraph, followed
by connected, coherent sentences. Good essays contain both global topics that
help to organize the entire discourse and paragraph topics that help to orga-
nize the individual paragraphs. Bad paragraph construction results in longer
reading time, lower recall of the content of passages, and an inability to grasp
the main ideas in paragraphs and other units. If, in constructing a text, a
writer does not present readers with topic sentences or some other form of top-
ical propositional structure, then they must engage in the time-consuming
process of making inferences and constructing topical propositions of their
own.

Readability Research and Schema Theory

Readability research, then, shows the value of topic sentences in organizing
paragraphs; research in schema theory demonstrates the importance of verbal
schemata and macropropositions in organizing complete texts. According to
this theory, a schema is a mental representation of concepts stored in memory.
A verbal schema is a network of propositions that is abstract and general and
that is stored in long-term memory. These schemata influence the way we per-
ceive and remember things. To schema theorists, reading comprehension re-
quires skill in following the organization of a passage. Understanding the con-
tent of a passage will be more complete if the reader has a general idea of the
author’s intention. One of the most important ways of signaling that intention
is by supplying the reader with an appropriate frame of reference so that new
information can be related to information the reader already possesses. Cog-
nitive psychologists call the kind of organizational framework on which the
content of a passage is built a macrostructure.

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 437

A macrostructure is an organizational pattern consisting of the most abstract
and general sentences in a discourse. These sentences are called macroproposi-
tions. Macropropositions resemble topic sentences in many respects. Like topic
sentences, they express main ideas. Like topic sentences, they divide a dis-
course into meaningful units. Like topic sentences, they can be directly ex-
pressed in a discourse, or they can be inferred from the semantic content of a
passage. Unlike topic sentences, however, they more frequently organize
chunks or sections of a discourse, rather than individual paragraphs. Mac-
ropropositions are usually higher-level propositions than topic sentences, but
in a specific context, a macroproposition and a topic sentence may be one and
the same thing. (These are relative rather than absolute distinctions, of course.
If a topic sentence helps to organize not only the specific paragraph in which
it has been placed, but also the paragraphs that follow, then it serves as a mac-
roproposition in that particular discourse.) If a writer does not use a mac-
rostructure to organize a text or uses an organizational pattern that is not easi-
ly identifiable, or is inefficient, then the reader must impose a pattern on the
text. The result may be a longer reading time, difficulty in understanding the
text, and poorer retention of the text content.
Many of the early studies that deal with macrostructures and text com-

prehension have to do with summarizing stories. However, the studies con-
ducted by Bonnie Meyer and her associates focus almost exclusively on ex-
pository prose. In these studies, Meyer and her associates argue for the use of
macropropositions as a means of clearly signaling the author’s intention. These
macropropositions function in a discourse much as topic sentences do. Not
only do they divide a piece of writing into meaningful units, but they also
summarize the main ideas of these units.

In one study, Meyer and her co-researchers gave 102 ninth grade students
passages of expository prose to read. One passage was organized by comparison
and contrast; the other, by means of problem and solution. Further, one ver-
sion of each text had a clearly defined organizational pattern in the form of a
global macrostructure appropriately signaled to the reader. This macrostruc-
ture consisted of a sequence of macropropositions which, like the topic sen-
tences they resemble, summarized the main ideas of the paragraph or para-
graphs that followed. The other version did not have a clearly defined
organizational plan, nor did it contain topic sentences or macropropositions
(82-96).

The students participating in this study were divided into groups of good,
average, and poor readers on the basis of reading achievement tests. After
reading one version of each passage, they were asked to write down all they
could remember in their own words. In addition, they took a recognition test
consisting of sentences taken directly from the text, paraphrases of such sen-
tences, inferences, and statements completely unrelated to the text. Students
who tested high in reading comprehension tended to use top-level sentences and
global structures similar to those used by the author of the passage to organize
their own recall protocols. Students with low reading comprehension skills did

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438 College Composition and Communication

not. Students who used the top-level structure of the text recalled more infor-
mation than those who did not. These top level structures, like the topic sen-
tences in the Gagne and Wiegand study, acted as advance organizers of the
ideas in the subsequent paragraphs and helped the students to remember the
content of the passages read (82-96).
In a related study, Brendan Bartlett gave ninth-grade students two passages

of expository text to read and to recall. One passage was organized by means
of comparison and contrast. The other had an attributive (description) organi-
zational pattern. In this study, one group of students was taught to identify
comparison and contrast and attributive top-level structures and to use them
to organize their recalls. A second group was not given formal instruction in
the use of these patterns. The result was that students who were given formal
instruction in the use of top-level structures recalled more than students who
were not. Further, after a delay period of three weeks, the students given for-
mal instruction could still use the strategies they had learned and could recall
more of the text than students who were not given formal instruction (42-53,
128-129). As in the study by Meyer and her associates, in this study the top-
level sentences enabled students to remember more of what they read and to
organize their recalls more effectively.
Harriet Salatas Waters, in a more recent study, asked 48 college students to

read and then to recall short passages of description. In addition, they had to
rank the sentences on the basis of their relative importance in the text. Half of
the students rated the macropropositions the most important. One-fourth saw
no relationship between rank and importance. However, according to Waters,
all of the students recalled the macropropositions (those sentences which sum-
marized the main ideas of single paragraphs or a sequence of paragraphs) bet-
ter than they could recall the subordinate sentences (294-299).
Finally, in a study conducted by Raymond Guindon and Walter Kintsch,

subjects were asked to read paragraphs which contained macropropositions
that summarized text content. They were then given a word recognition test
consisting of pairs of words, two from the macropropositions (the topic-
sentence-like summarizing statements) and two from the micropropositions
(the sentences that supplied the supporting details). Subjects remembered
more words from the macropropositions than from the micropropositions. Fur-
ther, their responses to the words taken from the macropropositions were fast-
er and more correct than were their responses to word pairs taken from subor-
dinate statements (508). In sum, all of these studies support the value of what
is conventionally called the topic sentence.

Implications for the Teaching of Writing

What, then, does this survey reveal about the usefulness of the topic sentence
in the teaching of writing? Readability research demonstrates that if writers
use topic sentences or macropropositions to divide a text into meaningful units
and to summarize the main ideas in the paragraphs that follow, then their

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The Topic Sentence Revisited 439

readers will recall more of what they have read and will read more efficiently
(i.e., read faster) than they would if writers presented the same information in
a less organized or random fashion. In brief, topic sentences and mac-
ropropositions can help writers to organize their ideas more effectively and
readers to follow the logical development of the writer’s thoughts.
If we base the teaching of writing on the way people actually write (i.e., on

rhetorical performance), then the topic sentence will be of limited use in the
teaching of writing, since many professional writers do not use topic sen-
tences. But if we base our teaching on what people can accomplish with lan-
guage (i.e. on rhetorical competence), as it seems to me 19th-century com-
position theorists did, then the topic sentence can be a useful resource that
writers can turn to if the need arises. What human beings can accomplish
through language is not circumscribed by their previous performances. Al-
though these performances may constitute the history of their use of that abil-
ity, they do not establish its limits.
I am not suggesting that we should tell students that every paragraph must

have a topic sentence or that all topic sentences should be placed in the initial
position in paragraphs. What I am suggesting, however, is that if the occa-
sion, audience, intention, and kind of discourse warrant it (as, for example, in
some kinds of expository writing whose aim is to give clear directions or ad-
vice for a general audience), then students might profitably use topic sentences
or macropropositions or some other form of explicit representation of global
structure to organize their writing. Since composition characteristically deals
with the discovery of the available means of exposition and persuasion, it
makes little sense not to teach the available means simply because some writ-
ers don’t choose to avail themselves of those means.

Works Consulted

Aulls, Mark W. “Expository Paragraph Properties That Influence Literal Recall.” Journal of
Reading Behavior, 7 (Winter, 1975), 391-399.

Bain, Alexander. English Composition and Rhetoric. London: Longmans, 1868.

Bartlett, Brendan John. Top-Level Structure as an Organizational Strategy for Recall of Classroom
Text. Research Report No. 1. Arizona State University, 1978.

Braddock, Richard. “The Frequency and Placement of Topic Sentences in Expository
Prose.” Research in the Teaching of English, 8 (Winter, 1974), 287-302.

Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren. Modern Rhetoric. Shorter ed. New York: Har-
court, 1961.

Burke, Virginia M. “The Paragraph: Dancer in Chains.” Rhetoric: Theories for Application.
Ed. Robert M. Gorrell. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, pp. 37-44.

Christensen, Francis. “A Generative Rhetoric of the Paragraph.” Notes Toward a New Rhet-
oric. New York: Harper, 1967, pp. 52-81.

Clements, Paul. “The Effects of Staging on Recall of Prose.” Reading Research Quarterly, 14
(1978-79), 8-9.

Coomber, James E. “Perceiving the Structure of Written Material.” Research in the Teaching
of English, 9 (Winter, 1975), 263-266.

D’Angelo, Frank J. “Topoi, Paradigms and Rhetorical Enthymemes.” Oldspeak/Newspeak:
Rhetorical Transformations. Ed. Charles W. Kneupper. Arlington, TX: Rhetoric Society, 1985,
pp. 208-216.

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D’Angelo, Frank J. “Topoi and Form in Composition.” The Territory of Language: Linguistics,
Stylistics and the Teaching of Composition. 2nd ed. Ed. Donald McQuade. Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press, 1986.

D’Angelo, Frank

Criminal homework help

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Beccaria Kant Brockway Mabbott
On Crimes and Punishment (1764) Philosophy The American Punishment
of Law (1887) Reformatory (1910) (1939)

Bentham Bentham
Moral Calculus (1789) The Rationale
of Punishment (1830)

ORIGIN

Classical Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Rational Choice Theory (p.92)

Maudsley Tarde Freud
Pathology of Mind Penal General Introduction
(1867) Philosophy to Psychoanalysis
(1912) (1920)

Pinel Healy
Treatise on Insanity (1800) The Individual Deliquent (1915)

Marx Bonger Rusche & Kircheimer
Communist Manifesto (1848) Criminality and Punishment and Social
Economic Structure (1939)
Conditions (1916)

Glueck & Glueck
500 Criminal Careers
(1930)

Mead Sutherland
The Psychology Principles of
of Punitive Justice Criminology
(1917) (1939)
Sutherland Sutherland
Criminology (1924) The Professional
Thief (1937)

Quetelet Durkheim Park, Burgess, Merton
The Propensity The Division of & McKenzie Social Structure
of Crime (1831) Labor in Society The City (1925) and Anomi (1938)
(1893) Shaw et al. (1925)
Delinquency Areas Sellin
Thrasher Culture, Conflict
The Gang (1926) and Crime (1938)

ORIGIN

Positivist Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Biological Trait Theory (p.129)

ORIGIN

Positivist Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Psychological Trait Theory (p.136)

ORIGIN

Marxist Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Critical Criminology (p.232)

ORIGIN

Sociological Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Social Structure Theory (p.158)

ORIGIN

Sociological Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Social Process Theory (p.194)

ORIGIN

Multifactor/Integrated Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Life Course Theory (p.268)

ORIGIN

Multifactor/Integrated Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Propensity Theory (p.276)

Gall Lombroso Garofalo Kretschmer Hooton
Cranioscopy/Phrenology Criminal Man Criminology Physique and American
(1800) (1863) (1885) Character (1921) Criminal (1939)

Dugdale Ferri Goring
The Jukes Criminal The English Convict (1913)
(1877) Sociology (1884)

Timeline of Criminological Theories

1775 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1939

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Andenaes Martinson Cohen & Felson Clarke
General Preventive Effects What Works (1974) Routine Activities (1979) Situational Crime Prevention (1992)
of Punishment (1966)

Packer Newman J. Q. Wilson Katz
The Limits of Criminal Defensible Thinking About Crime (1975) Seductions of Crime (1988)
Sanction (1968) Space (1973)

Montagu Jeffery E. O. Wilson Mednick & Volavka Rowe Harris
Man and Crime Sociobiology (1975) Biology and Crime (1980) The Limits of The Nurture
Aggression Prevention Family Influence Assumption (1998)
(1968) (1971) (1995)

Sheldon Dalton Ellis
Varieties of Delinquent Youth (1949) The Premenstrual Syndrome (1971) Evolutionary Sociobiology (1989)

Friedlander Eysenck Bandura Hirschi & Hindelang Henggeler Moffitt Wilson & Daly
Psychoanalytic Crime and Aggression (1973) Intelligence and Delinquency in Neuropsychology Evolutionary Psychology
Approach to Personality (1964) Delinquency (1977) Adolescence (1989) of Crime (1992) (1997)
Delinquency (1947)
Murray & Herrnstein
The Bell Curve (1994)

Vold Chambliss & Seidman Lea & Young Hagan Braithwaite Zehr & Mika
Theoretical Criminology Law, Order and Power (1971) Left Realism (1984) Structural Criminology (1989) Crime, Shame, and Fundamental Concepts of
(1958) Reintegration (1989) Restorative Justice (1998)

Dahrendorf Taylor, Walton, & Young Daly & Chesney-Lind Quinney & Pepinsky Barak & Henry
Class and Class Conflict The New Criminology Feminist Theory Criminology as An Integrative-Constitutive
in Industrial Society (1959) (1973) (1988) Peacemaking (1991) Theory of Crime (1999)

Cloward & Ohlin Kornhauser Wilson Agnew Courtwright Anderson
Delinquency and Opportunity Social Sources The Truly General Strain Theory Violent Land (1996) Code of the Street
(1960) of Delinquency (1978) Disadvantaged (1987) (1992) (1999)

Lewis Blau & Blau Messner & Rosenfeld LaFree
The Culture of Poverty (1966) The Cost of Inequality (1982) Crime and the American Losing Legitimacy
Dream (1994) (1998)

Lemert Hirschi Schur Akers Kaplan Akers
Social Causes of Labeling Deviant Deviant Behavior (1977) General Theory Social Learning and
Pathology (1951) Delinquency (1969) Behavior (1972) of Deviance (1992) Social Structure (1998)

Becker Heimer & Matsueda
Outsiders (1963) Differential Social Control (1994)

Glueck & Glueck West & Farrington Thornberry Sampson & Laub Loeber
Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency Delinquent Way of Life Interactional Crime in the Making (1993) Pathways to Delinquency
(1950) (1977) Theory (1987) (1998)

Weis Moffitt
Social Development Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course
Theory (1981) Persistent Antisocial Behavior (1995)

Hathaway & Monachesi Wolfgang, Figlio, & Sellin Wilson & Herrnstein Tittle
Analyzing and Predicting Delinquency in Birth Cohorts Crime and Human Control Balance: Toward a General
Juvenile Delinquency (1972) Nature (1985) Theory of Deviance (1995)
with the MMPI (1953)
Eysenck Gottfredson & Hirschi
Crime and Personality General Theory of Crime (1990)
(1964)

1947 1969 1975 1980 1991 1995 1997 1998

Timeline of Criminological Theories (continued)

Colvin Farrington Zimmerman, Botchkovar,
Crime and Coercion (2000) “Developmental and Life-Course Antonaccio, & Hughes “Low Self-
Criminology” (2003) Control in ‘Bad’ Neighborhoods” (2015)

Piquero, Farrington, Boutwell, Barnes, Deaton, &
Nagin, & Moffitt Beaver “On the Evolutionary Origins of
Trajectories of Offending (2010) Life-course Persistent Offending” (2013)

Conger
Long-term Consequences of Economic
Hardship on Romantic Relationships (2015)

Laub & Sampson Agnew Larson & Sweeten Bersani & Doherty
Shared Beginnings, Divergent Why Do Criminals Offend? “Breaking Up Is “When the Ties That
Lives (2003) (2005) Hard to Do” (2012) Bind Unwind” (2013)

Topalli “When Being Good Conger
Is Bad: An Expansion of “Family Functioning and Crime” (2014)
Neutralization Theory” (2005)

Maruna
Making Good: How Ex-convicts
Reform and Rebuild Their Lives (2001)

Sampson & Raudenbush LeBlanc Wilson & Taub There Goes the Neighborhood: Wilson
Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods— Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, Racial, Ethnic, and Class Tensions in Four Chicago More Than Just Race (2009)
Does It Lead to Crime? (2001) and Coming of Age in the Bronx (2003) Neighborhoods and Their Meaning for America (2006)

Sullivan & Tifft Western
Restorative Justice (2001) Punishment and Inequality in America (2010)

Hagan and Wymond-Richmond Chesney-Lind & Morash
Darfur and the Crime of Genocide (2009) “Transformative Feminist Criminology” (2013)

Bushman & Anderson Dorn, Volavka &
Media Violence (2001) Johnson “Mental Disorder
and Violence” (2012)

Ellis & Hoskin
“Criminality and the 2D:4D Ratio: Testing
the Prenatal Androgen Hypothesis” (2015)

Schoenthaler Friedman Beaver Wright & Cullen Barnes & Jacobs
Intelligence, Academic Performance, “Violence and Mental Biosocial Criminology (2009) “The Future of Biosocial “Genetic Risk for Violent
and Brain Function (2000) Illness” (2006) Criminology” (2012) Behavior” (2013)

Lott Felson Steffensmeier & Ulmer Simon Petrossian & Clarke
More Guns, Less Crime (2000) Crime and Everyday Life Confessions of a Dying Thief: Understanding Governing Through Crime (2010) “The CRAVED Theft Model” (2014)
(2002) Criminal Careers and Illegal Enterprise (2005)

Levitt
Understanding Why
Crime Fell in the 1990s (2004)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2016

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CRIMINOLOGY
THE CORE

Larry J. Siegel
University of Massachusetts, Lowell

7

Australia ● Brazil ● Mexico ● Singapore ● United Kingdom ● United States

EDITION

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formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for
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requests online at

Cengage

USA

Criminology: The Core,
Larry J. Siegel

Meier

Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2017

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This book is dedicated to

my children, Eric, Julie, Rachel, and Andrew;

my grandchildren, Jack, Brooke, and Kayla Jean;

my sons-in-law, Jason Macy and Patrick Stephens;

and my wife, partner, and best friend, Therese J. Libby.

L. J. S.

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LARRY J. SIEGEL was born in the Bronx. While liv-
ing on Jerome Avenue and attending City College of

New York in the 1960s, he was swept up in the social

and political currents of the time. He became intrigued

with the influence contemporary culture had on

individual behavior: Did people shape society, or did

society shape people? He applied his interest in social

forces and human behavior to the study of crime and

justice. Graduating from college in 1968, he was accepted into the

first class of the newly opened program in criminal justice at the

State University of New York at Albany, where he earned both

his MA and PhD degrees. Dr. Siegel began his teaching career at

Northeastern University, where he was a faculty member for nine

years. He also held teaching positions at the University of Nebraska–

Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire before being

appointed a full professor in the School of Criminology and Jus-

tice Studies at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Dr. Siegel

retired from full-time classroom teaching in 2015 and now teaches

exclusively online. He has written extensively in the area of crime

and justice, including books on juvenile law, delinquency, criminol-

ogy, criminal justice, corrections, and criminal procedure. He is a

court-certified expert on police conduct and has testified in numer-

ous legal cases. The father of four and grandfather of three, Larry

Siegel and his wife, Terry, now reside in Naples, Florida, with their

two dogs, Watson and Cody.

Therese J. Libby and Larry J. Siegel

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

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PART 1 Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology

Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology 2

Chapter 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 30

Chapter 3 Victims and Victimization 64

PART 2 Theories of Crime Causation

Chapter 4 Rational Choice Theory 98

Chapter 5 Trait Theory 132

Chapter 6 Social Structure Theory 170

Chapter 7 Social Process Theory 210

Chapter 8 Social Conflict, Critical Criminology, and Restorative
Justice 248

Chapter 9 Developmental Theories: Life Course, Propensity,
and Trajectory 284

PART 3 Crime Typologies

Chapter 10 Violent Crime 318

Chapter 11 Political Crime and Terrorism 366

Chapter 12 Economic Crimes: Blue-Collar, White-Collar,
and Green-Collar 404

Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes 444

Chapter 14 Crimes of the New Millennium: Cybercrime and Transnational
Organized Crime 488

Brief Contents

v

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Preface xv

PART 1

Concepts of Crime, Law,
and Criminology

CHAPTER 1

Crime and Criminology 2

What Criminologists Do: The Elements
of Criminology 4
Criminal Statistics/Crime Measurement 4

Sociology of Law/Law and Society/Sociolegal Studies 5

Developing Theories of Crime Causation 6

Explaining Criminal Behavior 7

Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections 7

Victimology 8

A Brief History of Criminology 8
Classical Criminology 9

Positivist Criminology 9

Sociological Criminology 10

Conflict Criminology 11

Developmental Criminology 12

Contemporary Criminology 12

Deviant or Criminal? How Criminologists
Define Crime 13
Becoming Deviant 14

The Concept of Crime 15

Jo
e

Ra
ed

le
/G

et
ty

Im
ag

es
N

ew
s/

G
et

ty
Im

ag
es

Profiles in Crime
A SHOOTING IN FERGUSON 16

A Definition of Crime 17

Criminology and the Criminal Law 17
Common Law 18

Contemporary Criminal Law 18

The Evolution of Criminal Law 19

Criminology and Criminal Justice 19
The Criminal Justice System 20

The Process of Justice 21

Policies and Issues in Criminology
HATE CRIME IN GEORGIA 23

Ethical Issues in Criminology 24

CHAPTER 2

The Nature and Extent
of Crime 30

Primary Sources of Crime Data 32
Official Records: The Uniform Crime Report 32

NIBRS: The Future of the Uniform Crime Report 35

Survey Research 35

The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 35

Self-Report Surveys 36

Evaluating Crime Data 38

Crime Trends 39
Contemporary Trends 40

Trends in Victimization 41

Ch
ris

tia
n

Po
ve

da
/A

ge
nc

e
VU

/R
ed

ux

Contents

vii

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viii CONTENTS

Policies and Issues in Criminology
INTERNATIONAL CRIME TRENDS 42

Policies and Issues in Criminology
EXPLAINING TRENDS IN CRIME RATES 44

What the Future Holds 46

Policies and Issues in Criminology
ARE IMMIGRANTS CRIME PRONE? 47

Crime Patterns 48
Place, Time, Season, Climate 48

Co-Offending and Crime 49

Gender and Crime 49

Race and Crime 51

Use of Firearms 52

Social Class and Crime 53

Unemployment and Crime 54

Age and Crime 54

Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers 55
What Causes Chronicity? 56

Implications of the Chronic Offender Concept 56

CHAPTER 3

Victims and Victimization 64

The Victim’s Role 66

The Costs of Victimization 66
Societal-Level Costs 66

Individual-Level Costs 67

Legal Costs of Victimization 69

Policies and Issues in Criminology
THE IMPACT OF WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS ON
CRIME VICTIMS 70

The Nature of Victimization 72
The Social Ecology of Victimization 72

The Victim’s Household 73

Victim Characteristics 73

Policies and Issues in Criminology
ELDER VICTIMS 74

A
P

Im
ag

es
/J

im
C

ol
e

Victims and Their Criminals 78

Theories of Victimization 78
Victim Precipitation Theory 78

Lifestyle Theories 79

Deviant Place Theory 81

Routine Activities Theory 82

Caring for the Victim 84
Victim Service Programs 85

Victims’ Rights 89

Victim Advocates 89

Self-Protection 89

PART 2
Theories of Crime Causation

CHAPTER 4

Rational Choice Theory 98

Development of Rational Choice
Theory 100

Concepts of Rational Choice 101
Evaluating the Risks of Crime 101

Offense-Specific/Offender-Specific 102

Structuring Criminality 103

Structuring Crime 104

Is Crime Truly Rational? 106
Is Drug Use Rational? 106

Profiles in Crime
PLANNING TO STEAL 107

Is Violence Rational? 108

Is Hate Crime Rational? 108

Is Sex Crime Rational? 109

Analyzing Rational Choice Theory 109

Situational Crime Prevention 110
Crime Prevention Strategies 111

Evaluating Situational Crime Prevention 113

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ixCONTENTS

General Deterrence 114
Perception and Deterrence 114

Marginal and Restrictive Deterrence 114

Punishment and Deterrence 115

Policies and Issues in Criminology
DOES THE DEATH PENALTY DISCOURAGE
MURDER? 116

Evaluating General Deterrence 118

Specific Deterrence 119
Toughen Punishment? 119

Incapacitation 120

Policies and Issues in Criminology
RACIAL DISPARITY IN STATE PRISONS 122

Criminal Justice and Rational
Choice Theory 123

Police and Rational Choice Theory 123

Courts, Sentencing, and Rational Choice Theory 123

Corrections and Rational Choice Theory 124

CHAPTER 5

Trait Theory 132

Development of Trait Theory 134

Contemporary Trait Theory 135
Individual Vulnerability vs. Differential

Susceptibility 136

Biological Trait Theories 136
Biochemical Conditions and Crime 137

Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime 139

Genetics and Crime 142

Evolutionary Views of Crime 143

Psychological Trait View 144
The Psychodynamic Perspective 145

The Behavioral Perspective: Social Learning Theory 145

Policies and Issues in Criminology
VIOLENT MEDIA/VIOLENT BEHAVIOR? 146

Cognitive Theory 149

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Personality and Crime 150

Policies and Issues in Criminology
CRIMINAL SUSCEPTIBILITY 151

Psychopathic/Antisocial Personality 151

Profiles in Crime
THE ICEMAN: A TRUE SOCIOPATH 153

Intelligence and Criminality 154

Mental Disorders and Crime 155
Crime and Mental Illness 155

Profiles in Crime
ADAM LANZA AND THE NEWTOWN MASSACRE 157

Evaluation of Trait Theory 157

Social Policy and Trait Theory 158

Policy and Issues in Criminology
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY 159

CHAPTER 6

Social Structure Theory 170

Economic Structure and American Society 172
Living in Poverty 172

Child Poverty 173

Minority Group Poverty 173

Problems of the Lower Class 174

Social Structure and Crime 175

Policies and Issues in Criminology
LABOR’S LOVE LOST 176

Social Structure Theories 177

Social Disorganization Theory 177
The Work of Shaw and McKay 178

The Social Ecology School 180

Collective Efficacy 183

Strain Theories 186
Theory of Anomie 186

Institutional Anomie Theory 187

Relative Deprivation Theory 188

General Strain Theory (GST) 189

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Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Cultural Deviance Theory 192
Focal Concerns 192

Policies and Issues in Criminology
THE CODE OF THE STREETS 194

Theory of Delinquent Subculture 195

Theory of Differential Opportunity 197

Social Structure Theory and Public Policy 198
Broken Windows 199

CHAPTER 7

Social Process Theory 210

Institutions of Socialization 213
Family Relations 213

Educational Experience 215

Peer Relations 216

Religion and Belief 217

Social Learning Theories 218
Differential Association Theory 218

Profiles in Crime
THE AFFLUENZA CASE 221

Differential Reinforcement Theory 222

Neutralization Theory 222

Policies and Issues in Criminology
WHITE-COLLAR NEUTRALIZATION 225

Evaluating Learning Theories 226

Social Control Theory 226
Hirschi’s Social Control Theory 226

Testing Social Control Theory: Supportive Research 228

Critiquing Social Control Theory 229

Social Reaction (Labeling) Theory 230
Consequences of Labeling 231

Primary and Secondary Deviance 233

Criminal Careers 233

Differential Enforcement 234

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Long-Term Effects of Labeling 234

Is Labeling Theory Valid? 235

Social Process Theory and Public Policy 236

CHAPTER 8

Social Conflict, Critical
Criminology, and Restorative
Justice 248

Origins of Critical Criminology 250
Critical Criminology in the United States 252

Contemporary Critical Criminology 253

How Critical Criminologists
Define Crime 253

How Critical Criminologists View the Cause
of Crime 254
Failing Social Institutions 255

Globalization 255

State-Organized Crime 257

Policies and Issues in Criminology
ARE WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS A STATE
CRIME? 260

Instrumental vs. Structural Theory 261
Instrumental Theory 261

Profiles in Crime
RUSSIAN STATE-ORGANIZED CRIME 262

Structural Theory 263

Research on Critical Criminology 263
Race and Justice 263

Alternative Views of Critical Theory 264
Left Realism 264

Policies and Issues in Criminology
LEFT REALISM AND TERROR 265

Critical Feminist Theory: Gendered Criminology 266

Power–Control Theory 269

Peacemaking Criminology 270

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x CONTENTS

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Critical Theory and Public Policy: Restorative
Justice 271
The Concept of Restorative Justice 271

Reintegrative Shaming 272

The Process of Restoration 273

The Challenge of Restorative Justice 276

CHAPTER 9

Developmental Theories:
Life Course, Propensity,
and Trajectory 284

Foundations of Developmental Theory 286
Three Views of Criminal Career Development 287

Population Heterogeneity vs. State Dependence 288

Life Course Theory 289
Age of Onset 290

Problem Behavior Syndrome 291

Continuity of Crime 291

Age-Graded Theory 292

Policies and Issues in Criminology
HUMAN AGENCY, PERSONAL ASSESSMENT, CRIME,
AND DESISTANCE 296

Social Schematic Theory (SST) 297

Policies and Issues in Criminology
SHARED BEGINNINGS, DIVERGENT LIVES 298

Latent Trait/Propensity Theory 300
Crime and Human Nature 300

General Theory of Crime (GTC) 301

Trajectory Theory 304
Age and Offending Trajectories 304

Personality and Offending Trajectories 305

Chronic Offe

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https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=rpxm20

Public Management Review

ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rpxm20

Job satisfaction of public sector middle managers
in the process of NPM change

David Pick & Stephen T. T. Teo

To cite this article: David Pick & Stephen T. T. Teo (2017) Job satisfaction of public sector middle
managers in the process of NPM change, Public Management Review, 19:5, 705-724, DOI:
10.1080/14719037.2016.1203012

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1203012

Published online: 11 Jul 2016.

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Job satisfaction of public sector middle managers in the
process of NPM change
David Pick a and Stephen T. T. Teo b

aSchool of Management, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia; bSchool of Management,
RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

ABSTRACT
This study examines how middle managers in public sector organizations
experienced ‘New Public Management’ (NPM)-related change initiatives. Data from
486 Australian middle managers in state public sector agencies are analysed and the
hypothesized model is tested using partial least squares (PLS) structural equations
modelling (SEM) on two samples. The cross-validation model analysis brings a new
focus on middle managers experience of change via the linkages between the
provision of change information, change-induced stressors and the job satisfaction
of employees. The ‘need for information’ is an important element in understanding
the consequences of change.

KEYWORDS Middle managers; job satisfaction; change management; PLS modelling

This study examines how change initiatives associated with New Public Management
(NPM) affects the well-being of middle managers in the Australian public sector. The
characteristics of NPM change well-documented in the literature (e.g. Christensen
and Lægreid 2011) but little is understood about how these changes affect middle
managers. Middle managers are those in the layers at least two levels below CEO with
supervisory responsibility for at least two levels of subordinates (for example line-
workers and professionals) (Hassard, McCann, and Morris 2009; Huy 2001). In this
article, we aim to increase our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of job
satisfaction among middle managers in the process of NPM-inspired change and in
doing so provide insights that are useful to practitioners.

The implementation of NPM reform carries with it the risk of compromising job
satisfaction among public sector workers that in turn has serious implications for the
sector. Research suggests that rise of NPM-inspired change has had a range of
negative effects on public sector managerial work including reduced well-being,
loyalty and job security leading to losses to organizational competence and perfor-
mance (Lindorff, Worrall, and Cooper 2011). Drawing on existing research on
participation and information in change, stress, well-being and job satisfaction in
general, we aim to extend the understanding of how change affects middle managers
in the public sector.

CONTACT Stephen T. T. Teo drstephen.teo@gmail.com
Both authors contributed equally to this article and authorship is arranged in alphabetical order.
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

PUBLIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW, 2017
VOL. 19, NO. 5, 705–724
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1203012

While middle managers in public sector organizations are usually responsible for
initiating and implementing NPM change (Fernandez and Pitts 2007), they are also
subject to it. There are both positive and negative effects of NPM-related change on
middle managers. Positive impacts of NPM-related change included flexibility (e.g.
Moen et al. 2011) while negative effects include work intensification (McCann,
Morris, and Hassard 2008) and an increase in the range of responsibilities (Farrell
and Morris 2013). For middle managers, this has had a number of negative implica-
tions. Workloads and stress have increased (Conway and Monks 2011) as have
working hours, while morale and job satisfaction have decreased (Farrell and
Morris 2013). In spite of these problems, little empirical evidence exists on how
they experience change (Fernandez and Pitts 2007).

It has been argued that middle managers often inhibit organizational change and
should be removed (see Hassard, McCann, and Morris 2009). This perspective is not
entirely accurate (Hassard, McCann, and Morris 2009; Huy 2001). Middle managers
have been found to be critical in ensuring the success of large-scale change (Huy
2002). This is because they can be important in the change process as they make
organizations run and can be a source of new ideas (Osterman 2009). Some effective
middle managers tend to have sound ideas about implementing change, they have
extensive formal and informal networks, they are closely tuned to employee attitudes
and they can act as a moderating influence preventing inertia on the one hand and
chaotic change on the other (Huy 2001).

While the vast majority of research into the effects of change on middle managers
has focused on the private sector, there is a small but growing body of studies of the
public sector. This research is important because public sector workers have a distinct
‘predisposition to respond to motives grounded primarily or uniquely in public
institutions and organizations’ (Perry and Wise 1990, 368). This ‘public service
motivation’ distinguishes public sector workers from their counterparts in the private
sector. The research about the effect of NPM change on public sector middle
managers though remains limited. Conway and Monks (2011) and Currie and
Procter (2005) report that increased workloads and stress among middle managers
and Falkenberg et al. (2009) report change can create feelings of powerlessness and
lower job satisfaction among middle level employees. More needs to be understood
about the impact of NPM-inspired change on the health and attitudes of public sector
middle managers, the people who are generally responsible for its implementation
(Fernandez and Pitts 2007). It is important then to undertake studies into this
important group of public sector workers.

The existing research into middle managers and change in general raises a number
of theoretical and conceptual problems about the nature of change and how change
affects middle managers. In the context of public sector work this study contributes
to furthering our understanding of organizational change and its affects on middle
managers by examining the nature of NPM-inspired change and how the negative
effects of such change can be ameliorated. In this study, we go some way to
delineating the dimensions of NPM-inspired change and their relative significance.
We also find that while the provision of information about change is connected to a
reduction in stressors during change, participation in change is not. This finding
means that we should examine in more detail the connections between stressors,
participation and the provision of information in public change programmes. These
findings are important because they highlight the need to undertake more research

706 D. PICK AND S. T. T. TEO

into middle managers in public sector organizations in general and more specifically
to address the need for more research about how change connects to information and
participation, and in turn how these impact on job satisfaction.

In the remaining sections, we first develop eight hypotheses and a theoretical
model that we use to examine connections between NPM change, participation, the
provision of information, stress, well-being and job satisfaction. In the second sec-
tion, we describe the methods used in the collection and analysis of the data. We then
describe the results of the study and conclude the article with a discussion of the
implications for theory and practice.

Organizational change and participation

NPM change is characterized by devolution and delegation of authority and auton-
omy (Christensen and Lægreid 2011), including privatization (Falkenberg et al.
2009), which is part of the broader shift to ‘post-bureaucratic’ forms of organizations
driven mainly by the need to cut costs as well as increase efficiency and flexibility
(Diefenbach 2009; Farrell and Morris 2013; McCann, Morris, and Hassard 2008).
These changes have included cost reduction, delayering, and redundancy, reorgani-
zation, merger or downsizing, culture change, increased use of temporary and agency
staff, culture change, outsourcing, offshoring, and mergers (Lindorff, Worrall, and
Cooper 2011). In many ways NPM reform has also driven public sector organizations
to mimic practices in the private sector (Hood 1991; Subramaniam et al. 2013). These
trends are evident in a range of public sector contexts including Australia (Lindorff,
Worrall, and Cooper 2011), the United Kingdom (O’Reilly and Reid 2011), the
United States (Yang and Kassekert 2009) and Scandinavia (Ibsen et al. 2011).

Research into public sector organizations suggests that staff participation in
change is closely connected to employee well-being (West et al. 2011). Michie and
West (2004) further found that two important factors that affect organizational
performance are people management (including HR practices and employee involve-
ment) and resulting psychological consequences (including well-being, stress and job
satisfaction). Various studies also suggest that information is closely connected to
participation in change, an important element in the change process (Oreg, Vakola,
and Armenakis 2011; Whelan-Berry and Somerville 2010). Miller, Johnson, and Grau
(1994) argue that change information without participation will not be effective
because participation creates a sense of ownership of the proposed change. Both
participation and information create acceptance and support for change and tend to
lower levels of anxiety among employees (Bordia, Hobman, et al. 2004). Similarly,
Allen et al. (2007) conclude that it is important to connect information with parti-
cipative strategies to assist in the successful implementation of change. Others such as
Lindorff, Worrall, and Cooper (2011) have shown that clear communication is an
important element in improving how organizational change is handled in public
sector organizations. In light of these research findings, we hypothesize:

Participation provides employees with a feeling of empowerment and control in
the change process (Amiot et al. 2006) while change-related communication is also
recognized as allowing change agents to build understanding of the need for change
(Whelan-Berry and Somerville 2010). Hence, during organizational change, relevant
information provides a sense of urgency and updates for employees, which minimizes
negative outcomes associated with organizational change (Amiot et al. 2006; DiFonzo

PUBLIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW 707

and Bordia 1998), and participation increases understanding about change and
commitment to change (Whelan-Berry and Somerville 2010). Therefore, providing
information and encouraging commitment are important and interrelated organiza-
tional resources to be deployed during change (Korunka et al. 2003). Information and
consultation appear to help facilitate change in that information (communication)
and participation (consultation) work together to increase acceptance for change
(Stewart and Kringas 2003). Thus, we hypothesize the following relationships:

Hypothesis 1. Implementation of NPM change initiatives are positively associated with
middle managers’ participation in the change management decision-making processes.

Hypothesis 2. Implementation of NPM change initiatives are positively associated with
the provision of change information to middle managers.

Previous research suggests that NPM-inspired change has various internal and
external dimensions (e.g. Dunford et al. 2007; Ibsen et al. 2011). In our study, we
suggest that internal-focused change includes reduced internal boundaries, reduced
external boundaries, flexible work groups and empowerment while external-focused
change includes disaggregation, outsourcing, short-term staffing, and creating net-
works and alliances.
Studies of change in public sector organizations suggest that it has a direct impact on
stressors and stress (Dahl 2010). For public sector managers increased stress has been
found to result in cynicism, fatigue and burnout (Doyle, Claydon, and Buchanan
2000, S64). Others have shown that organizational change in the public sector results
in an increasing level of change-induced stressors (e.g. Noblet and Rodwell 2009a;
Noblet et al. 2005). While the evidence for the presence of change-induced stressors
is apparent, there is little research about those stressors arising from the specific
organizational conditions within which the change is taking place – the ‘context-
specific’ stressors. Somerfield and McCrae (2000) suggest that such detail is especially
useful in understanding and theorizing about workplace stress. For middle managers,
specifically, research suggests that change affects on this group of workers in parti-
cular ways. These include an intensification of work (McCann, Morris, and Hassard
2008), and increases in the range of responsibilities, working hours, with a corre-
sponding decrease in morale and job satisfaction (Farrell and Morris 2013). In
addition, career prospects have stagnated and entitlements have declined along
with job security, compromising the psychological contract (Hassard, Morris, and
McCann 2012) and employee loyalty (Lindorff, Worrall, and Cooper 2011).

On the other hand, there is evidence that change can have positive effects.
Research suggests that up-skilling, increased responsibility and autonomy, coupled
with increased pay, have improved the workplace for some middle managers
(McCann, Morris, and Hassard 2008). In the wider literature on change, many
contend that positive change is a relevant although sometimes controversial concept.
The concept of positive change has been used to include seizing opportunities for
improvement and motivating people to perform better (Bouckenooghe 2010) as well
as change that focuses on encouraging positive deviance (extraordinary perfor-
mance), virtuousness, affirmative bias, building strengths (Cameron 2008) and diver-
sity (Stevens, Plaut, and Sanchez-Burks 2008). Given the range of research findings
about change and stress, we test the following hypothesis:

708 D. PICK AND S. T. T. TEO

Hypothesis 3. There is an association between the type of NPM change initiative and
change-induced stressors for public sector middle managers.

Change initiatives and change-induced stress

Recent research suggests that stress arising from NPM-inspired change can be
ameliorated through the provision of information about change but the effects of
participation in change are not yet clear (Teo et al. 2016). There are some studies
which examine the association between public sector change and rising stress levels,
lower well-being and rising job dissatisfaction (Diefenbach 2009; Ibsen et al. 2011).
Noblet and Rodwell (2009b) argue that change may be associated with stress but that
good and timely information ameliorates such stress. Inadequate consultation during
change management creates a negative workplace environment for line managers
(Noblet et al. 2005). The lack of consultation, both in terms of participation and
provision of information, could lead to a sense of managers losing control over the
situation. Since information and participation are closely connected, we hypothesize
that on-going access to information and input into decision-making is closely
associated with the extent of the stressful working conditions that arise during
change. Thus we hypothesize the following:

Hypothesis 4. There is a negative association between the extent to which public sector
middle managers participate in the change management decision-making processes and
change-induced stressors.

Hypothesis 5. There is a negative association between the amount of change informa-
tion received by public sector middle managers and change-induced stressors.

Change initiatives and employee outcomes

Noblet et al. (2005) noted that public sector employees experience several stressors
relating to change (such as lack of resources to accomplish tasks, insufficient time to
complete work on time and to the standard expected, fast-paced workloads, unrea-
listic performance targets and inadequate consultation). How people respond to
potentially stressful situations varies considerably. One person might perceive a
situation to be stressful while another in the same situation might see it as a challenge
and source of stimulation. That said, it is generally accepted that high levels of
workplace stress negatively affects the physical and mental well-being of employees
(Smith 2001).

Job stress theories such as the stress appraisal process (Lazarus and Folkham 1984)
have long recognized this individual variability and have posited that access
to external resources (such as information, guidance and discretionary decision-
making) can play a key role in whether a potentially adverse condition or situation
is perceived as a threat or a challenge. Research generally supports the importance of
external resources. In particular, active involvement and participation in the change
process is associated with reduced uncertainty and enhanced feelings of control
(Bordia, Hunt, et al. 2004). Communication during public sector change provides
employees with the opportunity to minimize uncertainty and to more accurately

PUBLIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW 709

predict the outcomes of change. This is because factors, such as access to information,
control over the work situation and opportunities for participating in change pro-
cesses outweigh the negative effects of high job demands and uncertainty in the work
situation (Falkenberg et al. 2009). We expect employee attitudes to change are related
to external (e.g. change initiatives and change processes) and individual factors
(psychological well-being and job satisfaction). Empirical evidence also points to a
relationship between psychological well-being to job satisfaction (Bradley and
Cartwright 2002; Pick, Teo, and Yeung 2012), as well as between change-induced
stressors and job satisfaction (Pick, Teo, and Yeung 2012). Similar to the present
study, Bradley and Cartwright (2002) and Pick, Teo, and Yeung (2012) have estab-
lished empirical support for arguing that psychological strain would lead to job dis-
satisfaction. Therefore, we hypothesize the following:

Hypothesis 6. There is a negative association between NPM change-induced stressors
and the psychological well-being of public sector middle managers.

Hypothesis 7. There is a positive association between psychological well-being and job
satisfaction of public sector middle managers.

Hypothesis 8. There is a negative association between NPM change-induced stressors
and job satisfaction of public sector middle managers.

The hypothesized model is analysed using partial least squares (PLS) structural
equations modelling (SEM) path analysis (see Figure 1).

Methods

Context

The Australian state public sector currently employs around 1.45 million staff spread
across six states and two territories. Of these, the five largest states (New South

Figure 1. Proposed path model.
We used ‘Formalization’ (Palmer and Dunford 2001) as the method factor for checking common method bias.
PinChg: Participation in change decision-making; Chg Info: change information; Job Sat: job satisfaction.

710 D. PICK AND S. T. T. TEO

Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia) account for 76
per cent of state sector employees Australia-wide. The largest departments in the state
public sector are health, education, community services, and police and are mainly
located in the state capital cities. Over the past 25 years, successive state governments
of all political persuasions have pursued policies aimed at increasing the efficiency
and productivity of their workforce. It is this cost-cutting and drive for efficiency that
has been the main driver of organizational change over this period (Farrell and
Morris 2013; McCann, Morris, and Hassard 2008).

Data and sample

This study focuses on middle managers because they have key managerial and
leadership responsibilities for implementing change (Fernandez and Pitts 2007) and
they are much more likely to play prominent roles in executing and monitoring
change programmes than workers at other levels (Bordia, Hobman et al. 2004; Huy
2002). This increased responsibility for the implementation of change in public sector
organizations has a number of implications for this group of employees, most notably
in terms of their access to information and decision-making processes. Public sector
middle managers involved in delivering large-scale change are generally informed of
the reasons why the reforms are necessary and, given their responsibility for imple-
menting these initiatives in the manner they were intended, often have a much better
understanding of what the changes will involve (Butterfield, Edwards, and Woodall
2005). Middle managers are also more likely to actively participate in change-related
decisions that will affect their work area (including specific work roles) and will have
the ability to make suggestions on the timing or scope of the changes or to voice
concerns regarding the changes themselves (Lindorff 2009).

A self-completed questionnaire together with a cover letter was mailed out to
4,000 randomly selected managers in the state public service in Australia, as listed
in the telephone directories in each State. After deleting returned mail because of
change of address and/or person leaving the organization, we received 659 usable
surveys (representing 16.5 per cent response rate) though the final sample size
retained for data analysis was 486 as the focus of the current study was on middle
managers. They were mainly male (54.6 per cent), aged 41 to 60 years (68.4 per
cent), and had worked in their current organization for more than 10 years (40.5
per cent).

Although this is a low response rate, it doubles the response rate normally
expected from using a ‘cold’ direct mail approach (Reed 1998). Following the
procedure used by Guthrie, Spell, and Nyamori (2002), we conducted a ‘time trend
extrapolation test’ (Armstrong and Overton 1977) to test for non-response bias. A
multi-variate GLM was conducted to establish whether there was any statistical
difference between early and late respondents (that is surveys received pre and post
the first follow-up reminder). The analysis showed that there was no statistically
significant difference between these respondents. The data were combined into a
single sample for path analysis.

In the first instance, we utilized the random number function in SPSS to split the data
into a calibration and validation sample for path analysis. Prior to undertaking the path
analysis, an ANOVA was carried out to examine the difference in the means of the key
variables between the calibration and validation samples (or cross-validation, see

PUBLIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW 711

Bagozzi and Yi 1988). The result showed that there was no statistically significant
difference in means between the two samples. The hypothesized model was initially
analysed using SmartPLS on the calibration sample (N = 242). The resultant path model
was then validated using the validation sample (N = 244). The purpose of utilizing a
cross-validation model in SEM is to estimate parameters of the calibration model, and
then determine the predictive effectiveness of this model with a validation sample drawn
from the same population as the first (Bagozzi and Yi 1988, 83). As explained by Bagozzi
and Yi (1988), the main purpose of utilizing a cross-validation model in SEM is to
estimate parameters of the calibration model, and then determine the predictive effec-
tiveness of this model with a validation sample drawn from the same population as the
first (83). Therefore, cross-validation is not used as a hypothesis testing procedure. The
main aim is to test the predictive accuracy of the fitted model developed in the
calibration model. As such a valid model should produce the same result in the
validation model. Hence, the final result from a cross-validation should report only
the paths which were statistically significant in both samples.

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using principal axis factoring
with varimax rotation. SmartPLS (Ringle, Wende, and Will 2005) was used to analyse
the hypothesized model. PLS is a technique used for estimating path coefficients in
causal models and the software allows for the simultaneous testing of hypotheses (see
explanation by Hair et al. 2013). PLS technique is also appropriate for samples that do
not have the usual normality assumptions and it is considered to be appropriate for
small sample size (see Chin 2010).

Measures

Average variance of estimates (AVEs) and composite reliability coefficients of the
scales are reported in the results section. All of the scales were previously validated
scales and have been previously used in the Australian public sector context, as
reported below. They were operationalized as reflective scales.

NPM-inspired organizational change initiatives (reflective scale)
This construct assessed the extent to which Australian public sector organizations
have implemented various change initiatives. These items were based on an extensive
review of the type of change initiatives being adopted by Australian public and
private sector organizations conducted by Palmer and Dunford (2001). Sample
items included delayering, outsourcing, flexible work and empowerment.
Respondents were asked to what extent their organization had adopted a number
of change initiatives in the past five years. This scale was based on a 5-point Likert
scale (from Not at all to Completely). EFA and discriminant analysis in SmartPLS
resulted in two factors. These factors were ‘internal-focused change’ (four items:
‘reduced internal boundaries’, ‘reduced external boundaries’, ‘flexible work groups’
and ‘empowerment’) and ‘external-focused change’ (four items: ‘disaggregation’,
‘outsourcing’, ‘short-term staffing’ and ‘networks/alliances’).

Participation in change (reflective scale)
We adopted a five-item 5-point Likert scale (Jimmieson, Terry, and Callan 2004) to
operationalize ‘Participation in Change’. Ranging from Not at all to A Great Deal, it
assessed the respondents’ perception of their participation in the decision-making

712 D. PICK AND S. T. T. TEO

processes surrounding changes in their jobs. A sample item includes ‘To what extent
can you voice your concerns about changes that affect your job?’.

Change information (reflective scale)
We used a five-item Likert scale to ascertain participants’ perceptions of the amount
of change information provided and their understanding of what the change involved
(Jimmieson, Terry, and Callan 2004). A sample item includes ‘How clearly are you
informed about the implications that changes will have for your job?’

NPM-inspired change-induced stressors (reflective scale)
Respondents were asked to respond to a number of situation-specific stressors, which
required them to indicate to what extent each factor listed was a source of stress in
their job. These were previously developed by Noblet, Rodwell, and McWilliams
(2006) to examine the relationship between NPM reforms and the stress-related
outcomes experienced by Australia-based public service employees. These items
were rated on a 5-point rating scale ranging from Not at all to Major source of stress.
Following Noblet, Rodwell, and McWilliams (2006), context-specific stressors that
were rated by at least 50 per cent of respondents as being a moderate, large or major
source of stress (that is a score of three, four or five on the 5-point scale) were
retained for further analysis. Seven items met this criterion and these were incorpo-
rated into the path analysis to represent a reflective construct measuring changed-
induced stressors (refer to Appendix).

Psychological well-being (reflective scale)
We adopted the GHQ-12 scale (Goldberg and Williams 1988) to measure self-
perceived psychological health. Following Gao et al. (2004), this construct was
operationalized to comprise three sub-scales: depression, anxiety and lack of con-
fidence. Respondents rated their health on a 4-point scale ranging from 0 (much less
than usual) to 3 (more so than usual). A sample item is ‘Have you recently been able
to concent

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Discussion – Week 4

Responses to Human Rights Violations

Responding to human rights violations is a complex undertaking. Deciding factors, such as foreign policy, fiscal limitations, and human rights policies influence whether a response to human rights violations will occur. There are numerous ways to respond to human rights violations. Depending on the violation, response may come from international, national, or local community resources. Sometimes a joint effort is needed to appropriately respond to a violation. For this Discussion, a thorough review of the Learning Resources is required, given the complexity of responses to human rights violations.

Resources

Access Resources

Learning Resources

Please read and view (where applicable) the following Learning Resources before you complete this week’s assignments.

Media

Map of International Human Rights Violations Around the World

Click on the above link to view a map indicating areas where human rights violations occur. Click on each flashing icon to learn about responses to those human rights violations.

Note: For a transcript of this map, please click here Click for more options .

Video: Docherty, N. (Producer). (2007). On our watch: The first genocide of the 21st century [Documentary Film]. In Frontline. Boston, MA: PBS. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/darfur/view/

Chapter 6, “Seven More U.N. Resolutions are Passed” (3:55 minutes)

Chapter 7, “Eight More U.N. Resolutions are Passed” (8:02 minutes)

Chapter 8, “A Flicker of Hope, Finally” (10 minutes)

Readings

Course Text: Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice

Chapter 11, “International Human Rights Regimes”

Chapter 12, “Human Rights and Foreign Policy”

Article: Walden University Writing Center. (2009). Prewriting. Retrieved from http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/325.htm

Article: Walden University Writing Center. (2009). Topic sentences. Retrieved from http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/666.htm

Optional Resources

Video: Docherty, N. (Producer). (2007). On our watch: The first genocide of the 21st century. In Frontline. Boston, MA: PBS. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/darfur/view/

Chapter 1, “The First Genocide of the 21st Century” (6:59 minutes)

Chapter 2, “Darfur Becomes a Burgeoning Crisis” (5:28 minutes)

Chapter 3, “A U.N. Official Presses the World to Act” (5:30 minutes)

Chapter 4, “History Repeats Itself” (7:53 minutes)

Chapter 5, “Darfur Reaches the U.N. Security Council” (8:20 minutes)

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review Chapters 11 and 12 in your course text, Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. Think about the development of human rights regimes, policy, and joint efforts to respond to violations.

View Chapters 6, 7, and 8 of the Frontline video and consider various responses to human rights violations in Darfur.

Use the map to view human rights violations around the globe. Make sure to pay attention to the responses to violations.

Use the human rights violation that you selected in Week 2 for this Discussion.

Think about how one community (international, national, or local) might or did respond to the human rights violation.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post a brief description of the human rights violation you selected. Then explain how one community (international, national, or local) might or did respond to the human rights violation. Be specific and use examples to illustrate your explanation.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources. TEXTBOOK REFERENCE

Criminal homework help

CH.1 & 2 Cronk

Cronk, Brian C. (2018).  How to use SPSS®: A step-by-step guide to analysis and interpretation (11th ed.).  New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0367355692.

Section 1.1 Starting SPSS

Startup procedures for SPSS will differ slightly, depending on the configuration of the machine on which it is installed. If you have difficulty finding it look for an IBM SPSS Statistics section of your Start Menu. This text uses screenshots from the Windows version of SPSS. The MacOS and Unix versions will have the same functionality, but could appear differently than what is depicted herein.

When SPSS is started, you may be presented with the dialog box above, depending on the options your system administrator selected for your version of the program. If you have the dialog box, click Type in data and OK, which will present a blank data window.1

If you were not presented with the dialog box above, SPSS should open automatically with a blank data window.

The data window and the output window provide the basic interface for SPSS. A blank data window is shown on page 3.

Section 1.2 Entering Data

One of the keys to success with SPSS is knowing how it stores and uses your data. To illustrate the basics of data entry with SPSS, we will use Example 1.2.1.

Example 1.2.1A survey was given to several students from four different classes (Tues/Thurs mornings, Tues/Thurs afternoons, Mon/Wed/Fri mornings, and Mon/Wed/Fri afternoons). The students were asked whether or not they were “morning people” and whether or not they worked. This survey also asked for their final grade in the class (100% being the highest grade possible).

Our goal is to enter the data from the two students into SPSS for use in future analyses. The first step is to determine the variables that need to be entered. Any information that can vary among participants is a variable that needs to be considered. Example 1.2.2 lists the variables we will use.

Example 1.2.2

ID

Day of class

Class time

Morning person

Final grade

Whether or not the student works outside school

In the SPSS data window, columns represent variables, and rows represent participants. Therefore, we will be creating a data file with six columns (variables) and two rows (students/participants).

Section 1.3 Defining Variables

Before we can enter any data, we must first enter some basic information about each variable into SPSS. For instance, variables must first be given names that

begin with a letter, and

do not contain a space.

Thus, the variable name “Q7” is acceptable, while the variable name “7Q” is not. Similarly, the variable name “PRE_TEST” is acceptable, but the variable name “PRE TEST” is not. Capitalization does not matter, but variable names are capitalized in this text to make it clear when we are referring to a variable name, even if the variable name is not necessarily capitalized in screenshots.

To define a variable, click on the Variable View tab at the bottom of the main screen. This will show you the Variable View window. To return to the Data View window, click on the Data View tab.

From the Variable View screen, SPSS allows you to create and edit all of the variables in your data file. Each column represents some property of a variable, and each row represents a variable. All variables must be given a name. To do that, click on the first empty cell in the Name column and type a valid SPSS variable name. The program will then fill in default values for most of the other properties.

One useful function of SPSS is the ability to define variable and value labels. Variable labels allow you to associate a description with each variable.

Value labels allow you to associate a description with each value of a variable. For instance, for most procedures, SPSS requires numerical values. Thus, for data such as the day of the class (i.e., Mon/Wed/Fri and Tues/Thurs), we need to first code the values as numbers. We can assign the number 1 to Mon/Wed/Fri and the number 2 to Tues/Thurs. To help us keep track of the numbers we have assigned to the values, we use value labels.

To assign value labels, click in the cell you want to assign values to in the Values column (in this case, for Variable 2). This will bring up a small gray button (shown below). Click on that button to bring up the Value Labels dialog box.

When you enter a value label, you must click Add after each entry. This will move the value and its associated label into the bottom section of the window. When all labels have been added, click OK to return to the Variable View window.

In addition to naming and labeling the variable, you have the option of defining the variable type. To do so, simply click on the Type, Width, or Decimals columns in the Variable View window. The default value is a numeric field that is eight digits wide with two decimal places displayed. If your data are more than eight digits to the left of the decimal place, they will be displayed in scientific notation (e.g., the number 2,000,000,000 will be displayed as 2.00E+09).2 SPSS maintains accuracy beyond two decimal places, but all output will be rounded to two decimal places unless otherwise indicated in the Decimals column.

There are several other options available in this screen, which are beyond the scope of this text. In our example, we will be using numeric variables with all the default values.

Practice Exercise

Create a data file for the six variables and two sample students presented in Example 1.2.1. Name your variables: ID, DAY, TIME, MORNING, GRADE, and WORK. You should code DAY as 1 = Mon/Wed/Fri, 2 = Tues/Thurs. Code TIME as 1 = morning, 2 = afternoon. Code MORNING as 0 = No, 1 = Yes. Code WORK as 0 = No, 1 = Part-time, 2 = Full-time. Be sure you enter value labels for the different variables. Note that because value labels are not appropriate for ID and GRADE (because the values themselves serve as labels), these are not coded. When complete, your Variable View window should look like the screenshot below.

Click on the Data View tab to open the data-entry screen. Enter data horizontally, beginning with the first student’s ID number. Enter the code for each variable in the appropriate column. To enter the GRADE variable value, enter the student’s class grade.

The previous data window can be changed to look like the screenshot on the next page by clicking on the Value Labels icon (see below). In this case, the cells display value labels rather than the corresponding codes. If data are entered in this mode, it is not necessary to enter codes, as clicking the button that appears in each cell as the cell is selected will present a drop-down list of the predefined labels. You may use whichever method you prefer.

Instead of clicking the Value Labels icon, you may toggle between views by clicking Value Labels under the View menu.

Section 1.4 Loading and Saving Data Files

Once you have entered your data, you will need to save it with a unique name so that you can retrieve it when necessary for later use.

Loading and saving SPSS data files works in the same way as most Windows-based software. Under the File menu, there are Open, Save, and Save As commands. SPSS data files have a “.sav” extension, which is added by default to the end of the filename (that is, do not type “.sav” after the filename; SPSS will add it automatically). This tells Windows that the file is an SPSS data file. Other SPSS extensions include “.spv” for saved output files and “.sps” for saved syntax files.

Save Your Data

When you save your data file (by clicking File, then clicking Save or Save As to specify a unique name), pay special attention to where you save it. You will probably want to save your data on a removable USB drive so that you can take the file with you.

Load Your Data

When you load your data (by clicking File, then clicking Open, then Data, or by clicking the open file folder icon), you get a similar window. This window lists all files with the “.sav” extension. If you have trouble locating your saved file, make sure you are looking in the right directory.

Instead of clicking the Value Labels icon, you may toggle between views by clicking Value Labels under the View menu.

Practice Exercise

To be sure that you have mastered saving and opening data files, name your sample data file “SAMPLE” and save it to a removable storage medium. Once it is saved, SPSS will display the name of the file at the top of the data window.

It is wise to save your work frequently, in case of computer crashes. Note that filenames may be uppercase or lowercase. In this text, uppercase is used for clarity. In naming files, though, screenshots may show lowercase only.

After you have saved your data, exit SPSS (by clicking File, then Exit). Restart SPSS and load your data by selecting the “SAMPLE.sav” file you just created.

Section 1.5 Running Your First Analysis

Any time you open a data window, you can run any of the analyses available. To get started, we will calculate the students’ average grade. (With only two students, you can easily check your answer by hand, but imagine a data file with 10,000 student records.)

The majority of the available statistical tests are under the Analyze menu. This menu displays all the options available for your version of the SPSS program (the menus in this book were created with SPSS Statistics Version 26). Other versions may have slightly different sets of options.

To calculate a mean (average), we are asking the computer to summarize our dataset. Therefore, we run the command by clicking Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Descriptives.

This brings up the Descriptives dialog box. Note that the left side of the box contains a list of all the variables in our data file. On the right is an area labeled Variable(s), where we can specify the variables we would like to use in this particular analysis.

We want to compute the mean for the variable called GRADE. Thus, we need to select the variable name in the left window (by clicking on it). To transfer it to the right window, click on the right arrow between the two windows. The arrow always points to the window opposite the highlighted item and can be used to transfer selected variables in either direction. Note that double-clicking on the variable name will also transfer the variable to the opposite window. Standard Windows conventions of “Shift” clicking or “Ctrl” clicking to select multiple variables can be used as well. Note: Some configurations of SPSS show the variable names, and others show the variable labels (if any). This can be changed under Edit → Options → General.

When we click on the OK button, the analysis will be conducted, and we will be ready to examine our output.

Section 1.6 Examining and Printing Output Files

After an analysis is performed, the output is placed in the output window, and the output window becomes the active window. If this is the first analysis you have conducted since starting SPSS, then a new output window will be created. If you have run previous analyses and saved them, your output is added to the end of your previous output.

To switch back and forth between the data window and the output window, select the desired window from the Window menu bar. Alternately, you can select the window using the taskbar at the bottom of the screen.

The output window is split into two sections. The left section is an outline of the output (SPSS refers to this as the outline view). The right section is the output itself.

The section on the left of the output window provides an outline of the entire output window. All of the analyses are listed in the order in which they were conducted. Note that this outline can be used to quickly locate a section of the output. Simply click on the section you would like to see, and the right window will jump to the appropriate place.

Clicking on a statistical procedure also selects all of the output for that command. By pressing the Delete key, that output can be deleted from the output window. This is a quick way to be sure that the output window contains only the desired output. Output can also be selected and pasted into a word processor or spreadsheet by clicking Edit, then Copy to copy the output. You can then switch to your word processor and click Edit, then Paste.

To print your output, simply click File, then Print, or click on the printer icon on the toolbar. You will have the option of printing all of your output or just the currently selected section. Be careful when printing! Each time you run a command, the output is added to the end of your previous output. Thus, you could be printing a very large output file containing information you may not want or need.

One way to ensure that your output window contains only the results of the current command is to create a new output window just before running the command. To do this, click File, then New, then Output. All your subsequent commands will go into your new output window.

You can also save your output files as SPSS format files (.spv extension). Note that SPSS saves whatever window you have open. If you are on a data window you will save your data. If you are on an output window it will save your output.

Practice Exercise

Load the sample data file you created earlier (SAMPLE.sav). Run the Descriptives command for the variable GRADE, and print the output. Next, select the data window and print it.

Section 1.7 Modifying Data Files

Once you have created a data file, it is really quite simple to add additional cases (rows/participants) or additional variables (columns).

To add these data, simply place two additional rows in the Data View window (after loading your sample data). Notice that as new participants are added, the row numbers become bold. When done, the screen should look like the screenshot above.

New variables can also be added. For example, if the first two participants were given special training on time management, and the two new participants were not, the data file can be changed to reflect this additional information. The new variable could be called TRAINING (whether or not the participant received training), and it would be coded so that 0 = No and 1 = Yes. Thus, the first two participants would be assigned a “1” and the last two participants a “0.” To do this, switch to the Variable View window, then add the TRAINING variable to the bottom of the list. Then switch back to the Data View window to update the data.

Adding data and variables are logical extensions of the procedures we used to originally create the data file. Save this new data file. We will be using it again later in this book.

Practice Exercise

Follow the previous example (where TRAINING is the new variable). Make the modifications to your SAMPLE.sav data file and save it.

CHAPTER 2

Entering and Modifying Data

In chapter 1, we learned how to create and save a simple data file, perform a basic analysis, and examine the output. In this section, we will go into more detail about variables and data.

Section 2.1 Variables and Data Representation

In SPSS, variables are represented as columns in the data file. Participants are represented as rows. Thus, if we collect four pieces of information from 100 participants, we will have a data file with four columns and 100 rows.

Measurement Scales

There are four types of measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. While the measurement scale will determine which statistical technique is appropriate for a given set of data, SPSS generally does not discriminate. Thus, we start this section with this warning: If you ask it to, SPSS may conduct an analysis that is not appropriate for your data. For a more complete description of these four measurement scales, consult your statistics text or the Glossary in Appendix E.

Newer versions of SPSS allow you to indicate which types of data you have when you define your variable. You do this using the Measure column. You can indicate Scale, Ordinal, or Nominal (SPSS does not distinguish between interval and ratio scales). Look at the SAMPLE.sav data file we created in Chapter 1. We calculated a mean for the variable GRADE. GRADE was measured on a ratio scale, and the mean is an acceptable summary statistic (assuming that the distribution is normal).

We could have had SPSS calculate a mean for the variable TIME instead of GRADE. If we did, we would get the output presented on the next page.

The output indicates that the average TIME was 1.25. Remember that TIME was coded as an ordinal variable (1 = morning class, 2 = afternoon class). Though the mean is not an appropriate statistic for an ordinal scale, SPSS calculated it anyway. The importance of considering the type of data cannot be overemphasized. Just because SPSS will compute a statistic for you does not mean that you should use it. Later in the text, when specific statistical procedures are discussed, the conditions under which they are appropriate will be addressed. Please note that there are some procedures (e.g., graphs and nonparametric tests) where SPSS limits what you can do based on the measurement scale. However, more often than not, it is up to the user to make that decision.

Missing Data

Often, participants do not provide complete data. For example, for some students, you may have a pretest score but not a posttest score. Perhaps one student left one question blank on a survey, or perhaps she did not state her age. Missing data can weaken any analysis. Often, a single missing answer can eliminate a subject from all analyses.

If you have missing data in your dataset, leave that cell blank. In the example shown above, the fourth subject did not complete Question 2 (q2). Note that the total score (which is calculated from both questions) is also blank because of the missing data for Question 2. SPSS represents missing data in the data window with a period (although you should not enter a period—just leave it blank). It is NOT good practice to create a filler value (e.g., “999” or “0”) to represent blank scores, because SPSS will see it as a value with meaning, whereas it will treat truly blank values as missing.

Section 2.2 Selection and Transformation of Data

We often have more data in a data file than we want to include in a specific analysis. For instance, our sample data file contains data from four participants, two of whom received special training and two of whom did not. If we wanted to conduct an analysis using only the two participants who did not receive the training, we would need to specify the appropriate subset.

Selecting a Subset

We can use the Select Cases command to specify a subset of our data. The Select Cases command is located under the Data menu. When you select this command, the dialog box below will appear. (Note the icons next to the variable names that indicate that all variables were defined as being measured on a nominal scale except grade, which was defined as scale.)

You can specify which cases (participants) you want to select by using the selection criteria, which appear on the right side of the Select Cases dialog box. By default, All cases will be selected. The most common way to select a subset is to click If condition is satisfied, then click on the button labeled If. This will bring up a new dialog box that allows you to indicate which cases you would like to use.

You can enter the logic used to select the subset in the upper section. If the logical statement is true for a given case, then that case will be selected. If the logical statement is false that case will not be selected. For instance, you can select all cases that were coded as Mon/Wed/Fri by entering the formula DAY = 1 in the upper-left part of the window. If DAY is 1, then the statement will be true, and SPSS will select the case. If DAY is anything other than 1, the statement will be false, and the case will not be selected. Once you have entered the logical statement, click Continue to return to the Select Cases dialog box. Then, click OK to return to the data window.

After you have selected the cases, the data window will slightly change. The cases that were not selected will be marked with a diagonal line through the case number. For instance, for our sample data, the first and third cases are not selected. Only the second and fourth cases are selected for this subset.

An additional variable will also be created in your data file. The new variable is called FILTER_$ and indicates whether a case was selected or not.

If we calculate a mean GRADE using the subset we just selected, we will receive the output here. Notice that we now have a mean of 78.00 with a sample size (N) of 2 instead of 4.

Be careful when you select subsets. The subset remains in effect until you run the command again and select all cases. You can tell if you have a subset selected because the bottom of the data window will indicate that a filter is on. In addition, when you examine your output, N will be less than the total number of records in your dataset if a subset is selected. The diagonal lines through some cases will also be evident when a subset is selected. Be careful not to save your data file with a subset selected, as this can cause considerable confusion later.

Computing a New Variable

SPSS can also be used to compute a new variable or manipulate your existing variables. To illustrate this, we will create a new data file. This file will contain data for four participants and three variables (Q1, Q2, and Q3). The variables represent the number of points each participant received on three different questions. Now enter the data shown on the screen below. When done, save this data file as “QUESTIONS.sav.” We will be using it again in later chapters.

Now you will calculate the total score for each subject. We could do this manually, but if the data file were large, or if there were a lot of questions, this would take a long time. It is more efficient (and more accurate) to have SPSS compute the totals for you. To do this, click Transform, and then click Compute Variable.

After clicking the Compute Variable command, we get the dialog box shown below.

The blank field marked Target Variable is where we enter the name of the new variable we want to create. In this example, we are creating a variable called TOTAL, so type the word total.

Notice that there is an equals sign between the Target Variable blank and the Numeric Expression blank. These two blank areas are the two sides of an equation that SPSS will calculate. For instance, total = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 is the equation that is entered in the sample presented here (screenshot shown above). Note that it is possible to create any equation here simply by using the number and operational keypad at the bottom of the dialog box. When we click OK, SPSS will create a new variable called TOTAL and make it equal to the sum of the three questions.

Save your data file again so that the new variable will be available for future sessions.

Recoding a Variable—Different Variable

SPSS can create a new variable based upon data from another variable. Say we want to split our participants on the basis of their total score. We want to create a variable called GROUP, which is coded 1 if the total score is low (less than or equal to 8) or 2 if the total score is high (9 or larger). To do this, we click Transform, then Recode into Different Variables.

This will bring up the Recode into Different Variables dialog box shown above. Transfer the variable TOTAL to the middle blank. Type group in the Name field under Output Variable. Click Change, and the middle blank will show that TOTAL is becoming GROUP, as shown below.

Click Old and New Values. This will bring up the Recode dialog box below.

In the example shown here, we have entered a 9 in the Range, value through HIGHEST field, and a 2 in the Value field under New Value. When we click Add, the blank on the right displays the recoding formula. We next entered an 8 on the left in the Range, LOWEST through value blank, and a 1 in the Value field under New Value. Click Add, then Continue.

Click OK. You will be redirected to the data window shown below. A new variable (GROUP) will have been added and coded as 1 or 2, based on TOTAL.

Criminal homework help

19th-Century immigrants came to the United States with many different kinds of assets. Imagine that you are a 19th-century immigrant and choose one asset from each category below and provide a detailed explanation for why you chose that asset over the other asset listed in each category. Your explanation should demonstrate that you have completed the readings and the content for module 1. You must provide at least 1-2 paragraphs for each of the choices below.

Remember that you are completing this assignment as though you are an immigrant coming to the United States in the 19th century.

All writing for this course will prepare you for the coming essays. Pay attention to grammar, sentence structure, and organization as you complete this assignment.

Categories (Must make a choice for all 5 categories): 

Categories

Choice 1

OR

Choice 2

Category 1

Money

or

English

Category 2

Photos of people back home

or

Letters from people back home

Category 3

Agricultural Skills

or

Skilled Trade

Category 4

Adult with Spouse and Family

or

Adult without Spouse and Family

Category 5

Protestant 

or

 Catholic

Criminal homework help

Watch link —> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/showsporn/

Please write a 2-3 pages papers. The assignment should be written as an essay introducing how two theories
(power control theory and developmental theories
) can explain crimes (or criminals) shown in the film. Apply many concepts/terms learned from each theory to demonstrate your understanding of these theories. Finally, provide some debates between the two chosen theories and offer your critical comments on those debated areas.

APA format

Criminal homework help


Lauren Snipes

MondayMay 9 at 10:20pm

Manage Discussion Entry

Quantitative methods include surveys that may be conducted in person, online, or from a mobile source, interviews that include face-to-face or conducted from the telephone, systematic observations, or through longitudinal studies (Zyphur, 2017). When pertaining to Criminal Justice, quantitative methods of research pertain to statistical evaluation of data that has been collected (Backes, 2020). Through the quantitative data, this can help law enforces determine the probability of crime patterns, how number of different crimes happening in area, to keep record of inmates, crime rates, victim rates and repeated offender rates (Backes, 2020). Methods include observing criminal patterns, officers will give surveys to offenders, and when officers record reports the report is calculated for statistical purposes (Backes, 2020).

The strength of conducting quantitative research for Criminal Justice purposes is to calculate and obtain reliable statistics that can help officers prevent crimes through prediction, understanding which areas have higher crime rates, and gathering information so officers understand crime hotspots and which crime is happening the most in what area (Backes, 2020). Since quantitative research focuses on numerical data, this can make it easier for officers to interpret (Backes, 2020).  This means that conclusions are made strictly from the data/numbers that have been collected from the field. If there is a reported that fifty crimes of theft took place in a neighborhood in the past month in a neighborhood, this can allow officers know that this neighborhood has a theft problem because there were fifty different reported cases.

For quantitative research to be ethical, the data collector must have consent to obtain data, the source must be clearly defined, and the data must be presented to visualize or summarize all elements to provide a description of how the data/numbers were collected for the conclusions that were made (Zyphur, 2017). A weakness could be that if officers are not aware of the ethical requirements when collecting quantitative research, they may become penalized, or the research conductor could find themselves in legal trouble (Zyphur, 2017).  Another weakness to quantitative research in Criminal Justice is that each case is different and quantitative data only focuses on statistical information, which neglects the deeper causes of the cases and crimes (Backes, 2020). This means that through quantitative data, law enforcement may know that a certain crime is taking place within a neighborhood, but this does not explain the who, why, and how.

When pertaining to how academicians can use data analysis to inform public decisions, the solution is through learning about the majority answer (Powell, 2020). Quantitative research can be done through surveys, and this allows public figures to learn about the true answers and responses from the public (Powell, 2020). Surveys can be conducted to each resident within an area and the public figure would be able to make decisions from those who are living in the area (Powell, 2020). If a decision was going to be made about a neighborhood, the quantitative research that is collected will allow the public figures to learn about what the majority wanting within their area (Powell, 2020). When educating public leaders on the application of quantitative methods, it is wise to introduce the purpose of the research, express each part of the research study, and explain each step of the research process (Craig, 2018). To educate public leaders, it is important to present what research method is being used (Groeneveld, 2014). It is also wise to understand if administration already uses quantitative methods and if the are distributed equally (Groeneveld, 2014). It is important to acknowledge questions of how quantitative research methods are already used, the dominance of the methods from the quantitative public administration research, and which part of administration frequented uses quantitative research.  

In Proverbs 14:15, it teaches that it is one thing to believe everything that one is presented with; however, those who are wise will seek out the truth (New King James Bible, 1895, Proverbs 14:15). This means that it is important to seek out information and it is through research that the trust can be found. In Proverbs 12:17, it teaches that the truth is what gives accurate evidence, but the be aware of false witnesses (New King James Bible, 1895, Proverbs 12:17). This means that those seeking information and conducting research should be aware of those who are not giving accurate answers.

Criminal homework help

GENDER AND CRIME 5

Gender and Crime

Author’s Notes

The gender gap in crime is global, where women are less likely to commit crimes than men. The number of arrests for women is lower than men for all crimes except prostitution. Prostitution is prevalent among women, although there have been discussions and questions about who is the victim in the crime of prostitution. These factors are true in all countries, racial and ethnic groups, and every historical period. For instance, women in the United States comprise 20% of all the criminal arrests for all crime calibers, and only 8% of the inmates in Australia are women. Research studies conducted to explain why the male gender is more susceptible to criminal activities show that the thrill-seeking desire, among other reasons, often pushes them to engage in criminal activities.

More men have been associated with serious crime calibers than women. Women are associated with petty crimes like shoplifting or larceny-theft, fraud, forgery, and embezzlement (Steffensmeier, Schwartz, & Roche, 2013). Female arrests for homicide and aggravated assaults have been less than 15% and less than 10% for serious property crimes of burglary and robbery in the United States since the 1960s. Most crimes associated with women are related to the common domestic roles of women. Women engage in crimes that will directly benefit their families. Unfortunately, more females fall victim to these crimes than men.

It is interesting to note that women have been involved in more complex crimes than men in addition to minor property crimes in recent times. The percentage of female arrests is increasing, indicating that those women are increasingly getting involved in crime. In addition to the already mentioned crimes, women are also getting involved in substance abuse crimes. Although the percentage of women being involved in crime is still low, there has been a fairly consistent increase in the diverse kinds of crimes they commit. On the flip side, female arrests have been reduced for crimes largely associated with like prostitution and homicides, aggravated assault, and drug-law violation.

Research studies and surveys conducted by the National Crime Victimisation Surveys indicate that a lower percentage of female offenders were witnessed committing a crime than men. This percentage is similar to the percentage of female arrests for given kinds of crimes. UCR patterns also indicate that women are less involved in serious crimes but more involved in less serious offenses. The reason for fewer women engaging in crime could be because of the motherly instincts where they think of the afterlife of their families in case they are killed while committing a crime or they die in jail. The less serious crimes they engage in are to meet the family’s immediate needs, like food.

Offense categories and property crimes that females engage in result in less harm and require less monetary loss and less property destruction. The activities around crimes committed by women are less destructive and less involving, unlike men, who damage a lot of property and cause massive destruction. People. People involved suffering more injuries and more serious injuries. Women are less likely to repeat crimes for which they have been arrested. Lifetime careers in crime are unlikely among women. However, some females explore short-term careers in crimes like prostitution, substance abuse, and minor offenses like shoplifting and cheque forging (Starr, 2015). Men engaging in crimes are more effective when they operate in organized gangs and engage in very lucrative criminal activities, unlike women, who in most cases operate solo and in non-permanent criminal activities. Most women operating in groups are mainly accompanying the men doing serious crimes.

Crime is a serious concern in the modern world, where the quest for worldly gains and status is very high. Men and women are engaging in crimes, although men do it more organized manner and frequently. More lethal weapons are being used in crime scenes resulting in more severe injuries on the victims. On the other hand, women are more involved in less complex crimes but act as accomplices for serious crimes. Although men and women are both engaging in crimes, the rate of female arrest is lower than that of men because of other factors like pregnancy, duties of taking care of young children, and the higher possibility of showing remorse for their wrong. Women are perceived to be less dangerous than men and more responsive to rehabilitation.

References

Starr, S. B. (2015). Estimating gender disparities in federal criminal cases. American Law and Economics Review, 17(1), 127-159.

Steffensmeier, D. J., Schwartz, J., & Roche, M. (2013). Gender and twenty-first-century corporate crime: Female involvement and the gender gap in Enron-era corporate frauds. American Sociological Review, 78(3), 448-476.

Criminal homework help

19th-Century immigrants came to the United States with many different kinds of assets. Imagine that you are a 19th-century immigrant and choose one asset from each category below and provide a detailed explanation for why you chose that asset over the other asset listed in each category. Your explanation should demonstrate that you have completed the readings and the content for module 1. You must provide at least 1-2 paragraphs for each of the choices below.

Remember that you are completing this assignment as though you are an immigrant coming to the United States in the 19th century.

All writing for this course will prepare you for the coming essays. Pay attention to grammar, sentence structure, and organization as you complete this assignment.

Categories (Must make a choice for all 5 categories): 

Categories

Choice 1

OR

Choice 2

Category 1

Money

or

English

Category 2

Photos of people back home

or

Letters from people back home

Category 3

Agricultural Skills

or

Skilled Trade

Category 4

Adult with Spouse and Family

or

Adult without Spouse and Family

Category 5

Protestant 

or

 Catholic

Criminal homework help

Watch link —> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/showsporn/

Please write a 2-3 pages papers. The assignment should be written as an essay introducing how two theories
(power control theory and developmental theories
) can explain crimes (or criminals) shown in the film. Apply many concepts/terms learned from each theory to demonstrate your understanding of these theories. Finally, provide some debates between the two chosen theories and offer your critical comments on those debated areas.

APA format

Criminal homework help

Module 9 Assignment (due 5/4, no later than 8:00 pm)


PLEASE ONLY USE TEXTBOOK AS REFRENCE TO COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT AND LINKS PROVIDED

LISTEN TO: COMMENTARY


https://uhd.zoom.us/rec/play/ekles9HrrrBXnb8IwhFkyQwP9AjGRdqJE7UjQTCe5cn8lOV91srw969AMSSH4GKzDCRhvpqOiLlzjy8f.oeRAklYPn8ArTgrv?startTime=1651071275000&_x_zm_rtaid=UYYIffVASjmmhHiVz6R98A.1651614161537.75767498943a380731a95c5a8312c8fe&_x_zm_rhtaid=55

Textbook: The Legal Rights of the Convicted

Barbara Belbot, Craig Hemmens, Michael R. Cavanaugh

Link to textbook:

https://www.perlego.com/book/2028034/the-legal-rights-of-the-convicted-pdf

Log in: aleramz16@gmail.com

Password: Jayden08

READ:

1) Chapter 6 in the textbook

2) Cell Extraction Training by U.S. Military Police (4 minutes): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_A3UGpfnH8

Criminal homework help

CJUS 550

Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Assignment Instructions

Overview

Research is the essence of scholarly discourse. The graduate student should, at a minimum, be given to critical thought in a way that exposes gaps in the literature and offers new insight to more improved methodologies and policymaking. The Socratic method is the workhorse of the young scholar. Succeeding in failing to disprove a hypothesis is the hallmark of achievement in this regard. For this course of study, the student should identify critically apparent flaws in current criminal justice policymaking and offer improved pathways to policing, corrections, and the judicial system.

To do that, you must have a foundation upon which to build this hypothesis. We begin this process with the Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Assignment.

Instructions

The exact requirements for the Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Assignment are outlined as follows:

· Length of assignment (see
Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Template)

· Include any information that is excluded from this length (e.g., title page, abstract, reference section, etc.)

· Format of assignment: APA

· Number of citations: 6

· Acceptable sources (e.g., peer reviewed or scholarly journal articles published within the last five years)

Instructions

In this course, you will submit an original Literature Analysis based upon a current problem or trend in criminal justice today.

You will choose the topic for this assignment so long as it relates to criminal justice. The topic will be closely associated with a certain or a specific problem in the cybercrime profession or discipline today that you will develop and defend.

The literature review in the body of this paper must cite at least 8 scholarly resources that are specifically related to the hypothesis and Thesis Statement (current, relevant, credible, and each carries its weight) with a clear and meaningful connection between all the resources.

As the body of your Research Paper: Literature Analysis Assignment will require an argumentative position, be sure to obtain scholarly resources that serve to answer the following questions (as the research paper must provide answers to all of the questions a person would ask if one defended the hypothesis to another person):

· What is the current problem?

· What does the literature say about the problem?

· What is the solution?

· What gaps in the literature will my solution address?

· What do my critics say about the problem and my particular solution?

· What are the implications of my research?

· And a conclusion.

In order for you to have a rudimentary understanding of what might be necessary for such an undertaking, you will complete a Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Assignment. This will provide you with the structure and direction needed to move forward with your initial hypothesis. You must choose a thesis statements of your own for the Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Assignment.

Be sure to review the Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Template before embarking on this venture.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Page 2 of 2

Criminal homework help

Application

Instructions

Application: Outline and Annotated Bibliography

Now that you have selected a topic and researched scholarly resources for your Capstone Project, it is time to create an outline and an annotated bibliography. The outline should list the major and minor subheadings with a brief description of what will be covered in each. Outlining a major project before you begin provides a concrete plan to follow and guides your writing as you develop your project. You are also required to create an annotated bibliography for your project. In creating the annotated bibliography you summarize the content of each scholarly resource and explain its relevance to your topic. Completing these two steps in the Capstone are necessary precursors to writing and completing your Capstone Project.

To prepare for this assignment:

Review the document Writing an Annotated BIbliography to learn how to prepare and to view examples of outlines and annotated bibliographies. Also consult the APA style and usage guidelines available in the Writing Center.

Think about the content the might be included in an outline of your Capstone Project.

Consider the scholarly resources you have found thus far. Be sure to use these in your annotated bibliography.

The assignment (1–2 pages):

Compose an outline for the Capstone Project.

Compose an annotated bibliography using APA style.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.

Criminal homework help

Women, Gender, and Crime

2

For Jeff, Taylor, and Keegan

3

Women, Gender, and Crime
Core Concepts

Stacy L. Mallicoat
California State University, Fullerton

4

FOR INFORMATION:

SAGE Publications, Inc.

2455 Teller Road

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E-mail: order@sagepub.com

SAGE Publications Ltd.

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Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 978-1-5063-9927-0 (pbk)

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Miller

Editorial Assistant: Rebecca Lee

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Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Jen Grubba

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Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel

Marketing Manager: Jillian Oelsen

5

6

Brief Contents

1. Preface
2. Acknowledgments
3. Chapter 1. Women, Gender, and Crime: Introduction
4. Chapter 2. Theories of Victimization
5. Chapter 3. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Rape and Sexual Assault
6. Chapter 4. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
7. Chapter 5. International Issues in Gender-Based Violence
8. Chapter 6. Women, Gender, and Offending
9. Chapter 7. Girls, Gender, and Juvenile Delinquency

10. Chapter 8. Female Offenders and Their Crimes
11. Chapter 9. Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders
12. Chapter 10. The Supervision of Women: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Reentry
13. Chapter 11. Women, Gender, and Incarceration
14. Chapter 12. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Police, Corrections, and Offender

Services
15. Chapter 13. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Courts and Victim Services
16. Glossary
17. References
18. Index
19. About the Author

7

Detailed Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1. Women, Gender, and Crime: Introduction

The Influence of Feminism on Studies of Women, Gender, and Crime
Spotlight on Women and the Academy
Women, Gender, and Crime

Women as Victims of Violence
Women Who Offend
The Intersection of Victimization and Offending
Women and Work in the Criminal Justice System

Data Sources on Women as Victims and Offenders
The Contributions of Feminist Methodology to Research on Women, Gender, and Crime
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 2. Theories of Victimization
Victims and the Criminal Justice System
Spotlight on Victim Rights in Mexico

Victim Blaming
Fear of Victimization
Theories on Victimization
Spotlight on Gender and Kidnapping

Routine Activities Theory
Feminist Pathways Perspective

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 3. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Rape and Sexual Assault
Historical Perspectives on Rape and Sexual Assault
Defining Sexual Victimization
Prevalence of Rape and Sexual Assault
Rape Myths
Acquaintance Versus Stranger Assault
Spotlight on Rape Culture

8

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault
Spotlight on the Invisible War: Rape in the Military
Spousal Rape
Campus Sexual Assault
Spotlight on Statutory Rape
LGBQT Sexual Violence
Racial Differences in Sexual Assault
The Role of Victims in Sexual Assault Cases
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 4. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
Defining and Identifying Intimate Partner Abuse
Spotlight on IPA and the NFL
The Cycle of Violence
Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse

Dating Violence
Children of Intimate Partner Abuse
LGBTQ and Intimate Partner Abuse
Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Intimate Partner Abuse
Unique Issues for Immigrant Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse

Spotlight on Intimate Partner Abuse in India
Barriers to Leaving an Abusive Relationship
Victim Experiences With Police and Corrections

Programming Concerns for Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse
Stalking and Intimate Partner Violence
Spotlight on Stalking and College Campuses
Victims and Offenders of Stalking
Cyberstalking
Laws on Stalking
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 5. International Issues in Gender-Based Violence
Human Trafficking

Labor Trafficking

9

Responses to Human Trafficking
Promising Solutions to End Human Trafficking

Spotlight on Witch Burnings in Papua New Guinea
Rape as a War Crime
Female Genital Mutilation
Honor-Based Violence
Spotlight on Malala Yousafzai
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 6. Women, Gender, and Offending
Theoretical Perspectives on Female Criminality

Historical Theories on Female Criminality
Spotlight on the Manson Women

Traditional Theories of Crime and Gender
Modern Theories of Female Offending Behaviors

Spotlight on Men and Masculinity
Feminist Criminology

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 7. Girls, Gender, and Juvenile Delinquency
The Rise of the Juvenile Court and the Sexual Double Standard
The Nature and Extent of Female Delinquency
Spotlight on the Sexual Abuse of Girls in Confinement
The “Violent” Girl
Technical Violations: The New Status Offense
Risk Factors for Female Delinquency

Family
Abuse
Peers
School
Substance Abuse
Mental Health

Meeting the Unique Needs of Delinquent Girls
Spotlight on Arts Programming and At-Risk Youth
Spotlight on Girls’ Voices

10

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 8. Female Offenders and Their Crimes
Women and Drugs
Property Crime
Spotlight on Women and Bank Robbery
Prostitution

The Legalization Debate
Women and Violence

Girls and Gangs
Gender and Violent Crime

Spotlight on Women and Self-Defense
Spotlight on the Case of Michelle Carter
Mothers Who Kill Their Children
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 9. Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders
Stage of the Criminal Justice System
Race Effects and the Processing of Female Offenders
The War on Drugs and Its Effects for Women
The Effects of Extralegal Factors on Sentencing Women
The Effects of Sentencing Guidelines on Judicial Decision Making
International Perspectives on the Processing of Female Offenders
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 10. The Supervision of Women: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Reentry
Gender-Responsive Programming for Women
The Supervision of Women in the Community
Women on Parole
Reentry Issues for Incarcerated Women
Spotlight on Life After Parole
Recidivism and Female Offenders

Building Resiliency for Women
Summary

11

Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 11. Women, Gender, and Incarceration
Historical Context of Female Prisons
Contemporary Issues for Incarcerated Women
Spotlight on California Prison Realignment and Its Effect on Female Inmates
Physical and Mental Health Needs of Incarcerated Women
Spotlight on the Financial Challenges Behind Bars
Children of Incarcerated Mothers: The Unintended Victims
Spotlight on the Girl Scouts Beyond Bars Program
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 12. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Police, Corrections, and Offender
Services

Women in Policing
Spotlight on Pregnancy and Policing
Women in Corrections
Community Corrections: Female Probation and Parole Officers
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 13. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Courts and Victim Services
Women and the Law
Spotlight on Women in Politics
Women and the Judiciary
Spotlight on Women and the Supreme Court
Women and Work in Victim Services

Advocates for Intimate Partner Abuse
Spotlight on Self-Care for Victim Advocates

Rape-Crisis Workers
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

12

Glossary
References
Index
About the Author

13

14

Preface

The purpose of this book is to introduce readers to the issues that face women as they navigate the criminal
justice system. Regardless of the participation, women have unique experiences that have significant effects on
their perspectives of the criminal justice system. To effectively understand the criminal justice system, the
voices of women must be heard. This book seeks to inform readers on the realities of women’s lives as they
interact with the criminal justice system. These topics are presented in this book through summary essays
highlighting the key terms and research findings and incorporating cutting-edge research from scholars whose
works have been published in top journals in criminal justice, criminology, and related fields.

15

Organization and Contents of the Book

This book is divided into thirteen chapters, with each chapter dealing with a different subject related to
women, gender, and crime. Each chapter begins with an introduction to the issues raised within each topic
and summarizes some of the basic themes related to the subject area. Each chapter also includes case studies
on critical issues or current events related to the topic. Each introductory essay concludes with a discussion of
the policy implications related to each topic. These thirteen chapters include

Women, Gender, and Crime: Introduction
Theories of Victimization
Women, Gender, and Victimization: Rape and Sexual Assault
Women, Gender, and Victimization: Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
International Issues in Gender-Based Violence
Women, Gender, and Offending
Girls, Gender, and Juvenile Delinquency
Female Offenders and Their Crimes
Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders
The Supervision of Women: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Reentry
Women, Gender and Incarceration
Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Police, Corrections, and Offender Services
Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Courts and Victim Services

The first chapter provides an introduction and foundation for the book. In setting the context for the book,
this chapter begins with a review of the influence of feminism on the study of crime. The chapter looks at the
different types of data sources that are used to assess female offending and victimization. The chapter
concludes with a discussion on feminist methodology and how it can contribute to the discussions of Women,
gender, and crime. The Spotlight in this chapter highlights the role of gender within the study of criminology.

The second chapter begins with a review of the victim experience in the criminal justice system. This chapter
highlights the experience of help seeking by victims and the practice of victim blaming. The chapter then
turns to a discussion of victimization and focuses on how fear about victimization is a gendered experience.
The chapter then turns to the discussion of victimization and how theories seek to understand the victim
experience and place it within the larger context of the criminal justice system and society in general. The
Spotlights in this chapter look at the issue of victim rights in Mexico and the femicides of women along the
border cities, and cases of kidnapping involving women and girls.

The third chapter focuses on the victimization of women by crimes of rape and sexual assault. From historical
issues to contemporary standards in the definition of sexual victimization, this chapter highlights the various
forms of sexual assault and the role of the criminal justice system in the reporting and prosecution of these
crimes, and the role of victims in the criminal justice system. This chapter also looks at critical issues such as
campus sexual assault, sexual violence in the LGBTQ communities, and racial and ethnic issues in sexual

16

assault. The Spotlights in this chapter look at issues of rape culture and sexual assault within the military.

The fourth chapter presents the discussion of victimization of women in cases of intimate partner abuse and
stalking. A review of the legal and social research on intimate partner violence addresses a multitude of issues
for victims, including the barriers to leaving a battering relationship. This chapter also highlights how
demographics such as race, sexuality, and immigration status impact the abusive experience.

The fifth chapter focuses on international issues for women and includes discussions on crimes such as human
trafficking, honor-based violence, witch burnings, genital mutilation, and rape as a war crime. The Spotlights
in this chapter look at the issue of witch burnings in Papua New Guinea and the case of Malala Yousafzai.

The sixth chapter focuses on the theoretical explanations of female offending. The chapter begins with a
review of the classical and modern theories of female criminality. While the classical theories often described
women in sexist and stereotypical ways, modern theories of crime often ignored women completely. Recent
research has reviewed many of these theories to assess whether they might help explain female offending. The
chapter concludes with a discussion of gender-neutral theories and feminist criminology. The Spotlights in
this chapter look at the Manson Women as a classical example of strain theory.

Chapter 7 focuses on girls and the juvenile justice system. Beginning with a discussion on the patterns of
female delinquency, this chapter investigates the historical and contemporary standards for young women in
society and how the changing definitions of delinquency have disproportionately and negatively impacted
young girls. The Spotlights in this chapter look at the issue of sexual abuse in confinement, arts programming
for at-risk youth, and listening girls’ voices to assess what girls need from the juvenile justice system.

Chapter 8 deals with women and their crimes. While female crimes of violence are highly sensationalized by
the media, these crimes are rare occurrences. Instead, the majority of female offending is made up of crimes
that are nonviolent in nature or are considered victimless crimes, such as property-based offenses, drug abuse,
and sexually based offenses. The Spotlights in this chapter look at how a typically masculine crime of bank
robbery can be gendered, a discussion of gender and self-defense, and an examination of the case of Michelle
Carter, who was convicted for using text messages to encourage her boyfriend to commit suicide.

The ninth chapter details the historical and contemporary patterns in the processing and sentencing of female
offenders. This chapter highlights research on how factors such as patriarchy, chivalry, and paternalism within
the criminal justice system impact women. The Spotlight in this chapter looks at international perspectives in
the processing of female offenders.

The tenth chapter looks at the experience of women in the community corrections setting. The chapter begins
with a discussion of gender-specific programming and how correctional agents and programs need to address
unique issues for women. The chapter then looks at the role of risk assessment instruments and how they need
to reflect gender differences between male and female offenders. The chapter concludes with a discussion on
the reentry challenges of women exiting from prison. The Spotlight in this chapter looks at life after parole.

Chapter 11 examines the incarceration of women. Here, the text and readings focus on the patterns and

17

practices of the incarceration of women. Ranging from historical examples of incarceration to modern-day
policies, this chapter looks at how the treatment of women in prison varies from that of their male
counterparts and how incarcerated women have unique needs based on their differential pathways to prison.
The Spotlights in this chapter look at how California’s experience with realignment has impacted the
incarceration of women, the financial challenges for women while they are in prison, and the Girl Scouts
Beyond Bars program.

Chapter 12 focuses on women who work within criminal justice occupations within traditionally male-
dominated environments: policing and corrections. The Spotlight in this chapter looks at issues of pregnancy
on policing.

Chapter 13 concludes this text with a discussion of women in the legal and victim services fields. The chapter
looks at both women who work as attorneys as well as women in the judiciary. While women are a minority in
this realm of the criminal justice system, women are generally overrepresented within victim services agencies.
Here, gender also plays a significant role both in terms of the individual’s work experiences as well as in the
structural organization of the agency. The Spotlights in this chapter highlight the impact of gender on the
U.S. Supreme Court, women in politics, and the value of self-care for victim services’ workers.

As you can see, this book provides an in-depth look at the issues facing women in the criminal justice system.
Each chapter of this book presents a critical component of the criminal justice system and the role of women
in it. As you will soon learn, gender is a pervasive theme that runs deeply throughout our system, and how we
respond to it has a dramatic effect on the lives of women in society.

There is coverage of critical topics, such as

Representation of women in criminal justice academia
Victim blaming
Multiple marginalities and LGBT populations, including LGBTQ sexual violence
Marital rape and rape as a war crime
Campus sexual assault
Economic abuse
Cyberstalking
Labor trafficking
Women and pretrial release
Challenges faced by female police officers
The increasing number of women in the legal field

Spotlights cover key issues, such as

Victims’ Rights in Mexico
Sexual Victimization at Military Academies
Stalking and College Campuses
The Manson Women

18

Life After Parole
Financial Challenges for Incarcerated Women
Pregnancy and Policing
Women in Politics
Self-Care for Victim Advocates

Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology.

19

Digital Resources

http://study.sagepub.com/mallicoat3e

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined
in the chapters.
Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course
material.
EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for
each chapter.
Web resources are included for further research and insights.
Carefully selected video links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other
content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.

The password-protected Instructor Resource Site includes the following:

A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and
essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of prewritten options
as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to
effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily
creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork
from the book.
Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for
lectures and class discussions.
Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating
the syllabus for your courses.
EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for
each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
Web resources are included for further research and insights.

20

Acknowledgments

I have to give tremendous thanks to Jessica Miller, acquisitions editor for the Criminology and Criminal
Justice Division at SAGE Publications. I am also deeply thankful to Jerry Westby and Craig Hemmens, who
created the opportunity for me to become involved in this project many years ago. Special thanks as well to the
staff at SAGE Publications who have also helped breathe life into this book.

Throughout my career, I have been blessed with amazing colleagues and mentors. I am so appreciative of your
love and support. Your wisdom and friendship inspires me every day to be a better scholar, teacher, and
human being. I also have to give thanks to my amazing network of friends from the Division on Women and
Crime and the Division on People of Color and Crime. I am honored to get to work in an environment that is
caring and supportive of my adventures in research and scholarship.

Finally, I am deeply indebted to my family for their love, support, and care and their endless encouragement
for my adventures in academia and beyond.

SAGE Publications gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers for this third edition:

Dr. Dorinda L. Dowis, Professor, Columbus State University
Leah Grubb, Georgia Southern University
Susan L. Wortmann, Nebraska Wesleyan University
Sandra Pavelka, PhD, Florida Gulf Coast University
Katherine J. Ely, Lock Haven University

Reviewers for the second edition:

Kathleen A. Cameron, Pittsburgh State University
Dorinda L. Dowis, Columbus State University
Katherine J. Ely, Lock Haven University
Allison J. Foley, Georgia Regents University
Bob Lilly, Northern Kentucky University
Johnnie Dumas Myers, Savannah State University
Sue Uttley-Evans, University of Central Lancashire

21

Chapter 1 Women, Gender, and Crime Introduction

22

Chapter Highlights
Introduction to women as victims, offenders, and workers in the criminal justice system
The emergence of feminism in criminology
Data sources that estimate female offending and victimization rates
The contributions of feminist methodologies in understanding issues about women and crime

Since the creation of the American criminal justice system, the experiences of women either have been
reduced to a cursory glance or have been completely absent. Gendered justice, or rather injustice, has prevailed
in every aspect of the system. The unique experiences of women have historically been ignored at every turn—
for victims, for offenders, and even for women who have worked within its walls. Indeed, the criminal justice
system is a gendered experience.

Yet the participation of women in the system is growing in every realm. Women make up a majority of the
victims for certain types of crimes, particularly when men are the primary offender. These gendered
experiences of victimization appear in crimes such as rape, sexual assault, intimate partner abuse, and stalking,
to name a few. While women suffer in disproportionate ways in these cases, their cries for help have
traditionally been ignored by a system that many in society perceive is designed to help victims. Women’s
needs as offenders are also ignored because they face a variety of unique circumstances and experiences that are
absent from the male offending population. Traditional approaches in criminological theory and practice have
been criticized by feminist scholars for their failure to understand the lives and experiences of women
(Belknap, 2007). Likewise, the employment of women in the criminal justice system has been limited, because
women were traditionally shut out of many of these male-dominated occupations. As women began to enter
these occupations, they were faced with a hyper-masculine culture that challenged the introduction of women
at every turn. While the participation of women in these traditionally male-dominated fields has grown
significantly in modern-day times, women continue to struggle for equality in a world where the effects of the
“glass ceiling” continue to pervade a system that presents itself as one interested in the notion of justice
(Martin, 1991).

In setting the context for the book, this chapter begins with a review of the influence of feminism on the study
of crime. Following an introduction of how gender impacts victimization, offending, and employment
experiences in the criminal justice system, the chapter presents a review of the different data sources and
statistics within these topics. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the research methods used to
investigate issues of female victimization, offending, and work in criminal justice-related fields.

23

Janet Chase

The Influence of Feminism on Studies of Women, Gender, and Crime

As a student, you may wonder what feminism has to do with the topic of women and crime. Feminism plays a
key role in understanding how the criminal justice system responds to women and women’s issues. In doing
so, it is first important that we identify what is meant by the term woman. Is “woman” a category of sex or
gender? Sometimes, these two words are used interchangeably. However, sex and gender are two different
terms. Sex refers to the biological or physiological characteristics of what makes someone male or female.
Therefore, we might use the term sex to talk about the segregation of men and women in jails or prison. In
comparison, the term gender refers to the identification of masculine and feminine traits, which are socially
constructed terms. For example, in early theories of criminology, female offenders were often characterized as
masculine, and many of these scholars believed that female offenders were more like men than women. While
sex and gender are two separate terms, the notions of sex and gender are interrelated within the study of
women and crime. Throughout this book, you will see examples of how sex and gender both play an
important role in the lives of women in the criminal justice system.

The study of women and crime has seen incredible advances throughout the 20th and 21st century. Many of
these changes are a result of the social and political efforts of feminism. The 1960s and 1970s shed light on
several significant issues that impacted many different groups in society, including women. The momentum of
social change as represented by the civil rights and women’s movements had significant impacts for society,
and the criminal justice system was no stranger in these discussions. Here, the second wave of feminism
expanded beyond the focus of the original activists (who were concerned exclusively about women’s suffrage
and the right to vote) to topics such as sexuality, legal inequalities, and reproductive rights. It was during this
time frame that criminology scholars began to think differently about women and offending. Prior to this
time, women were largely forgotten in research about crime and criminal behavior. When they were
mentioned, they were relegated to a brief footnote or discussed in stereotypical and sexist ways. Given that
there were few female criminologists (as well as proportionally few female offenders compared to the number
of male offenders), it is not surprising that women were omitted in this early research about criminal behavior.

Some of the first feminist criminologists gained attention during the 1960s and 1970s. The majority of these
scholars were focused primarily on looking at issues of equality and difference between men and women in
terms of offending and responses by the criminal justice system. Unfortunately, these liberal feminists focused
only on gender and did not include discussions that reflected a multicultural identity. Such a focus resulted in
a narrow view of the women that were involved in crime and how the system responded to their offending. As
Burgess-Proctor (2006) notes,

By asserting that women universally suffer the effects of patriarchy, the dominance approach rests
on the dubious assumption that all women, by virtue of their shared gender, have a common
“experience” in the first place. . . . It assumes that all women are oppressed by all men in exactly the
same ways or that there is one unified experience of dominance experienced by women. (p. 34)

24

Janet Chase
Janet Chase

While second-wave feminism focused on the works by these White liberal feminists, third-wave feminism
addresses the multiple, diverse perspectives of women, such as race, ethnicity, nationality, and sexuality. With
these new perspectives in hand, feminist criminologists began to talk in earnest about the nature of the female
offender and began to ask questions about the lives of women involved in the criminal justice system. Who is
she? Why does she engage in crime? And, perhaps most important, how is she different from the male
offender, and how should the criminal justice system respond to her?

Photo 1.1 The icon of Lady Justice represents many of the ideal goals of the justice system,
including fairness, justice, and equality.

©iStock/PatrickPoendl

As feminist criminologists began to encourage the criminal justice system to think differently about female
offenders, feminism also encouraged new conversations about female victimization. The efforts of second- and
third-wave feminism brought increased attention to women who were victims of crime. How do women
experience victimization? How does the system respond to women who have been victims of a crime? How
have criminal justice systems and policies responded to the victimization of women? Indeed, there are many
crimes that are inherently gendered that have historically been ignored by the criminal justice system.

Feminism also brought a greater participation in the workforce in general, and the field of criminal justice was
no exception. Scholars were faced with questions regarding how gender impacts the way in which women
work within the police department, correctional agencies, and the legal system. What issues do women face
within the context of these occupations? How has the participation of women in these fields affected the
experiences of women who are victims and offenders?

Today, scholars in criminology, criminal justice, and related fields explore these issues in depth in an attempt
to shed light on the population of women in the criminal justice system. While significant gains have been
made in the field of feminist criminology, scholars within this realm have suggested that “without the ri

Criminal homework help

Probation & Parole

Conditional Release

1

Probation & Parole

Be sure to use the terms properly!!!

Significant variation in state laws about probation & parole.

Fewer court decisions about the rights of probationers & parolees than about incarcerated offenders

Parole laws are especially complex and have gone thru major changes in the last 20 years

2

3 major issues

Rights of offenders being considered for parole release

Other constitutional rights of probationers and parolees

Rights of probationers & parolees in revocation process

3

Conditions of parole & probation

For parole – conditions on parolees are imposed by parole board. For probationers – depends on the state

Parole board has lots of discretion with imposing conditions

Conditions must be constitutional, reasonable, unambiguous, related to rehabilitation

Conditions of parole & probation

Nonassociation conditions (1st Amendment) not usually successful

Arciniega v. Freeman (1971): prohibition did not include incidental contact

Restrictions on travel usually upheld

Requirements to be in a place at a specific time usually upheld

Conditions on parole & probation

1st Amendment freedom of religion issues – generally cannot restrict church attendance or require it

Can require education & vocational training

Can require therapy/counseling

Can mandate restitution but Bearden v. Georgia (1985)

https://www.tdcj.texas.gov/bpp/policies_directives/policies_directives.html

Parole Release Procedure – what due process rights do offenders have?

Parole is a privilege and not a right – it’s a discretionary decision based on an evaluation of an offender’s future conduct

Greenholtz v. Inmates of Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complex:

The 14th Amendment’s due process clause does not apply to a decision to release an inmate conditionally before the end of a prison term.

If the language of a state’s parole statute creates a liberty interest for prisoners in the parole decision, inmates may have constitutional due process protections as a result of the state law.

An informal process is all that is required.

7

Fifth Amendment Rights

Probation/Parole officer does not have to give their client Miranda warnings UNLESS the client has been placed under arrest

Conversations between probationers/ parolees and their officers are not confidential

Fourth Amendment Rights

Griffin v. Wisconsin (1987):

A law allowing warrantless searches of a probationer’s residence by a probation officer and based on “reasonable grounds” is valid and does not violate the probationer’s Fourth Amendment rights.

right to search often in probation/parole contract or in terms of a consent form signed by offender

9

Fourth Amendment Rights

United States v. Knights (2001): when a police officer has reasonable suspicion that a probationer subject to a search condition is engaged in criminal activity, a warrantless search is constitutional based on the probationer’s diminished expectations of privacy.

10

Fourth Amendment Rights

Samson v. California (2006):

A warrantless, suspicionless search conducted by a police officer of a parolee does not violate the Constitution

Fourth Amendment Rights

Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott (1998)

The exclusionary rule, prohibiting the introduction of evidence seized in violation of the Fourth Amendment’s protections against unreasonable search and seizure, does not apply to parole revocation hearings.

12

Revocation

Morrissey v. Brewer (1972):

Due process requires that, at a minimum, parole revocation procedures include:

(1) written notice of the claimed parole violation; (2) disclosure to the parolee of the evidence against them

(3) opportunity for the parolee to present evidence and witnesses and be heard

(4) right to confront and examine witnesses

(5) neutral and detached hearing committee

(6) written statement by the parole board of the evidence & reasons for revoking parole.

13

Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)

Supreme Court said offender is entitled to

1) preliminary hearing after arrest to determine if there is PC to revoke parole AND

2) final hearing to decide on revocation within a reasonable time (Court commented that a final hearing within 2 mos is reasonable)

Morrissey is a PAROLE revocation case

Court spoke about a revocation as a “grievous loss”

14

Revocation continued

Gagnon v. Scarpelli (1973)

requirements for a probation revocation hearing are identical to the requirements for a parole revocation hearing

There is no absolute right to an atty during the probation or parole process: available when charges are contested or when there is mitigating evidence and the reasons are complex or difficult to present.

Practice in many states has become to provide attys

15

Rights in the Clemency Process

Connecticut Board of Pardons v. Dumschat (1981): It does not matter that clemency has been granted frequently, it is a discretionary decision and an inmate has no due process protections in the clemency system.

Criminal homework help


Eugene Muse

10:11amMay 11 at 10:11am

Manage Discussion Entry

Worrall (2000) notes that quantitative research gives us more plausible means for evaluating criminal justice theory. In other words, quantitative research gives us hard data that proves or disproves criminological theories and criminal justice practices. The criminal justice system routinely uses quantitative data to illustrate crime trends and/or effectiveness of enforcement actions. However, there is a critical weakness to this approach. Numbers do not tell the story. For instance, a local law enforcement agency chief announces that violent crime is down by 20%. Statistically, he is telling the truth. However, the fact is that violent crime levels have not changed, but the way the police department reports them has. Shooting into occupied dwelling cases are now considered injury to property. Statistics very rarely show the complex reality of situations. They are a useful tool for law enforcement executives and politicians to show whatever result they want to the citizens.

Likewise, qualitative data can be exaggerated or misreported. However, when you are collecting qualitative data, you are not collecting impersonal numbers, but individual stories and experiences that more often show the reality of the situation. As Holt (2010) notes, qualitative research has become easier and more effective with new technologies. Using the internet and social media, researchers can have a wider reach, attract more participants, and find a larger cross section of people to survey. Copes (2010) points out that qualitative research allows participants to speak for themselves. When discussing crime and justice, I believe this is particularly important.

The strengths of quantitative data are that it can be used to quickly show the extent of an issue and that it can condense an issue to easily digestible segments of data for people to examine. The primary weakness of quantitative research is that it cannot accurately and fully explain or document complex issues, such as crime and effectiveness of crime control policies. Academicians wishing to inform the public or leaders on issues using quantitative data, can do so simply. Using publicly available crime data, for instance, they quickly analyze trends in the data to show increases/decreases. So, if a researcher wanted to show the efficacy of red-light cameras, for instance, they could show stakeholders data on wrecks at intersections due to running red lights a year before the cameras and a year after. They can thus show the efficacy of the cameras, in theory, and also show how quantitative data can be used to affect public policy.

Proverbs 19:2 (English Standard Bible, 2001) tells us “Desire without knowledge is not good, and whoever makes haste with his feet misses his way.” Read literally, this makes me think that wanting something without knowing about it and why you need it, is a mistake. Further, rushing into things carelessly is folly. So, as Christians, we are instructed to research before pushing forward with new things. If we apply this lesson in our professional lives, it will help us to make wiser decisions based on research.

Criminal homework help

To my parents

I
INTRODUCTION

n the second millennium B.C., while the Elam nation was developing a
civilization alongside Babylon, Indo-European invaders gave their name to

the immense Iranian plateau where they settled. The word “Iran” was derived
from “Ayryana Vaejo,” which means “the origin of the Aryans.” These people
were semi-nomads whose descendants were the Medes and the Persians. The
Medes founded the first Iranian nation in the seventh century B.C.; it was later
destroyed by Cyrus the Great. He established what became one of the largest
empires of the ancient world, the Persian Empire, in the sixth century B.C. Iran
was referred to as Persia — its Greek name — until 1935 when Reza Shah, the
father of the last Shah of Iran, asked everyone to call the country Iran.

Iran was rich. Because of its wealth and its geographic location, it invited
attacks: From Alexander the Great, from its Arab neighbors to the west, from
Turkish and Mongolian conquerors, Iran was often subject to foreign
domination. Yet the Persian language and culture withstood these invasions.
The invaders assimilated into this strong culture, and in some ways they
became Iranians themselves.

In the twentieth century, Iran entered a new phase. Reza Shah decided to
modernize and westernize the country, but meanwhile a fresh source of wealth
was discovered: oil. And with the oil came another invasion. The West,
particularly Great Britain, wielded a strong influence on the Iranian economy.
During the Second World War, the British, Soviets, and Americans asked Reza
Shah to ally himself with them against Germany. But Reza Shah, who
sympathized with the Germans, declared Iran a neutral zone. So the Allies
invaded and occupied Iran. Reza Shah was sent into exile and was succeeded by
his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was known simply as the Shah.

In 1951, Mohammed Mossadeq, then prime minister of Iran, nationalized the
oil industry. In retaliation, Great Britain organized an embargo on all exports
of oil from Iran. In 1953, the CIA, with the help of British intelligence,
organized a coup against him. Mossadeq was overthrown and the Shah, who
had earlier escaped from the country, returned to power. The Shah stayed on
the throne until 1979, when he fled Iran to escape the Islamic revolution.

Since then, this old and great civilization has been discussed mostly in
connection with fundamentalism, fanaticism, and terrorism. As an Iranian who
has lived more than half of my life in Iran, I know that this image is far from
the truth. This is why writing Persepolis was so important to me. I believe that
an entire nation should not be judged by the wrongdoings of a few extremists. I
also don’t want those Iranians who lost their lives in prisons defending
freedom, who died in the war against Iraq, who suffered under various

repressive regimes, or who were forced to leave their families and flee their
homeland to be forgotten.

One can forgive but one should never forget.
Marjane Satrapi
Paris, September 2002

CREDITS

Translation of first part of Persepolis: Mattias Ripa

Translation of second part of Persepolis: Blake Ferris

Supervision of translation: Marjane Satrapi and Carol Bernstein

Lettering: Celine Merrien and Eve Deluze

THANKS TO

Anjali Singh

L’Association

David B.

Jean-Christophe Menu

Emile Bravo

Christophe Blain

Guillaume Dumora

Fanny Dalle-Rive

Nicolas Leroy

Matthieu Wahiche

Charlotte Miquel

Amber Hoover

Persepolis, translation copyright © 2003 by L’Association, Paris, France
Persepolis 2, translation copyright © 2004 by Anjali Singh

All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Pantheon Books, a division of
Random House, Inc., New York, and in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited,

Toronto.

The Complete Persepolis was originally published in the United States in two separate
volumes:

Pantheon Books and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Satrapi, Marjane, 2022

[Persepolis, English]
The complete Persepolis / Marjane Satrapi.

p. cm.
Contains the author’s Persepolis (2003) and Persepolis 2 (2004)

eISBN: 978-0-307-51802-6
1. Satrapi, Marjane, 2022—Comic books, strips, etc. I. Satrapi, Marjane, 2022

Persepolis 2. English. II. Title.
PN6747.S245P4713 2007

955.05′42092—dc22
[B] 2007060106

www.pantheonbooks.com
v3.0

  • Cover
  • Dedication
  • Title Page
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11
  • Chapter 12
  • Chapter 13
  • Chapter 14
  • Chapter 15
  • Chapter 16
  • Chapter 17
  • Chapter 18
  • Chapter 19
  • Chapter 20
  • Chapter 21
  • Chapter 22
  • Chapter 23
  • Chapter 24
  • Chapter 25
  • Chapter 26
  • Chapter 27
  • Chapter 28
  • Chapter 29
  • Chapter 30
  • Chapter 31
  • Chapter 32
  • Chapter 33
  • Chapter 34
  • Chapter 35
  • Chapter 36
  • Chapter 37
  • Chapter 38
  • Chapter 39
  • Credits
  • Copyright

Criminal homework help

STUDENT REPLIES

Post a brief description of the human rights violation you selected. Then explain one way in which the human rights violation might affect the global perception of the United States. Be specific.

Note: Identify the domestic human rights violations you selected in the first line of your post. Respond to a colleague who selected a domestic human rights violations different than the one you selected.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

STUDENT REPLY #1 Alicia Bruce

RIGHT TO LIFE AND SECURITY OF THE PERSON

Article I state, every human being has the right to life, liberty, and the security of his person. Article II states, all persons are equal before the law and have the rights and duties established in this Declaration, without distinction as to race, sex, language, creed, or any other factor (CIDH, n.d.). The government’s failure to protect individuals from persistent gun violence continued to violate their human rights, including the right to life, security of the person and freedom from discrimination. Unfettered access to firearms, a lack of comprehensive gun safety laws and a failure to invest in adequate gun violence prevention and intervention programmes continued to perpetuate this violence. In 2018, 39,740 individuals died from gunshot injuries while tens of thousands more are estimated to have sustained gunshot injuries and survived. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, with increased gun sales and shootings, the USA failed in its obligation to prevent deaths from gun violence, which could have been done through a range of urgent measures, including de-listing gun stores as essential businesses (amensty, 2022). “As of 2020, “Stand Your Ground” and “Castle Doctrine” laws, both of which provide for private individuals to use lethal force in self-defense against others when in their homes or feeling threatened, existed in 34 US states. These laws appeared to escalate gun violence and the risk of avoidable deaths or serious injuries, resulting in violations of the right to life(amensty,2022).

Failure to adhere to international human rights standards and protect human rights weakens peace-making, peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts. The United States has been inconsistent in defending human rights abroad and has been complicit in or has committed serious abuses in its foreign policies and engagement. The president should review US policies on the use of force and agencies involved to ensure compliance with international law. When the laws of war do not apply, US personnel should strictly adhere to international human rights law, which prioritizes the right to life and permits the use of lethal force only in the face of an imminent threat to life(hrw,2020).

References

https://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/usa/

Citizen Security and Human Rights

https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/11/10/us-president-should-set-human-rights-foreign-policy

STUDENT REPLY #2 Kurtis Corbett

According to (Amnesty International, n.d.) in 2021 one of the most violated rights of humans in the United States was the failure to protect people from persistent gun violence. In 2021, congress did not pass any regulations on access to firearms in the United States. A surge in gun sales during the Covid-19 pandemic, unfettered access to firearms, a lack of comprehensive gun safety laws (including effective regulation of firearm acquisition, possession, and use), and a failure to invest in adequate gun violence prevention and intervention programs, perpetuated this violence. At least 44,000 people were estimated to have been killed by gun violence in 2020. During the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 some state government authorities exacerbated gun violence by designating gun stores as “essential businesses”. In May, the US Department of Justice proposed a regulation that would update the definitions of “firearm” and related firearm components for the first time since 1968, noting that 23,000 un-serialized firearms (known as “ghost guns”) were reported to have been recovered by law enforcement from potential crime scenes between 2016 and 2020. In November 2021, the US Supreme Court heard its first case regarding gun rights in over a decade. The eventual decision in this case could determine whether individuals may carry a firearm in public without demonstrating “proper cause” or meeting licensing thresholds.

I believe the lack of consistent gun laws in the United States sends a message of instability to the global community. Gun laws vary from state to state depending on where you live, travel to, or purchase a firearm. I believe that the global community views the United States of America as the “wild wild west” when it comes to personal firearm possession and ammunition ownership. New York has some of the strictest gun laws in the United States and gun violence continues to surge in that state. According to (Watkins & Closson, 2022) Shootings in New York City rose during 2022’s first quarter compared with the same period last year, even as homicides declined, police officials said Wednesday afternoon, the continuation of a drumbeat of violence that emerged early in the pandemic and has not ebbed with the virus. Shooting incidents increased from 260 to 296 in the first quarter of this year compared with the same period last year, according to the latest Police Department statistics, which include the first three days of April.

References

Amnesty International. (n.d.). United States of America Archives. https://www.amnesty.org/en/location/americas/north-america/united-states-of-america/report-united-states-of-america/

Watkins, A., & Closson, T. (2022, April 12). Shootings Rise in New York, Coloring Perceptions of City’s Safety. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/06/nyregion/shootings-new-york-city-safety.html

PROFESSOR REPLY #3

. What can we do as criminal justice practitioners or as community members to address discrimination within our own communities?

Criminal homework help

HELLO TO REVIEW THE MAP IN THIS DICUSSION QUESTION AND THE WRITTEN LAYOUT OF EACH COUNTRY ALL WILL BE LOCATED IN WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS. ALSO THIS WILL BE A 200 WORD COUNT PAPER USING TEXTBOOK REFERENCE.

*********ATTENTION******************

ONCE AGAIN I REPEAT THIS DISCUSSION THAT YOU ANSWER WILL BE THE QUESTION THE PROFESSOR WILL ASK YOU FROM. SO MAKE SURE BEFORE YOU REPLY BACK TO THE PROFESSOR YOU REFER BACK TO THIS PAGE AND THE PAGE YOU PUT TOGETHER FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT……

Resources

Access Resources

Learning Resources

Please read and view (where applicable) the following Learning Resources before you complete this week’s assignments.

Media

Map of International Human Rights Violations Around the World

Click on the above link to view a map indicating areas where human rights violations occur. Click on each flashing icon to learn about remedies of those human rights violations.

Note: For a transcript of this map, please click here Click for more options.

Readings

Article: Verdeja, E. (2008). A critical theory of reparative justice. Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory, 15(2), 208–222.

Article: International Center for Transitional Justice. (2009). Effective Remedies to Human Rights Violations. Retrieved from http://ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Global-Rights-Remedies-2009-English.pdf

Article: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2005). Basic principles and guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/RemedyAndReparation.aspx

Article: Ameh, R. K. (2006). Doing justice after conflict: The case for Ghana’s National Reconciliation Commission. Canadian Journal of Law and Society/Revue Canadienne Droit et Societe, 21(1), 85–109.

Discussion – Week 5

TO COMPLETE THIS ASSIGNMENT YOU WILL NEED TO GO BACK TO WEEK 1,2,3,4 TO MAKE SURE THIS IS DONE CORRECTLY EVERYTHING I HAVE SENT YOU IS THERE AND EVERYTHING YOU HAVE WROTE WILL BE THERE ALSO

Remedies for Human Rights Violations

Remedies for human rights violations focus on repairing and restoring what victims have lost as a result of the violation. Examples of remedies include: exposing the truth about the occurrences of human right violations; providing reparations to victims in the form of money or property; prosecuting violators; and reforming government or regime policy to prevent future violations. The nature of the human rights violation will determine which remedies are most appropriate. Extremely heinous violations may warrant using multiple remedies. In this Discussion you are asked to consider remedies that you would recommend to address a human rights violation.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review the article “A Critical Theory of Reparative Justice” and consider whether reparative justice is a remedy for human rights violation.

Review the articles, “Effective Remedies to Human Rights Violations” and “Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law.” Think about principles, guidelines and elements of effective remedies for human rights violations.

Review the article “Doing Justice After Conflict: The Case for Ghana’s National Reconciliation Commission.” Consider whether reconciliation is a valid remedy to human rights violations.

Use the map to view human rights violations around the globe. Make sure to pay attention to the remedies of violations.

Select a human rights violation to use for this assignment (one that you have not used for previous Discussions in this course). Identify two remedies you would recommend to address the human rights violation and consider why.

With these thoughts in mind:

A brief description of the human rights violation you selected. Then describe two remedies you would recommend to address the violation and explain why. Be specific.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

Criminal homework help

4/30/22, 8:16 AM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=3664125&evalObjectType=5&userId=2… 1/4

CJIF Program Discussion Rubric 11/2020
Course: CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222)

Criteria Excellent
Above
Average

Average
Below
Average

Poor
Criterion
Score

Content of

original

post/demon

stration of

material

command/in

tegration of

course

materials

and other

readings.

/ 2020 points

Demonstrate

d a clear

understandi

ng of the

weekly

material/sub

ject and

articulated

command of

content/subj

ect into well

stated post

responses;

and/or

displayed

critical

thinking by

bringing in

more than 2

relevant

resources

and by

promoting

significant

further

thought on

the topic.

Points

available: 18

-20

17.9 points

Displayed a

good

understandi

ng of

weekly

material

/subject that

was

presented in

most posts;

and/or

displayed

critical

thinking by

bringing in at

least 2

relevant

resources

promoting

further

thoughts on

the topic.

Points

available: 16

-17.9

15.9 points

Displayed an

understandi

ng of weekly

material/sub

ject but did

not fully

articulate

their

understandi

ng; and/or

displayed

minimal

critical

thinking by

bringing in

only 2

relevant

resources

that

minimally

promoted

further

thoughts on

the topic.

Points

available:

14-15.9

13.9 points

Displayed

very little

understandi

ng of the

weekly

material

/subject and

did not

articulate an

understandi

ng; and/or

did not

demonstrate

critical

thinking as

evidenced

by having 1

or less

relevant

resources

which

minimally

promoted

further

thoughts on

the topic;

and/or

displayed

poor

command of

subject

matter.

11.9 points

Failed to

display any

understandi

ng of the

week’s

materials;

and/or

incorrectly

addressed

the weekly

material/sub

ject; and/ or

did not

display

critical

thinking; or

did not bring

in relevant

resources to

support

thoughts; or

did not

promote

further

thoughts on

the topic; or

did not

display

command of

subject

matter.

4/30/22, 8:16 AM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=3664125&evalObjectType=5&userId=2… 2/4

Criteria Excellent
Above
Average

Average
Below
Average

Poor
Criterion
Score

Timeliness

of original

post

/ 5

Points

available:

12-13.9

Points

available F: 0

– 11.9

No post = 0

5 points

Posts

original

discussions

by day two

(2) of the

academic

week.

Points

available:

4.5-5

4.4 points

Posts

original

discussions

by day three

(3) of the

academic

week.

Points

available: 4-

4.4

3.9 points

Posts

original

discussions

by day four

(4) of the

academic

week.

Points

available:

3.5-3.9

3.4 points

Posts

original

discussion

by day five

(5) of the

academic

week.

Points

available: 3-

3.4

2.9 points

Posts

original

discussion

by day six (6)

or seven (7)

of the

academic

week. Points

available

F: 0-2.9

No Post = 0

4/30/22, 8:16 AM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=3664125&evalObjectType=5&userId=2… 3/4

Criteria Excellent
Above
Average

Average
Below
Average

Poor
Criterion
Score

Peer

response

content/we

ekly

involvement

in discussion

board.

/ 10

Timeliness

of peer

posts.

/ 5

10 points

Engaged in

discussion

with at least

three (3)

peers

whereby an

idea was

built upon or

refuted and

displayed

exemplary

critical

thinking.

Points

available: 9-

10

8.9 points

Engaged in

discussion

with at least

two (2) peers

whereby an

idea was

built upon or

refuted and

displayed

good critical

thinking.

Points

available: 8-

8.9

7.9 points

Engaged in

discussion

with at least

one (1) peer

whereby an

idea was

built upon or

refuted.

Points

available: 7-

7.9

6.9 points

Replies to

others but

did not built

upon or

refute peer

thoughts.

Points

available D:

6-6.9

F: 0-5.9

0 points

Did not

engage in

discussion

with peers

5 points

Posts peer

discussions

by day three

(3) of the

academic

week.

Points

available:

4.5-5

4.4 points

Posts peer

discussions

by day four

(4) of the

academic

week.

Points

available: 4-

4.4

3.9 points

Posts peer

discussions

by day five

(5) of the

academic

week.

Points

available: 3.5

-3.9

3.4 points

Posts peer

discussion

by day six (6)

of the

academic

week.

Points

available D:

3-3.4

2.9 points

Posts peer

discussion

on day six

(7) of the

academic

week. Points

available

Points

available F:

0-2.9

No Post = 0

4/30/22, 8:16 AM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=3664125&evalObjectType=5&userId=2… 4/4

Total / 50

Overall Score

Criteria Excellent
Above
Average

Average
Below
Average

Poor
Criterion
Score

Adherence

to

Discussion

Forum

Standards

and

Guidelines.

/ 1010 points

All standards

followed as

required (i.e.

APA format;

grammar;

citations;

references,

other

standards as

required).

Points

available: 9-

10

8.9 points

1 discussion

standard not

followed (i.e.

APA format;

grammar;

citations;

references,

other

standards as

required).

Points

available: 8-

8.9

7.9 points

2-3

discussion

standards

not followed

(i.e. APA

format;

grammar;

citations;

references,

other

standards as

required).

Points

available: 7-

7.9

6.9 points

4 or more

discussion

standards

not followed

(i.e. APA

format;

grammar;

citations;

references,

other

standards as

required).

Points

available D:

6-6.9

Points

available F:

0-5.9

0 points

No posts for

the

discussion.

Excellent –

Equivalent to

an A
45 points minimum

Above Average –

Equivalent to an B
40 points minimum

Average –

Equivalent to

an C
35 points minimum

Below Average –

Equivalent to an D
30 points minimum

Poor –

Equivalent to

an F
0 points minimum

Criminal homework help

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

1877–0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.356

Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717

WCES-2011

What is the problem with the statement of problem? : the case of
postgraduate international students and the introductory sections of a

project paper

Noraini Ibrahim a *, Radha M.K. Nambiar a

aUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,Bangi,Selangor D.E. 43600, Malaysia

Abstract

This paper reports on an on-going action research that enquires into the academic writing of a project paper by international
post-graduate students enrolled at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Preliminary observations reveal that many of these students
are underprepared for the task, citing cross-cultural limitations stemming from differences in teaching and learning styles vis-a-
vis here and their home countries. They also claim that they are not prepared for the autonomy that is presented in the data
collecting process and the writing of the paper. This action research aims to address the problem with a focus on the Statement
of Problem. Data for the study were collected through semi-structured questionnaires, interviews and document analysis. The
researchers believe that if intervention is provided at the early stages of the writing, these novice writers should be able to

achieve academic socialization.
© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: action reseaarch; academic socialization; genre analysis; intervention; statement of problem

1. Introduction

In her 2009 address to the university entitled Gaining Momentum, Promoting Excellence: The UKM Knowledge
Ecosystem, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia(UKM)’s Vice Chancellor, Tan Sri Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hasan
Shahbudin, unveiled several strategies that would propel the development of the research university. One of the
strategies is a change to the cohort of students enrolled with an increase of the postgraduate population and a
reduction of the undergraduate population to a ratio of 60:40. The premise is that the former will facilitate more
research and publications, thus contributing to the Key Performnce Index of the university.

This increase in post-graduate enrolment is not really new as statistics reveal that there has been a steady
increase from 26.1% in 2006 to 32.1% in 2008. In tandem with this, the doctoral student enrolment has also
increased from 28.0% in 2006 to 38.0% in 2008. Again this is in line with globalization and as UKM become more
internationally recognised, her overseas student population has also increased from 14.0% in 2006 to 25.0% in
2008. This increase is made possible as many of UKM’s post graduate courses are conducted in English, and
because Islam is the official religion of Malaysia, it becomes very attractive to a large cohort of Middle East
students. It is this group of students that is the focus of this study.

The question is, what do these increases translate to the faculties, the lecturers as well as the incoming students?
For students who come from a non-English medium of instruction, how quickly can they socialize into the UKM

* Noraini Ibrahim. Tel.:+ 60389216476 ; fax:+60389254577
E-mail address: nib@ukm.my

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

1714 Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717

learning environment? Initially too, many of these students were accepted even without an acceptable level of
English proficiency (IELTS and TOEFL scores). As such, it is not surprising that many encounter difficulties in
ademic tasks such as the the reading up and writing of their project papers. As Adams and Keene (2000) have
highlighted, it is crucial for the students to master English quickly so as to deal successfully with their academic
demands and to perform successfully in their disciplines and professional contexts.

This paper reports on an ongoing action research project that enquires into the academic writing of Arab post
graduate students enrolled in a compulsory course for the Masters in English Language Studies (MESL) program
in UKM. This project paper is awarded a weighting of 30%, and students go through a process writing approach.
This core course is offered every semester and from the previous semester’s feedback (Semester 2 2009/2010),
these international students conveyed their difficulties in the writing of the project. They cited cross-cultural
limitations stemming from differences in teaching and learning styles vis-a-vis here and their home countries. They
also claimed that they were not prepared for the autonomy presented in the the data gathering process and the
writing up of the paper.

Faced with such a scenario, and armed with insights gleaned from previous semesters, the researchers went
through a reflective teaching phase to identify the problem and to develop a plan of action. The researchers realised
that to address the problem of writing the entire project paper is too broad, a decison was made to focus only on
one stage of the writing – the Statement of Problem. This stage is usually subsumed under Introduction and as
Swales (1990:137) writes, “Introductions are known to be troublesome, and nearly all academic writers admit to
having more difficulty with getting started …” It is thus not surprising that the students do complain of such
difficulty.

Hence this study aims to answer the following research questions:
i. What are the problems faced by students in writing the Statement of Problem?
ii. How can genre analysis help to alleviate the problems?

2. The Context

SKBI 6043 Approaches to Discourse is a 3 hour course over 14 weeks that is offered every semester. Students are
expected to do at least 6 hours of pre-lecture readings per week. In addition, at least two recent articles will be
uploaded on the university web-based learning portal. Apart from graded classroom tasks, the course also requires
the students to submit a research project and the relevant part of the course synopsis reads as follows “ To provide
for the practical application of the course instruction, each participant is expected to conduct research on a
particular topic in discourse analysis, using elicited or natural data collected during the semester.”

In Semester 1 20102011, the cohort of students taking SKBI 6043 over three succeeding semesters reveals an
acute increase in the number of international students from the previous two semesters. There was a record
number of 25 international students out of a population of 45 or 58.1%, as compared to 10 out of 27 or 37.1%
(Semester 2 20092010) and 7 out of 15 or 46.7% (Semester 1 20092010). In terms of nationality, there were 9
Libyan students followed by Iranians (7), Iraqis (4), Jordanians (4) and one from China. The question is, how is
this information translated on the ground?

In the first place, this growing number of Middle East students have been admitted into the course without the
necessary proficiency in English language (as it was the practice then). Secondly and not surprisingly, these
students suffered a culture shock resulting in a rather slow academic socialization. As the course is conducted in
English, there is a large gap that the students had to bridge. This is in line with he literature on the use of English
from their home countries as reflected in Abbad (1988, Al-Khasawneh (2010), Zughoul and Taminian (1984) and
Rabab’ah (2003). Abbad (1988) documented on the weaknesses of Yemeni learners of English, who despite their
low proficieny, were admitted into the English department. Zughoul and Taminian (1984) found that Jordanian
students committed serious lexical errors, while Rabab’ah opined that the lack of opportunity in communicating
with native speakers and the lack of native speaker instructors have made learning English difficult for Arab
learners.

On the performance of Arab post-graduate students writing in English in Malaysia, two studies need to be
mentioned. Hisham (2008) and Al-Khasawneh (2010) investigated the difficulties faced by Arab students writing
in English at a northern univesity in Malaysia, Universiti Utara Malaysia. Hisham (2008) focused on the writing of

Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717 1715

business students and found that they faced problems in vocabulary, register, grammar and referencing. Two years
later, Al-Khasawneh (2010) focused on the academic writing problems of Arab post graduate business students and
found weaknesses in vocabulary, register, organization of ideas, grammar, spelling and referencing. Two new
areas here are spelling and organization of ideas. In short, the difficulties covered all aspects of writing.

3. The Research Design: Classroom-Based Action Research

The choice for undertaking classroom-based aaction research is simply because it is a form of self-reflective
systematic enquiry. As Mertler (2009:4) alludes, “It focuses on the unique characteristics of the population for
whom a practice is employed…”

While the literature shows that there are many versions of action research, this study has adapted the four stages
of Kemmis & McTaggart (1988, p. 10). They are as follows:

Table 1: The Four Stages of Action Research

Plan Semester 1 20102011
• paid attention to the cohort of students; read their admission forms to gain an insight into their

profile, English language proficiency,
• identified tools of research: informal interviews; document analysis, observations
• Identified intervention strategies: scaffolding via genre analysis : 3 moves of genre – Swales

CARS model
• Designed syllabus to accommodate direct and indirect intervention

Act (Indirect Intervention Strategies )
Week 1: Course Outline ( weekly topics +by 2 articles uploaded at SPIN)
Week 2 : Lecture on Text and Genre (emphasis on research report- Swales’ CARS)
Week 3: Lecture on research in discourse studies

(Direct Intervention Strategies)
Week 7: Students’ First Presentation (Introduction section) – Evaluated
Intervention via genre analysis
Consultations
Week 8-15 Further discussions on research project- research method, findings.

Observe Observe the impact/effects of interventions
Reflect Assess and reassess interventions

4. Discussion of Findings

In Week 7 as the students presented their Introduction section in class, it was quite evident that many of them had
not benefitted from the indirect intervention strategies that were afforded to them from week 1 of the semester..
When they were given the additional two articles to read per week, the strategy was to provide them a ‘model’ to
emulate as well as to increase genre awareness. This was followed by the lecture on text and genre with an
emphasis on research reports in the social sciences. However, there was little uptake on their part. When the
students submitted their work, it was evident that there were problems in all aspects of writing. A case in point is
Sample 1, written by R., a female student from Libya.

Sample 1: R Lecturer’s
Comments

The role of media to produce racism anti Arab and Muslims in western countries Rework title-
what is the focus?
Issue –racism?

Statement of Problem
The oppression and racism against Muslims and Arabs, who live in the west is increasing after the

Identify the moves-
Move 1 – What is your research

1716 Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717

September events. Some people believed that racism was born after 11 September events, but this is
not true; it may be increased at this time, or than before, whereas the roots of racism have been a long
time ago. The view of western for another civilization, specially, Arabic and Islamic civilization, is bad
and low view. The racism was appearing the writers and intellectuals writing, as they mention for
racism in different arts such as the novel, cinema, theatre and drawing. They are portraying Arabs as
a group of riffraff always whose love bloodshed. Also, they look the same view for the immigrants
how chose to stay in their countries.

territory?
Move 2?- What does your
review inform your?
Move 3? – what is the gap?

Language/grammar
Register

Sample 1 is a good representation of the problems faced by Arab students in dealing with the Statement of
Problem. The text is authentic and has not been edited.

R has attempted to investigate a topic that is meanigful for her and many of the Arab students – representations
of oppresion, discrimination, Islamophobia, racism etc. This interest is however, not matched by their linguistic and
rhetorical ability. One notes difficulties in register, vocabulary as well as organization of ideas, thus confirming
Hisham(2008) and Al-Khasawneh (2010).

As applied genre analysis was employed as an intervention, the lecturer’s comments were thus limited to how
that abstract can be improved in relation to the CARS model. R and the other students with similar problems were
again shown Swales’ CARS model, but only the e 3 obligatory moves. In my consultation with R, this part was
explained again. R was asked to identify the issue that she wanted to address – racism or anti Arab discrimination.
Then she was asked to reflect on whether it is the ‘role’ of the media to produce racism. She was asked also to
identify whether it is a construction or representation of news/ texts/images that allowed a reader to deconstruct
issues of such nature. Further she was asked to peruse the texts to see if such contructions were overtly carried out.

Once R was fairly sure of her focus of study, she was directed to read the relevant literature on the issue as well
as the possible approaches that may be employed for her investigation. Once she decided on the approach, she
was asked to conduct a literature review on how such an approach is operationalised in cases of similar texts. This
was to help her identify the gap that her research would help to fill.

As genre analysis entails much research, reading and synthesising, it was found that this is where the students
are weakest at. During further interviews and feedback sessions, these students said that they would feel lost
during the research period. After getting the relevant reading materials, they then faced another problem. They
reported difficulties in identifying the salient points and then paraphrasing them. They too admitted that they could
not paraphrase well as some of the ideas were complex while the texts were rather dense. The fact that rhetoric in
English is linear while they were more familiar with a recursive style is also problematic. In short, the limitations
found by Hisham (2008) and Al-Khasawneh(2010) have surfaced here too.

5. Conclusion

It cannot be denied that academic writing is an arduous task for international students, but it is a skill that needs to
be mastered very quickly. What is needed is an access route that will make writing easier for the students. This
action research has attempted to fill in a small part in the writing project of the students. The work is not yet
completed but the insights gleaned from the introduction section have a major impact on the other sections of the
project. What is obvious is that these students need help but they too must quickly rise to the challenge by being
more independent and resourceful in their work. They need to work hard and to quickly embrace the culture of
learning required of them. Faculty members too need to take cognizance of the fact that these learners have a steep
learning curve as they shed off their previous learning culture. As such, the faculty must provide the appropriate
scaffolding so that the writing process and project can be enjoyable and meaningful.

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by research grant UKM-PTS-058-2010.

Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717 1717

References

Abbad, A. (1988). An analysis of communicative competence features in English language texts in Yemen Arab Republic. PhD Dissertation ,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Adams, K., & Keene, M. (2000). Research and writing across the disciplines (2nd ed.). California: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Al-Khasawneh, F, M.S. (2010). Writing for academic purposes: problems faced by Arab postgraduate students of the College of Business,

UUM, ESP World, Issue 2(28), Volume 9, 2010, accessed at http:///www/esp.-world.info.
Hisham, D. (2008). Needs analysis of Arab graduate students in the area of EAP: A case study of the ICT program at UUM. Unpublished minor

thesis. Sintok: Universiti Utara Malaysia Press.
Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (1988). The action research planner. Victoria: Deakin University Press.
Mertler, C.A. (2009). Action research: teachers as researchers in the classroom. Los Angeles: SAGE
Rabab’ah, G. (2003). Communicating problems facing Arab learners of English. Journal of Language and Learning, 3(1), 180-197.
Swales. J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zughoul, L. and Tamimian, L. (1984). The linguistic attitude of Arab university students: Factorial structure and intervening variables. The

International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 50, 28-45.

Criminal homework help

Application

Instructions

Application: Outline and Annotated Bibliography

Now that you have selected a topic and researched scholarly resources for your Capstone Project, it is time to create an outline and an annotated bibliography. The outline should list the major and minor subheadings with a brief description of what will be covered in each. Outlining a major project before you begin provides a concrete plan to follow and guides your writing as you develop your project. You are also required to create an annotated bibliography for your project. In creating the annotated bibliography you summarize the content of each scholarly resource and explain its relevance to your topic. Completing these two steps in the Capstone are necessary precursors to writing and completing your Capstone Project.

To prepare for this assignment:

Review the document Writing an Annotated BIbliography to learn how to prepare and to view examples of outlines and annotated bibliographies. Also consult the APA style and usage guidelines available in the Writing Center.

Think about the content the might be included in an outline of your Capstone Project.

Consider the scholarly resources you have found thus far. Be sure to use these in your annotated bibliography.

The assignment (1–2 pages):

Compose an outline for the Capstone Project.

Compose an annotated bibliography using APA style.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.

Criminal homework help

330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
The University of North Carolina at Pembroke

Criminal Justice
A Brief Introduction

Twelfth Edition

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Schmalleger, Frank, author.
Title: Criminal justice : A Brief Introduction / Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D.,

Distinguished Professor Emeritus, The University of North Carolina at
Pembroke.

Description: 12th edition. | Boston : Pearson, [2018] | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016030348 | ISBN 9780134548623 | ISBN 0134548620
Subjects: LCSH: Criminal justice, Administration of–United States. |

Crime–United States. | Law enforcement–United States.
Classification: LCC HV9950 .S34 2018 | DDC 364.973–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016030348

ISBN10: 0-13-454862-0
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-454862-3

SVE ISBN-10: 0-13-455978-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-455978-0

For Ava, Malia, Michelle, and Nicole

Part 1 Crime in America
Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice? 1

Chapter 2 The Crime Picture 22

Chapter 3 Criminal Law 61

Part 2 Policing
Chapter 4 Policing: Purpose and

Organization 90

Chapter 5 Policing: Legal Aspects 125

Chapter 6 Policing: Issues and Challenges 170

Part 3 Adjudication
Chapter 7 The Courts 212

Chapter 8 The Courtroom Work Group and the
Criminal Trial 236

Chapter 9 Sentencing 271

Part 4 Corrections
Chapter 10 Probation, Parole, and Community

Corrections 315

Chapter 11 Prisons and Jails 344

Chapter 12 Prison Life 376

Part 5 The Juvenile Justice System
Chapter 13 Juvenile Justice 414

iii

Brief Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xxii
About the Author xxiii

Part 1 Crime in America
Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice? 1

Introduction 2

A Brief History of Crime in America 3

The Theme of This Book 6

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Clarence Thomas Says: “Freedom Means
Responsibility” 7

Criminal Justice and Basic Fairness 8

American Criminal Justice: System and Functions 10

The Consensus Model 10

CJ News Surveillance Technology Has Been Blanketing the
Nation Since 9/11 11

The Conflict Model 12

American Criminal Justice: The Process 12

Due Process and Individual Rights 13

The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights 13

The Ultimate Goal: Crime Control through Due Process 14

CJ Exhibit Sentinel Events 15

Evidence-Based Practice in Criminal Justice 15

The Start of Academic Criminal Justice 16

Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice 16

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Criminal Justice 17

CJ Careers Careers in Criminal Justice 18

Summary 20

Questions for Review 21

Chapter 2 The Crime Picture 22
Introduction 23

Crime Data and Social Policy 23

The Collection of Crime Data 24

The UCR/NIBRS Program 24

Development of the UCR Program 24

The National Incident-Based Reporting System 26

Historical Trends 27

UCR/NIBRS in Transition 30

Part I Offenses 31

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. A Dress Code for Bank Customers? 32

CJ News “Flash Robs”: A Social Media Phenomenon 37

CJ issues Race and the Criminal Justice System 39
Part II Offenses 42

Contents

v

The National Crime Victimization Survey 42

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Can Citizens Have Too Much Privacy? 43
Comparisons of the UCR and the NCVS 45

Special Categories of Crime 46

Crime against Women 47

Crime against the Elderly 48

Hate Crime 49

Corporate and White-Collar Crime 50

Organized Crime 51

Gun Crime 52

Drug Crime 54

Cybercrime 55

Terrorism 57

CJ Exhibit 2–1 What Is Terrorist Activity? 58
Crime in International Context 59

Summary 60

Questions for Review 60

Chapter 3 Criminal Law 61
Introduction 62

The Nature and Purpose of Law 62

The Rule of Law 63

Types of Law 64

Criminal Law 64

Statutory Law 64

Civil Law 65

Administrative Law 66

Case Law 66

General Categories of Crime 66

Felonies 66

Misdemeanors 66

Infractions 67

Treason 67

Espionage 67

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Should Violent Speech Be Free Speech? 68
Inchoate Offenses 68

General Features of Crime 69

The Criminal Act (Actus Reus) 69

A Guilty Mind (Mens Rea) 70

Concurrence 72

Other Features of Crime 72

Elements of a Specific Criminal Offense 73

The Example of Murder 74

The Corpus Delicti of a Crime 75

Types of Defenses to a Criminal Charge 76

Multiculturalism and Diversity Islamic Law 77
Alibi 78

Justifications 78

Excuses 80

Procedural Defenses 86

Summary 88

Questions for Review 89

vi Contents

Part 2 Policing
Chapter 4 Policing: Purpose and Organization 90

Introduction 91

The Police Mission 91

Enforcing the Law 91

Apprehending Offenders 92

Preventing Crime 92

Preserving the Peace 95

Providing Services 95

American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level 96

Federal Agencies 96

Ethics and Professionalism The FBI Oath 99

State Agencies 99

PaYiNg For it Policing in an Economic Downturn 100

Local Agencies 101

CJ News The Use of Social Media in Policing 102

Fusion Centers 104

Private Protective Services 105

International Police Agencies 106

Police Administration 108

CJ Careers Security Professional 109

Police Organization and Structure 109

Chain of Command 110

Policing Epochs and Styles 111

Policing Epochs 111

The Watchman Style of Policing 112

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Liberty Is a Double-Edged Sword 112

The Legalistic Style of Policing 113

The Service Style of Policing 113

Police–Community Relations 113

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Watch Out: You’re on Camera! 114

Team Policing 115

Community Policing 115

CJ Exhibit 4–1 The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing 118

Evidence-Based Policing 119

The Kansas City Experiment 119

Evidence-Based Policing Today 121

Discretion and the Individual Officer 122

Summary 123

Questions for Review 124

Chapter 5 Policing: Legal Aspects 125
Introduction 126

The Abuse of Police Power 126

A Changing Legal Climate 127

Individual Rights 128

Checks and Balances 128

Due-Process Requirements 128

viiContents

Search and Seizure 129

The Exclusionary Rule 129

Judicial Philosophy and the U.S. Supreme Court 133

CJ Exhibit 5–1 Plain-View Requirements 138

CJ Careers Patrol Officer 140

Detention and Arrest 140

CJ News Supreme Court Says Police Need Warrant for GPS Tracking 142

Searches Incident to Arrest 143

CJ News Supreme Court Says Police Need Warrants Before Searching Cell
Phones 146

Emergency Searches of Persons 146

Vehicle Searches 147

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Religion and Public Safety 149

Suspicionless Searches 151

High-Technology Searches 152

The Intelligence Function 153

Informants 153

Police Interrogation 154

The Right to a Lawyer at Interrogation 157

Suspect Rights: The Miranda Decision 157

CJ Exhibit 5–2 The Miranda Warnings 158

Gathering of Special Kinds of Nontestimonial Evidence 162

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Policing in the Age of Social Media 163

Electronic Eavesdropping 164

CJ Exhibit 5–3 The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and the USA PATRIOT
Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 167

Summary 169

Questions for Review 169

Chapter 6 Policing: Issues and Challenges 170
Introduction 171

Police Personality and Culture 171

Corruption and Integrity 172

CJ issues Rightful Policing 173
Money—The Root of Police Evil? 176

Building Police Integrity 177

Ethics and Professionalism The Law Enforcement Oath of Honor 178
Drug Testing of Police Employees 178

The Dangers of Police Work 179

Violence in the Line of Duty 179

CJ News DNA Sampling Solves Some of the Toughest Cases 180

Risk of Disease and Infected Evidence 180

Stress and Fatigue among Police Officers 182

CJ Careers Police Officer 184

CJ issues The Use of Social Media in Policing 185

Terrorism’s Impact on Policing 186

The FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Forces 188

Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism 188

Information Sharing and Antiterrorism 189

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Policing 190

viii Contents

Police Civil Liability 190

Common Sources of Civil Suits 191

Federal Lawsuits 192

CJ News Is the Video Recording of Police Activity in a Public Place
Legal? 194

Racial Profiling and Biased Policing 195

Racial Profiling 195

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Was the NYPD’s Monitoring of Muslim Groups a
Form of Religious Profiling? 197

Racially Biased Policing 198

Police Use of Force 199

Deadly Force 200

CJ Exhibit 6–1 Taking Policing to a Higher Standard 201

Less-Lethal Weapons 203

Professionalism and Ethics 204

Ethics and Professionalism The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics 204

Education and Training 205

Recruitment and Selection 206

Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing 207

Multiculturalism and Diversity Investigating Crime in a Multicultural
Setting 208

Women as Effective Police Officers 209

Summary 210

Questions for Review 211

Part 3 Adjudication
Chapter 7 The Courts 212

Introduction 213

History and Structure of the American Court System 213

The State Court System 214

The Development of State Courts 214

State Court Systems Today 215

CJ News State Budget Cuts Wreak Havoc on the Courts 216

The Federal Court System 220

U.S. District Courts 220

U.S. Courts of Appeal 221

The U.S. Supreme Court 222

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Courts 224

Pretrial Activities 224

The First Appearance 224

CJ Careers Surety Agent 226

Multiculturalism and Diversity The International Criminal Court 228

CJ Exhibit 7–1 Nonjudicial Pretrial Release Decisions 230

The Grand Jury 232

The Preliminary Hearing 232

Arraignment and the Plea 233

Plea Bargaining 233

ixContents

Summary 235

Questions for Review 235

Chapter 8 The Courtroom Work Group and the
Criminal Trial 236

Introduction 237

The Courtroom Work Group: Professional Courtroom Actors 237

The Judge 239

The Prosecuting Attorney 240

CJ Careers Assistant District Attorney 241
The Defense Counsel 243

Ethics and Professionalism The American Bar Association’s Model Rules of
Professional Conduct 248

The Bailiff 248

Trial Court Administrators 248

The Court Reporter 249

The Clerk of Court 249

Expert Witnesses 249

Outsiders: Nonprofessional Courtroom Participants 250

Lay Witnesses 250

Jurors 251

The Victim 252

The Defendant 253

Spectators and the Press 253

The Criminal Trial 254

Procedure 254

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Courts 255
Nature and Purpose of the Criminal Trial 255

Stages in a Criminal Trial 257

Trial Initiation 258

Jury Selection 259

Opening Statements 261

Presentation of Evidence 262

CJ Exhibit 8–1 Pretrial and Post-Trial Motions 264
Closing Arguments 266

Judge’s Charge to the Jury 266

Jury Deliberations and the Verdict 267

CJ News Social Media Pose New Threats During Criminal Trials 268
Multiculturalism and Diversity The Bilingual Courtroom 269
Summary 270

Questions for Review 270

Chapter 9 Sentencing 271
Introduction 272

The Philosophy and Goals of Criminal Sentencing 272

Retribution 273

Incapacitation 274

Deterrence 274

Rehabilitation 274

Restoration 275

x Contents

Indeterminate Sentencing 276

Explanation of Indeterminate Sentencing 276

Critiques of Indeterminate Sentencing 276

Structured Sentencing 277

CJ Exhibit 9–1 Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances 279

Federal Sentencing Guidelines 279

The Legal Environment of Structured Sentencing 281

Three-Strikes Laws 283

Mandatory Sentencing 284

CJ Careers Medicolegal Death Investigator 285

Sentencing and Today’s Prison Crisis 286

Innovations in Sentencing 287

Questions about Alternative Sanctions 288

The Presentence Investigation 288

The Victim—Forgotten No Longer 290

Victims’ Rights 290

CJ Exhibit 9–2 Victims’ Rights in California 291

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. To What Degree Should the Personal Values of
Workers in the Criminal Justice System Influence Job Performance? 292

Victim-Impact Statements 293

Modern Sentencing Options 293

Sentencing Rationales 293

Sentencing Practices 294

Fines 294

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Corrections and Sentencing 296

Death: The Ultimate Sanction 296

Habeas Corpus Review 298

Opposition to Capital Punishment 299

CJ News Death-Row Exonerations Based on DNA Expose Flaws in Legal
System 305

Justifications for Capital Punishment 306

The Courts and the Death Penalty 306

CJ News High Costs Lead to Reconsideration of Death Penalty 308

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. What Are the Limits of Genetic Privacy? 311

The Future of the Death Penalty 312

Summary 313

Questions for Review 314

Part 4 Corrections
Chapter 10 Probation, Parole, and Community

Corrections 315
Introduction 316

What Is Probation? 316

The Extent of Probation 316

Probation Conditions 317

The Federal Probation System 318

Multiculturalism and Diversity Culturally Skilled Probation Officers 319

xiContents

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Probation Condition: Do Not Get Pregnant 319

What Is Parole? 320

The Extent of Parole 321

Parole Conditions 322

Federal Parole 322

Probation and Parole: The Pluses and Minuses 323

Advantages of Probation and Parole 323

Disadvantages of Probation and Parole 324

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Should DNA Links to Unsolved Cases Be Used
to Deny Parole? 325

The Legal Environment 325

The Job of Probation and Parole Officers 327

Job Descriptions 327

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Parole 328

The Challenges of the Job 328

CJ Careers Probation Officer 329

Intermediate Sanctions 330

Split Sentencing 331

Shock Probation and Shock Parole 331

Shock Incarceration 331

Ethics and Professionalism American Probation and Parole Association Code
of Ethics 332

Mixed Sentencing and Community Service 332

Intensive Probation Supervision 332

Home Confinement and Remote Location Monitoring 333

The Future of Probation and Parole 335

CJ News How GPS Technology Keeps Track of Sex Offenders 336

Changes in Reentry Policies 337

The Reinvention of Probation and Evidence-Based Practices 340

CJ issues Remote Reporting Probation 342

Summary 342

Questions for Review 343

Chapter 11 Prisons and Jails 344
Introduction 345

A Brief History of Prisons 345

Prisons Today 350

PaYiNg For it California’s Public Safety Realignment 351

CJ issues California’s Public Safety Realignment (PSR) Program 354

Prisoners Today 355

Overcrowding 355

CJ News California’s Governor Wants Federal Oversight of
Prisons to End 356

CJ issues The Prison Population 357

Selective Incapacitation: A Contemporary Strategy to Reduce
Prison Populations 358

Security Levels 359

CJ issues Evidence-Based Corrections 360

Prison Classification Systems 361

xii Contents

The Federal Prison System 361

The Growth of Federal Prisons 365

Recent Improvements 366

Jails 366

CJ issues The Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections 367

Women and Jail 368

The Growth of Jails 368

New Generation Jails 370

Jails and the Future 370

Ethics and Professionalism American Jail Association Code of Ethics for Jail
Officers 371

Private Prisons 372

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Corrections and Sentencing 373
CJ Exhibit 11–1 Arguments for and against the Privatization of Prisons 374

Summary 375

Questions for Review 375

Chapter 12 Prison Life 376
Introduction 377

Research on Prison Life: Total Institutions 377

The Male Inmate’s World 378

The Evolution of Prison Subcultures 379

The Functions of Prison Subcultures 379

CJ Exhibit 12–1 Prison Argot: The Language of Confinement 380

Prison Lifestyles and Inmate Types 381

Homosexuality and Sexual Victimization in Prison 382

The Female Inmate’s World 383

Sexual Victimization of Women Prisoners 384

Parents in Prison 385

Gender-Responsiveness 386

Institutions for Women 387

Social Structure in Women’s Prisons 387

Multiculturalism and Diversity The Bangkok Rules on the Treatment of
Female Prisoners 388

Types of Female Inmates 389

Violence in Women’s Prisons 390

The Staff World 391

Facts and Figures 391

The Professionalization of Corrections Officers 392

Security Threat Groups and Prison Riots 392

Ethics and Professionalism American Correctional Association Code
of Ethics 393

PaYiNg For it The Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice 395

Prisoners’ Rights 397

The Legal Basis of Prisoners’ Rights 398

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Censoring Prison Communications 399

Grievance Procedures 402

A Return to the Hands-Off Doctrine? 403

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Should Prison Libraries Limit Access to
Potentially Inflammatory Literature? 405

xiiiContents

Issues Facing Prisons Today 407

HIV/AIDS 407

Geriatric Offenders 408

Inmates with Mental Illness and Intellectual Disabilities 409

Terrorism 410

CJ News Radical Islam, Terrorism, and U.S. Prisons 411

Summary 412

Questions for Review 413

Part 5 The Juvenile Justice System
Chapter 13 Juvenile Justice 414

Introduction 415

Juvenile Justice Throughout History 416

Earliest Times 416

The Juvenile Court Era 418

Categories of Children in the Juvenile Justice System 419

The Legal Environment 419

CJ News Schools Are Taking Bullying Seriously 422

Legislation Concerning Children and Justice 423

The Legal Rights of Juveniles 424

The Juvenile Justice Process Today 424

Adult and Juvenile Justice Compared 425

CJ Exhibit 13–1 Adult Criminal Case Processing Versus the Juvenile Justice
System 426

How the System Works 426

CJ Exhibit 13–2 Juvenile Courts Versus Adult Courts 430

CJ News The Girls Study Group 432

Trends in Juvenile Justice 434

CJ Careers Juvenile Justice Professional 435

CJ issues Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice 436

Summary 437

Questions for Review 438

Appendix A: Bill of Rights A-1
Appendix B: List of Acronyms A-3

Glossary G-1

Notes N-1

Name Index I-1

Case Index I-7

Subject Index I-11

xiv Contents

Preface

Criminal justice is a dynamic field of study. Consider these challenges for instructors and
students trying to keep pace with a field that is undergoing continual modification: the
ever-evolving nature of crime, our changing understanding of justice, police—community
relations in an age of social media, budgetary constraints, ongoing threats to our nation’s
security, newly enacted statutes, innovations in enforcement and justice-system technol-
ogy, precedent-setting U.S. Supreme Court decisions, a changing American society, and
rapidly emerging innovations in correctional practice.

As accelerated change engulfs the American criminal justice system today, it is appropri-
ate that a streamlined and up-to-date book like this should be in the hands of students. Quick
and easy access to accurate and current information has become a vital part of contempo-
rary life. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction provides such access through its printed
pages and interactive website with videos, point-counterpoint exercises, and numerous
other features.

The first edition of Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, which was published
before the Internet had become the ubiquitous tool that it is today, resulted from the real-
ization that justice students need to have current information presented in a concise and
affordable source. With each new edition, the availability of up-to-date crime- and justice-
related information has increased. Like many of its predecessors, the twelfth edition draws
upon the wealth of Internet resources that serve the needs of criminal justice students and
practitioners. It ties those important resources to central ideas in the text, expanding learn-
ing opportunities far beyond what was possible in the mere 400 pages of the first edition. In
particular, URLs printed in the book point the way to criminal justice agencies and organiza-
tions on the Internet, as well as to full-text documentation of many critical contemporary
issues.

True to its origins, the twelfth edition, which is now available in a variety of print and
electronic formats, focuses on the crime picture in America and the three traditional ele-
ments of the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Real-life stories, career
information, up-to-date examples and issues, engaging graphics, and interactive media all
contribute to this timely and user-friendly introduction to criminal justice. Key features
include:

Freedom or Safety? You Decide boxes in each chapter highlight the book’s ever-
evolving theme of individual rights versus public order, a hallmark feature of this text
since the first edition. In each chapter of the text, Freedom or Safety boxes build on
this theme by illustrating some of the personal rights issues that challenge policymakers
today. Each box includes critical-thinking questions that ask readers to ponder whether
and how the criminal justice system balances individual rights and public safety.

Paying for It boxes, which are found in many chapters, emphasize the financial realities
of today’s world—including the need of justice system components to deal with budget
shortfalls and limits on available resources.

Evidence-based practices are introduced in early chapters and are stressed through-
out the text, including in the book’s sections on policing, the courts, and corrections.

CJ News boxes in each chapter present case stories from the media to bring a true-to-
life dimension to the study of criminal justice and allow insight into the everyday work-
ings of the justice system.

CJ Issues boxes that provide the information students need to participate in a discus-
sion of critical issues facing the justice system, such as excessive use of force by the
police, the use of mass imprisonment as a tool of social engineering, and coming changes
in the juvenile justice process.

xv

xvi Preface

CJ Careers boxes outline the characteristics of a variety of criminal justice careers in
a Q&A format, to introduce today’s pragmatic students to an assortment of potential
career options and assist them in making appropriate career choices.

Multiculturalism and Diversity boxes present aspects of criminal justice that are
related to the diverse nature of American society and emphasize the need for justice-
system personnel capable of working with culturally diverse groups.

Ethics and Professionalism boxes present ethical codes that criminal justice practi-
tioners are asked to uphold, highlighting the vital role of moral and ethical standards and
behavior in their daily lives and to the high social expectations inherent in justice–re-
lated careers. Included are the ethical codes of the American Correctional Association,
the American Probation and Parole Association, the International Association of Chiefs
of Police, the American Bar Association, and the American Jail Association.

Graphics such as full-color diagrams, illustrations, timelines, and photographs rein-
force key concepts for easier understanding and make the chapter topics both under-
standable and interesting. In recognition of the visual orientation of today’s learners, we
have worked to achieve a comprehensive integration of graphic art with the concepts
and ideas of criminal justice. Consequently, the layout and design of the text are highly
visual, inviting readers to explore its pages while powerfully illustrating the critical con-
cepts that are central to the field of criminal justice.

As the author of numerous books on criminal justice, I have often been amazed at how
the end result of the justice process is sometimes barely recognizable as “justice” in any
practical sense of the word. It is my sincere hope that the technological and publishing
revolutions that have contributed to the creation and development of this book will combine
with a growing social awareness to facilitate needed changes in our system and will help
replace self-serving, system-perpetuated injustices with new standards of equity, compas-
sion, understanding, fairness, and heartfelt justice for all. If you use this book, I’d like to hear
from you. Please write to me at the e-mail address below.

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor Emeritus

The University of North Carolina at Pembroke
cjtoday@mac.com

New to the Twelfth Edition
Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice?
• A new story about the crisis in the justice system engendered by multiple police

shootings of unarmed black men in 2014–2015 now opens the chapter.

• “Procedural fairness” has been added as a new key term.

• The discussion about white-collar and corporate crime has been updated with coverage
of Volkswagen’s emissions scandal.

• The new concept of a “sentinel event” that can uncover critical issues in the justice
system is now discussed.

Chapter 2 the Crime Picture
• The chapter opening story, which features a sheriff’s department that had to meet the

demands of ransom ware hackers, has been changed and updated.

• The table comparing the traditional UCR with the Enhanced UCR/NIBRS Reporting
System has been expanded.

• Crime statistics throughout the chapter have been updated.

• The chapter now incorporates the new UCR definition of rape, which is now
gender-neutral.

xviiPreface

• The discussion about “race and the justice system” has been completely revised.
• The discussion and coverage of identity theft has been updated.
• A new “Freedom or Safety? You Decide” box has been added. It asks the question of

whether citizens can have too much privacy.
• The violence against women section has been updated.

Chapter 3 Criminal Law
• A new story about a California physician sent to priso

Criminal homework help

Women, Gender, and Crime

2

For Jeff, Taylor, and Keegan

3

Women, Gender, and Crime
Core Concepts

Stacy L. Mallicoat
California State University, Fullerton

4

FOR INFORMATION:

SAGE Publications, Inc.

2455 Teller Road

Thousand Oaks, California 91320

E-mail: order@sagepub.com

SAGE Publications Ltd.

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Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 978-1-5063-9927-0 (pbk)

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Miller

Editorial Assistant: Rebecca Lee

Content Development Editor: Laura Kirkhuff

Production Editor: Karen Wiley

Copy Editor: Kimberly Cody

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Jen Grubba

Indexer: Jeanne Busemeyer

Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel

Marketing Manager: Jillian Oelsen

5

6

Brief Contents

1. Preface
2. Acknowledgments
3. Chapter 1. Women, Gender, and Crime: Introduction
4. Chapter 2. Theories of Victimization
5. Chapter 3. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Rape and Sexual Assault
6. Chapter 4. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
7. Chapter 5. International Issues in Gender-Based Violence
8. Chapter 6. Women, Gender, and Offending
9. Chapter 7. Girls, Gender, and Juvenile Delinquency

10. Chapter 8. Female Offenders and Their Crimes
11. Chapter 9. Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders
12. Chapter 10. The Supervision of Women: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Reentry
13. Chapter 11. Women, Gender, and Incarceration
14. Chapter 12. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Police, Corrections, and Offender

Services
15. Chapter 13. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Courts and Victim Services
16. Glossary
17. References
18. Index
19. About the Author

7

Detailed Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1. Women, Gender, and Crime: Introduction

The Influence of Feminism on Studies of Women, Gender, and Crime
Spotlight on Women and the Academy
Women, Gender, and Crime

Women as Victims of Violence
Women Who Offend
The Intersection of Victimization and Offending
Women and Work in the Criminal Justice System

Data Sources on Women as Victims and Offenders
The Contributions of Feminist Methodology to Research on Women, Gender, and Crime
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 2. Theories of Victimization
Victims and the Criminal Justice System
Spotlight on Victim Rights in Mexico

Victim Blaming
Fear of Victimization
Theories on Victimization
Spotlight on Gender and Kidnapping

Routine Activities Theory
Feminist Pathways Perspective

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 3. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Rape and Sexual Assault
Historical Perspectives on Rape and Sexual Assault
Defining Sexual Victimization
Prevalence of Rape and Sexual Assault
Rape Myths
Acquaintance Versus Stranger Assault
Spotlight on Rape Culture

8

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault
Spotlight on the Invisible War: Rape in the Military
Spousal Rape
Campus Sexual Assault
Spotlight on Statutory Rape
LGBQT Sexual Violence
Racial Differences in Sexual Assault
The Role of Victims in Sexual Assault Cases
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 4. Women, Gender, and Victimization: Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
Defining and Identifying Intimate Partner Abuse
Spotlight on IPA and the NFL
The Cycle of Violence
Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse

Dating Violence
Children of Intimate Partner Abuse
LGBTQ and Intimate Partner Abuse
Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Intimate Partner Abuse
Unique Issues for Immigrant Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse

Spotlight on Intimate Partner Abuse in India
Barriers to Leaving an Abusive Relationship
Victim Experiences With Police and Corrections

Programming Concerns for Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse
Stalking and Intimate Partner Violence
Spotlight on Stalking and College Campuses
Victims and Offenders of Stalking
Cyberstalking
Laws on Stalking
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 5. International Issues in Gender-Based Violence
Human Trafficking

Labor Trafficking

9

Responses to Human Trafficking
Promising Solutions to End Human Trafficking

Spotlight on Witch Burnings in Papua New Guinea
Rape as a War Crime
Female Genital Mutilation
Honor-Based Violence
Spotlight on Malala Yousafzai
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 6. Women, Gender, and Offending
Theoretical Perspectives on Female Criminality

Historical Theories on Female Criminality
Spotlight on the Manson Women

Traditional Theories of Crime and Gender
Modern Theories of Female Offending Behaviors

Spotlight on Men and Masculinity
Feminist Criminology

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 7. Girls, Gender, and Juvenile Delinquency
The Rise of the Juvenile Court and the Sexual Double Standard
The Nature and Extent of Female Delinquency
Spotlight on the Sexual Abuse of Girls in Confinement
The “Violent” Girl
Technical Violations: The New Status Offense
Risk Factors for Female Delinquency

Family
Abuse
Peers
School
Substance Abuse
Mental Health

Meeting the Unique Needs of Delinquent Girls
Spotlight on Arts Programming and At-Risk Youth
Spotlight on Girls’ Voices

10

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 8. Female Offenders and Their Crimes
Women and Drugs
Property Crime
Spotlight on Women and Bank Robbery
Prostitution

The Legalization Debate
Women and Violence

Girls and Gangs
Gender and Violent Crime

Spotlight on Women and Self-Defense
Spotlight on the Case of Michelle Carter
Mothers Who Kill Their Children
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 9. Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders
Stage of the Criminal Justice System
Race Effects and the Processing of Female Offenders
The War on Drugs and Its Effects for Women
The Effects of Extralegal Factors on Sentencing Women
The Effects of Sentencing Guidelines on Judicial Decision Making
International Perspectives on the Processing of Female Offenders
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 10. The Supervision of Women: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Reentry
Gender-Responsive Programming for Women
The Supervision of Women in the Community
Women on Parole
Reentry Issues for Incarcerated Women
Spotlight on Life After Parole
Recidivism and Female Offenders

Building Resiliency for Women
Summary

11

Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 11. Women, Gender, and Incarceration
Historical Context of Female Prisons
Contemporary Issues for Incarcerated Women
Spotlight on California Prison Realignment and Its Effect on Female Inmates
Physical and Mental Health Needs of Incarcerated Women
Spotlight on the Financial Challenges Behind Bars
Children of Incarcerated Mothers: The Unintended Victims
Spotlight on the Girl Scouts Beyond Bars Program
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 12. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Police, Corrections, and Offender
Services

Women in Policing
Spotlight on Pregnancy and Policing
Women in Corrections
Community Corrections: Female Probation and Parole Officers
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

Chapter 13. Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Courts and Victim Services
Women and the Law
Spotlight on Women in Politics
Women and the Judiciary
Spotlight on Women and the Supreme Court
Women and Work in Victim Services

Advocates for Intimate Partner Abuse
Spotlight on Self-Care for Victim Advocates

Rape-Crisis Workers
Conclusion
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Web Resources

12

Glossary
References
Index
About the Author

13

14

Preface

The purpose of this book is to introduce readers to the issues that face women as they navigate the criminal
justice system. Regardless of the participation, women have unique experiences that have significant effects on
their perspectives of the criminal justice system. To effectively understand the criminal justice system, the
voices of women must be heard. This book seeks to inform readers on the realities of women’s lives as they
interact with the criminal justice system. These topics are presented in this book through summary essays
highlighting the key terms and research findings and incorporating cutting-edge research from scholars whose
works have been published in top journals in criminal justice, criminology, and related fields.

15

Organization and Contents of the Book

This book is divided into thirteen chapters, with each chapter dealing with a different subject related to
women, gender, and crime. Each chapter begins with an introduction to the issues raised within each topic
and summarizes some of the basic themes related to the subject area. Each chapter also includes case studies
on critical issues or current events related to the topic. Each introductory essay concludes with a discussion of
the policy implications related to each topic. These thirteen chapters include

Women, Gender, and Crime: Introduction
Theories of Victimization
Women, Gender, and Victimization: Rape and Sexual Assault
Women, Gender, and Victimization: Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
International Issues in Gender-Based Violence
Women, Gender, and Offending
Girls, Gender, and Juvenile Delinquency
Female Offenders and Their Crimes
Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders
The Supervision of Women: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Reentry
Women, Gender and Incarceration
Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Police, Corrections, and Offender Services
Women Professionals and the Criminal Justice System: Courts and Victim Services

The first chapter provides an introduction and foundation for the book. In setting the context for the book,
this chapter begins with a review of the influence of feminism on the study of crime. The chapter looks at the
different types of data sources that are used to assess female offending and victimization. The chapter
concludes with a discussion on feminist methodology and how it can contribute to the discussions of Women,
gender, and crime. The Spotlight in this chapter highlights the role of gender within the study of criminology.

The second chapter begins with a review of the victim experience in the criminal justice system. This chapter
highlights the experience of help seeking by victims and the practice of victim blaming. The chapter then
turns to a discussion of victimization and focuses on how fear about victimization is a gendered experience.
The chapter then turns to the discussion of victimization and how theories seek to understand the victim
experience and place it within the larger context of the criminal justice system and society in general. The
Spotlights in this chapter look at the issue of victim rights in Mexico and the femicides of women along the
border cities, and cases of kidnapping involving women and girls.

The third chapter focuses on the victimization of women by crimes of rape and sexual assault. From historical
issues to contemporary standards in the definition of sexual victimization, this chapter highlights the various
forms of sexual assault and the role of the criminal justice system in the reporting and prosecution of these
crimes, and the role of victims in the criminal justice system. This chapter also looks at critical issues such as
campus sexual assault, sexual violence in the LGBTQ communities, and racial and ethnic issues in sexual

16

assault. The Spotlights in this chapter look at issues of rape culture and sexual assault within the military.

The fourth chapter presents the discussion of victimization of women in cases of intimate partner abuse and
stalking. A review of the legal and social research on intimate partner violence addresses a multitude of issues
for victims, including the barriers to leaving a battering relationship. This chapter also highlights how
demographics such as race, sexuality, and immigration status impact the abusive experience.

The fifth chapter focuses on international issues for women and includes discussions on crimes such as human
trafficking, honor-based violence, witch burnings, genital mutilation, and rape as a war crime. The Spotlights
in this chapter look at the issue of witch burnings in Papua New Guinea and the case of Malala Yousafzai.

The sixth chapter focuses on the theoretical explanations of female offending. The chapter begins with a
review of the classical and modern theories of female criminality. While the classical theories often described
women in sexist and stereotypical ways, modern theories of crime often ignored women completely. Recent
research has reviewed many of these theories to assess whether they might help explain female offending. The
chapter concludes with a discussion of gender-neutral theories and feminist criminology. The Spotlights in
this chapter look at the Manson Women as a classical example of strain theory.

Chapter 7 focuses on girls and the juvenile justice system. Beginning with a discussion on the patterns of
female delinquency, this chapter investigates the historical and contemporary standards for young women in
society and how the changing definitions of delinquency have disproportionately and negatively impacted
young girls. The Spotlights in this chapter look at the issue of sexual abuse in confinement, arts programming
for at-risk youth, and listening girls’ voices to assess what girls need from the juvenile justice system.

Chapter 8 deals with women and their crimes. While female crimes of violence are highly sensationalized by
the media, these crimes are rare occurrences. Instead, the majority of female offending is made up of crimes
that are nonviolent in nature or are considered victimless crimes, such as property-based offenses, drug abuse,
and sexually based offenses. The Spotlights in this chapter look at how a typically masculine crime of bank
robbery can be gendered, a discussion of gender and self-defense, and an examination of the case of Michelle
Carter, who was convicted for using text messages to encourage her boyfriend to commit suicide.

The ninth chapter details the historical and contemporary patterns in the processing and sentencing of female
offenders. This chapter highlights research on how factors such as patriarchy, chivalry, and paternalism within
the criminal justice system impact women. The Spotlight in this chapter looks at international perspectives in
the processing of female offenders.

The tenth chapter looks at the experience of women in the community corrections setting. The chapter begins
with a discussion of gender-specific programming and how correctional agents and programs need to address
unique issues for women. The chapter then looks at the role of risk assessment instruments and how they need
to reflect gender differences between male and female offenders. The chapter concludes with a discussion on
the reentry challenges of women exiting from prison. The Spotlight in this chapter looks at life after parole.

Chapter 11 examines the incarceration of women. Here, the text and readings focus on the patterns and

17

practices of the incarceration of women. Ranging from historical examples of incarceration to modern-day
policies, this chapter looks at how the treatment of women in prison varies from that of their male
counterparts and how incarcerated women have unique needs based on their differential pathways to prison.
The Spotlights in this chapter look at how California’s experience with realignment has impacted the
incarceration of women, the financial challenges for women while they are in prison, and the Girl Scouts
Beyond Bars program.

Chapter 12 focuses on women who work within criminal justice occupations within traditionally male-
dominated environments: policing and corrections. The Spotlight in this chapter looks at issues of pregnancy
on policing.

Chapter 13 concludes this text with a discussion of women in the legal and victim services fields. The chapter
looks at both women who work as attorneys as well as women in the judiciary. While women are a minority in
this realm of the criminal justice system, women are generally overrepresented within victim services agencies.
Here, gender also plays a significant role both in terms of the individual’s work experiences as well as in the
structural organization of the agency. The Spotlights in this chapter highlight the impact of gender on the
U.S. Supreme Court, women in politics, and the value of self-care for victim services’ workers.

As you can see, this book provides an in-depth look at the issues facing women in the criminal justice system.
Each chapter of this book presents a critical component of the criminal justice system and the role of women
in it. As you will soon learn, gender is a pervasive theme that runs deeply throughout our system, and how we
respond to it has a dramatic effect on the lives of women in society.

There is coverage of critical topics, such as

Representation of women in criminal justice academia
Victim blaming
Multiple marginalities and LGBT populations, including LGBTQ sexual violence
Marital rape and rape as a war crime
Campus sexual assault
Economic abuse
Cyberstalking
Labor trafficking
Women and pretrial release
Challenges faced by female police officers
The increasing number of women in the legal field

Spotlights cover key issues, such as

Victims’ Rights in Mexico
Sexual Victimization at Military Academies
Stalking and College Campuses
The Manson Women

18

Life After Parole
Financial Challenges for Incarcerated Women
Pregnancy and Policing
Women in Politics
Self-Care for Victim Advocates

Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology.

19

Digital Resources

http://study.sagepub.com/mallicoat3e

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined
in the chapters.
Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course
material.
EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for
each chapter.
Web resources are included for further research and insights.
Carefully selected video links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other
content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.

The password-protected Instructor Resource Site includes the following:

A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and
essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of prewritten options
as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to
effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily
creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork
from the book.
Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for
lectures and class discussions.
Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating
the syllabus for your courses.
EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for
each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
Web resources are included for further research and insights.

20

Acknowledgments

I have to give tremendous thanks to Jessica Miller, acquisitions editor for the Criminology and Criminal
Justice Division at SAGE Publications. I am also deeply thankful to Jerry Westby and Craig Hemmens, who
created the opportunity for me to become involved in this project many years ago. Special thanks as well to the
staff at SAGE Publications who have also helped breathe life into this book.

Throughout my career, I have been blessed with amazing colleagues and mentors. I am so appreciative of your
love and support. Your wisdom and friendship inspires me every day to be a better scholar, teacher, and
human being. I also have to give thanks to my amazing network of friends from the Division on Women and
Crime and the Division on People of Color and Crime. I am honored to get to work in an environment that is
caring and supportive of my adventures in research and scholarship.

Finally, I am deeply indebted to my family for their love, support, and care and their endless encouragement
for my adventures in academia and beyond.

SAGE Publications gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers for this third edition:

Dr. Dorinda L. Dowis, Professor, Columbus State University
Leah Grubb, Georgia Southern University
Susan L. Wortmann, Nebraska Wesleyan University
Sandra Pavelka, PhD, Florida Gulf Coast University
Katherine J. Ely, Lock Haven University

Reviewers for the second edition:

Kathleen A. Cameron, Pittsburgh State University
Dorinda L. Dowis, Columbus State University
Katherine J. Ely, Lock Haven University
Allison J. Foley, Georgia Regents University
Bob Lilly, Northern Kentucky University
Johnnie Dumas Myers, Savannah State University
Sue Uttley-Evans, University of Central Lancashire

21

Chapter 1 Women, Gender, and Crime Introduction

22

Chapter Highlights
Introduction to women as victims, offenders, and workers in the criminal justice system
The emergence of feminism in criminology
Data sources that estimate female offending and victimization rates
The contributions of feminist methodologies in understanding issues about women and crime

Since the creation of the American criminal justice system, the experiences of women either have been
reduced to a cursory glance or have been completely absent. Gendered justice, or rather injustice, has prevailed
in every aspect of the system. The unique experiences of women have historically been ignored at every turn—
for victims, for offenders, and even for women who have worked within its walls. Indeed, the criminal justice
system is a gendered experience.

Yet the participation of women in the system is growing in every realm. Women make up a majority of the
victims for certain types of crimes, particularly when men are the primary offender. These gendered
experiences of victimization appear in crimes such as rape, sexual assault, intimate partner abuse, and stalking,
to name a few. While women suffer in disproportionate ways in these cases, their cries for help have
traditionally been ignored by a system that many in society perceive is designed to help victims. Women’s
needs as offenders are also ignored because they face a variety of unique circumstances and experiences that are
absent from the male offending population. Traditional approaches in criminological theory and practice have
been criticized by feminist scholars for their failure to understand the lives and experiences of women
(Belknap, 2007). Likewise, the employment of women in the criminal justice system has been limited, because
women were traditionally shut out of many of these male-dominated occupations. As women began to enter
these occupations, they were faced with a hyper-masculine culture that challenged the introduction of women
at every turn. While the participation of women in these traditionally male-dominated fields has grown
significantly in modern-day times, women continue to struggle for equality in a world where the effects of the
“glass ceiling” continue to pervade a system that presents itself as one interested in the notion of justice
(Martin, 1991).

In setting the context for the book, this chapter begins with a review of the influence of feminism on the study
of crime. Following an introduction of how gender impacts victimization, offending, and employment
experiences in the criminal justice system, the chapter presents a review of the different data sources and
statistics within these topics. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the research methods used to
investigate issues of female victimization, offending, and work in criminal justice-related fields.

23

Janet Chase

The Influence of Feminism on Studies of Women, Gender, and Crime

As a student, you may wonder what feminism has to do with the topic of women and crime. Feminism plays a
key role in understanding how the criminal justice system responds to women and women’s issues. In doing
so, it is first important that we identify what is meant by the term woman. Is “woman” a category of sex or
gender? Sometimes, these two words are used interchangeably. However, sex and gender are two different
terms. Sex refers to the biological or physiological characteristics of what makes someone male or female.
Therefore, we might use the term sex to talk about the segregation of men and women in jails or prison. In
comparison, the term gender refers to the identification of masculine and feminine traits, which are socially
constructed terms. For example, in early theories of criminology, female offenders were often characterized as
masculine, and many of these scholars believed that female offenders were more like men than women. While
sex and gender are two separate terms, the notions of sex and gender are interrelated within the study of
women and crime. Throughout this book, you will see examples of how sex and gender both play an
important role in the lives of women in the criminal justice system.

The study of women and crime has seen incredible advances throughout the 20th and 21st century. Many of
these changes are a result of the social and political efforts of feminism. The 1960s and 1970s shed light on
several significant issues that impacted many different groups in society, including women. The momentum of
social change as represented by the civil rights and women’s movements had significant impacts for society,
and the criminal justice system was no stranger in these discussions. Here, the second wave of feminism
expanded beyond the focus of the original activists (who were concerned exclusively about women’s suffrage
and the right to vote) to topics such as sexuality, legal inequalities, and reproductive rights. It was during this
time frame that criminology scholars began to think differently about women and offending. Prior to this
time, women were largely forgotten in research about crime and criminal behavior. When they were
mentioned, they were relegated to a brief footnote or discussed in stereotypical and sexist ways. Given that
there were few female criminologists (as well as proportionally few female offenders compared to the number
of male offenders), it is not surprising that women were omitted in this early research about criminal behavior.

Some of the first feminist criminologists gained attention during the 1960s and 1970s. The majority of these
scholars were focused primarily on looking at issues of equality and difference between men and women in
terms of offending and responses by the criminal justice system. Unfortunately, these liberal feminists focused
only on gender and did not include discussions that reflected a multicultural identity. Such a focus resulted in
a narrow view of the women that were involved in crime and how the system responded to their offending. As
Burgess-Proctor (2006) notes,

By asserting that women universally suffer the effects of patriarchy, the dominance approach rests
on the dubious assumption that all women, by virtue of their shared gender, have a common
“experience” in the first place. . . . It assumes that all women are oppressed by all men in exactly the
same ways or that there is one unified experience of dominance experienced by women. (p. 34)

24

Janet Chase
Janet Chase

While second-wave feminism focused on the works by these White liberal feminists, third-wave feminism
addresses the multiple, diverse perspectives of women, such as race, ethnicity, nationality, and sexuality. With
these new perspectives in hand, feminist criminologists began to talk in earnest about the nature of the female
offender and began to ask questions about the lives of women involved in the criminal justice system. Who is
she? Why does she engage in crime? And, perhaps most important, how is she different from the male
offender, and how should the criminal justice system respond to her?

Photo 1.1 The icon of Lady Justice represents many of the ideal goals of the justice system,
including fairness, justice, and equality.

©iStock/PatrickPoendl

As feminist criminologists began to encourage the criminal justice system to think differently about female
offenders, feminism also encouraged new conversations about female victimization. The efforts of second- and
third-wave feminism brought increased attention to women who were victims of crime. How do women
experience victimization? How does the system respond to women who have been victims of a crime? How
have criminal justice systems and policies responded to the victimization of women? Indeed, there are many
crimes that are inherently gendered that have historically been ignored by the criminal justice system.

Feminism also brought a greater participation in the workforce in general, and the field of criminal justice was
no exception. Scholars were faced with questions regarding how gender impacts the way in which women
work within the police department, correctional agencies, and the legal system. What issues do women face
within the context of these occupations? How has the participation of women in these fields affected the
experiences of women who are victims and offenders?

Today, scholars in criminology, criminal justice, and related fields explore these issues in depth in an attempt
to shed light on the population of women in the criminal justice system. While significant gains have been
made in the field of feminist criminology, scholars within this realm have suggested that “without the ri

Criminal homework help

CJ 530 Module Seven Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric

Prompt: For this short paper, you will explore alternative approaches to counterterrorism. Over the years, counterterrorism experts have categorized
counterterrorism approaches in five different categories. These categories include coercive, proactive, persuasive, defensive, and long term. For many years, the
American strategy has been primarily coercive in nature. However, it is important to understand that a certain degree of overlap exists (by design) among these
approaches, and that a more effective and comprehensive strategy would encompass approaches from many if not all of the five categories.

For this assignment, you will choose two approaches from categories other than “coercive.” Specifically, you will address the following critical elements:

 How can these two approaches be used to complement the United States’ current use of the coercive approach?
 When should these approaches be used and how?
 What are the benefits of these approaches, and how do these benefits counterbalance the negatives from the coercive approach?

There are no right or wrong answers. The goal of this assignment is to make a valid argument and support it with scholarly facts and resources. You must
consider how implementing numerous complementary approaches to counterterrorism can ultimately lead to a more comprehensive strategy.

Rubric
Guidelines for Submission: Your paper should be a 3- to 5-page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch
margins, and at least two sources cited in APA format.

Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (80%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Complement Evaluates how the chosen
approaches can be used to
complement the current use of
the coercive approach, and
utilizes reputable resources to
support claims

Evaluates how the chosen
approaches can be used to
complement the current use of
the coercive approach, but does
not utilize reputable resources to
support claims

Does not evaluate how the
chosen approaches can be used
to complement the current use of
the coercive approach

30

When Describes when each approach
should be used and provides
examples of how

Describes when each approach
should be used, but does not
provide examples of how

Does not describe when each
approach should be used

30

Benefits Describes the benefits of each
approach and how the benefits
counterbalance the negatives of
the coercive approach

Describes the benefits of each
approach but not how the
benefits counterbalance the
negatives of the coercive
approach

Does not describe the benefits of
each approach

35

Articulation of
Response

Submission has no major errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or organization

Submission has major errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or organization
that negatively impact readability
and articulation of main ideas

Submission has critical errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or organization
that prevent understanding of
ideas

5

Total 100%

  • CJ 530 Module Seven Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric
    • Rubric

Criminal homework help

To my parents

I
INTRODUCTION

n the second millennium B.C., while the Elam nation was developing a
civilization alongside Babylon, Indo-European invaders gave their name to

the immense Iranian plateau where they settled. The word “Iran” was derived
from “Ayryana Vaejo,” which means “the origin of the Aryans.” These people
were semi-nomads whose descendants were the Medes and the Persians. The
Medes founded the first Iranian nation in the seventh century B.C.; it was later
destroyed by Cyrus the Great. He established what became one of the largest
empires of the ancient world, the Persian Empire, in the sixth century B.C. Iran
was referred to as Persia — its Greek name — until 1935 when Reza Shah, the
father of the last Shah of Iran, asked everyone to call the country Iran.

Iran was rich. Because of its wealth and its geographic location, it invited
attacks: From Alexander the Great, from its Arab neighbors to the west, from
Turkish and Mongolian conquerors, Iran was often subject to foreign
domination. Yet the Persian language and culture withstood these invasions.
The invaders assimilated into this strong culture, and in some ways they
became Iranians themselves.

In the twentieth century, Iran entered a new phase. Reza Shah decided to
modernize and westernize the country, but meanwhile a fresh source of wealth
was discovered: oil. And with the oil came another invasion. The West,
particularly Great Britain, wielded a strong influence on the Iranian economy.
During the Second World War, the British, Soviets, and Americans asked Reza
Shah to ally himself with them against Germany. But Reza Shah, who
sympathized with the Germans, declared Iran a neutral zone. So the Allies
invaded and occupied Iran. Reza Shah was sent into exile and was succeeded by
his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was known simply as the Shah.

In 1951, Mohammed Mossadeq, then prime minister of Iran, nationalized the
oil industry. In retaliation, Great Britain organized an embargo on all exports
of oil from Iran. In 1953, the CIA, with the help of British intelligence,
organized a coup against him. Mossadeq was overthrown and the Shah, who
had earlier escaped from the country, returned to power. The Shah stayed on
the throne until 1979, when he fled Iran to escape the Islamic revolution.

Since then, this old and great civilization has been discussed mostly in
connection with fundamentalism, fanaticism, and terrorism. As an Iranian who
has lived more than half of my life in Iran, I know that this image is far from
the truth. This is why writing Persepolis was so important to me. I believe that
an entire nation should not be judged by the wrongdoings of a few extremists. I
also don’t want those Iranians who lost their lives in prisons defending
freedom, who died in the war against Iraq, who suffered under various

repressive regimes, or who were forced to leave their families and flee their
homeland to be forgotten.

One can forgive but one should never forget.
Marjane Satrapi
Paris, September 2002

CREDITS

Translation of first part of Persepolis: Mattias Ripa

Translation of second part of Persepolis: Blake Ferris

Supervision of translation: Marjane Satrapi and Carol Bernstein

Lettering: Celine Merrien and Eve Deluze

THANKS TO

Anjali Singh

L’Association

David B.

Jean-Christophe Menu

Emile Bravo

Christophe Blain

Guillaume Dumora

Fanny Dalle-Rive

Nicolas Leroy

Matthieu Wahiche

Charlotte Miquel

Amber Hoover

Persepolis, translation copyright © 2003 by L’Association, Paris, France
Persepolis 2, translation copyright © 2004 by Anjali Singh

All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Pantheon Books, a division of
Random House, Inc., New York, and in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited,

Toronto.

The Complete Persepolis was originally published in the United States in two separate
volumes:

Pantheon Books and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Satrapi, Marjane, 2022

[Persepolis, English]
The complete Persepolis / Marjane Satrapi.

p. cm.
Contains the author’s Persepolis (2003) and Persepolis 2 (2004)

eISBN: 978-0-307-51802-6
1. Satrapi, Marjane, 2022—Comic books, strips, etc. I. Satrapi, Marjane, 2022

Persepolis 2. English. II. Title.
PN6747.S245P4713 2007

955.05′42092—dc22
[B] 2007060106

www.pantheonbooks.com
v3.0

  • Cover
  • Dedication
  • Title Page
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11
  • Chapter 12
  • Chapter 13
  • Chapter 14
  • Chapter 15
  • Chapter 16
  • Chapter 17
  • Chapter 18
  • Chapter 19
  • Chapter 20
  • Chapter 21
  • Chapter 22
  • Chapter 23
  • Chapter 24
  • Chapter 25
  • Chapter 26
  • Chapter 27
  • Chapter 28
  • Chapter 29
  • Chapter 30
  • Chapter 31
  • Chapter 32
  • Chapter 33
  • Chapter 34
  • Chapter 35
  • Chapter 36
  • Chapter 37
  • Chapter 38
  • Chapter 39
  • Credits
  • Copyright

Criminal homework help

STUDENT REPLIES

Post a brief description of the human rights violation you selected. Then explain one way in which the human rights violation might affect the global perception of the United States. Be specific.

Note: Identify the domestic human rights violations you selected in the first line of your post. Respond to a colleague who selected a domestic human rights violations different than the one you selected.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

STUDENT REPLY #1 Alicia Bruce

RIGHT TO LIFE AND SECURITY OF THE PERSON

Article I state, every human being has the right to life, liberty, and the security of his person. Article II states, all persons are equal before the law and have the rights and duties established in this Declaration, without distinction as to race, sex, language, creed, or any other factor (CIDH, n.d.). The government’s failure to protect individuals from persistent gun violence continued to violate their human rights, including the right to life, security of the person and freedom from discrimination. Unfettered access to firearms, a lack of comprehensive gun safety laws and a failure to invest in adequate gun violence prevention and intervention programmes continued to perpetuate this violence. In 2018, 39,740 individuals died from gunshot injuries while tens of thousands more are estimated to have sustained gunshot injuries and survived. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, with increased gun sales and shootings, the USA failed in its obligation to prevent deaths from gun violence, which could have been done through a range of urgent measures, including de-listing gun stores as essential businesses (amensty, 2022). “As of 2020, “Stand Your Ground” and “Castle Doctrine” laws, both of which provide for private individuals to use lethal force in self-defense against others when in their homes or feeling threatened, existed in 34 US states. These laws appeared to escalate gun violence and the risk of avoidable deaths or serious injuries, resulting in violations of the right to life(amensty,2022).

Failure to adhere to international human rights standards and protect human rights weakens peace-making, peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts. The United States has been inconsistent in defending human rights abroad and has been complicit in or has committed serious abuses in its foreign policies and engagement. The president should review US policies on the use of force and agencies involved to ensure compliance with international law. When the laws of war do not apply, US personnel should strictly adhere to international human rights law, which prioritizes the right to life and permits the use of lethal force only in the face of an imminent threat to life(hrw,2020).

References

https://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/usa/

Citizen Security and Human Rights

https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/11/10/us-president-should-set-human-rights-foreign-policy

STUDENT REPLY #2 Kurtis Corbett

According to (Amnesty International, n.d.) in 2021 one of the most violated rights of humans in the United States was the failure to protect people from persistent gun violence. In 2021, congress did not pass any regulations on access to firearms in the United States. A surge in gun sales during the Covid-19 pandemic, unfettered access to firearms, a lack of comprehensive gun safety laws (including effective regulation of firearm acquisition, possession, and use), and a failure to invest in adequate gun violence prevention and intervention programs, perpetuated this violence. At least 44,000 people were estimated to have been killed by gun violence in 2020. During the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 some state government authorities exacerbated gun violence by designating gun stores as “essential businesses”. In May, the US Department of Justice proposed a regulation that would update the definitions of “firearm” and related firearm components for the first time since 1968, noting that 23,000 un-serialized firearms (known as “ghost guns”) were reported to have been recovered by law enforcement from potential crime scenes between 2016 and 2020. In November 2021, the US Supreme Court heard its first case regarding gun rights in over a decade. The eventual decision in this case could determine whether individuals may carry a firearm in public without demonstrating “proper cause” or meeting licensing thresholds.

I believe the lack of consistent gun laws in the United States sends a message of instability to the global community. Gun laws vary from state to state depending on where you live, travel to, or purchase a firearm. I believe that the global community views the United States of America as the “wild wild west” when it comes to personal firearm possession and ammunition ownership. New York has some of the strictest gun laws in the United States and gun violence continues to surge in that state. According to (Watkins & Closson, 2022) Shootings in New York City rose during 2022’s first quarter compared with the same period last year, even as homicides declined, police officials said Wednesday afternoon, the continuation of a drumbeat of violence that emerged early in the pandemic and has not ebbed with the virus. Shooting incidents increased from 260 to 296 in the first quarter of this year compared with the same period last year, according to the latest Police Department statistics, which include the first three days of April.

References

Amnesty International. (n.d.). United States of America Archives. https://www.amnesty.org/en/location/americas/north-america/united-states-of-america/report-united-states-of-america/

Watkins, A., & Closson, T. (2022, April 12). Shootings Rise in New York, Coloring Perceptions of City’s Safety. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/06/nyregion/shootings-new-york-city-safety.html

PROFESSOR REPLY #3

. What can we do as criminal justice practitioners or as community members to address discrimination within our own communities?

Criminal homework help

HELLO TO REVIEW THE MAP IN THIS DICUSSION QUESTION AND THE WRITTEN LAYOUT OF EACH COUNTRY ALL WILL BE LOCATED IN WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS. ALSO THIS WILL BE A 200 WORD COUNT PAPER USING TEXTBOOK REFERENCE.

*********ATTENTION******************

ONCE AGAIN I REPEAT THIS DISCUSSION THAT YOU ANSWER WILL BE THE QUESTION THE PROFESSOR WILL ASK YOU FROM. SO MAKE SURE BEFORE YOU REPLY BACK TO THE PROFESSOR YOU REFER BACK TO THIS PAGE AND THE PAGE YOU PUT TOGETHER FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT……

Resources

Access Resources

Learning Resources

Please read and view (where applicable) the following Learning Resources before you complete this week’s assignments.

Media

Map of International Human Rights Violations Around the World

Click on the above link to view a map indicating areas where human rights violations occur. Click on each flashing icon to learn about remedies of those human rights violations.

Note: For a transcript of this map, please click here Click for more options.

Readings

Article: Verdeja, E. (2008). A critical theory of reparative justice. Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory, 15(2), 208–222.

Article: International Center for Transitional Justice. (2009). Effective Remedies to Human Rights Violations. Retrieved from http://ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Global-Rights-Remedies-2009-English.pdf

Article: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2005). Basic principles and guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/RemedyAndReparation.aspx

Article: Ameh, R. K. (2006). Doing justice after conflict: The case for Ghana’s National Reconciliation Commission. Canadian Journal of Law and Society/Revue Canadienne Droit et Societe, 21(1), 85–109.

Discussion – Week 5

TO COMPLETE THIS ASSIGNMENT YOU WILL NEED TO GO BACK TO WEEK 1,2,3,4 TO MAKE SURE THIS IS DONE CORRECTLY EVERYTHING I HAVE SENT YOU IS THERE AND EVERYTHING YOU HAVE WROTE WILL BE THERE ALSO

Remedies for Human Rights Violations

Remedies for human rights violations focus on repairing and restoring what victims have lost as a result of the violation. Examples of remedies include: exposing the truth about the occurrences of human right violations; providing reparations to victims in the form of money or property; prosecuting violators; and reforming government or regime policy to prevent future violations. The nature of the human rights violation will determine which remedies are most appropriate. Extremely heinous violations may warrant using multiple remedies. In this Discussion you are asked to consider remedies that you would recommend to address a human rights violation.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review the article “A Critical Theory of Reparative Justice” and consider whether reparative justice is a remedy for human rights violation.

Review the articles, “Effective Remedies to Human Rights Violations” and “Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law.” Think about principles, guidelines and elements of effective remedies for human rights violations.

Review the article “Doing Justice After Conflict: The Case for Ghana’s National Reconciliation Commission.” Consider whether reconciliation is a valid remedy to human rights violations.

Use the map to view human rights violations around the globe. Make sure to pay attention to the remedies of violations.

Select a human rights violation to use for this assignment (one that you have not used for previous Discussions in this course). Identify two remedies you would recommend to address the human rights violation and consider why.

With these thoughts in mind:

A brief description of the human rights violation you selected. Then describe two remedies you would recommend to address the violation and explain why. Be specific.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

Criminal homework help

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

1877–0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.356

Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717

WCES-2011

What is the problem with the statement of problem? : the case of
postgraduate international students and the introductory sections of a

project paper

Noraini Ibrahim a *, Radha M.K. Nambiar a

aUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,Bangi,Selangor D.E. 43600, Malaysia

Abstract

This paper reports on an on-going action research that enquires into the academic writing of a project paper by international
post-graduate students enrolled at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Preliminary observations reveal that many of these students
are underprepared for the task, citing cross-cultural limitations stemming from differences in teaching and learning styles vis-a-
vis here and their home countries. They also claim that they are not prepared for the autonomy that is presented in the data
collecting process and the writing of the paper. This action research aims to address the problem with a focus on the Statement
of Problem. Data for the study were collected through semi-structured questionnaires, interviews and document analysis. The
researchers believe that if intervention is provided at the early stages of the writing, these novice writers should be able to

achieve academic socialization.
© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: action reseaarch; academic socialization; genre analysis; intervention; statement of problem

1. Introduction

In her 2009 address to the university entitled Gaining Momentum, Promoting Excellence: The UKM Knowledge
Ecosystem, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia(UKM)’s Vice Chancellor, Tan Sri Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hasan
Shahbudin, unveiled several strategies that would propel the development of the research university. One of the
strategies is a change to the cohort of students enrolled with an increase of the postgraduate population and a
reduction of the undergraduate population to a ratio of 60:40. The premise is that the former will facilitate more
research and publications, thus contributing to the Key Performnce Index of the university.

This increase in post-graduate enrolment is not really new as statistics reveal that there has been a steady
increase from 26.1% in 2006 to 32.1% in 2008. In tandem with this, the doctoral student enrolment has also
increased from 28.0% in 2006 to 38.0% in 2008. Again this is in line with globalization and as UKM become more
internationally recognised, her overseas student population has also increased from 14.0% in 2006 to 25.0% in
2008. This increase is made possible as many of UKM’s post graduate courses are conducted in English, and
because Islam is the official religion of Malaysia, it becomes very attractive to a large cohort of Middle East
students. It is this group of students that is the focus of this study.

The question is, what do these increases translate to the faculties, the lecturers as well as the incoming students?
For students who come from a non-English medium of instruction, how quickly can they socialize into the UKM

* Noraini Ibrahim. Tel.:+ 60389216476 ; fax:+60389254577
E-mail address: nib@ukm.my

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

1714 Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717

learning environment? Initially too, many of these students were accepted even without an acceptable level of
English proficiency (IELTS and TOEFL scores). As such, it is not surprising that many encounter difficulties in
ademic tasks such as the the reading up and writing of their project papers. As Adams and Keene (2000) have
highlighted, it is crucial for the students to master English quickly so as to deal successfully with their academic
demands and to perform successfully in their disciplines and professional contexts.

This paper reports on an ongoing action research project that enquires into the academic writing of Arab post
graduate students enrolled in a compulsory course for the Masters in English Language Studies (MESL) program
in UKM. This project paper is awarded a weighting of 30%, and students go through a process writing approach.
This core course is offered every semester and from the previous semester’s feedback (Semester 2 2009/2010),
these international students conveyed their difficulties in the writing of the project. They cited cross-cultural
limitations stemming from differences in teaching and learning styles vis-a-vis here and their home countries. They
also claimed that they were not prepared for the autonomy presented in the the data gathering process and the
writing up of the paper.

Faced with such a scenario, and armed with insights gleaned from previous semesters, the researchers went
through a reflective teaching phase to identify the problem and to develop a plan of action. The researchers realised
that to address the problem of writing the entire project paper is too broad, a decison was made to focus only on
one stage of the writing – the Statement of Problem. This stage is usually subsumed under Introduction and as
Swales (1990:137) writes, “Introductions are known to be troublesome, and nearly all academic writers admit to
having more difficulty with getting started …” It is thus not surprising that the students do complain of such
difficulty.

Hence this study aims to answer the following research questions:
i. What are the problems faced by students in writing the Statement of Problem?
ii. How can genre analysis help to alleviate the problems?

2. The Context

SKBI 6043 Approaches to Discourse is a 3 hour course over 14 weeks that is offered every semester. Students are
expected to do at least 6 hours of pre-lecture readings per week. In addition, at least two recent articles will be
uploaded on the university web-based learning portal. Apart from graded classroom tasks, the course also requires
the students to submit a research project and the relevant part of the course synopsis reads as follows “ To provide
for the practical application of the course instruction, each participant is expected to conduct research on a
particular topic in discourse analysis, using elicited or natural data collected during the semester.”

In Semester 1 20102011, the cohort of students taking SKBI 6043 over three succeeding semesters reveals an
acute increase in the number of international students from the previous two semesters. There was a record
number of 25 international students out of a population of 45 or 58.1%, as compared to 10 out of 27 or 37.1%
(Semester 2 20092010) and 7 out of 15 or 46.7% (Semester 1 20092010). In terms of nationality, there were 9
Libyan students followed by Iranians (7), Iraqis (4), Jordanians (4) and one from China. The question is, how is
this information translated on the ground?

In the first place, this growing number of Middle East students have been admitted into the course without the
necessary proficiency in English language (as it was the practice then). Secondly and not surprisingly, these
students suffered a culture shock resulting in a rather slow academic socialization. As the course is conducted in
English, there is a large gap that the students had to bridge. This is in line with he literature on the use of English
from their home countries as reflected in Abbad (1988, Al-Khasawneh (2010), Zughoul and Taminian (1984) and
Rabab’ah (2003). Abbad (1988) documented on the weaknesses of Yemeni learners of English, who despite their
low proficieny, were admitted into the English department. Zughoul and Taminian (1984) found that Jordanian
students committed serious lexical errors, while Rabab’ah opined that the lack of opportunity in communicating
with native speakers and the lack of native speaker instructors have made learning English difficult for Arab
learners.

On the performance of Arab post-graduate students writing in English in Malaysia, two studies need to be
mentioned. Hisham (2008) and Al-Khasawneh (2010) investigated the difficulties faced by Arab students writing
in English at a northern univesity in Malaysia, Universiti Utara Malaysia. Hisham (2008) focused on the writing of

Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717 1715

business students and found that they faced problems in vocabulary, register, grammar and referencing. Two years
later, Al-Khasawneh (2010) focused on the academic writing problems of Arab post graduate business students and
found weaknesses in vocabulary, register, organization of ideas, grammar, spelling and referencing. Two new
areas here are spelling and organization of ideas. In short, the difficulties covered all aspects of writing.

3. The Research Design: Classroom-Based Action Research

The choice for undertaking classroom-based aaction research is simply because it is a form of self-reflective
systematic enquiry. As Mertler (2009:4) alludes, “It focuses on the unique characteristics of the population for
whom a practice is employed…”

While the literature shows that there are many versions of action research, this study has adapted the four stages
of Kemmis & McTaggart (1988, p. 10). They are as follows:

Table 1: The Four Stages of Action Research

Plan Semester 1 20102011
• paid attention to the cohort of students; read their admission forms to gain an insight into their

profile, English language proficiency,
• identified tools of research: informal interviews; document analysis, observations
• Identified intervention strategies: scaffolding via genre analysis : 3 moves of genre – Swales

CARS model
• Designed syllabus to accommodate direct and indirect intervention

Act (Indirect Intervention Strategies )
Week 1: Course Outline ( weekly topics +by 2 articles uploaded at SPIN)
Week 2 : Lecture on Text and Genre (emphasis on research report- Swales’ CARS)
Week 3: Lecture on research in discourse studies

(Direct Intervention Strategies)
Week 7: Students’ First Presentation (Introduction section) – Evaluated
Intervention via genre analysis
Consultations
Week 8-15 Further discussions on research project- research method, findings.

Observe Observe the impact/effects of interventions
Reflect Assess and reassess interventions

4. Discussion of Findings

In Week 7 as the students presented their Introduction section in class, it was quite evident that many of them had
not benefitted from the indirect intervention strategies that were afforded to them from week 1 of the semester..
When they were given the additional two articles to read per week, the strategy was to provide them a ‘model’ to
emulate as well as to increase genre awareness. This was followed by the lecture on text and genre with an
emphasis on research reports in the social sciences. However, there was little uptake on their part. When the
students submitted their work, it was evident that there were problems in all aspects of writing. A case in point is
Sample 1, written by R., a female student from Libya.

Sample 1: R Lecturer’s
Comments

The role of media to produce racism anti Arab and Muslims in western countries Rework title-
what is the focus?
Issue –racism?

Statement of Problem
The oppression and racism against Muslims and Arabs, who live in the west is increasing after the

Identify the moves-
Move 1 – What is your research

1716 Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717

September events. Some people believed that racism was born after 11 September events, but this is
not true; it may be increased at this time, or than before, whereas the roots of racism have been a long
time ago. The view of western for another civilization, specially, Arabic and Islamic civilization, is bad
and low view. The racism was appearing the writers and intellectuals writing, as they mention for
racism in different arts such as the novel, cinema, theatre and drawing. They are portraying Arabs as
a group of riffraff always whose love bloodshed. Also, they look the same view for the immigrants
how chose to stay in their countries.

territory?
Move 2?- What does your
review inform your?
Move 3? – what is the gap?

Language/grammar
Register

Sample 1 is a good representation of the problems faced by Arab students in dealing with the Statement of
Problem. The text is authentic and has not been edited.

R has attempted to investigate a topic that is meanigful for her and many of the Arab students – representations
of oppresion, discrimination, Islamophobia, racism etc. This interest is however, not matched by their linguistic and
rhetorical ability. One notes difficulties in register, vocabulary as well as organization of ideas, thus confirming
Hisham(2008) and Al-Khasawneh (2010).

As applied genre analysis was employed as an intervention, the lecturer’s comments were thus limited to how
that abstract can be improved in relation to the CARS model. R and the other students with similar problems were
again shown Swales’ CARS model, but only the e 3 obligatory moves. In my consultation with R, this part was
explained again. R was asked to identify the issue that she wanted to address – racism or anti Arab discrimination.
Then she was asked to reflect on whether it is the ‘role’ of the media to produce racism. She was asked also to
identify whether it is a construction or representation of news/ texts/images that allowed a reader to deconstruct
issues of such nature. Further she was asked to peruse the texts to see if such contructions were overtly carried out.

Once R was fairly sure of her focus of study, she was directed to read the relevant literature on the issue as well
as the possible approaches that may be employed for her investigation. Once she decided on the approach, she
was asked to conduct a literature review on how such an approach is operationalised in cases of similar texts. This
was to help her identify the gap that her research would help to fill.

As genre analysis entails much research, reading and synthesising, it was found that this is where the students
are weakest at. During further interviews and feedback sessions, these students said that they would feel lost
during the research period. After getting the relevant reading materials, they then faced another problem. They
reported difficulties in identifying the salient points and then paraphrasing them. They too admitted that they could
not paraphrase well as some of the ideas were complex while the texts were rather dense. The fact that rhetoric in
English is linear while they were more familiar with a recursive style is also problematic. In short, the limitations
found by Hisham (2008) and Al-Khasawneh(2010) have surfaced here too.

5. Conclusion

It cannot be denied that academic writing is an arduous task for international students, but it is a skill that needs to
be mastered very quickly. What is needed is an access route that will make writing easier for the students. This
action research has attempted to fill in a small part in the writing project of the students. The work is not yet
completed but the insights gleaned from the introduction section have a major impact on the other sections of the
project. What is obvious is that these students need help but they too must quickly rise to the challenge by being
more independent and resourceful in their work. They need to work hard and to quickly embrace the culture of
learning required of them. Faculty members too need to take cognizance of the fact that these learners have a steep
learning curve as they shed off their previous learning culture. As such, the faculty must provide the appropriate
scaffolding so that the writing process and project can be enjoyable and meaningful.

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by research grant UKM-PTS-058-2010.

Noraini Ibrahim and Radha M.K. Nambiar / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1713–1717 1717

References

Abbad, A. (1988). An analysis of communicative competence features in English language texts in Yemen Arab Republic. PhD Dissertation ,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Adams, K., & Keene, M. (2000). Research and writing across the disciplines (2nd ed.). California: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Al-Khasawneh, F, M.S. (2010). Writing for academic purposes: problems faced by Arab postgraduate students of the College of Business,

UUM, ESP World, Issue 2(28), Volume 9, 2010, accessed at http:///www/esp.-world.info.
Hisham, D. (2008). Needs analysis of Arab graduate students in the area of EAP: A case study of the ICT program at UUM. Unpublished minor

thesis. Sintok: Universiti Utara Malaysia Press.
Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (1988). The action research planner. Victoria: Deakin University Press.
Mertler, C.A. (2009). Action research: teachers as researchers in the classroom. Los Angeles: SAGE
Rabab’ah, G. (2003). Communicating problems facing Arab learners of English. Journal of Language and Learning, 3(1), 180-197.
Swales. J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zughoul, L. and Tamimian, L. (1984). The linguistic attitude of Arab university students: Factorial structure and intervening variables. The

International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 50, 28-45.

Criminal homework help

330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
The University of North Carolina at Pembroke

Criminal Justice
A Brief Introduction

Twelfth Edition

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Schmalleger, Frank, author.
Title: Criminal justice : A Brief Introduction / Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D.,

Distinguished Professor Emeritus, The University of North Carolina at
Pembroke.

Description: 12th edition. | Boston : Pearson, [2018] | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016030348 | ISBN 9780134548623 | ISBN 0134548620
Subjects: LCSH: Criminal justice, Administration of–United States. |

Crime–United States. | Law enforcement–United States.
Classification: LCC HV9950 .S34 2018 | DDC 364.973–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016030348

ISBN10: 0-13-454862-0
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-454862-3

SVE ISBN-10: 0-13-455978-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-455978-0

For Ava, Malia, Michelle, and Nicole

Part 1 Crime in America
Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice? 1

Chapter 2 The Crime Picture 22

Chapter 3 Criminal Law 61

Part 2 Policing
Chapter 4 Policing: Purpose and

Organization 90

Chapter 5 Policing: Legal Aspects 125

Chapter 6 Policing: Issues and Challenges 170

Part 3 Adjudication
Chapter 7 The Courts 212

Chapter 8 The Courtroom Work Group and the
Criminal Trial 236

Chapter 9 Sentencing 271

Part 4 Corrections
Chapter 10 Probation, Parole, and Community

Corrections 315

Chapter 11 Prisons and Jails 344

Chapter 12 Prison Life 376

Part 5 The Juvenile Justice System
Chapter 13 Juvenile Justice 414

iii

Brief Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xxii
About the Author xxiii

Part 1 Crime in America
Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice? 1

Introduction 2

A Brief History of Crime in America 3

The Theme of This Book 6

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Clarence Thomas Says: “Freedom Means
Responsibility” 7

Criminal Justice and Basic Fairness 8

American Criminal Justice: System and Functions 10

The Consensus Model 10

CJ News Surveillance Technology Has Been Blanketing the
Nation Since 9/11 11

The Conflict Model 12

American Criminal Justice: The Process 12

Due Process and Individual Rights 13

The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights 13

The Ultimate Goal: Crime Control through Due Process 14

CJ Exhibit Sentinel Events 15

Evidence-Based Practice in Criminal Justice 15

The Start of Academic Criminal Justice 16

Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice 16

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Criminal Justice 17

CJ Careers Careers in Criminal Justice 18

Summary 20

Questions for Review 21

Chapter 2 The Crime Picture 22
Introduction 23

Crime Data and Social Policy 23

The Collection of Crime Data 24

The UCR/NIBRS Program 24

Development of the UCR Program 24

The National Incident-Based Reporting System 26

Historical Trends 27

UCR/NIBRS in Transition 30

Part I Offenses 31

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. A Dress Code for Bank Customers? 32

CJ News “Flash Robs”: A Social Media Phenomenon 37

CJ issues Race and the Criminal Justice System 39
Part II Offenses 42

Contents

v

The National Crime Victimization Survey 42

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Can Citizens Have Too Much Privacy? 43
Comparisons of the UCR and the NCVS 45

Special Categories of Crime 46

Crime against Women 47

Crime against the Elderly 48

Hate Crime 49

Corporate and White-Collar Crime 50

Organized Crime 51

Gun Crime 52

Drug Crime 54

Cybercrime 55

Terrorism 57

CJ Exhibit 2–1 What Is Terrorist Activity? 58
Crime in International Context 59

Summary 60

Questions for Review 60

Chapter 3 Criminal Law 61
Introduction 62

The Nature and Purpose of Law 62

The Rule of Law 63

Types of Law 64

Criminal Law 64

Statutory Law 64

Civil Law 65

Administrative Law 66

Case Law 66

General Categories of Crime 66

Felonies 66

Misdemeanors 66

Infractions 67

Treason 67

Espionage 67

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Should Violent Speech Be Free Speech? 68
Inchoate Offenses 68

General Features of Crime 69

The Criminal Act (Actus Reus) 69

A Guilty Mind (Mens Rea) 70

Concurrence 72

Other Features of Crime 72

Elements of a Specific Criminal Offense 73

The Example of Murder 74

The Corpus Delicti of a Crime 75

Types of Defenses to a Criminal Charge 76

Multiculturalism and Diversity Islamic Law 77
Alibi 78

Justifications 78

Excuses 80

Procedural Defenses 86

Summary 88

Questions for Review 89

vi Contents

Part 2 Policing
Chapter 4 Policing: Purpose and Organization 90

Introduction 91

The Police Mission 91

Enforcing the Law 91

Apprehending Offenders 92

Preventing Crime 92

Preserving the Peace 95

Providing Services 95

American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level 96

Federal Agencies 96

Ethics and Professionalism The FBI Oath 99

State Agencies 99

PaYiNg For it Policing in an Economic Downturn 100

Local Agencies 101

CJ News The Use of Social Media in Policing 102

Fusion Centers 104

Private Protective Services 105

International Police Agencies 106

Police Administration 108

CJ Careers Security Professional 109

Police Organization and Structure 109

Chain of Command 110

Policing Epochs and Styles 111

Policing Epochs 111

The Watchman Style of Policing 112

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Liberty Is a Double-Edged Sword 112

The Legalistic Style of Policing 113

The Service Style of Policing 113

Police–Community Relations 113

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Watch Out: You’re on Camera! 114

Team Policing 115

Community Policing 115

CJ Exhibit 4–1 The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing 118

Evidence-Based Policing 119

The Kansas City Experiment 119

Evidence-Based Policing Today 121

Discretion and the Individual Officer 122

Summary 123

Questions for Review 124

Chapter 5 Policing: Legal Aspects 125
Introduction 126

The Abuse of Police Power 126

A Changing Legal Climate 127

Individual Rights 128

Checks and Balances 128

Due-Process Requirements 128

viiContents

Search and Seizure 129

The Exclusionary Rule 129

Judicial Philosophy and the U.S. Supreme Court 133

CJ Exhibit 5–1 Plain-View Requirements 138

CJ Careers Patrol Officer 140

Detention and Arrest 140

CJ News Supreme Court Says Police Need Warrant for GPS Tracking 142

Searches Incident to Arrest 143

CJ News Supreme Court Says Police Need Warrants Before Searching Cell
Phones 146

Emergency Searches of Persons 146

Vehicle Searches 147

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Religion and Public Safety 149

Suspicionless Searches 151

High-Technology Searches 152

The Intelligence Function 153

Informants 153

Police Interrogation 154

The Right to a Lawyer at Interrogation 157

Suspect Rights: The Miranda Decision 157

CJ Exhibit 5–2 The Miranda Warnings 158

Gathering of Special Kinds of Nontestimonial Evidence 162

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Policing in the Age of Social Media 163

Electronic Eavesdropping 164

CJ Exhibit 5–3 The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and the USA PATRIOT
Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 167

Summary 169

Questions for Review 169

Chapter 6 Policing: Issues and Challenges 170
Introduction 171

Police Personality and Culture 171

Corruption and Integrity 172

CJ issues Rightful Policing 173
Money—The Root of Police Evil? 176

Building Police Integrity 177

Ethics and Professionalism The Law Enforcement Oath of Honor 178
Drug Testing of Police Employees 178

The Dangers of Police Work 179

Violence in the Line of Duty 179

CJ News DNA Sampling Solves Some of the Toughest Cases 180

Risk of Disease and Infected Evidence 180

Stress and Fatigue among Police Officers 182

CJ Careers Police Officer 184

CJ issues The Use of Social Media in Policing 185

Terrorism’s Impact on Policing 186

The FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Forces 188

Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism 188

Information Sharing and Antiterrorism 189

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Policing 190

viii Contents

Police Civil Liability 190

Common Sources of Civil Suits 191

Federal Lawsuits 192

CJ News Is the Video Recording of Police Activity in a Public Place
Legal? 194

Racial Profiling and Biased Policing 195

Racial Profiling 195

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Was the NYPD’s Monitoring of Muslim Groups a
Form of Religious Profiling? 197

Racially Biased Policing 198

Police Use of Force 199

Deadly Force 200

CJ Exhibit 6–1 Taking Policing to a Higher Standard 201

Less-Lethal Weapons 203

Professionalism and Ethics 204

Ethics and Professionalism The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics 204

Education and Training 205

Recruitment and Selection 206

Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing 207

Multiculturalism and Diversity Investigating Crime in a Multicultural
Setting 208

Women as Effective Police Officers 209

Summary 210

Questions for Review 211

Part 3 Adjudication
Chapter 7 The Courts 212

Introduction 213

History and Structure of the American Court System 213

The State Court System 214

The Development of State Courts 214

State Court Systems Today 215

CJ News State Budget Cuts Wreak Havoc on the Courts 216

The Federal Court System 220

U.S. District Courts 220

U.S. Courts of Appeal 221

The U.S. Supreme Court 222

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Courts 224

Pretrial Activities 224

The First Appearance 224

CJ Careers Surety Agent 226

Multiculturalism and Diversity The International Criminal Court 228

CJ Exhibit 7–1 Nonjudicial Pretrial Release Decisions 230

The Grand Jury 232

The Preliminary Hearing 232

Arraignment and the Plea 233

Plea Bargaining 233

ixContents

Summary 235

Questions for Review 235

Chapter 8 The Courtroom Work Group and the
Criminal Trial 236

Introduction 237

The Courtroom Work Group: Professional Courtroom Actors 237

The Judge 239

The Prosecuting Attorney 240

CJ Careers Assistant District Attorney 241
The Defense Counsel 243

Ethics and Professionalism The American Bar Association’s Model Rules of
Professional Conduct 248

The Bailiff 248

Trial Court Administrators 248

The Court Reporter 249

The Clerk of Court 249

Expert Witnesses 249

Outsiders: Nonprofessional Courtroom Participants 250

Lay Witnesses 250

Jurors 251

The Victim 252

The Defendant 253

Spectators and the Press 253

The Criminal Trial 254

Procedure 254

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Courts 255
Nature and Purpose of the Criminal Trial 255

Stages in a Criminal Trial 257

Trial Initiation 258

Jury Selection 259

Opening Statements 261

Presentation of Evidence 262

CJ Exhibit 8–1 Pretrial and Post-Trial Motions 264
Closing Arguments 266

Judge’s Charge to the Jury 266

Jury Deliberations and the Verdict 267

CJ News Social Media Pose New Threats During Criminal Trials 268
Multiculturalism and Diversity The Bilingual Courtroom 269
Summary 270

Questions for Review 270

Chapter 9 Sentencing 271
Introduction 272

The Philosophy and Goals of Criminal Sentencing 272

Retribution 273

Incapacitation 274

Deterrence 274

Rehabilitation 274

Restoration 275

x Contents

Indeterminate Sentencing 276

Explanation of Indeterminate Sentencing 276

Critiques of Indeterminate Sentencing 276

Structured Sentencing 277

CJ Exhibit 9–1 Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances 279

Federal Sentencing Guidelines 279

The Legal Environment of Structured Sentencing 281

Three-Strikes Laws 283

Mandatory Sentencing 284

CJ Careers Medicolegal Death Investigator 285

Sentencing and Today’s Prison Crisis 286

Innovations in Sentencing 287

Questions about Alternative Sanctions 288

The Presentence Investigation 288

The Victim—Forgotten No Longer 290

Victims’ Rights 290

CJ Exhibit 9–2 Victims’ Rights in California 291

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. To What Degree Should the Personal Values of
Workers in the Criminal Justice System Influence Job Performance? 292

Victim-Impact Statements 293

Modern Sentencing Options 293

Sentencing Rationales 293

Sentencing Practices 294

Fines 294

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Corrections and Sentencing 296

Death: The Ultimate Sanction 296

Habeas Corpus Review 298

Opposition to Capital Punishment 299

CJ News Death-Row Exonerations Based on DNA Expose Flaws in Legal
System 305

Justifications for Capital Punishment 306

The Courts and the Death Penalty 306

CJ News High Costs Lead to Reconsideration of Death Penalty 308

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. What Are the Limits of Genetic Privacy? 311

The Future of the Death Penalty 312

Summary 313

Questions for Review 314

Part 4 Corrections
Chapter 10 Probation, Parole, and Community

Corrections 315
Introduction 316

What Is Probation? 316

The Extent of Probation 316

Probation Conditions 317

The Federal Probation System 318

Multiculturalism and Diversity Culturally Skilled Probation Officers 319

xiContents

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Probation Condition: Do Not Get Pregnant 319

What Is Parole? 320

The Extent of Parole 321

Parole Conditions 322

Federal Parole 322

Probation and Parole: The Pluses and Minuses 323

Advantages of Probation and Parole 323

Disadvantages of Probation and Parole 324

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Should DNA Links to Unsolved Cases Be Used
to Deny Parole? 325

The Legal Environment 325

The Job of Probation and Parole Officers 327

Job Descriptions 327

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Parole 328

The Challenges of the Job 328

CJ Careers Probation Officer 329

Intermediate Sanctions 330

Split Sentencing 331

Shock Probation and Shock Parole 331

Shock Incarceration 331

Ethics and Professionalism American Probation and Parole Association Code
of Ethics 332

Mixed Sentencing and Community Service 332

Intensive Probation Supervision 332

Home Confinement and Remote Location Monitoring 333

The Future of Probation and Parole 335

CJ News How GPS Technology Keeps Track of Sex Offenders 336

Changes in Reentry Policies 337

The Reinvention of Probation and Evidence-Based Practices 340

CJ issues Remote Reporting Probation 342

Summary 342

Questions for Review 343

Chapter 11 Prisons and Jails 344
Introduction 345

A Brief History of Prisons 345

Prisons Today 350

PaYiNg For it California’s Public Safety Realignment 351

CJ issues California’s Public Safety Realignment (PSR) Program 354

Prisoners Today 355

Overcrowding 355

CJ News California’s Governor Wants Federal Oversight of
Prisons to End 356

CJ issues The Prison Population 357

Selective Incapacitation: A Contemporary Strategy to Reduce
Prison Populations 358

Security Levels 359

CJ issues Evidence-Based Corrections 360

Prison Classification Systems 361

xii Contents

The Federal Prison System 361

The Growth of Federal Prisons 365

Recent Improvements 366

Jails 366

CJ issues The Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections 367

Women and Jail 368

The Growth of Jails 368

New Generation Jails 370

Jails and the Future 370

Ethics and Professionalism American Jail Association Code of Ethics for Jail
Officers 371

Private Prisons 372

PaYiNg For it Cost-Efficient Corrections and Sentencing 373
CJ Exhibit 11–1 Arguments for and against the Privatization of Prisons 374

Summary 375

Questions for Review 375

Chapter 12 Prison Life 376
Introduction 377

Research on Prison Life: Total Institutions 377

The Male Inmate’s World 378

The Evolution of Prison Subcultures 379

The Functions of Prison Subcultures 379

CJ Exhibit 12–1 Prison Argot: The Language of Confinement 380

Prison Lifestyles and Inmate Types 381

Homosexuality and Sexual Victimization in Prison 382

The Female Inmate’s World 383

Sexual Victimization of Women Prisoners 384

Parents in Prison 385

Gender-Responsiveness 386

Institutions for Women 387

Social Structure in Women’s Prisons 387

Multiculturalism and Diversity The Bangkok Rules on the Treatment of
Female Prisoners 388

Types of Female Inmates 389

Violence in Women’s Prisons 390

The Staff World 391

Facts and Figures 391

The Professionalization of Corrections Officers 392

Security Threat Groups and Prison Riots 392

Ethics and Professionalism American Correctional Association Code
of Ethics 393

PaYiNg For it The Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice 395

Prisoners’ Rights 397

The Legal Basis of Prisoners’ Rights 398

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Censoring Prison Communications 399

Grievance Procedures 402

A Return to the Hands-Off Doctrine? 403

Freedom or Safety? You Decide. Should Prison Libraries Limit Access to
Potentially Inflammatory Literature? 405

xiiiContents

Issues Facing Prisons Today 407

HIV/AIDS 407

Geriatric Offenders 408

Inmates with Mental Illness and Intellectual Disabilities 409

Terrorism 410

CJ News Radical Islam, Terrorism, and U.S. Prisons 411

Summary 412

Questions for Review 413

Part 5 The Juvenile Justice System
Chapter 13 Juvenile Justice 414

Introduction 415

Juvenile Justice Throughout History 416

Earliest Times 416

The Juvenile Court Era 418

Categories of Children in the Juvenile Justice System 419

The Legal Environment 419

CJ News Schools Are Taking Bullying Seriously 422

Legislation Concerning Children and Justice 423

The Legal Rights of Juveniles 424

The Juvenile Justice Process Today 424

Adult and Juvenile Justice Compared 425

CJ Exhibit 13–1 Adult Criminal Case Processing Versus the Juvenile Justice
System 426

How the System Works 426

CJ Exhibit 13–2 Juvenile Courts Versus Adult Courts 430

CJ News The Girls Study Group 432

Trends in Juvenile Justice 434

CJ Careers Juvenile Justice Professional 435

CJ issues Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice 436

Summary 437

Questions for Review 438

Appendix A: Bill of Rights A-1
Appendix B: List of Acronyms A-3

Glossary G-1

Notes N-1

Name Index I-1

Case Index I-7

Subject Index I-11

xiv Contents

Preface

Criminal justice is a dynamic field of study. Consider these challenges for instructors and
students trying to keep pace with a field that is undergoing continual modification: the
ever-evolving nature of crime, our changing understanding of justice, police—community
relations in an age of social media, budgetary constraints, ongoing threats to our nation’s
security, newly enacted statutes, innovations in enforcement and justice-system technol-
ogy, precedent-setting U.S. Supreme Court decisions, a changing American society, and
rapidly emerging innovations in correctional practice.

As accelerated change engulfs the American criminal justice system today, it is appropri-
ate that a streamlined and up-to-date book like this should be in the hands of students. Quick
and easy access to accurate and current information has become a vital part of contempo-
rary life. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction provides such access through its printed
pages and interactive website with videos, point-counterpoint exercises, and numerous
other features.

The first edition of Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, which was published
before the Internet had become the ubiquitous tool that it is today, resulted from the real-
ization that justice students need to have current information presented in a concise and
affordable source. With each new edition, the availability of up-to-date crime- and justice-
related information has increased. Like many of its predecessors, the twelfth edition draws
upon the wealth of Internet resources that serve the needs of criminal justice students and
practitioners. It ties those important resources to central ideas in the text, expanding learn-
ing opportunities far beyond what was possible in the mere 400 pages of the first edition. In
particular, URLs printed in the book point the way to criminal justice agencies and organiza-
tions on the Internet, as well as to full-text documentation of many critical contemporary
issues.

True to its origins, the twelfth edition, which is now available in a variety of print and
electronic formats, focuses on the crime picture in America and the three traditional ele-
ments of the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Real-life stories, career
information, up-to-date examples and issues, engaging graphics, and interactive media all
contribute to this timely and user-friendly introduction to criminal justice. Key features
include:

Freedom or Safety? You Decide boxes in each chapter highlight the book’s ever-
evolving theme of individual rights versus public order, a hallmark feature of this text
since the first edition. In each chapter of the text, Freedom or Safety boxes build on
this theme by illustrating some of the personal rights issues that challenge policymakers
today. Each box includes critical-thinking questions that ask readers to ponder whether
and how the criminal justice system balances individual rights and public safety.

Paying for It boxes, which are found in many chapters, emphasize the financial realities
of today’s world—including the need of justice system components to deal with budget
shortfalls and limits on available resources.

Evidence-based practices are introduced in early chapters and are stressed through-
out the text, including in the book’s sections on policing, the courts, and corrections.

CJ News boxes in each chapter present case stories from the media to bring a true-to-
life dimension to the study of criminal justice and allow insight into the everyday work-
ings of the justice system.

CJ Issues boxes that provide the information students need to participate in a discus-
sion of critical issues facing the justice system, such as excessive use of force by the
police, the use of mass imprisonment as a tool of social engineering, and coming changes
in the juvenile justice process.

xv

xvi Preface

CJ Careers boxes outline the characteristics of a variety of criminal justice careers in
a Q&A format, to introduce today’s pragmatic students to an assortment of potential
career options and assist them in making appropriate career choices.

Multiculturalism and Diversity boxes present aspects of criminal justice that are
related to the diverse nature of American society and emphasize the need for justice-
system personnel capable of working with culturally diverse groups.

Ethics and Professionalism boxes present ethical codes that criminal justice practi-
tioners are asked to uphold, highlighting the vital role of moral and ethical standards and
behavior in their daily lives and to the high social expectations inherent in justice–re-
lated careers. Included are the ethical codes of the American Correctional Association,
the American Probation and Parole Association, the International Association of Chiefs
of Police, the American Bar Association, and the American Jail Association.

Graphics such as full-color diagrams, illustrations, timelines, and photographs rein-
force key concepts for easier understanding and make the chapter topics both under-
standable and interesting. In recognition of the visual orientation of today’s learners, we
have worked to achieve a comprehensive integration of graphic art with the concepts
and ideas of criminal justice. Consequently, the layout and design of the text are highly
visual, inviting readers to explore its pages while powerfully illustrating the critical con-
cepts that are central to the field of criminal justice.

As the author of numerous books on criminal justice, I have often been amazed at how
the end result of the justice process is sometimes barely recognizable as “justice” in any
practical sense of the word. It is my sincere hope that the technological and publishing
revolutions that have contributed to the creation and development of this book will combine
with a growing social awareness to facilitate needed changes in our system and will help
replace self-serving, system-perpetuated injustices with new standards of equity, compas-
sion, understanding, fairness, and heartfelt justice for all. If you use this book, I’d like to hear
from you. Please write to me at the e-mail address below.

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor Emeritus

The University of North Carolina at Pembroke
cjtoday@mac.com

New to the Twelfth Edition
Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice?
• A new story about the crisis in the justice system engendered by multiple police

shootings of unarmed black men in 2014–2015 now opens the chapter.

• “Procedural fairness” has been added as a new key term.

• The discussion about white-collar and corporate crime has been updated with coverage
of Volkswagen’s emissions scandal.

• The new concept of a “sentinel event” that can uncover critical issues in the justice
system is now discussed.

Chapter 2 the Crime Picture
• The chapter opening story, which features a sheriff’s department that had to meet the

demands of ransom ware hackers, has been changed and updated.

• The table comparing the traditional UCR with the Enhanced UCR/NIBRS Reporting
System has been expanded.

• Crime statistics throughout the chapter have been updated.

• The chapter now incorporates the new UCR definition of rape, which is now
gender-neutral.

xviiPreface

• The discussion about “race and the justice system” has been completely revised.
• The discussion and coverage of identity theft has been updated.
• A new “Freedom or Safety? You Decide” box has been added. It asks the question of

whether citizens can have too much privacy.
• The violence against women section has been updated.

Chapter 3 Criminal Law
• A new story about a California physician sent to priso

Criminal homework help

You must choose
one
and answer it in a
minimum of 3 pages
, 12-point font, double-spaced, and 1-inch margins on all sides.

The essay must be written on a graduate level. Students must be conscious of structure, organization, and mechanics of style. Students must use correct in-text citations in APA format and include a reference page with all cited sources in APA format.

In addition to the sources read for this course, you are to utilize an additional 2 scholarly sources to answer the question. Students may find and use additional citations from scholarly resources through the library or google scholar. A good place to check for additional readings is the Theory Reading List I have provided under Week 1 and Week 17.

All exams will be screened through Turnitin for similarities. The professor has the discretion to determine if the exam submitted contains copied work from previously written work or written work without citation which may result in failing. The same rubric that is used to grade the comprehensive exam will be used for this final exam. See below.

Scoring Rubric

Each student’s performance will be scored in five categories on a five point scale.

The minimum successful score will be “Competent” or better, with no score being “Unacceptable”.

Understanding of Questions

Response to Questions

Support

Organization

Language

5 = Exemplary

Responds incisively and directly to the questions asked.

Responses to questions are specific, defendable, and complex.

Provides substantial, well- chosen evidence (research or textual citations) used strategically.

Responses contain appropriate, clear and adequate transitions between sentences and paragraphs.

Apt and precise diction, syntactic variety, clear command of Standard English.

4 = Strong

Most responses are direct and relevant to the questions asked.

Responses to question are more general, but still accurate; analyses go beyond the obvious.

Provides sufficient and appropriate evidence and, makes effort to contextualize it.

Responses contain distinct units of thought in paragraphs, coherently arranged; occasional weakness in transitions between sentences, paragraphs or thoughts.

Some mechanical difficulties; occasional problematic word choices or awkward syntax errors; occasional grammar errors; some wordiness.

3 = Competent

Responds adequately to the questions asked; occasionally responds with unrelated information.

Responses to questions are overly general and disorganized; may have some factual, interpretive, or conceptual errors.

Provides some evidence but not always relevant, sufficient, or integrated into the response.

Responses are uneven; paragraphs sometimes effective, but others are brief, weakly unified, or undeveloped; some awkward or missing transitions between thoughts.

Occasional major grammar errors (e.g., agreement, tense); frequent minor grammar errors (e.g., prepositions, articles); occasional imprecise diction; awkward syntax; wordiness.

2 = Marginal

Confuses some significant concepts in the questions asked.

Responses to questions are vague or irrelevant.

Evidence usually only narrative or anecdotal; awkwardly or incorrectly incorporated.

Repetitive, wanders.

Frequent major and minor grammar problems; frequent imprecise diction; wordiness; awkward syntax; repetitive sentence patterns; problems impede meaning.

1 = Unacceptable

Does not understand questions and/or concepts.

No discernable response to most questions given.

Little or no evidence cited to support responses.

Responses are arbitrary or not structured, illogical or not coherent.

Numerous grammatical errors and stylistic problems; English overwhelmingly

non- Standard; errors in every sentence

Criminal homework help

Below are scenarios of two crimes. The questions for the discussion follow each of the scenarios.

1. A murderer, who experienced years of abuse at the hands of his victim, finally “snapped” and killed his girlfriend. Should this offender be considered for a sentence of community supervision?  Why or why not?  In addition to providing justification with resources, detail two factors you took into consideration in determining whether or not they should receive this sentence.

2.  A college student who has no previous criminal record engaged in reckless driving and a pedestrian was killed as a result. Should this offender be considered for a sentence of community supervision?  Why or why not?  In addition to providing justification with resources, detail two factors you took into consideration in determining whether or not they should receive this sentence.

Criminal homework help

MODULE 9: USE OF FORCE

LISTEN TO: COMMENTARY ON MODULE 9

READ:

1. Chapter 6 in the textbook

1. Cell Extraction Training by U.S. Military Police (4 minutes): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_A3UGpfnH8

Though it features the U.S. Military Police, the same cell extraction procedure is used across all jails and prisons. Cell extractions involve significant UOF. It’s not terribly uncommon for some prisoners, especially those suffering from mental health problems, to refuse to leave their cells when ordered. When that happens, officers cannot search the cell for contraband or weapons. Prisoners with mental health issues are at greater risk of harming themselves. Prisoners can more easily set their beds on fire or flood the toilets. It’s essential that officials have access to a prisoner’s cell. Because cell extraction can lead to serious injuries to both inmates and officers, officials have developed extraction procedures that assign several officers with different responsibilities during an extraction. One officer’s assignment is to handcuff the prisoner. Another is to neutralize a left foot; the other the right foot. One officer makes certain the inmate’s head is not injured. Typically, a member of the medical staff stands by to deal with any injuries that might occur during the assault. Inmates who refuse to leave their cells can be very violent during an extraction. The cell extraction procedures you see in this film are meant to reduce injuries.

Module 9 Assignment (due 5/4, no later than 11:59 pm)

Worth a maximum of 22.5 points toward the final grade

QUESTION 1

Correctional Officer Bruce Wayne was escorting Inmate Davis to the shower. Because Davis was assigned to administrative segregation, he was placed in handcuffs as he walked to the shower. Davis complained to Wayne that the handcuffs the officer had placed on him were too tight and were cutting off the blood circulation in his hands and arms. Wayne had heard this complaint on many occasions from many inmates and did not respond. Wayne did not argue with Davis, nor did he loosen the handcuffs. Inmate Davis suddenly slipped on a wet spot on the cellblock floor. The handcuffs made it impossible for him to protect himself from the fall. He broke both wrists and an arm. In the infirmary, the doctor treating Davis commented that if the handcuffs had not been so tight Davis would have been able to rotate his hands inside the cuffs and quite possibly have avoided breaking both wrists. Davis decides to sue for a violation of his civil rights. (NOTE: Using the handcuffs in this situation will be considered a use of force.)

Discuss the standard or test that the Supreme Court created to evaluate the constitutionality of uses of force in correctional institutions. That requires discussing the Supreme Court’s decisions in the cases Albers v. Whitley and Hudson v. McMillian. How would a court apply those two decisions and the standards it has set for use of force in corrections to Davis’s lawsuit? You do not have to argue both sides of the issue. Assume you are representing the government who is defending the inmate’s lawsuit.

QUESTION

Does it matter if the scenario described in Question 1 happened to a prisoner who was a pretrial detainee? Minimum 1 and ½ page, double-spaced. Be sure you listen to the Commentary!

Criminal homework help

CJUS 550

Research Paper: Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Template

Proposed Topic:

In one sentence tell the reader what you plan on researching.

Proposed Thesis Statement:

The thesis statement should be at least a paragraph that includes a reason why the problem needs to be solved, a hypothesis, a brief summation of the literature on the topic, why critics might say about the hypothesis, and projection of what the research might find.

Preliminary Bibliography (minimum of six sources in APA format):

Example:

Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st Century (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall.

Annotated Bibliography

Summarize each article or text you are going to use in this paper (at least 6 sources need to be included in this portion of the assignment). Each summary needs to be about a paragraph in length. At the end of this annotated summary you will need to write a one paragraph summary regarding how these sources connect to the topic at hand and how you plan on using these sources to justify your conclusion.

Criminal homework help

Instructions

For this assignment, write an essay about restitution. Address the following in your essay.

· Provide an introduction that discusses the types of restitution.

· Explain problems of restitution.

· Assess how restitution is collected, and provide at least one area for improvement of the restitution process.

· Explain any new programs or policies that you would like to see enacted in an effort to help make a victim whole again. Support your position by justifying it as a victim’s right to receive restitution.

Your essay must be at least three pages in length, not including title or reference pages. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

Criminal homework help

645

16.1 ♦ Definition of Mediation

Chapter 10 examined research situations that involve three variables and described sev-
eral possible forms of interrelationship. One of these is mediation; this involves a set of
causal hypotheses. An initial causal variable X1 may influence an outcome variable Y
through a mediating variable X2. (Some books and websites use different notations for the
three variables; for example, on Kenny’s mediation Web page, http://www.davidakenny
.net/cm/mediate.htm, the initial causal variable is denoted X, the outcome as Y, and the
mediating variable as M.) Mediation occurs if the effect of X1 on Y is partly or entirely
“transmitted” by X2. A mediated causal model involves a causal sequence; first, X1 causes
or influences X2; then, X2 causes or influences Y. X1 may have additional direct effects on
Y that are not transmitted by X2. A mediation hypothesis can be represented by a diagram
of a causal model. Note that the term causal is used because the path diagram represents
hypotheses about possible causal influence; however, when data come from nonexperi-
mental designs, we can only test whether a hypothesized causal model is consistent or
inconsistent with a particular causal model. That analysis falls short of proof that any
specific causal model is correct.

16.1.1 ♦ Path Model Notation

Path model notation was introduced in Chapter 10 (see Table 10.2), and it is briefly
reviewed here. We begin with two variables (X and Y). Arrows are used to correspond to
paths that represent different types of relations between variables. The absence of an
arrow between X and Y corresponds to an assumption that these variables are not related
in any way; they are not correlated or confounded, and they are not directly causally con-
nected. A unidirectional arrow corresponds to the hypothesis that one variable has a
causal influence on the other—for example, X → Y corresponds to the hypothesis that X
causes or influences Y; Y → X corresponds to the hypothesis that Y causes or influences
X. A bidirectional or double-headed arrow represents a noncausal association, such as
correlation or confounding of variables that does not arise from any causal connection
between them. In path diagrams, these double-headed arrows may be shown as curved
lines.

16
MEDIATION

646——CHAPTER 16

If we consider only two variables, X and Y, there are four possible models: (1) X and Y
are not related in any way (this is denoted in a path diagram by the absence of a path
between X and Y), (2) X causes Y (X → Y), (3) Y causes X (Y → X), and (4) X and Y are
correlated but not because of any causal influence (X Y).1 When a third variable is
added, the number of possible relationships among the variables X1, X2, and Y increases
substantially, as discussed in Chapter 10. One theoretical model corresponds to X1 and X2
as correlated causes of Y. For this model, the appropriate analysis is a regression to predict
Y from both X1 and X2 (as discussed in Chapter 11). Another possible hypothesis is that
X2 may be a moderator of the relationship between X1 and Y; this is also described as an
interaction between X2 and X1 as predictors of Y. Statistical significance and nature of
interaction can be assessed using the procedures described in Chapter 15. Chapter 10
outlined procedures for preliminary exploratory data analyses that can help a data analyst
decide which of many possible patterns of relationship need to be examined in further
analysis.

16.1.2 ♦ Circumstances When Mediation May Be a Reasonable Hypothesis

Because a mediated causal model includes the hypothesis that X1 causes or influences
X2 and the hypothesis that X2 causes or influences Y, it does not make sense to consider
mediation analysis in situations where one or both of these hypotheses would be non-
sense. For X1 to be hypothesized as a cause of X2, X1 should occur before X2, and there
should be a plausible mechanism through which X1 could influence X2. For example, sup-
pose we are interested in a possible association between height and salary (a few studies
suggest that taller people earn higher salaries). It is conceivable that height influences
salary (perhaps employers have a bias that leads them to pay tall people more money). It
is not conceivable that a person’s salary changes his or her height.

16.2 ♦ A Hypothetical Research Example
Involving One Mediating Variable

The hypothetical data introduced in Chapter 10 as an illustration of a mediation hypoth-
esis involved three variables: X1, age; X2, body weight, and Y, systolic blood pressure
(BloodPressure or SBP). The data are in an SPSS file named ageweightbp.sav; the scores
also appear in Table 10.3. The hypothetical dataset has N = 30 to make it easy to carry out
the same analyses using the data in Table 10.3. Note that for research applications of
mediation analysis, much larger sample sizes should be used.

For these variables, it is plausible to hypothesize the following causal connections. Blood
pressure tends to increase as people age. As people age, body weight tends to increase (this
could be due to lower metabolic rate, reduced activity level, or other factors). Other factors
being equal, increased body weight makes the cardiovascular system work harder, and this
can increase blood pressure. It is possible that at least part of the age-related increase in
blood pressure might be mediated by age-related weight gain. Figure 16.1 is a path model
that represents this mediation hypothesis for this set of three variables.

To estimate the strength of association that corresponds to each path in Figure 16.1, a
series of three ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses can be run. Note

Mediation——647

that a variable is dependent if it has one or more unidirectional arrows pointing toward it.
We run a regression analysis for each dependent variable (such as Y), using all variables that
have unidirectional arrows that point toward Y as predictors. For the model in Figure 16.1,
the first regression predicts Y from X1 (blood pressure from age). The second regression
predicts X2 from X1 (weight from age). The third regression predicts Y from both X1 and
X2 (blood pressure predicted from both age and weight).

16.3 ♦ Limitations of Causal Models

Path models similar to the one in Figure 16.1 are called “causal” models because each
unidirectional arrow represents a hypothesis about a possible causal connection between
two variables. However, the data used to estimate the strength of relationship for the paths
are almost always from nonexperimental studies, and nonexperimental data cannot prove
causal hypotheses. If the path coefficient between two variables such as X2 and Y (this coef-
ficient is denoted b in Figure 16.1) is statistically significant and large enough in magni-
tude to indicate a change in the outcome variable that is clinically or practically important,
this result is consistent with the possibility that X2 might cause Y, but it is not proof of a
causal connection. Numerous other situations could yield a large path coefficient between

X1 Age Y SBP

a b

X1 Age

X2 Weight

Y SBP
c’

c

Figure 16.1 ♦ Hypothetical Mediation Example: Effects of Age on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP)

NOTES: Top panel: The total effect of age on SBP is denoted by c. Bottom panel: The path coefficients (a, b, c′) that estimate the
strength of hypothesized causal associations are estimated by unstandardized regression coefficients. The product a × b
estimates the strength of the mediated or indirect effect of age on SBP, that is, how much of the increase in SBP that occurs as
people age is due to weight gain. The c′ coefficient estimates the strength of the direct (also called partial) effect of age on SPB,
that is, any effect of age on SBP that is not mediated by weight. The coefficients in this bottom panel decompose the total effect
(c) into a direct effect (c′) and an indirect effect (a × b). When ordinary least squares regression is used to estimate
unstandardized path coefficients, c = (a × b) + c′; the total relationship between age and SBP is the sum of the direct
relationship between age and SBP and the indirect or mediated effect of age on SBP through weight.

648——CHAPTER 16

X2 and Y. For example, Y may cause X2; both Y and X2 may be caused by some third vari-
able, X3; X2 and Y may actually be measures of the same variable; the relationship between
X2 and Y may be mediated by other variables, X4, X5, and so on; or a large value for the b
path coefficient may be due to sampling error.

16.3.1 ♦ Reasons Why Some Path Coefficients May Be Not Statistically Significant

If the path coefficient between two variables is not statistically significantly different
from zero, there are also several possible reasons. If the b path coefficient in Figure 16.1 is
close to zero, this could be because there is no causal or noncausal association between X2
and Y. However, a small path coefficient could also occur because of sampling error or
because assumptions required for regression are severely violated.

16.3.2 ♦ Possible Interpretations for a Statistically Significant Path

A large and statistically significant b path coefficient is consistent with the hypothesis
that X2 causes Y, but it is not proof of that causal hypothesis. Replication of results (such
as values of a, b, and c′ path coefficients in Figure 16.1) across samples increases confi-
dence that findings are not due to sampling error. For predictor variables and/or hypoth-
esized mediating variables that can be experimentally manipulated, experimental studies
can be done to provide stronger evidence whether associations between variables are
causal (MacKinnon, 2008). By itself, a single mediation analysis only provides prelimi-
nary nonexperimental evidence to evaluate whether the proposed causal model is plausi-
ble (i.e., consistent with the data).

16.4 ♦ Questions in a Mediation Analysis

Researchers typically ask two questions in a mediation analysis. The first question is
whether there is a statistically significant mediated path from X1 to Y via X2 (and whether
the part of the Y outcome variable score that is predictable from this path is large enough to
be of practical importance). Recall from the discussion of the tracing rule in Chapter 10
that when a path from X to Y includes more than one arrow, the strength of the relationship
for this multiple-step path is obtained by multiplying the coefficients for each included
path. Thus, the strength of the mediated relationship (the path from X1 to Y through X2 in
Figure 16.1) is estimated by the product of the a × b (ab) coefficients. The null hypothesis
of interest is H0: ab = 0. Note that the unstandardized regression coefficients are used for
this significance test. Later sections in this chapter describe test statistics for this null
hypothesis. If this mediated path is judged to be nonsignificant, the mediation hypothesis
is not supported, and the data analyst would need to consider other explanations.

If there is a significant mediated path (i.e., the ab product differs significantly from
zero), then the second question in the mediation analysis is whether there is also a sig-
nificant direct path from X1 to Y; this path is denoted c′ in Figure 16.1. If c′ is not statisti-
cally significant (or too small to be of any practical importance), a possible inference is
that the effect of X1 on Y is completely mediated by X2. If c′ is statistically significant and
large enough to be of practical importance, a possible inference is that the influence of X1

Mediation——649

on Y is only partially mediated by X2 and that X1 has some additional effect on Y that is
not mediated by X2. In the hypothetical data used for the example in this chapter (in the
SPSS file ageweightbp.sav), we will see that the effects of age on blood pressure are only
partially mediated by body weight.

Of course, it is possible that there could be additional mediators of the effect of age on
blood pressure, for example, age-related changes in the condition of arteries might also
influence blood pressure. Models with multiple mediating variables are discussed briefly
later in the chapter.

16.5 ♦ Issues in Designing a Mediation Analysis Study

A mediation analysis begins with a minimum of three variables. Every unidirectional
arrow that appears in Figure 16.1 represents a hypothesized causal connection and must
correspond to a plausible theoretical mechanism. A model such as age → body weight →
blood pressure seems reasonable; processes that occur with advancing age, such as slow-
ing metabolic rate, can lead to weight gain, and weight gain increases the demands on the
cardiovascular system, which can cause an increase in blood pressure. However, it would
be nonsense to propose a model of the following form: blood pressure → body weight →
age, for example; there is no reasonable mechanism through which blood pressure could
influence body weight, and weight cannot influence age in years.

16.5.1 ♦ Type and Measurement of Variables in Mediation Analysis

Usually all three variables (X1, X2, and Y) in a mediation analysis are quantitative. A
dichotomous variable can be used as a predictor in regression (Chapter 12), and therefore
it is acceptable to include an X1 variable that is dichotomous (e.g., treatment vs. control)
as the initial causal variable in a mediation analysis; OLS regression methods can still be
used in this situation. However, both X2 and Y are dependent variables in mediation
analysis; if one or both of these variables are categorical, then logistic regression is
needed to estimate regression coefficients, and this complicates the interpretation of out-
comes (see MacKinnon, 2008, chap. 11).

It is helpful if scores on the variables can be measured in meaningful units because
this makes it easier to evaluate whether the strength of influence indicated by path coef-
ficients is large enough to be clinically or practically significant. For example, suppose
that we want to predict annual salary in dollars (Y) from years of education (X1). An
unstandardized regression coefficient is easy to interpret. A student who is told that each
additional year of education predicts a $50 increase in annual salary will understand that
the effect is too weak to be of any practical value, while a student who is told that each
additional year of education predicts a $5,000 increase in annual salary will understand
that this is enough money to be worth the effort. Often, however, measures are given in
arbitrary units (e.g., happiness rated on a scale from 1 = not happy at all to 7 = extremely
happy). In this kind of situation, it may be difficult to judge the practical significance of a
half-point increase in happiness.

As in other applications of regression, measurements of variables are assumed to be
reliable and valid. If they are not, regression results can be misleading.

650——CHAPTER 16

16.5.2 ♦ Temporal Precedence or Sequence of Variables in Mediation Studies

Hypothesized causes must occur earlier in time than hypothesized outcomes (tempo-
ral precedence, as discussed in Chapter 1). It seems reasonable to hypothesize that “being
abused as a child” might predict “becoming an abuser as an adult”; it would not make
sense to suggest that being an abusive adult causes a person to have experiences of abuse
in childhood. Sometimes measurements of the three variables X1, X2, and Y are all
obtained at the same time (e.g., in a one-time survey). If X1 is a retrospective report of
experiencing abuse as a child, and Y is a report of current abusive behaviors, then the
requirement for temporal precedence (X1 happened before Y) may be satisfied. In some
studies, measures are obtained at more than one point in time; in these situations, it
would be preferable to measure X1 first, then X2, and then Y; this may help to establish
temporal precedence. When all three variables are measured at the same point in time and
there is no logical reason to believe one of them occurs earlier in time than the others, it
may not be possible to establish temporal precedence.

16.5.3 ♦ Time Lags Between Variables

When measures are obtained at different points in time, it is important to consider the
time lag between measures. If this time lag is too brief, the effects of X1 may not be appar-
ent yet when Y is measured (e.g., if X1 is initiation of treatment with either placebo or
Prozac, a drug that typically does not have full antidepressant effects until about 6 weeks,
and Y is a measure of depression and is measured one day after X1, then the full effect of
the drug will not be apparent). Conversely, if the time lag is too long, the effects of X1 may
have worn off by the time Y is measured. Suppose that X1 is receiving positive feedback
from a relationship partner and Y is relationship satisfaction, and Y is measured 2 months
after X1. The effects of the positive feedback (X1) may have dissipated over this period of
time. The optimal time lag will vary depending on the variables involved; some X1 inter-
ventions or measured variables may have immediate but not long-lasting effects, while
others may require a substantial time before effects are apparent.

16.6 ♦ Assumptions in Mediation Analysis
and Preliminary Data Screening

Unless the types of variables involved require different estimation methods (e.g., if a
dependent variable is categorical, logistic regression methods are required), the coeffi-
cients (a, b, and c′) associated with the paths in Figure 16.1 can be estimated using OLS
regression. All of the assumptions required for regression (see Chapters 9 and 11) are also
required for mediation analysis. Because preliminary data screening has been presented
in greater detail earlier, data screening procedures are reviewed here only briefly. For each
variable, histograms or other graphic methods can be used to assess whether scores on
all quantitative variables are reasonably normally distributed, without extreme outliers. If
the X1 variable is dichotomous, both groups should have a reasonably large number of
cases. Scatter plots can be used to evaluate whether relationships between each pair of
variables appear to be linear (X1 with Y, X1 with X2, and X2 with Y) and to identify bivari-
ate outliers. Decisions about handling any identified outliers should be made at an early
stage in the analysis, as discussed in Chapter 4.

Mediation——651

Baron and Kenny (1986) suggested that a mediation model should not be tested unless
there is a significant relationship between X1 and Y. In more recent treatments of media-
tion, it has been pointed out that in situations where one of the path coefficients is nega-
tive, there can be significant mediated effects even when X1 and Y are not significantly
correlated (A. F. Hayes, 2009). This can be understood as a form of suppression; see
Section 10.12.5.3 for further discussion with examples. If none of the pairs of variables in
the model are significantly related to each other in bivariate analyses, however, there is not
much point in testing mediated models.

16.7 ♦ Path Coefficient Estimation

The most common way to obtain estimates of the path coefficients that appear in Figure 16.1
is to run the following series of regression analyses. These steps are similar to those rec-
ommended by Baron and Kenny (1986), except that, as suggested in recent treatments of
mediation (MacKinnon, 2008), a statistically significant outcome on the first step is not
considered a requirement before going on to subsequent steps.

Step 1. First, a regression is run to predict Y (blood pressure or SBP) from X1 (age). (SPSS
procedures for this type of regression were provided in Chapter 9.) The raw or unstandard-
ized regression coefficient from this regression corresponds to path c. This step is some-
times omitted; however, it provides information that can help evaluate how much
controlling for the X2 mediating variable reduces the strength of association between X1
and Y. Figure 16.2 shows the regression coefficients part of the output. The unstandardized
regression coefficient for the prediction of Y (BloodPressure—note that there is no blank
within the SPSS variable name) from X1 (age) is c = 2.862; this is statistically significant,
t(28) = 6.631, p < .001. (The N for this dataset is 30; therefore, the df for this t ratio is N – 2
= 28.) Thus, the overall effect of age on blood pressure is statistically significant.

Step 2. Next a regression is performed to predict the mediating variable (X2, weight) from
the causal variable (X1, age). The results of this regression provide the path coefficient
for the path denoted a in Figure 16.1 and also the standard error of a (sa) and the t test for
the statistical significance of the a path coefficient (ta). The coefficient table for this
regression appears in Figure 16.3. For the hypothetical data, the unstandardized a path
coefficient was 1.432, with t(28) = 3.605, p = .001.

Figure 16.2 ♦ Regression Coefficient to Predict Blood Pressure (Y) From Age (X1)

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized

Coefficients

t Sig.B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) 10.398 26.222 .397 .695

Age 2.862 .432 .782 6.631 .000

a. Dependent Variable: BloodPressure

NOTE: The raw score slope in this equation, 2.862, corresponds to coefficient c in the path diagram in Figure 16.1.

652——CHAPTER 16

Step 3. Finally, a regression is performed to predict the outcome variable Y (blood pres-
sure) from both X1 (age) and X2 (weight). (Detailed examples of regression with two
predictor variables appeared in Chapter 11.) This regression provides estimates of the
unstandardized coefficients for path b (and sb and tb) and also path c′ (the direct or
remaining effect of X1 on Y when the mediating variable has been included in the analy-
sis). See Figure 16.1 for the corresponding path diagram. From Figure 16.4, path b = .49,
t(27) = 2.623, p = .014; path c′ = 2.161, t(27) = 4.551, p < .001. These unstandardized
path coefficients are used to label the paths in a diagram of the causal model (top panel of
Figure 16.5). These values are also used later to test the null hypothesis H0: ab = 0. In many
research reports, particularly when the units in which the variables are measured are not
meaningful or not easy to interpret, researchers report the standardized path coefficients
(these are called beta coefficients on the SPSS output); the lower panel of Figure 16.5 shows
the standardized path coefficients. Sometimes the estimate of the c coefficient appears in
parentheses, next to or below the c′ coefficient, in these diagrams.

In addition to examining the path coefficients from these regressions, the data analyst
should pay some attention to how well the X1 and X2 variables predict Y. From Figure 16.4,
R2 = .69, adjusted R2 is .667, and this is statistically significant, F(2, 27) = 30.039, p < .001.
These two variables do a good job of predicting variance in blood pressure.

16.8 ♦ Conceptual Issues: Assessment of
Direct Versus Indirect Paths

When a path that leads from a predictor variable X to a dependent variable Y involves
other variables and multiple arrows, the overall strength of the path is estimated by mul-
tiplying the coefficients for each leg of the path (as discussed in the introduction to the
tracing rule in Section 11.10).

16.8.1 ♦ The Mediated or Indirect Path: ab

The strength of the indirect or mediated effect of age on blood pressure through weight
is estimated by multiplying the ab path coefficients. In many applications, one or more of
the variables are measured in arbitrary units (e.g., happiness may be rated on a scale from
1 to 7). In such situations, the unstandardized regression coefficients may not be very

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized

Coefficients

t Sig.B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) 78.508 24.130 3.254 .003

Age 1.432 .397 .563 3.605 .001

a. Dependent Variable: Weight

Figure 16.3 ♦ Regression Coefficient to Predict Weight (Mediating Variable X2) From Age (X1)

NOTE: The raw score slope from this equation, 1.432, corresponds to the path labeled a in Figure 16.1.

Mediation——653

Model Summary

Model R R Square

Adjusted R

Square

Std. Error of the

Estimate

1 .831a .690 .667 36.692

a. Predictors: (Constant), Weight, Age

ANOVAb

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 80882.132 2 40441.066 30.039 .000a

Residual 36349.735 27 1346.286

Total 117231.867 29

a. Predictors: (Constant), Weight, Age

b. Dependent Variable: BloodPressure

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized

Coefficients

t Sig.B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) -28.046 27.985 -1.002 .325

Age 2.161 .475 .590 4.551 .000

Weight .490 .187 .340 2.623 .014

a. Dependent Variable: BloodPressure

Figure 16.4 ♦ Regression Coefficient to Predict Blood Pressure (Y) From Age (X1) and Mediating Variable
Weight (X2)

NOTE: The raw score slope for a in this equation, 2.161, corresponds to the path labeled c′ in Figure 16.1; the raw score slope for weight in this
equation, .490, corresponds to the path labeled b.

Figure 16.5 ♦ Path Coefficients for the Age/Weight/Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) Mediation Analysis

a
1.432**

b
.490*

2.161*

(c = 2.862***)

Age

Standardized Path Coefficients

Unstandardized Path Coefficients

Weight

SBP
C’

a
.563**

b
.340*

.590***

(c = .782)

Age

Weight

SBP
C’

*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001, all two-tailed.

654——CHAPTER 16

informative, and research reports often focus on standardized coefficients.2 The stan-
dardized (β) coefficients for the paths in the age/weight/blood pressure hypothetical data
appear in the bottom panel of Figure 16.5. Throughout the remainder of this section, all
path coefficients are given in standardized (β coefficient) form.

Recall from Chapter 10 that, when the path from X to Y has multiple parts or arrows,
the overall strength of the association for the entire path is estimated by multiplying the
coefficients for each part of the path. Thus, the unit-free index of strength of the medi-
ated effect (the effect of age on blood pressure, through the mediating variable weight) is
given by the product of the standardized estimates of the path coefficients, ab. For the
standardized coefficients, this product = (.563 × .340) = .191. The strength of the direct
or nonmediated path from age to blood pressure (SBP) corresponds to c′; the standard-
ized coefficient for this path is .590. In other words, for a one–standard deviation increase
in zAge, we predict a .191 increase in zSBP through the mediating variable zWeight. In addition,
we predict a .590 increase in zSBP due to direct effects of zAge (effects that are not mediated
by zWeight); this corresponds to the c′ path. The total effect of zAge on zSBP corresponds to
path c, and the standardized coefficient for path c is .782 (the beta coefficient to predict
zSBP from zAge in Figure 16.5).

16.8.2 ♦ Mediated and Direct Path as Partition of Total Effect

The mediation analysis has partitioned the total effect of age on blood pressure (c =
.782) into a direct effect (c′ = .590) and a mediated effect (ab = .191). (Both of these are
given in terms of standardized/unit-free path coefficients.) It appears that mediation
through weight, while statistically significant, explains only a small part of the total effect
of age on blood pressure in this hypothetical example. Within rounding error, c = c′ + ab,
that is, the total effect is the sum of the direct and mediated effects. These terms are addi-
tive when OLS regression is used to obtain estimates of coefficients; when other estima-
tion methods such as maximum likelihood are used (as in structural equation modeling
programs), these equalities may not hold. Also note that if there are missing data, each
regression must be performed on the same set of cases in order for this additive associa-
tion to work.

Note that even if the researcher prefers to label and discuss paths using standardized
regression coefficients, information about the unstandardized coefficients is required to
carry out additional statistical significance tests (to find out whether the product ab dif-
fers significantly from zero, for example).

16.8.3 ♦ Magnitude of Mediated Effect

When variables are measured in meaningful units, it is helpful to think through the
magnitude of the effects in real units, as discussed in this paragraph. (The discussion in
this paragraph is helpful primarily in research situations in which units of measurement
have some real-world practical interpretation.) All of the path coefficients in the rest of
this paragraph are unstandardized regression coefficients. From the first regression
analysis, the c coefficient for the total effect of age on blood pressure was c = 2.862. In
simple language, for each 1-year increase in age, we predict an increase in blood pressure
of 2.862 mm Hg. Based on the t test result in Figure 16.2, this is statistically significant.

Mediation——655

Taking into account that people in wealthy countries often live to age 70 or older, this
implies substantial age-related increases in blood pressure; for example, for a 30-year
increase in age, we predict an increase of 28.62 mm Hg in blood pressure, and that is suf-
ficiently large to be clinically important. This tells us that the total effect of age on systolic
blood pressure is reasonably large in terms of clinical or practical importance. From the
second regression, we find that the effect of age on weight is a = 1.432; this is also statis-
tically significant, based on the t test in Figure 16.3. For a 1-year increase in age, we pre-
dict almost 1.5 pounds in weight gain. Again, over a period of 10 years, this implies a
sufficiently large increase in predicted body weight (about 14.32 pounds) to be of clinical
importance. The last regression (in Figure 16.4) provides information about two paths,
b and c′. The b coefficient that represents the effect of weight on blood pressure was
b = .49; this was statistically significant. For each 1-pound increase in body weight, we
predict almost a half-point increase in blood pressure. If we take into account that people
may gain 30 or 40 pounds over the course of a lifetime, this would imply weight-related
increases in blood pressure on the order of 15 or 20 mm Hg. This also seems large enough
to be of clinical interest. The indirect effect of age on blood pressure is found by multi-
plying a × b, in this case, 1.432 × .49 = .701. For each 1-year increase in age, a .7–mm Hg
increase in blood pressure is predicted through the effects of age on weight. Finally, the
direct effect of age on blood pressure when the mediating variable weight is statistically
controlled/taken into account is represented by c′ = 2.161. Over and above any weight-
related increases in blood pressure, we predict about a 2.2-unit increase in blood pressure
for each additional year of age. Of the total effect of age on blood pressure (a predicted
2.862–mm Hg increase in SBP for each 1-year increase in age), a relatively small part is
mediated by weight (.701), and t

Criminal homework help

STUDENT REPLIES

STUDENT REPLY #1 Jamie Archer

The international sex trade is still a major issue around the world. The most widespread kind of modern-day slavery is human sex trafficking. The number of domestic and foreign victims, largely women and children exploited in the commercial sex industry for little or no money, is estimated to be in the millions. Human trafficking and sex slavery bring up pictures of young girls being beaten and exploited in far-off locations such as Eastern Europe, Asia, or Africa. While in reality human sex trafficking and sex slavery occur on a local level in both large and small cities and towns across the United States (Walker-Rodriguez & Hill, 2011). Human sex trafficking is not only enslavement, but also a significant industry. It is the world’s third-largest criminal enterprise and the fastest-growing organized crime operation. The bulk of sex trafficking victims are transported from less developed locations such as South and Southeast Asia, the former Soviet Union, Central and South America, and transported to more developed areas such as Asia, the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. Unfortunately, sex trafficking occurs in the United States as well. The United States is not only dealing with an influx of overseas victims, but it also has its own domestic problem of kids being trafficked across state lines.

The US has made stopping human traffickers, protecting victims, and preventing this crime a high priority. Combating human trafficking necessitates a holistic approach. Within the government, this entails collaboration and coordination between agencies with a variety of responsibilities, such as criminal justice, labor enforcement, victim outreach and services, public awareness, education, trade policy and promotion, international development and programs, customs and immigration, intelligence, and diplomacy. An integrated response to human trafficking that leverages resources and amplifies results requires coordinated federal activities that include state, local, and tribal agencies, the private sector, civil society, survivors, religious communities, and academics (U.S. Department of State, 2021).

Reference

U.S. Department of State. (2021, December 3). Federal response on human trafficking – united states department of state. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.state.gov/humantrafficking/

Walker-Rodriguez, A., & Hill, R. (2011, March 1). Human sex trafficking. FBI. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/featured-articles/human-sex-trafficking

STUDENT REPIY #2 John DeLuca

The human rights violation I chose for this week’s discussion was the violation against the Japanese in 1942 in the United States during the start of World War II. According to the Map of International Human Rights Violations around the World, The United States had just been attacked by Japan in Pearl Harbor and responded by removing all Humans of Japanese descent from the West Coast which included California, Oregon, and Washington into internment camps. On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed an executive order that all Japanese descendants from the Pacific Coast be relocated into Internment camps for the remainder of World War II.

O May 9, 1942, Japanese descendants were scheduled for removal from assembly centers to internment camps. Of those people 62% were American-born United States citizens. There were approximately 120,000 Japanese people detained for the duration of the war.

Of the 120,000 Japanese people all of them lost their homes and valuables and were left with only the clothes on their back once they were released at the end of the war.

Explain how one community internationally, nationally, of locally might or did respond to this violation.

During the time of the internment camps there was little to no response on the level of protests or human rights groups. I believe that at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor Americans were outraged by the killings on their own American soil where they overlooked the fact that these Japanese people who in many cases were American born citizens were being violated by these so-called war camps.

The Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR) was established in 1959, the commission operates independently, and its members include all the independent states of the Western Hemisphere (Donnelly, 2013). I believe that if this violation would have occurred in later years the IACHR would have created fact finding missions and issued factual reports of liability for the human rights violation that occurred.

References

Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). United States: Cornell University Press.

Map of the International Human Rights Violations aroun

PROFESSOR REPLY#3

What do you think? Will these proposed solutions help or is this a cycle that keeps repeating itself?

Criminal homework help

Instructions

For this assignment, write an essay about restitution. Address the following in your essay.

· Provide an introduction that discusses the types of restitution.

· Explain problems of restitution.

· Assess how restitution is collected, and provide at least one area for improvement of the restitution process.

· Explain any new programs or policies that you would like to see enacted in an effort to help make a victim whole again. Support your position by justifying it as a victim’s right to receive restitution.

Your essay must be at least three pages in length, not including title or reference pages. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

Criminal homework help

POLICY DRAFT 1

Policy Development Draft Assignment

Treylesia Alston

Liberty University

CJUS 520

Dr.Pumphrey

April 10,2022

Jade Pumphrey
143770000000122719
FEEDBACK EMBEDDED IN PAPER AS TRACK CHANGES. Feedback codes are in the margins of the paper – see the announcement about feedback codes. Access feedback codes through this link. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1h0XTEQjCJCAPDZtnrTfV7vsh5gyehN6_JaxDoVd8-kU/edit#gid=1914757206

POLICY DRAFT 2

Abstract

The emergence of social networking platforms, which have proven to be an advantageous

tool for staying in touch and connecting with one another, has made individuals, businesses, and

organizations more linked. It is possible to remain in touch with friends, coworkers, and family

members via these sites because of their ability to facilitate the transmission of information at a

speedier rate. Law enforcement officers may profit from social media sites, which can offer them

with vital information while they are entrusted with protecting the public. Social media may be

used by public information officers from government agencies to interact with members of the

public. The use of social media by police officers, however, can lead to a lack of focus and

productivity on the job. Police and intelligence officers can utilize social media sites for tracking

down and apprehending criminals, while analysts can use social media to gather information on

new forms of criminal behavior. In order to use social media effectively, a strategic framework

must be created.

Keywords: (Social media, Police officers, policy)

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POLICY DRAFT 3

Policy Development Draft Assignment

Introduction

The use of social media by government organizations and law enforcement agencies to

convey information about crime trends and community events, and safety tips has grown rapidly

in recent years. However, there are several cases of police officers and other law enforcement

agencies using social media to be detrimental to their profession. In law enforcement, using

social media for non-work-related purposes can lead to mistakes and undesirable outcomes. This

suggests that the use of social media should be restricted so that authorities may use accessible

social media websites for constructive purposes only. Besides, Mistakes in its use can put police

in danger and jeopardize criminal investigations, leading to both embarrassment and exposure to

civil and criminal liability. Adapting to the social media channels that affect officers’ daily life is

essential if law enforcement agencies are to confront these dangers. To achieve this, agencies

must have a thorough understanding of the various forms of social media, its advantages and

disadvantages for law enforcement, and the need for guidelines to regulate how law enforcement

officers use these tools.

Law Enforcement Abuse of Social Media

The recent appearance of a private Facebook page featuring current and former Customs

and Border Protection agents has sparked concerns about law enforcement personnel using social

media to engage with the public. Slanderous remarks concerning migrant deaths and lawmakers

were also made (News, 2022). It’s possible that the claims in this case, which include that

members of the group, which includes current and former Border Patrol agents, posted

unprofessional and maybe criminal information on their social media accounts are

genuine.Customs and Border Protection (CBP) placed the agents on administrative duty after

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POLICY DRAFT 4

determining that their actions were not indicative of men and women in society generally (News,

2022). There have been other cases of suspected law enforcement employees using social media,

but this is the most current and most noticed. More than 70 police officers have been taken off

the streets of Philadelphia due to alleged improper social media postings.

Organizational Use of Social Media

Law enforcement organizations may profit from social media in a variety of ways,

including public relations, crime prevention, and criminal investigations. Social media platforms

have made it easier for government agencies to connect with their citizens on a more personal

level. People will have access to real-time information and the ability to send questions,

recommendations, and tips to law enforcement via an online form (Brunty & Helenek, 2014).

Images of jewelry and tattoos seized in 2011, as well as a composite face of an unidentified

victim, have been released by Kentucky State Police detectives. It was because to the post that

police were able to positively identify the dead. Investigators may benefit from the quantity of

data available on social media networks. Using social media, they’ll let the world know where

they are and where their coworkers are. Social media has been used to broadcast images and

videos of their illicit activities. Besides, the use of technology data may make it simpler to

apprehend fugitives, locate accomplices, establish links between persons and street gangs, and

collect proof of criminal activities.

Crime-solving initiatives aren’t necessarily fans of true crime podcasts in which individuals

happen to fall into circumstances where they can supply significant information. In a similar

case, a photo of a car part was shared on social media and helped solve the hit-and-run death of

Susan Rainwater, who was killed in a hit-and-run accident. Rainwater was killed in a hit-and-run

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POLICY DRAFT 5

accident 60 miles south of Seattle when an unknown vehicle struck and killed her. At the

moment, she was out for a ride on her bike. They didn’t know what to do because they had no

leads or witnesses. Only a black piece of plastic from the automobile, which had fallen off when

it hit Susan, served proof. They had nothing else. An unidentifiable item was photographed by a

state trooper who attended the event and posted to Twitter (Brunty & Helenek, 2014). A Reddit

user called Jeff, who had no prior knowledge of the thing, had a flash of recognition. After

inspecting cars for decades, the guy stated that the plastic piece was from the late 1980s

Chevrolet truck’s headlight bezel, which he characterized as “amazing.” A suspect was

apprehended after an identification led to his capture.

Law Enforcement Best Practice for the Regulation Officer Social Media Activity

Developing a robust and strict social media policy

It is essential for organizations to establish and implement a social media strategy to enjoy

the benefits of social media while minimizing avoidable risks, such as a breach of trust, in the

most effective manner. To their benefit, a broad range of tools and resources are readily available

to assist companies in formulating sound policy plans (Stuart, 2022). The International

Association of Chiefs of Police suggests the following five policy considerations to any

institution developing a social media strategy (IACP). Many considerations must be made, such

as establishing the policy’s scope, providing information for official usage, explaining guidelines

for personal use, addressing appropriate legal challenges, and referring to analogous policies as

examples.

Declaring specific objectives in the policy

Following the above-mentioned general guidance will bring several advantages. It’s

important to note that a lot of law enforcement and government agencies utilize social media for

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POLICY DRAFT 6

specific purposes including enhancing investigations, screening new workers, or encouraging

community engagement (Stuart, 2022). Even though social media can provide these advantages,

it is recommended that companies include language in their social media strategy establishing

community involvement as a priority in order to enjoy the benefits of social media. “The

Department promotes the secure use of social media to increase community involvement and

information dissemination and neighborhood safety,” stated the Seattle Police Department’s

social media policy.

Identifying a social media manager

Having media relations coordinators, community relations officers, and public safety

directors is a proven best practice for police forces. As the ones in charge of approving material,

choosing who is permitted to post on behalf of the department, and setting particular social

media goals and activities, these persons are referred to as “authority figures.” Be aware that

there are a number of communication management methods (Stuart, 2022). The usage of social

media in the workplace is regulated by an authorized official in several agencies. When it comes

to using social media for professional purposes, other agencies leave it up to the discretion of

individual officers. As a general rule, at least one person should be appointed as the social media

authority in every particular situation. Depending on the structure and capabilities of the

business, assigning social media management to a community relations officer may be an

effective way to develop community connection. Smaller agencies may find it easier to delegate

this role to a sworn or civilian member of the agency’s leadership.

Departmental Policy Outline

Police department

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POLICY DRAFT 7

Department policy outline regarding social media use

 The use of social media by government organizations and law enforcement agencies

to convey information about crime trends and community events, as well as safety tips, has

grown rapidly in recent years

 To our benefit, we can use social media for productive processes like public

relations, crime prevention, and criminal investigation. All officers can use social media

positively and professionally, but with great caution.

 The department’s social media manager should be authorized and known for using

and utilizing the social media platform.

 Before using social media in any means, all officers should be aware of its negative

use and the respective consequences that come from the respective activities.

Conclusion

Social media has grown rapidly in the last decade, especially since smartphones and social

media apps have become widely available. Many people see social networking sites as useful

tools for interacting with others about themselves and their lives, but law enforcement has a

variety of concerns about them. The Christian community’s hostility and discouragement toward

social media and other technology are exacerbated by concerns such as excessive and

unintentional usage of social media. As smartphones and social media allow amateur reporters to

capture and transmit only the information they wish to provide, millions of people may watch

and criticize their reporting (Tiry et al., 2022). Police officers’ jobs have become considerably

more unsafe due to people filming their interactions with law enforcement and starting fresh

conflicts. Because of how easily personal information can be obtained on social media, police

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POLICY DRAFT 8

officers’ jobs are becoming more dangerous even when they are not on duty. This includes the

risk to officers’ families while not on duty. As a result, the use and exploitation of social media in

law enforcement must be monitored and regulated.

POLICY DRAFT 9

References

Brunty, J., & Helenek, K. (2014). Social media investigation for law enforcement. Routledge.

Jeanis, M. N., Muniz, C. N., & Molbert, C. L. (2021). Law enforcement and social media usage:

An analysis of engagement. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 15(1), 570-583.

Kim, K., Mohr, A. O. N. E., & Oglesby, A. (2017). 2016 Law enforcement use of social media

survey. The report, International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Urban Institute.

Mateescu, A., Brunton, D., Rosenblat, A., Patton, D., Gold, Z., & Boyd, D. (2015). Social media

surveillance and law enforcement. Data Civ Rights, 27, 2015-2027.

News, A. (2022). The dangers of social media for law enforcement take center stage amid series

of scandals: Analysis. ABC News. Retrieved 1 April 2022, from

https://abcnews.go.com/US/dangers-social-media-law-enforcement-center-stage-

amid/story?id=64252037.

Stuart, R. (2022). Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use | FBI: Law

Enforcement Bulletin. FBI: Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved 1 April 2022, from

https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/featured-articles/social-media-establishing-criteria-for-law-

enforcement-use

Tiry, E., Oglesby-Neal, A., & Kim, K. (2022). Urban.org. Retrieved 1 April 2022, from

https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/99786/social_media_guidebook_for_l

aw_enforcement_agencies_0.pdf

Waters, G. (2012). Social media and law enforcement: Potential risks. FBI L. Enforcement

Bull., 81, 1.

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Criminal homework help

Importance of Problem Statement in Solving Industry Problems

Nagappan Annamalai
1,2,a

, Shahrul Kamaruddin
2,b

, Ishak Abdul Azid
2,c

,
TS Yeoh

1,d

1
Intel Technology Sdn. Bhd. Phase 3 FTZ. Penang , Malaysia

2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal,

Penang, Malaysia

a
nagappan.annamalai@intel.com,

b
meshah@eng.usm.my,

c
ishak@eng.usm.my,

d
ts.yeoh@intel.com

Keywords: Problem solving; Problem statement; Manufacturing.

Abstract. Problem statements is a form of natural language used in any problem solvings [17]. A

problem statement is described in terms of scope, structure and its purpose. Analysis in problem

statement is a critical element of a structured problem solving that has not been included in or

explicated by traditional stage models of the process. This paper details out that an analysis stage is

needed to develop the implications of a problem’s definition and to direct the selection and pursuit of

solution strategies. This paper also discusses the importance of problem statement and how a new

method of structure is being modeled for an effecient and effective problem solving in industrial

environment. Strategies for future research on problem analysis are discussed

Introduction

Solving problems is a complex process and each of us is better at the skills required at some stages

than others. Why do people fail to find effective solutions? Many reasons can be listed out, as such;

not being methodical, lack of commitment to solve problem, misinterpret problem statement, lack of

knowledge of the techniques and process involved in problem solving, using method inappropriate to

particular problem, and insufficient or inaccurate information to combine analytical thinking.

The term problem solving referring to the mental process that people go through to discover,

analyze and solve problems [20]. This involves all of the steps in the problem process, including the

discovery of the problem, the decision to tackle the issue, understanding the problem, researching the

available options and taking actions to achieve your goals. It is important to first understand the exact

nature of the problem itself (problem statement), before a problem solving occurs [10]. If

understanding of the issue is faulty, then the attempts to resolve it will also be incorrect or flawed.

The problem-solving process is the vehicle for connecting knowledge and performance;

knowledge gains economic value when it is used to solve problems, explore opportunities and make

decisions that improve performance [9]. Problem solving is arguably a primary vehicle for learning in

organizations; individuals may develop a better understanding of their environment by recognizing,

exploring and resolving problems and opportunities. Problem solving may help integrate the diverse

thinking in this area [6].

The concept of problem (problem statement), problem solving method and the application of

problem solving method to a problem are given precise formulations, based on problem type. These

formulation are argued to agree with intuitive understanding of these ideas (mental process), thereby

formalizing them [16].

There are a number of different mental processes at work during problem-solving [10]. The

problem solving process is a cycle [3, 7, 14] that requires; (1) perceptually recognizing a problem, (2)

considering relevant information that applies to the current problem, (3) identify different aspects of

the problem and lastly decribe the problem. The first condition of problem solving is problem

statement and the main concernunder this preatext is the problem analysis.

Problem analysis is a critical element of problem solving that has not been included in or

explicated by traditional stage of problem solving models. An analysis stage is needed to develop the

implications of a problem’s definition and to direct the selection and pursuit of solution strategies.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 421 (2013) pp 857-863
Online available since 2013/Sep/11 at www.scientific.net
© (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.421.857

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,
www.ttp.net. (ID: 165.215.209.15, ProQuest-15/10/13,16:45:37)

Problem analysis is a required key activity for defining a problem statement clearly. The paper

explains and applies a different model of What-Why analysis which generates a richer understanding

and broader set of solution alternatives. Strategies for future research on problem analysis are

discussed.

Problem-Solving Strategies Through Analyzed Problem Statement

A problem statement is a concise description of the issues that need to be addressed by a problem

solving team and should be presented to them (or created by them) before they try to solve the

problem. When bringing together a team to achieve a particular purpose provide them with a problem

statement [19]. The primary purpose of a problem statement is to focus the attention of the problem

solving team. However, if the focus of the problem is too narrow or the scope of the solution is too

limited, the creativity and innovation of the solution can be stifling [15].

A research-worthy problem statement is the description of an active challenge (i.e. problem) faced

by researchers and/or practitioners that does not have adequate solutions available including the

argumentation for its viability based on solid peer-reviewed sources as well as theoretical foundation.

The research-worthy problem statement should address all six questions: what, how, where, when,

why, and who. On the other hand, a statement of the problem is one or two sentences claim that

outlines the problem that the study addresses.

Problem solving strategies or method is the key for solving a problem. The important conundrum

is to understand the problem statement, and the goal to be achieved. The theoretical basis for this

study is research on problem-solving derived from Newell and Simon’s [12]. It focuses on the

conceptualization process that employed for solving problems. In Newell and Simon’s theory,

problems are conceptualized as occurring in a problem space. The problem space (figure 1) contains

three elements: a problem state, which is the information the problem solver, knows about the

problem; a goal state, which constitutes the solution to the problem; and a search space, which

consists of all the strategies that may be employed to solve the problem.

Most problem-solving research has concentrated on what can be described as simple or

well-defined problems. Such problems can be described clearly in terms of the nature of the problem,

what constitutes an acceptable solution to the problem and the various strategies that can be used to

achieve an acceptable solution. It is often the case, however, that complex, ill-defined problems are

complex precisely because it is difficult to define each of the elements of the problem space. With

complex, ill-defined problems it is often not possible to clearly delineate the problem state

Figure 1: Initial state of Problem solving

When solving problems, people employ two types of strategies to navigate the problem space. The

first are algorithms, which are defined as strategies that guarantee a result, with a mathematical

formula being an example of an algorithm. Algorithms tend to be useful for problems where it is

possible to identify all features of the problem space clearly. The second type of strategy is called

heuristics, which are defined as strategies that improve the chances of solving a problem, but cannot

guarantee a solution. Complex problems are often complex precisely because, it is not possible to

identify the characteristics of the problem. Complex problems are most often solved using heuristics

[12].

858 Information Technology for Manufacturing Systems IV

Figure 2: Problem Solving with a chain of intermediate states

A number of heuristics has been identified in the literature. There are two general types, referred to

as forward reasoning and backward reasoning [1]. Forward reasoning strategies involve the

problem-solver making a smooth traversal from problem state to goal state (figure 2). Forward

reasoning is often regarded as a strategy used by people knowledgeable in the topic or domain of the

problem and able to choose each step without checking on progress. Backward reasoning involves

trying out strategies and monitoring whether they have moved the problem closer to the goal. Trial

and error is a common backward reasoning strategy employed by people who do not have extensive

experience or knowledge of a problem domain. With problems that require new and creative solutions,

a strategy called problem finding [5] has been identified as an important ingredient of successful

problem solving. Problem finding has been defined as exploring the problem extensively before

attempting a solution and being prepared to change direction when necessary during problem solving

[8]

Figure 3: Problem Solving with a Heuristic pattern

An optimization problem consists of searching the best solution, according to a given criterion,

among a set of feasible solutions [2]. Optimization algorithms are general step-by-step procedures for

solving optimization problems. In other words an optimization algorithm is said to solve a problem if

it can be applied to any instance of that problem to produce a feasible solution. Optimization

algorithms can be exact if they find the optimal solution or heuristic if they find a good solution not

necessarily the optimal one. Heuristics are particularly useful to solve complex problems (Figure 3).

Problem solving is arguably a primary vehicle for learning in organizations; individuals may

develop a better understanding of their environment by recognizing, exploring and resolving

problems and opportunities [9]. The better the clarity around what it is the team is attempting to fix,

the more efficient they’ll be in solving the problem, the solution will better ‘fix’ the issues, and the

team can get back to executing the business versus fixing it. Problem solving strategy starts with

problem definition as stage 1. Problem definition, a stage where the problem statement is reviewed to

have a better understanding of the issue. As mentioned by Kettering (1947) the head of research for

General Motors “a problem well stated is a problem half solved”. Performing What & Why Analysis

Model (Figure 4) will give clear amplification to the importance of solving the problem. Hence

determined the reason behind the cause of stopping the team to solve the problem intially. The fact is,

generally from the observations; the grounds of this circumstances happening is eventually reflected

from the distance between the problem statement and the segmentation. It is often not been bridged

correctly that end- up focusing on inaccurate issues thus resulting into providing non-optimal

solutions.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 421 859

Figure 4: Why-What analysis model

The team needs to identify the broader problem space by understanding why do they want to solve

the problem, and similarly the team need to understand the narrower problem space by understanding

what is stopping them to solve the problem. By doing this, it will detail out the actual problem

statement and clarifies the connection between broader and narrower problem space. To evaluate the

effectiveness of the proposed What-What analaysis model an industrial case study is used.

Industrial Case Study Of What – Why Analysis Model

In this section it will detailed out on the problem statement by espousing the What – Why Analysis

model through a validation process using case study. Case study research is one of the most powerful

research methods in operational management, particularly in development of new methodology [18].

A manufacturing case study has been identified and presented to show the What-Why analysis model

being adopted for resolving critical issues within a month time frame. The key problem of the case

are two folds; first relating to quality problem faced by a double unit stacked and second is on the high

equipment down time involving a unit drop in a modular station.

A class test (tester used for testing an integrated circuit during the assembly process) that consists

of 3 sub-modules; tester, handler and TIU (test interface unit) will be the equipment choosen for the

validation of What-Why analysis model. The handler module (known as Rxx), which is a mechanical

interface unit which performs PnP (pick and place) of units among 3 sub class test modules. In the

past, a few double stack quality incidents occurred (impacting >2000 units with substrate damage and

fillet crack which impacted to high cost expenditure). To alleviate the risk, the company has put a

quick solution through a manual screening of test summaries to prevent the problems occuring.

However, the solution adopted is unfeasible as it requires intensive resources that eventually

increased the cycle time, and also flagged many false failures. This has triggered the management to

identify a more foolproof solution for this problem. In order to solve the problems, the issue has been

analyzed through 2 method; (1) the usual way which is state the problem and finding the goal that

requires to be pursue. Base on this the problem statement would be double stack on Rxx handler and

how to eliminate double stack, and (2) What-Why analysis model as a fundamental and foundation

base for the problem analysis.

860 Information Technology for Manufacturing Systems IV

Figure 5: Double stack what – why analysis

In reference to the problem of the mentioned case study and referring to Figure 5, it is clear that the

importance of the problem is to avoid any excursion that has the potential to occur. This is due to the

reject been allowed to escape to the customer. The rationale of the problem not being solved properly

is because there is no full proof system been put in place to detect and stop the system from continuing

inducing the rejects. The research has detailed out [11] a full proof solution space with structured

problem solving model known as evolved theory of inventive problem solving(ETRIZ).

A second case study was related to mechanical part of the equipment which induce high equipment

down time involving a unit drop in a modular station. The issue creates unnecessary high equipment

downtime, where fall as high pareto %. This issue potentially induce those drop device reject escape

to customer if the process is not followed accordingly. This problem has been a pain in the neck since

start up, and it has been an unknown root cause for almost 3 years. Standard way of defining the

problem statement would be to eliminate or reduce the CNT drop unit. The problem came to an end by

coaching the technician and engineers with the foundation stage of What-Why analysis model follow

by a structured problem solving method. Performing the analysis (Figure 6) elaborates the

importance of solving the problem, and also what is stopping the team to solve it.

Figure 6: Drop unit what-why analysis

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 421 861

The CNT drop device is important to be resolved as it induce high fall out of the issue and

potentially leads to escapee and lead to excursion alarm to factory. The challange to solve this issue

was due to unknown root cause, where the engineers and technicians has been containing the issue by

changing the unit pick suction cup, which leads to high spare part expenses. The issue was then

resolved starting with What-Why Analysis model, with clear understand on the issue, which also

reduced the duration of solution finding thru a structed problem solving methodology.

Discussion

Rapid problem solving is a key distinguishing feature between organization which excel and those

which struggle. Problem solving requires not only skilled individuals, but need to understand the

problem statement to tackle complex problem. Industries utilize many types of problem solving

methodologies and most of the time the usage of methodology is being neglected either due to

ineffective or too complex. Such situation leads to user confusion and not able to devote their time

successfully on any of the methodologies particularly in relating to manufacturing issues. The paper

describes the important of problem statement in problem solving strategies and how it has been

evolved in fundamental foundation stage of problem definition thru What-Why analysis model which

enhance the usage of the methodology to solve the manufacturing issues.

Problem statement is the fundamental structure that need to be clearly decribed, prior to moving to

the subsequent steps of problem characterization and segmentation [11]. Most of the time problems

are being tackled and resolved in a quick manner, where it is eventually containing the issue, instead

of identifying the actual root cause and resolve the issue/problem for good. This can lead to repeated

issue occurence! What do we want? A strong fundamental understanding of the problem statement

which is known as foundation of a problem. This is required in industries mainly to avoid any

repeated breakdown occurrences. The paper describes a sucessful research and two case studies of

enabling clear problem statement thru introducing What-Why analysis model vs the standard way of

defining the problem statement without a depth understanding.

A full understanding of What-Why Analysis model requires substantial investment in time and

resources, due to its extensive scope and evolution. The key part of the evolution referred to, is the

difficulty in choosing the right tools from those that are available in the market [4]. Applying the

wrong set of tools often results in a waste of effort [13].

Conclusion

Problem solving methodologies appears to be a lack in problem statement part and problem

characterization, that requires substantial effort and commitment to understand and lacks an accepted

standard for its application. The benefit of the What-Why analysis model and its ability to yield

innovative ideas and solution remain prominent and appear widely accepted thru a combination of

structured problem solving methodology.

The paper describes the research methodology and explains the research activities of What-Why

analysis model development. Then, the model validation and case study through its concept has been

presented. The real life case study has demonstrated its capability and accuracy of identifying actual

root cause and providing solution for solving manufacturing problem in industries. Organizations

interested in pushing the boundaries of innovation and remaining competitive should consider this

What-Why analysis approach if they have the means and patience to understand it and embed it in

their innovation strategy and processes.

In summary, What-Why analysis model promises strengthening the problem statement which

enables a good innovation ideas and solutions, which many organizations see as a source of

competitive advantage.

862 Information Technology for Manufacturing Systems IV

References

[1] Anderson, J. (2000). Learning & Memory: An integrated Approach (2nd Ed). New York: Dower

Publishing.

[2] Barbati, M., Bruno, G., & Genovese, A. (2012). Applications Of Agend-Based Models For

Optimization Problems: A Literature Review. Expert Systems With APplication, Vol 39,

6020-6028.

[3] Bransford, J., & Stein, B. (1993). The IDEAL Problem Solver (2nd ed). New York: Freeman.

[4] Ezickson, J. (2005). Deploying innovation and inventive thinking in organisations—applying

TRIZ to non-technical fields of business.Paper presented at TRIZCON2005.Available from:

/http://www.aitriz.org/articles/ InsideTRIZ/30393033-457A69636B736F6E.pdfS (accessed

30.11.11).

[5] Getzelsm, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1976). The Creative Vision: A longitudinal Study Of

Problem Finding In Art. New York: Wiley.

[6] Gray, P. H. (2001). A problem-solving perspective on knowledge. Decision Suppor System 31 ,

pg87-102.

[7] Hayes, J. (1989). The complete problem solver (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

[8] Howard, M. (2002). Complex Problem Solving In A Workplace Setting. International Journal Of

Education Research, Vol.37, 67-84.

[9] Huber, G. (1991). Organizational Learning: The contribution processes and the literatures.

Organization Science, pg88-115.

[10] Mayer, R. (1992). Thinking Problem Solving Cognition. W.H Freeman and Company.

[11] Nagappan A, S. K. (2012). Evolution of TRIZ Application For Manufacturing Industries.

Advanced Material research Journal.

[12] Newell, A., & Simon, H. (1972). Human Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[13] Rutitsky, D. (2010). Using TRIZ as an entrepreneurship tool. Journal Of Management 17 (1),

pg39-44.

[14] Sternberg, R. (1986). Intelligence applied? Understanding And INcreasing Your Intellectual

Skills. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

[15] Smith, G. (1990). Heuristic methods for the analysis of managerial problems. Omega Volume 18,

Issue 6, pg625–635.

[16] Veloso, P. A. (1987). Decision Support System, Vol.3, Issue 2, 133-139.

[17] Volkema, R. J. (1988). Problem Statement In Managerial Problem Solving. Socio-Economic

Planning Sciences Volume 2, Issue 5, Pg213-220.

[18] Voss, C. T. (2002). Case research in operations management. International Journal of Operations

& Production Management, pg195-219.

[19] Wagner, C. (1993). Problem solving and diagnosis. Omega Volume 21, Issue 6, Pg645–656.

[20] Welch, M. (1999). Analyzing The Tacit Strategies Of Novice Designers. Research In Science &

Technical Education, Vol.17(1), Pg19-34.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 421 863

Information Technology for Manufacturing Systems IV
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Importance of Problem Statement in Solving Industry Problems
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.421.857

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
permission.

Criminal homework help

STUDENT REPLIES

STUDENT REPLY #1 Jamie Archer

The international sex trade is still a major issue around the world. The most widespread kind of modern-day slavery is human sex trafficking. The number of domestic and foreign victims, largely women and children exploited in the commercial sex industry for little or no money, is estimated to be in the millions. Human trafficking and sex slavery bring up pictures of young girls being beaten and exploited in far-off locations such as Eastern Europe, Asia, or Africa. While in reality human sex trafficking and sex slavery occur on a local level in both large and small cities and towns across the United States (Walker-Rodriguez & Hill, 2011). Human sex trafficking is not only enslavement, but also a significant industry. It is the world’s third-largest criminal enterprise and the fastest-growing organized crime operation. The bulk of sex trafficking victims are transported from less developed locations such as South and Southeast Asia, the former Soviet Union, Central and South America, and transported to more developed areas such as Asia, the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. Unfortunately, sex trafficking occurs in the United States as well. The United States is not only dealing with an influx of overseas victims, but it also has its own domestic problem of kids being trafficked across state lines.

The US has made stopping human traffickers, protecting victims, and preventing this crime a high priority. Combating human trafficking necessitates a holistic approach. Within the government, this entails collaboration and coordination between agencies with a variety of responsibilities, such as criminal justice, labor enforcement, victim outreach and services, public awareness, education, trade policy and promotion, international development and programs, customs and immigration, intelligence, and diplomacy. An integrated response to human trafficking that leverages resources and amplifies results requires coordinated federal activities that include state, local, and tribal agencies, the private sector, civil society, survivors, religious communities, and academics (U.S. Department of State, 2021).

Reference

U.S. Department of State. (2021, December 3). Federal response on human trafficking – united states department of state. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.state.gov/humantrafficking/

Walker-Rodriguez, A., & Hill, R. (2011, March 1). Human sex trafficking. FBI. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/featured-articles/human-sex-trafficking

STUDENT REPIY #2 John DeLuca

The human rights violation I chose for this week’s discussion was the violation against the Japanese in 1942 in the United States during the start of World War II. According to the Map of International Human Rights Violations around the World, The United States had just been attacked by Japan in Pearl Harbor and responded by removing all Humans of Japanese descent from the West Coast which included California, Oregon, and Washington into internment camps. On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed an executive order that all Japanese descendants from the Pacific Coast be relocated into Internment camps for the remainder of World War II.

O May 9, 1942, Japanese descendants were scheduled for removal from assembly centers to internment camps. Of those people 62% were American-born United States citizens. There were approximately 120,000 Japanese people detained for the duration of the war.

Of the 120,000 Japanese people all of them lost their homes and valuables and were left with only the clothes on their back once they were released at the end of the war.

Explain how one community internationally, nationally, of locally might or did respond to this violation.

During the time of the internment camps there was little to no response on the level of protests or human rights groups. I believe that at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor Americans were outraged by the killings on their own American soil where they overlooked the fact that these Japanese people who in many cases were American born citizens were being violated by these so-called war camps.

The Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR) was established in 1959, the commission operates independently, and its members include all the independent states of the Western Hemisphere (Donnelly, 2013). I believe that if this violation would have occurred in later years the IACHR would have created fact finding missions and issued factual reports of liability for the human rights violation that occurred.

References

Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). United States: Cornell University Press.

Map of the International Human Rights Violations aroun

PROFESSOR REPLY#3

What do you think? Will these proposed solutions help or is this a cycle that keeps repeating itself?

Criminal homework help

Bloodstain Patterns.html

Bloodstain Patterns

Classifying Bloodstains

In order to analyze bloodstains present at a crime scene, we must first classify each one. Classifying a bloodstain or pattern must be based on the physical characteristics of the stain or pattern. It is important to remain objective when classifying stains. Bevel & Gardner introduce the idea of using a taxonomic classification system in order to reduce subjectivity. In this class, we will use the Taxonomic Classification System for Bloodstains in order to classify bloodstains. You can also use the Decision Map provided in the e-book to assist in using the Taxonomy.

We start with Bloodstain. Is the stain actually blood? We will learn next week, how to test stains to determine if in fact the stain is blood.

Once we determine the stain is blood, we then have to decide if the stain is a Spatter Stain or Non-Spatter Stain. It is important to observe the stains objectively and not base your interpretation of the stain on any theories presented about the crime and crime scene.

Spatter Stains

Common characteristics of all spatter stains are that they are elliptical or circular shaped (contain scallops, spines or a tail and secondary/satellite spatter), resulting from free-flight of blood impacting the surface.

Linear Spatter (linear orientation)

Arterial Spurt – linear, large volume, long stains

Cast-Off – linear, no large volume, progressive, consistent impact angle change Drip Trail – linear, no large volume, lead from one point to another

Non-Linear Spatter (no linear orientation)

Impact Spatter – pattern has radiating distribution, progressive change in shape

Expectorate Spatter – pattern has radiating distribution, bubble rings or mucous

Drips – No pattern, random oriented on the surface

Non-Spatter Stains

Primary stain is not spatter, in other words, not created by free-flight of blood impacting the surface.

Irregular Margin – Non-Spatter (irregular or spiny margin)

Gush/Splash – large volume, large irregular stain, secondary spatter (spiny margins)

Blood into Blood – large volume, irregular margin, random spatter around margin

Smear – feathered boundary, striations in stain, diminished volume, no spatter

Wipe – a smear stain, displaced blood from original stain, no spatter

Swipe – a smear stain, no original stain, created by bloody object, no pattern
Regular Margin – Non-Spatter (regular margin)

Pattern Transfer – contact pattern, recognizable object that deposited blood

Pool – large volume, conforms to surface contours, serum separation or clotting

Saturation – no specific shape, absorbed into permeable surface

Flow – movement with surface contours, margins lead from one point to another

Basic reproducible bloodstain pattern types

Blood dispersed from a point/area by a force (i.e., impact patterns, expectorate)
Bloods ejected over time from an object in motion (i.e., cast-off patterns)
Blood ejected in volume under pressure (i.e., spurt or gush patterns)
Blood dispersed as a function of gravity (i.e., drip patterns, drip trails)
Blood accumulates and/or flows on a surface (i.e., pools, flows)
Blood deposited through contact transfer (i.e., smears, pattern transfers)

Scientific Method

The scientific method provided a methodical, objective way to answers questions. The method is cyclic in that if the hypothesis is incorrect then you do it again:

Ask a question
Gather data
Construct a hypothesis
Test your hypothesis via experiment
Analyze results & draw conclusion
Report your results. Was your hypothesis correct? If not, try again!

How do we apply the scientific method to BPA? The following is the 8-step methodology prescribed by Bevel & Gardner (2008):

Become familiar with the crime scene.
Identify the discrete patterns among the many bloodstained surfaces.
Classify these patterns based on taxonomy.
Evaluate aspects of directionality and motion for the pattern.
Evaluate angles of impact, points of convergence, and areas of origin.
Evaluate interrelationships among patterns and other evidence.
Evaluate viable source events to explain pattern, based on all evidence.
Define a best explanation of the events.

Motion & Directionality of Bloodstains

Determining motion and directionality of a blood droplet can assist analysts in understanding what happened at a crime scene.

Bevel and Gardner (2008) highlight three key points about motion:

1. General direction of events – the area where the least amount of blood is present is generally the beginning of the event because blood will flow more freely with time or as the victim is repeatedly injured and as the victim moves around.

2. Droplet directionality – in many instances, the direction of a droplet upon impact on regular surfaces can be determined by looking at the location of spines, satellite spatter, scallops, and tails. For example a scallop located on the east side of a droplet indicates that the droplet was traveling from the east.

3. Recognizing blood trail motion – as an injured person moves, blood will drop from the wound(s). The droplets will have forward momentum. As the injured person increases speed, the droplets will become more elliptical in shape upon impact. It is also important to look for the presence of spines, satellite spatter, scallops, and tails which will assist in determining the direction of the blood trail. It is important to analyze the trail as a whole and not just focus on one droplet.

Determining motion from wipe & swipe stains: Thinning of the blood volume can is a good indicator of direction.

How can impact pattern stains help analysts what caused the stain?

First, we have to understand that impact spatter is caused when an outside force (blunt object, gunshot) strikes a blood source. Impact spatter has a radiating pattern upon contact with a surface. Spatter stains differ in their size. It is important for an analyst to describe those characteristics.

There are several methods to describe impact spatter stains. Impact velocity is method in which bloodstains are categorized by velocity groupings: low- velocity (LVIS), medium-velocity (MVIS), and high-velocity (HVIC). LVIS (results of gravity) are larger stains in comparison to MVIS and HVIS (results of gunshot wounds).

It is important for analysts to determine the preponderant stain size (the most common stain within a pattern).

Impacts from outside sources result in smaller droplets.
The center of the radiating impact pattern is the point where the impact occurred.
The presence of gunshot spatter can provide investigators with clues about what happened at the crime scene.
Forward spatter – only present when bullet exits victim, flows in direction of bullet.
Back spatter – flows back from direction of bullet, possibly onto shooter if in close range of the victim.

Proper documentation of bloodstains include: detecting and collecting bloodstain evidence, photographing and video recording bloodstains, sketching bloodstain patterns, and writing reports about every action taken in regards to the bloodstains.

Bevel,T. & Gardner, R. (2008) Bloodstain pattern analysis. CRC.

Geberth, V. (2007). Practical homicide investigation. Law and Order, 55(3).

Criminal homework help

Below are terms from the last few chapters. USE THE NEW YORK STATE PENAL LAW TO HELP YOU WITH THE ELEMENTS, AND DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN OFFENSES

 

1. Rape in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd degrees PL 130.00 et seq.

2. forcible touching ‘sexual misconduct

3. Kidnapping, various degrees

4. False imprisonment

5. custodial interference

6. sexting revenge porn

7. cyberbullying

8. dissemination of indecent material of a minor

9. promoting and possession of child porn

10. Sex abuse first and second degrees

11. criminal sexual act first and second degrees

12. course of conduct against a child first and second degrees

13. incest 1ST and 2ND degrees

14. riot 1st and 2nd

15. disorderly conduct

16. criminal anarchy

17. public lewdness

18. all various harassment charges

19. indecent exposure

20. the unlawful wearing of body armor or vest

21. possessing and dissemination of firework charges

For EACH of the terms – find a criminal case, a book of nonfiction or fiction, a short story, a news article, or a movie from the past 10 years, that best illustrates the term and how it is to be applied. YOU MAY NOT USE examples from the textbook.

For each term: 

1. identify the term and the elements in the offense, what elements are added or different for each successive more serious offense; make sure you also are aware of any requirements of definitions such as what is physical injury, and if you can, identify if that penal law section has a corroboration requirement to the charge, and is it met

2. identify the news article, criminal case, book, or movie that illustrates the term, and provide clear enough citations for the article, criminal case, book, short story, or movie that can be found.

3. specifically explain the facts of the case/story and identify how the story meets each element of the offense.

4. remember – some crimes have alternate theories – like the crime of robbery causing physical injury, displaying a weapon, or aided by another actually present, sex crimes have different theories too. You may use the same story to explain multiple theories PROVIDED you can clearly explain how the story you are offering for the example meets the specific subsection.

5. With respect to the crimes having multiple different theories you only need to do a maximum of 3 in particular sections – so for example rape in the 3rd degree has many subsections – just pick some of them; 

6. USE THE PENAL LAW STATUTES ONLINE, and you may also want to look at the New York State Pattern Criminal Jury Instructions – which the judges use to break down the elements of offenses when explaining charges to the jury.

 

Criminal homework help

Application

Instructions

Application: Feedback on Draft

Writing a good Capstone Project requires that you receive and incorporate feedback from your Instructor. Your writing may require several rounds of editing to improve your work. For this Application, you will begin by composing a draft of your Capstone Project. Specifically, you are required to submit one paragraph of each major section of your Capstone Project for review by your Instructor.

To prepare for this assignment:

Use the Walden Writing Center resources for tips on how to begin writing your Capstone Project. Pay attention to the four steps of prewriting. Consider the importance of an effective topic sentence.

Refer back to the outline from Week 3.

Think of the content that you might place in each major section of your Capstone Project.

The assignment (1–2 pages):

Compose 1 paragraph of each major section of your Capstone Project.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.

Criminal homework help

Theory Reading List

I also recommend searching top criminology journals, including Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Critical Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Crime and Delinquency, Feminist Criminology, and more. These are all available online through the library.

Rational Choice/Deterrence

Required

· Beccaria, Cesare. 1819. “Of Crimes and Punishments”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.406-414), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Gialopsos, Brooke Miller. 2010. “Cornish, Derek B., and Ronald V. Clarke: Rational Choice Theory.” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.215-220), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Maxwell, Christopher D., Joel H. Garner, and Jeffrey A. Fagan. 2002. “Preventive Effects of Arrest on Intimate Partner Violence: Research, Policy and Theory.” Criminology 2(1): 51-80.

· Nagin, Daniel S. 2013. “Deterrence: A Review of the Evidence by a Criminologist for Economists.” Annual Review of Economics 5:1, 83-105.

Recommended

· Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Kristie R. Blevins, Leah E. Daigle, and Tamara D. Madensen. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Deterrence Theory: A Meta-Analysis”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.367-396), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Akers, Ronald L. 1990. “Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81.3: 653-676.

· Cohen, Lawrence and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach.” American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608.

· Paternoster, Ray and Greg Pogarsky. 2009. “Rational Choice, Agency and Thoughtfully Reflective Decision Making: The Short and Long-Term Consequences of Making Good Choices.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25:103–127.

· Cohen, Lawrence, James Kluegel and Kenneth Land. 1981. “Social Inequality and Predatory Criminal Victimization: An Exposition and Test of a Formal Theory.” American Sociological Review, 46, 505-524.

· Tonry, Michael. 2008. “Learning from the Limitations of Deterrence Research.” Crime and Justice 37:279-311

· Loughran Thomas A., Raymond Paternoster, Aaron Chalfin A, Theodore Wilson. 2016. “Can Rational Choice be Considered a General Theory Of Crime? Evidence from Individual-Level Panel Data”. Criminology 54:86–112.

· Matsueda, Ross L., Derek A. Kreager, and David Huizinga. 2006. “Deterring Delinquents: A Rational Choice Model of Theft and Violence.” American Sociological Review 71:95-122.

Biological/Psychological

Required

· Beccalossi, Chiara. 2010. “Lombroso, Cesara: The Criminal Man” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.560-565), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Massey, Douglas S. 2015. “Brave New World of Biosocial Science” Criminology 53(1): 127-131.

· Hanser, Robert D. 2010. “Raine, Adrian: Crime as a Disorder” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.768-771), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Tibbetts, Stephen G. and Alex R. Piquero. 1999 “The Influence of Gender, Low Birth Weight and Disadvantaged Environment in Predicting Early Onset of Offending: A Test of Moffitt’s Interactional Hypothesis.” Criminology 37(4): 843-877.

Recommended

· Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. 1988. “Unraveling Families and Delinquency: A Reanalysis of the Gluecks’ Data.” Criminology 26(3):355-380.

· Arseneault, L., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., Seguin, J. R., & Saucier, J. (2000). Minor physical anomalies and family adversity as risk factors for adolescent violent delinquency. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 917–923.

· Bartol, C., & Bartol, A. (2007). Criminal behavior: A psychosocial approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

· Bufkin, J. L., & Luttrell, V. R. (2005). Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: Current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 6, 176–191.

· Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and lifecourse-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.

· Moffitt, T. E., & Walsh, A. (2003). The adolescencelimited/life-course-persistent theory of antisocial behavior: What have we learned? In A. Walsh & L. Ellis (Eds.), Biosocial criminology: Challenging environmentalism’s supremacy (pp. 125–144). Hauppage, NY: Nova Science.

· Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. New York: Academic Press.

· Vaughn, M. G. (2016). Policy implications of biosocial criminology. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 703-710.

· Walsh, Anthony and Kevin M. Beaver. 2008. Biosocial Criminology: New Directions in Theory and Research. New York, NY: Routledge.

· Rocque, M., & Posick, C. (2017). Paradigm shift or normal science? the future of (biosocial) criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 21(3), 288-303.

· Rocque, M., Welsh, B. C., & Raine, A. (2012). Biosocial criminology and modern crime prevention. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(4), 3065.

· Burt, C. H., & Simons, R. L. (2014). Pulling Back The Curtain On Heritability Studies: Biosocial Criminology In The Postgenomic Era. Criminology, 52(2), 223-262.

· Hughes, N. (2015). Understanding the influence of neurodevelopmental disorders on offending: Utilizing developmental psychopathology in biosocial criminology. Criminal Justice Studies, 28(1), 39.

· Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311-326.

· Fox, B. (2017). It’s nature and nurture: Integrating biology and genetics into the social learning theory of criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 49, 22-31.

· Nedelec, J. L., Park, I., & Silver, I. A. (2016). The effect of the maturity gap on delinquency and drug use over the life course: A genetically sensitive longitudinal design. Journal of Criminal Justice, 47, 84-91,95-99.

Social Disorganization

Required

· Kubrin, Charis E. 2010. “Shaw, Clifford R. and Henry D. McKay: Social Disorganization Theory” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.827-834), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Sampson, Robert J. and Byron Groves. 1989. “Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social Disorganization Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 94:774-802.

· Sampson, Robert J. 2012. “The Theory of Collective Efficacy.” In Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect (pp.149-178). University of Chicago Press.

· Burchfield, Keri B. and Eric Silver. 2013. “Collective Efficacy and Crime in Los Angeles Neighborhoods: Implications for the Latino Paradox” Sociological Inquiry 83(1): 154-176.

Recommended

· Bursik, Robert J., Jr. 1988. “Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects.” Criminology 26:519-552.

· Sampson, Robert J. Stephen Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multi-Level Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277:918-24.

· Warner, Barbara D. and Robert J. Sampson. 2015. “Social Disorganization, Collective Efficacy, and Macro-Level Theories of Social Control.” Advances in Criminological Theory 19:215-34.

· Matsueda, Ross L. 2006. “Differential Social Organization, Collective Action, and Crime.” Crime, Law and Social Change 46:3-33.

· Kirk, David S. and Andrew V. Papachristos. 2015. “Concentrated Disadvantage, the Persistence of Legal Cynicism, and Crime: Revisiting the Conception of ‘Culture’ in Criminology.” Advances in Criminological Theory 19:259-274.

· Shaw, Clifford, and Henry H. McKay. 1931. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. University of Chicago Press.

· Bursik, Robert J. Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.

· Kirk, David S. and Mauri Matsuda. 2011. “Legal Cynicism, Collective Efficacy, and the Ecology of Arrest”. Criminology 49.2: 443-472.

· Kirk, David S. “Prisoner Reentry and the Reproduction of Legal Cynicism”. Social Problems 63: 222-243.

· Sampson, Robert J. 2009. “Collective Efficacy Theory: Lessons Learned and Directions for Future Inquiry”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.149-167), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Peterson, Ruth D., Lauren J. Krivo, and Christopher R. Browning. 2009. “Segregation and Race/Ethnic Inequality in Crime: New Directions”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.169-187), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Hipp, John R. 2011. “Spreading the Wealth: The Effect of the Distribution of Income and Race/Ethnicity Across Household and Neighborhoods on City Crime Trajectories”. Criminology 49.3: 631-665.

· Hwang, Jackelyn and Robert J. Sampson. 2014. “Divergent Pathways of Gentrification: Racial Inequality and the Social Order of Renewal in Chicago Neighborhoods”. American Sociological Review 79.4: 726-751.

· Steenbeek, Wouter and John R. Hipp. 2011. “A Longitudinal Test of Social Disorganization Theory: Feedback Effects Among Cohesion, Social Control, and Disorder”. Criminology 49.3: 833-871.

· Sampson, Robert J. 2008. “Moving to Inequality: Neighborhood Effects and Experiments Meet Social Structure”. American Journal of Sociology 114.1: 189-231.

· De Coster, Stacy, Karen Heimer, and Stacy M. Wittrock. 2006. “Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Capital, Street Context, and Youth Violence”. The Sociological Quarterly 47: 723-753.

· Sampson, Robert J., Jeffrey D. Morenoff, and Thomas Gannon-Rowley. 2002. “”Assessing ‘Neighborhood Effects’: Social Processes and New Directions in Research”. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 443-478.

· Kubrin, Charis E. and Ronald Weitzer. 2003. “New Directions in Social Disorganization Theory”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 40.4: 374-402.

· Papachristos, Andrew V., Chris M. Smith, Mary L. Scherer, and Melissa A. Fugiero. 2011. “More Coffee, Less Crime? The Relationship between Gentrification and Neighborhood Crime Rates in Chicago, 1991 to 2005”. City and Community 10.3: 215-240.

Routine Activities

Required

· Cohen, Lawrence E. and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime: A Routine Activity Approach”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.45-53), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Leukfeldt, Eric Rutger and Majid Yar. 2016. “Applying Routine Activity Theory to Cybercrime: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis”, Deviant Behavior, 37:3, 263-280.

· Kelling, George L. and James Q. Wilson. 1982. “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety” Atlantic Monthly 249 (3), 29-38.

· Welsh BC, Braga AA, Bruinsma GJN. 2015. Reimagining Broken Windows: From Theory to Policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 52(4):447-463.

· Sparks, Tony. 2018. “Reproducing Disorder: The Effects of Broken Windows Policing on Homeless People with Mental Illness in San Francisco” Social Justice 45(2/3): 51-74.

Recommended

· Apel, Robert and Julie Horney. 2017. “How and Why Does Work Matter? Employment Conditions, Routine Activities, and Crime Among Adult Male Offenders”. Criminology 55.2: 307-343.

· Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick R. Gartin and Michael E. Buerger. 1989. “Hot Spots Of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities And The Criminology Of Place”. Criminology 27.1: 27-56.

· Miller, J. (2013). Individual offending, routine activities, and activity settings: Revisiting the routine activity theory of general deviance. The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(3), 390.

· Pratt, T. C., Holtfreter, K., & Reisig, M. D. (2010). Routine online activity and internet fraud targeting: Extending the generality of routine activity theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 267-296.

· Hollis, M. E., Felson, M., & Welsh, B. C. (2013). The capable guardian in routine activities theory: A theoretical and conceptual reappraisal. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 15(1), 65-79.

· Bunch, J., Clay-Warner, J., & Lei, M. (2015). Demographic characteristics and victimization risk: Testing the mediating effects of routine activities. Crime and Delinquency, 61(9), 1181-1205.

· Braga, Anthony A. and Brenda J. Bond. 2008. “Policing Crime And Disorder Hot Spots: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Criminology 46.3: 577-607.

· Sampson, Robert J. and Stephen W. Raudenbush. 1999. “Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods.” American Journal of Sociology 105(3): 603-651.

· Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). Seeing disorder: Neighborhood stigma and the social construction of “broken windows”. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4), 319-342.

· Osgood, D. Wayne, Janet K. Wilson, Patrick M. O’Malley, Jerald G. Bachman & Lloyd D. Johnson. 1996. Routine Activities and Individual Deviant Behavior. American Sociological Review 61 (4): 635-55.

Strain

Required

· Merton, Robert K. 1938. “Social Structure and Anomie”. American Sociological Review 3.5: 672-682.

· Broidy, Lisa M. 2001. “A Test of General Strain Theory”. Criminology 39.1: 9-36.

· Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 2013. Crime and the American Dream. Wadsworth.

· Savolainen, Jukka. 2000. “Inequality, Welfare State, and Homicide: Further Support for Institutional Anomie Theory” Criminology 38(4): 1021-1042.

Recommended

· Agnew, Robert. 1985. “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”. Social Forces 64.1: 151-167.

· Agnew, Robert. 1992. “Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency”. Criminology 30.1: 47-87.

· Durkheim, Emile. 1951. “Suicide”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.235-240), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Agnew, Robert. 2009. “General Strain Theory: Current Status and Directions for Further Research”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.101-123), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Messner, Robert F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 2009. “The Present and Future of Institutional-Anomie Theory”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.127-148), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Agnew, Robert and Helene Raskin White. 1992. “An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory”. Criminology 30.4: 475-499.

· Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 1997. “Political Restraint of the Market and Levels of Criminal Homicide: A Cross-National Application of Institutional-Anomie Theory”. Social Forces 75.4: 1393-1416.

· Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory”. Criminology 40.1: 43-71.

· Slocum, Lee Ann, Sally S. Simpson, and Douglas A. Smith. 2005. “Strained Lives and Crime: Examining Intra-Individual Variation in Strain and Offending in a Sample of Incarcerated Women”. Criminology 43.4: 1067-1110.

· Messner, Steven F. Helmut Thome, and Richard Rosenfeld. 2008. “Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory”. International Journal of Conflict and Violence 2.2: 163-181.

· De Coster, Stacy and Lisa Kort-Butler. 2006. “How General is General Strain Theory? Assessing Determinacy and Indeterminacy across Life Domains”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43.4: 297-325.

· De Coster, Stacy and Rena Cornell Zito. 2010. “Gender and General Strain Theory: The Gendering of Emotional Experiences and Expressions”. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 26.2: 224-245.

· Agnew, Robert. 2012. “Reflection on ‘A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency’”. Social Forces 91.1: 33-38.

· Kaufman, Joanne M., Cesar J. Rebellon, Sherod Thaxton, and Robert Agnew. 2008. “A General Strain Theory of Racial Differences in Criminal Offending”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 41.3: 421-437.

· Moon, Byongook, Kraig Hays, and David Blurton. 2009. “General Strain Theory, Key Strains, and Deviance”. Journal of Criminal Justice 37: 98-106.

· Bernard, Thomas J. 1987. “Testing Structural Strain Theories.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 24:262-280.

· Chamlin, Mitchell B. and John K. Cochran. 1995. “Assessing Messner and Rosenfield’s Institutional Anomie Theory: A Partial Test.” Criminology 33:411-429.

· Menard, Scott. 1995. “A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32:136-174.

· Cloward, Richard. 1959. “Illegitimate Means, Anomie, and Deviant Behavior.” American Sociological Review 24:164-176.

· Kubrin, Charis E., Tim Wadsworth, and Stephanie DiPietro. 2006. “Deindustrialization, Disadvantage, and Suicide Among Young Black Males” Social Forces 84:1559-1578.

· Featherstone, Richard and Mathieu Deflem. 2003. “Anomie and Strain: Context and Consequence of Merton’s Two Theories.” Sociological Inquiry 73:471-89.

· Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory” Criminology 40:43-72.

Subcultural

Recommended

· Cullen, Francis T. 2010. “Cloward, Richard A., and Lloyd E. Ohlin: Delinquency and Opportunity” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.170-174), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Joe, K., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1995). “Just Every Mother’s Angel”: An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership. Gender and Society, 9(4), 408-431.

· Anderson, Elijah. 1998. “The Social Ecology of Youth Violence” Crime and Justice 24: 65-104.

· Matsueda, Ross, Kevin Drakulich and Charles Kubrin. 2006. Race and Neighborhood Codes of Violence. In The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America (pp.334-356), edited by Ruth D. Peterson, Lauren J. Krivo, and John Hagan. New York University Press.

· Cohen, Albert K. 1955. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. Free Press.

· Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1966. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. Free Press.

· Cullen, Francis T. 1988. “Were Cloward and Ohlin Strain Theorists? Delinquency and Opportunity Revisited”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 25.3: 214-241.

· Hagedorn, John M. 1998. “Gang Violence in the Postindustrial Era”. Crime and Justice 24: 365-419.

· Anderson, Elijah. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. W.W. Norton and Company.

· Campbell, Anne. 1987. “Self Definition by Rejection: The Case of Gang Girls”. Social Problems 34.5: 451-466.

· Joe, Karen A. and Meda Chesney-Lind. 1995. “’Just Every Mother’s Angel’: An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership”. Gender and Society 9.4: 408-431.

· Laidler, Karen Joe and Geoffrey Hunt. 2001. “Accomplishing Femininity Among the Girls in the Gang”. British Journal of Criminology 41: 656-678.

· Miller, Jody. 2001. One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender. Oxford University Press.

· McGloin, Jean Marie, Christopher J. Schrek, Eric A. Stewart and Graham C. Ousey. 2011. “Predicting the Violent Offender: The Discriminant Validity of the Subculture of Violence”. Criminology 49.3: 767-794.

· Miller, Walter B. 1958. “Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency”. Journal of Social Issues 14.3: 5-19.

· Smith, Chris M. 2014. “The Influence of Gentrification on Gang Homicides in Chicago Neighborhoods, 1994 to 2005”. Crime and Delinquency 60.4: 569-591.

· Papachristos, Andrew V. 2013. “The Importance of Cohesion for Gang Research, Policy, and Practice”. Criminology and Public Policy 12.1: 49-58.

· Papachristos, Andrew V., David M. Hureau, and Anthony A. Braga. 2013. “The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence”. American Sociological Review 78.3: 417-447.

Differential Association/Social Learning

Required

· Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. “Techniques of Neutralization”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.295-298), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Sutherland, Edwin H. 1947. “Differential Association”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.299-301), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Piquero, Nicole Leeper, Stephen G. Tibbetts and Michael B. Blankenship (2005) “Examining the role of differential association and techniques of neutralization in explaining corporate crime” Deviant Behavior, 26:2, 159-188.

· Sellers, Christine S. and Thomas Winfree. 2010. “Ackers, Ronald L.: Social Learning Theory” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.21-29), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Powers RA, Cochran JK, Maskaly J, Sellers CS. Social Learning Theory, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violent Victimization: A Structural Equations Approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2020;35(17-18):3554-3580.

Recommended

· Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. “Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency”. American Sociological Review 22.6: 664-670.

· Burgess, Robert L. and Ronald L. Akers. 1966. “A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior”. Social Problems 14.2: 128-147.

· Akers, Ronald L. 1990. “Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81.3: 653-676.

· Akers, Ronald L. 2009. Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Matsueda, Ross L. 1982. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Causal Modeling Approach”. American Sociological Review 47: 489-504.

· Matsueda, Ross L. 1988. “The Current State of Differential Association Theory”. Crime and Delinquency 34.3: 277-306.

· Akers, Ronald L. and Gary F. Jensen. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance: The Past, Present, and Future”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.37-76), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Heimer, Karen. 1997. “Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent Delinquency”. Social Forces 75.3: 799-833.

· Hoffmann, John P. 2003. “A Contextual Analysis of Differential Association, Social Control, and Strain Theories of Delinquency”. Social Forces 81.3: 753-785.

· Piquero, Nicole Leeper, Angela R. Gover, John M. MacDonald, and Alex R. Piquero. 2005. “The Influence of Delinquent Peers on Delinquency: Does Gender Matter?”. Youth and Society 36.3: 251-275.

· Haynie, Dana L. and D. Wayne Osgood. 2005. “Reconsidering Peers and Delinquency: How do Peers Matter?”. Social Forces 84.3: 1109-1130.

· Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Christine S. Sellers, L. Thomas Winfree Jr., Leah E. Daigle, Noelle E. Fearn, and Jancinta M. Gau. 2010. “The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory: A Meta-Analysis”. Justice Quarterly, 27.6: 765-802.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Karen Heimer. 1987. “Race, Family Structure and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories”. American Sociological Review 52.6: 826-840.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Kathleen Anderson. 1998. “The Dynamics of Delinquent Peers and Delinquent Behavior”. Criminology 36.2: 269-308.

· McCarthy, Bill, Diane Felmlee, and John Hagan. 2004. “Girl Friends are Better: Gender, Friends, and Crime among School and Street Youth”. Criminology 42.4: 805-836.

· Haynie, Dana L., Nathan J. Doogan, and Brian Soller. 2014. “Gender, Friendship Networks, and Delinquency: A Dynamic Network Approach”. Criminology 52.4: 688-722.

· Haynie, Dana L., Eric Silver, and Brent Teasdale. 2006. “Neighborhood Characteristics, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Violence”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22: 147-169.

· Haynie, Dana L. and Danielle C. Payne. 2006. “Race, Friendship Networks, and Violent Delinquency”. Criminology 44.4: 775-805.

· Akers, Ronald L. and Gary F. Jensen. 2006.”Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance: The Past, Present, and Future.” Advances in Criminological Theory 15:37-76.

· Rebellon, Cesar J. 2006. “Do Adolescents Engage in Delinquency to Attract the Social Attention of Peers? An Extension and Longitudinal Test of the Social Reinforcement Hypothesis.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43:387-411.

Social Control/Self-Control

Required

· Hirschi, Travis. 2002. “A Control Theory of Delinquency” In Causes of Delinquency (pp.16-34). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Gardner, L., & Shoemaker, D. J. (1989). Social bonding and delinquency: A comparative analysis. The Sociological Quarterly, 30(3), 481–500.

· Gottfredson, Michael R. and Travis Hirschi. 2010. “A General Theory of Crime” In Criminological Theory: Readings and Retrospectives (pp. 289-299), edited by Heith Copes and Volkan Topalli. New York: McGraw Hill.

· Pratt, Travis C. and Francis C. Cullen. 2000. “The Empirical Status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime: A Meta-Analysis.” Criminology 38:931-64.

Recommended

· Hirschi, Travis. 2002. Causes of Delinquency. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1990. “Crime and Deviance Over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds”. American Sociological Review 55: 609-627.

· Gottfredson, Michael R. and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford University Press.

· Taylor, Claire. 2001. “The Relationship between Social and Self-Control: Tracing Hirschi’s Criminological Career”. Theoretical Criminology 5.3: 369-388.

· Unnever, James D., Francis T. Cullen, Scott A. Mathers, Timothy E. McClure and Marisa C. Allison. 2009. “Racial Discrimination and Hirschi’s Criminological Classic: A Chapter in the Sociology of Knowledge”. Justice Quarterly 26.3: 377-409.

· Grasmick, Harold G., Charles R. Tittle, Robert J. Bursik Jr, and Bruce J. Arneklev. 1993. “Testing the Core Empirical Implications of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 30.1: 5-29.

· Brownfield, David. 2010. “Social Control, Self-Control, and Gang Membership”. Journal of Gang Research 17.4: 1-12.

· Hagan, John, John Simpson, and A.R. Gillis. 1987. “Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.329-338), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Piquero, Nicole Leeper and Alex R. Piquero. 2006. “Control Balance and Exploitative Corporate Crime”. Criminology 44.2: 397-430.

· Gottfredson, Michael R. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Control Theory in Criminology”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.77-100), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Karen Heimer. 1987. “Race, Family Structure and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories”. American Sociological Review 52.6: 826-840.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Kathleen Anderson. 1998. “The Dynamics of Delinquent Peers and Delinquent Behavior”. Criminology 36.2: 269-308.

· Ward, Jeffrey T., John H. Boman, IV, and Shayne Jones. 2015. “Hirschi’s Redefined Self-Control: Assessing the Implications of the Merger Between Social- and Self-Control Theories”. Crime and Delinquency 61.9: 1206-1233.

· Wiatrowski, Michael D., David B. Griswold, and Mary K. Roberts. 1981. “Social Control Theory and Delinquency. American Sociological Review 46:525-41.

· Agnew, Robert. 1985. “Social Control Theory And Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test,” Criminology 23:47-61.

· Greenberg, David. 1999. “The Weak Strength of Social Control Theory.” Crime and Delinquency 45:66-81.

· Wright et al. (1999), “Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: Social causation, social selection, or both?” Criminology 37:479-514.

· Burt, Simons, and Simons. 2005. “A longitudinal test of the effects of parenting and the stability of self-control: Negative evidence for the general theory of crime,” Criminology 44: 353-396.

· Ward, Jeffrey T., John H. Boman, and Shayne Jones. 2012. “Hirschi’s Redefined Self-Control: Assessing the Implications of the Merger Between Social- and Self-Control Theories. Crime & Delinquency.

Developmental/Life-Course

Recommended

· Laub, John H., Robert J. Sampson, and Gary A. Sweeten. 2009. “Assessing Sampson and Laub’s Life-Course Theory of Crime”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.313-333), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Warr, Mark. 1998. “Life-Course Transitions and Desistance from Crime” Criminology 36(2): 183-216.

· Kazemian, L. (2007). Desistance From Crime: Theoretical, Empirical, Methodological, and Policy Considerations. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(1), 5–27.

· Brehm HN, Uggen C, McElrath S. 2018. A Dynamic Life-course Approach to Genocide. Social Currents 5(2):107-119.

· Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1992. “Crime And Deviance In The Life Course,” Annual Review of Sociology 18:63-84.

· Laub, John H., Daniel S. Nagin, and Robert J. Sampson. 1998. “Trajectories of Change in Criminal Offending: Good Marriages and the Desistance Process.” American Sociological Review 63:225-38.

· Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. 2003. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Harvard University Press.

· Blumstein, Alfred and Jacqueline Cohen. 1987. “Characterizing Criminal Careers”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.64-74), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Moffitt, Terrie E. 1993. “Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.84-112), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1990. “Crime and Deviance Over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds”. American Sociological Review 55: 609-627.

· Moffitt, Terrie E. 2009. “A Review of Research on the Taxonomy of Life-Course Persistent Versus Adolescence-Limited Antisocial Behavior”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.277-311), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transact

Criminal homework help

Working as a criminal justice professional can often be stressful.

How do you handle stressful situations?

What steps have you taken to prepare yourself for a stressful career in criminal justice?

What advice would you offer your classmates about how to alleviate stress in a healthy way? 

Be certain to include specific strategies and resources you have used to mitigate this stress. 

350-450 words excluding, APA format and a minimum of 3 references

Criminal homework help

CRJ180

Juvenile Delinquent Behavior Template

Psychological and Sociological Criminology Theories

Instructions

Review the profiles of each juvenile on the Listverse Top 10 Young Killers list.

Provide original, accurate, and complete summaries of each psychological and sociological criminology theory.

Match one or more juveniles with the criminology theory that best explains the child’s behavior. The same child may be used more than once but avoid matching the same child repeatedly to most or all of the theories.

Explain your choice of theory in each case. This matching task is open to interpretation, so provide strong reasoning for your choice.

Provide complete responses in all table columns and rows.

Psychological Theories

Criminology Theory

Summarize Each Theory

Match the Child
to the Theory

Explain Why You
Chose the Theory

Psychodynamic Theory

Behavioral Theory

Moral Development Theory

Personality Theory

Sociological Theories

Criminology Theory

Summarize Each Theory

Match the Child
to the Theory

Explain Why You
Chose the Theory

Cultural Deviance Theory

Strain Theory

Social Control Theory

© 2021 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

Page 1 of 1

Criminal homework help

Short paper 2


Basic Information
:

Points: 40

Due date: May 5th by 11:00am

Page length: 4-5 pages double spaced, 12 point font

References needed: 5 minimum (APA citation format)


Topics
: This is a more traditional research paper and students can choose to write on
one
of the following prompts:

1. Highlight a real juvenile offender and apply at least two criminological theories to explain why they committed the crimes they committed. Then talk about, based on why they offended, what prevention programs would have been appropriate to stop their offending.

2. Discuss two risk factors (that we talked about in class), highlight at least 2 new facts about each risk factor, and present at least one prevention program that would be useful to combatting each risk factor.


Structure of paper for Prompt 1

I. Introduction: summarize in one paragraph what your paper will talk about.

a. I suggest writing this at the very end after you have already written up your paper and structured your argument.

II. Discuss your real juvenile offender (1 page or so)

a. This will require you to look around at famous cases of juvenile offenders. This can be any kid who has been convicted of a crime. You can find these cases anywhere (podcasts, movies, etc.), but you will use reputable news sources or articles to fill in your discussion of the youth and the case.

b. Most of this discussion should focus on the case.

III. Applying criminological theories (bulk of your paper)

a. Based on the facts of the real juvenile offenders’ case that you selected, you will discuss two criminological theories that can explain this person’s behavior

i. These theories can be ones we talk about in class or something you learned in the Criminological Theories/Criminology class.

b. You should not just speculate on the causes of this persons offending, but instead should use facts about the case and about their life to draw these conclusions.

IV. Prevention/rehabilitation programming

a. Based on what you determined the causes of your juvenile’s crime to be, what prevention programs or rehabilitation programs could be beneficial to this youth and kids that are similar to him/her?

b. Don’t forget to check the youth.gov website to look for effective programs! You can find this link in our last class PowerPoint.

V. Conclusion: students should, in 2-4 sentences, summarize the paper and present a new insight not drawn in the paper thus far.

Short paper 2 rubric: Prompt 1

Excellent

Above average

Acceptable

Below average

Non-existent

Introduction (2.5 points)

Student had an introduction that outlined the paper fully

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper and was confusing

Student had an introduction but it was off topic

Student did not include an intro

Discussing juvenile offender (10 points)

Student found a real juvenile offender, provided a clear description of who they are and the crime. It was well-researched and well-written.

Student found a real juvenile offender, provided a description of who they are and the crime. But the section was either not well-written or was not well-researched.

Student is missing 1 or more of the following: (1) found a real juvenile offender, (2) described a real juvenile offender, (3) well-researched and well-written.

Student is missing 2 or more of the following: (1) found a real juvenile offender, (2) described a real juvenile offender, (3) well-researched and well-written.

Student did not complete this section.

Applying theories/prevention programs (20 points)

Student presented two theories, used details about the youth to back up their case, and found appropriate programming. Well-written and researched.

Student is missing 1 of the following: (1) a discussion of theories, (2) why these theories apply, (3) a discussion of programming options, (4) why they apply, (5) well-written/researched

Student is missing 2 of the following: (1) a discussion of theories, (2) why these theories apply, (3) a discussion of programming options, (4) why they apply, (5) well-written/researched

Student is missing 3 or more of the following: (1) a discussion of theories, (2) why these theories apply, (3) a discussion of programming options, (4) why they apply, (5) well-written/researched

Student did not complete this section.

Conclusion (2.5 points)

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight and was well-written

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight but was not well-written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight, but was well written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight and it was not well-written

Student did not include a conclusion

References (5 points)

Student had at least 5 references, they were all reputable, and they were cited properly

Student had at least 5 references, but they were not reputable or were not cited properly

Student had fewer than 5 references but they were cited properly and were reputable

Student had fewer than 5 references and they were not cited properly or were not reputable

Student did not reference anything



Note: well-written = easy to understand, not 100% grammatically correct or perfect

.


Structure of paper for Prompt 2

I. Introduction: summarize in one paragraph what your paper will talk about.

a. I suggest writing this at the very end after you have already written up your paper and structured your argument.

II. Discuss the two risk factors you chose (bulk of your paper)

a. You should present the major key pieces of information on each risk factor.

i. This should include: the prevalence of that risk factor among the juvenile offending populations (aka what % of youth experience it), why its related to offending (any theoretical linkage to offending?), and present at least two facts about it that we did not discuss in class.

III. Prevention/rehabilitation programming

a. In this section, you should highlight at least one prevention or intervention program that could be used to combat each of your risk factors.

b. Don’t forget to check the youth.gov website to look for effective programs! You can find this link in our last class PowerPoint.

IV. Conclusion: students should, in 2-4 sentences, summarize the paper and present a new insight not drawn in the paper thus far.

Short paper 2 rubric: Prompt 2

Excellent

Above average

Acceptable

Below average

Non-existent

Introduction (2.5 points)

Student had an introduction that outlined the paper fully

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper and was confusing

Student had an introduction but it was off topic

Student did not include an intro

Discussing risk factors (20 points)

Student met all of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student was missing one of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student was missing two of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student was missing three or more of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student did not complete this section.

Applying prevention/rehab programs (10 points)

Student met the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student is missing one of the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student is missing two of the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student is missing all of the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student did not complete this section.

Conclusion (2.5 points)

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight and was well-written

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight but was not well-written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight, but was well written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight and it was not well-written

Student did not include a conclusion

References (5 points)

Student had at least 5 references, they were all reputable, and they were cited properly

Student had at least 5 references, but they were not reputable or were not cited properly

Student had fewer than 5 references but they were cited properly and were reputable

Student had fewer than 5 references and they were not cited properly or were not reputable

Student did not reference anything



Note: well-written = easy to understand, not 100% grammatically correct or perfect

Criminal homework help

5/5/22, 4:15 PM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=1220450&evalObjectType=1&userId=2… 1/4

100 Assignment #4 Rubric
Course: CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222)

Criteria
Exceeds
Expectations

Meets
Expectations

Approaching
Expectations

Below
Expectations

Criterion Score

Content
/ 2020 points

Student

clearly, fully

and superbly

listed and

described the

main

components of

the CJ system

Student used

at least 3

resources to

describe the

main

components

Students

demonstrated

exemplary

critical thinking

by describing

how each

component is

interrelated

and gave

excellent

specific

examples

Student gave 3

or more

examples of

how each

17.9 points

Student clearly

and fully listed

and described

the main

components of

the CJ system

Student used

at least 2

resources to

describe the

main

components

Students

demonstrated

critical thinking

by describing

how each

component is

interrelated

and gave

specific

examples

Student gave 2

or more

examples of

how each

component

may conflict

15.9 points

Student listed

and described

the main

components;

some

description is

lacking or

missing

Student used 1

resources to

describe the

main

components

Student did

not

demonstrated

critical thinking

when

discussing how

components

may be

interrelated;

did not give

specific

examples

Student gave

1 example of

how each

component

may conflict;

13.9 points

Student did

not fulfill one

or more

requirements

for this

assignment

Points

available D:

12-13.9

Points

available F: 0-

11.9

5/5/22, 4:15 PM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=1220450&evalObjectType=1&userId=2… 2/4

Criteria
Exceeds
Expectations

Meets
Expectations

Approaching
Expectations

Below
Expectations

Criterion Score

component

may conflict

Student

described 2 or

more decision

making points

in each step of

the CJ process

and clearly

articulated

how each

decision point

affects the

next

Student

provided at

least two ways

in which the

administration

of justice is

affected by the

interrelatednes

s and

interactions of

components

Student

demonstrated

exemplary

command of

CJ process;

demonstrated

exemplary

critical thinking

throughout the

assignment

Student

described 2 or

more decision

making points

in each step of

the CJ process

and mostly

articulated

how each

decision point

affects the

next

Student

provided at

least one way

in which the

administration

of justice is

affected by the

inter-

relatedness

and

interactions of

components

Student

demonstrated

sound

command of

CJ process;

demonstrated

critical thinking

throughout

most of the

assignment

Points

available: 16-

17.9

did not discuss

each

component

Student did

not describe all

decision

making points;

incorrectly

described or

lacked

articulation of

relationship

and its effect

on next step

Student did

not provide

ways in which

the

administration

is affected by

the inter-

relatedness

and

interactions of

components

Student

demonstrated

marginal

command of

CJ process;

demonstrated

marginal

critical

thinking

Points

available: 14-

15.9

5/5/22, 4:15 PM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=1220450&evalObjectType=1&userId=2… 3/4

Total / 30

Criteria
Exceeds
Expectations

Meets
Expectations

Approaching
Expectations

Below
Expectations

Criterion Score

Format/Gram

mar/Spelling/

Timeliness

/ 10

Points

available: 18-

20

10 points

Student

followed APA

format

correctly

(Cover page, in

text citations

and reference

page)

Student

followed all

format

directions for

this

assignment

Student had no

more than 1

grammar or

spelling error

Student

submitted

assignment on

time

Points

available: 9-10

8 points

Student mostly

used APA

format

correctly, but

does have one

or more errors

(Cover page, in

text citations,

reference

page)

Student mostly

followed all

format

directions for

this

assignment but

has 1 or more

errors

Student

submitted

assignment on

time

Points

available: 8-8.9

6 points

Student did

not follow APA

format

correctly and

has two or

more errors

(Cover page, in

text citations,

reference

page)

Student mostly

followed the

format

directions for

this

assignment but

has 2 or more

errors

student

submitted

assignment on

time or within

2 days of

deadline

passing

Points

available: 7-7.9

4 points

Did not fulfill

format/gramm

ar/spelling/tim

eliness

expectations

for this

assignment

Assignment

was past due

date

Points

available D: 6-

6.9

Points

available F: 0-

5.9

5/5/22, 4:15 PM Rubric Assessment – CCJS 100 7382 Introduction to Criminal Justice (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessment_results.d2l?ou=631928&evalObjectId=1220450&evalObjectType=1&userId=2… 4/4

Overall Score

Exceeds

Expectations –

Equivalent to an A
27 points minimum

Meets

Expectations –

Equivalent to an B
24 points minimum

Approaching

Expectations –

Equivalent to an C
21 points minimum

Below Expectations –

Equivalent to a D or

an F
0 points minimum

Criminal homework help

Theory Reading List

I also recommend searching top criminology journals, including Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Critical Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Crime and Delinquency, Feminist Criminology, and more. These are all available online through the library.

Rational Choice/Deterrence

Required

· Beccaria, Cesare. 1819. “Of Crimes and Punishments”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.406-414), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Gialopsos, Brooke Miller. 2010. “Cornish, Derek B., and Ronald V. Clarke: Rational Choice Theory.” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.215-220), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Maxwell, Christopher D., Joel H. Garner, and Jeffrey A. Fagan. 2002. “Preventive Effects of Arrest on Intimate Partner Violence: Research, Policy and Theory.” Criminology 2(1): 51-80.

· Nagin, Daniel S. 2013. “Deterrence: A Review of the Evidence by a Criminologist for Economists.” Annual Review of Economics 5:1, 83-105.

Recommended

· Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Kristie R. Blevins, Leah E. Daigle, and Tamara D. Madensen. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Deterrence Theory: A Meta-Analysis”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.367-396), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Akers, Ronald L. 1990. “Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81.3: 653-676.

· Cohen, Lawrence and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach.” American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608.

· Paternoster, Ray and Greg Pogarsky. 2009. “Rational Choice, Agency and Thoughtfully Reflective Decision Making: The Short and Long-Term Consequences of Making Good Choices.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25:103–127.

· Cohen, Lawrence, James Kluegel and Kenneth Land. 1981. “Social Inequality and Predatory Criminal Victimization: An Exposition and Test of a Formal Theory.” American Sociological Review, 46, 505-524.

· Tonry, Michael. 2008. “Learning from the Limitations of Deterrence Research.” Crime and Justice 37:279-311

· Loughran Thomas A., Raymond Paternoster, Aaron Chalfin A, Theodore Wilson. 2016. “Can Rational Choice be Considered a General Theory Of Crime? Evidence from Individual-Level Panel Data”. Criminology 54:86–112.

· Matsueda, Ross L., Derek A. Kreager, and David Huizinga. 2006. “Deterring Delinquents: A Rational Choice Model of Theft and Violence.” American Sociological Review 71:95-122.

Biological/Psychological

Required

· Beccalossi, Chiara. 2010. “Lombroso, Cesara: The Criminal Man” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.560-565), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Massey, Douglas S. 2015. “Brave New World of Biosocial Science” Criminology 53(1): 127-131.

· Hanser, Robert D. 2010. “Raine, Adrian: Crime as a Disorder” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.768-771), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Tibbetts, Stephen G. and Alex R. Piquero. 1999 “The Influence of Gender, Low Birth Weight and Disadvantaged Environment in Predicting Early Onset of Offending: A Test of Moffitt’s Interactional Hypothesis.” Criminology 37(4): 843-877.

Recommended

· Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. 1988. “Unraveling Families and Delinquency: A Reanalysis of the Gluecks’ Data.” Criminology 26(3):355-380.

· Arseneault, L., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., Seguin, J. R., & Saucier, J. (2000). Minor physical anomalies and family adversity as risk factors for adolescent violent delinquency. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 917–923.

· Bartol, C., & Bartol, A. (2007). Criminal behavior: A psychosocial approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

· Bufkin, J. L., & Luttrell, V. R. (2005). Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: Current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 6, 176–191.

· Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and lifecourse-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.

· Moffitt, T. E., & Walsh, A. (2003). The adolescencelimited/life-course-persistent theory of antisocial behavior: What have we learned? In A. Walsh & L. Ellis (Eds.), Biosocial criminology: Challenging environmentalism’s supremacy (pp. 125–144). Hauppage, NY: Nova Science.

· Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. New York: Academic Press.

· Vaughn, M. G. (2016). Policy implications of biosocial criminology. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 703-710.

· Walsh, Anthony and Kevin M. Beaver. 2008. Biosocial Criminology: New Directions in Theory and Research. New York, NY: Routledge.

· Rocque, M., & Posick, C. (2017). Paradigm shift or normal science? the future of (biosocial) criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 21(3), 288-303.

· Rocque, M., Welsh, B. C., & Raine, A. (2012). Biosocial criminology and modern crime prevention. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(4), 3065.

· Burt, C. H., & Simons, R. L. (2014). Pulling Back The Curtain On Heritability Studies: Biosocial Criminology In The Postgenomic Era. Criminology, 52(2), 223-262.

· Hughes, N. (2015). Understanding the influence of neurodevelopmental disorders on offending: Utilizing developmental psychopathology in biosocial criminology. Criminal Justice Studies, 28(1), 39.

· Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311-326.

· Fox, B. (2017). It’s nature and nurture: Integrating biology and genetics into the social learning theory of criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 49, 22-31.

· Nedelec, J. L., Park, I., & Silver, I. A. (2016). The effect of the maturity gap on delinquency and drug use over the life course: A genetically sensitive longitudinal design. Journal of Criminal Justice, 47, 84-91,95-99.

Social Disorganization

Required

· Kubrin, Charis E. 2010. “Shaw, Clifford R. and Henry D. McKay: Social Disorganization Theory” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.827-834), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Sampson, Robert J. and Byron Groves. 1989. “Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social Disorganization Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 94:774-802.

· Sampson, Robert J. 2012. “The Theory of Collective Efficacy.” In Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect (pp.149-178). University of Chicago Press.

· Burchfield, Keri B. and Eric Silver. 2013. “Collective Efficacy and Crime in Los Angeles Neighborhoods: Implications for the Latino Paradox” Sociological Inquiry 83(1): 154-176.

Recommended

· Bursik, Robert J., Jr. 1988. “Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects.” Criminology 26:519-552.

· Sampson, Robert J. Stephen Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multi-Level Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277:918-24.

· Warner, Barbara D. and Robert J. Sampson. 2015. “Social Disorganization, Collective Efficacy, and Macro-Level Theories of Social Control.” Advances in Criminological Theory 19:215-34.

· Matsueda, Ross L. 2006. “Differential Social Organization, Collective Action, and Crime.” Crime, Law and Social Change 46:3-33.

· Kirk, David S. and Andrew V. Papachristos. 2015. “Concentrated Disadvantage, the Persistence of Legal Cynicism, and Crime: Revisiting the Conception of ‘Culture’ in Criminology.” Advances in Criminological Theory 19:259-274.

· Shaw, Clifford, and Henry H. McKay. 1931. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. University of Chicago Press.

· Bursik, Robert J. Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.

· Kirk, David S. and Mauri Matsuda. 2011. “Legal Cynicism, Collective Efficacy, and the Ecology of Arrest”. Criminology 49.2: 443-472.

· Kirk, David S. “Prisoner Reentry and the Reproduction of Legal Cynicism”. Social Problems 63: 222-243.

· Sampson, Robert J. 2009. “Collective Efficacy Theory: Lessons Learned and Directions for Future Inquiry”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.149-167), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Peterson, Ruth D., Lauren J. Krivo, and Christopher R. Browning. 2009. “Segregation and Race/Ethnic Inequality in Crime: New Directions”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.169-187), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Hipp, John R. 2011. “Spreading the Wealth: The Effect of the Distribution of Income and Race/Ethnicity Across Household and Neighborhoods on City Crime Trajectories”. Criminology 49.3: 631-665.

· Hwang, Jackelyn and Robert J. Sampson. 2014. “Divergent Pathways of Gentrification: Racial Inequality and the Social Order of Renewal in Chicago Neighborhoods”. American Sociological Review 79.4: 726-751.

· Steenbeek, Wouter and John R. Hipp. 2011. “A Longitudinal Test of Social Disorganization Theory: Feedback Effects Among Cohesion, Social Control, and Disorder”. Criminology 49.3: 833-871.

· Sampson, Robert J. 2008. “Moving to Inequality: Neighborhood Effects and Experiments Meet Social Structure”. American Journal of Sociology 114.1: 189-231.

· De Coster, Stacy, Karen Heimer, and Stacy M. Wittrock. 2006. “Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Capital, Street Context, and Youth Violence”. The Sociological Quarterly 47: 723-753.

· Sampson, Robert J., Jeffrey D. Morenoff, and Thomas Gannon-Rowley. 2002. “”Assessing ‘Neighborhood Effects’: Social Processes and New Directions in Research”. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 443-478.

· Kubrin, Charis E. and Ronald Weitzer. 2003. “New Directions in Social Disorganization Theory”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 40.4: 374-402.

· Papachristos, Andrew V., Chris M. Smith, Mary L. Scherer, and Melissa A. Fugiero. 2011. “More Coffee, Less Crime? The Relationship between Gentrification and Neighborhood Crime Rates in Chicago, 1991 to 2005”. City and Community 10.3: 215-240.

Routine Activities

Required

· Cohen, Lawrence E. and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime: A Routine Activity Approach”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.45-53), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Leukfeldt, Eric Rutger and Majid Yar. 2016. “Applying Routine Activity Theory to Cybercrime: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis”, Deviant Behavior, 37:3, 263-280.

· Kelling, George L. and James Q. Wilson. 1982. “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety” Atlantic Monthly 249 (3), 29-38.

· Welsh BC, Braga AA, Bruinsma GJN. 2015. Reimagining Broken Windows: From Theory to Policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 52(4):447-463.

· Sparks, Tony. 2018. “Reproducing Disorder: The Effects of Broken Windows Policing on Homeless People with Mental Illness in San Francisco” Social Justice 45(2/3): 51-74.

Recommended

· Apel, Robert and Julie Horney. 2017. “How and Why Does Work Matter? Employment Conditions, Routine Activities, and Crime Among Adult Male Offenders”. Criminology 55.2: 307-343.

· Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick R. Gartin and Michael E. Buerger. 1989. “Hot Spots Of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities And The Criminology Of Place”. Criminology 27.1: 27-56.

· Miller, J. (2013). Individual offending, routine activities, and activity settings: Revisiting the routine activity theory of general deviance. The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(3), 390.

· Pratt, T. C., Holtfreter, K., & Reisig, M. D. (2010). Routine online activity and internet fraud targeting: Extending the generality of routine activity theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 267-296.

· Hollis, M. E., Felson, M., & Welsh, B. C. (2013). The capable guardian in routine activities theory: A theoretical and conceptual reappraisal. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 15(1), 65-79.

· Bunch, J., Clay-Warner, J., & Lei, M. (2015). Demographic characteristics and victimization risk: Testing the mediating effects of routine activities. Crime and Delinquency, 61(9), 1181-1205.

· Braga, Anthony A. and Brenda J. Bond. 2008. “Policing Crime And Disorder Hot Spots: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Criminology 46.3: 577-607.

· Sampson, Robert J. and Stephen W. Raudenbush. 1999. “Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods.” American Journal of Sociology 105(3): 603-651.

· Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). Seeing disorder: Neighborhood stigma and the social construction of “broken windows”. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4), 319-342.

· Osgood, D. Wayne, Janet K. Wilson, Patrick M. O’Malley, Jerald G. Bachman & Lloyd D. Johnson. 1996. Routine Activities and Individual Deviant Behavior. American Sociological Review 61 (4): 635-55.

Strain

Required

· Merton, Robert K. 1938. “Social Structure and Anomie”. American Sociological Review 3.5: 672-682.

· Broidy, Lisa M. 2001. “A Test of General Strain Theory”. Criminology 39.1: 9-36.

· Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 2013. Crime and the American Dream. Wadsworth.

· Savolainen, Jukka. 2000. “Inequality, Welfare State, and Homicide: Further Support for Institutional Anomie Theory” Criminology 38(4): 1021-1042.

Recommended

· Agnew, Robert. 1985. “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”. Social Forces 64.1: 151-167.

· Agnew, Robert. 1992. “Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency”. Criminology 30.1: 47-87.

· Durkheim, Emile. 1951. “Suicide”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.235-240), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Agnew, Robert. 2009. “General Strain Theory: Current Status and Directions for Further Research”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.101-123), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Messner, Robert F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 2009. “The Present and Future of Institutional-Anomie Theory”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.127-148), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Agnew, Robert and Helene Raskin White. 1992. “An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory”. Criminology 30.4: 475-499.

· Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 1997. “Political Restraint of the Market and Levels of Criminal Homicide: A Cross-National Application of Institutional-Anomie Theory”. Social Forces 75.4: 1393-1416.

· Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory”. Criminology 40.1: 43-71.

· Slocum, Lee Ann, Sally S. Simpson, and Douglas A. Smith. 2005. “Strained Lives and Crime: Examining Intra-Individual Variation in Strain and Offending in a Sample of Incarcerated Women”. Criminology 43.4: 1067-1110.

· Messner, Steven F. Helmut Thome, and Richard Rosenfeld. 2008. “Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory”. International Journal of Conflict and Violence 2.2: 163-181.

· De Coster, Stacy and Lisa Kort-Butler. 2006. “How General is General Strain Theory? Assessing Determinacy and Indeterminacy across Life Domains”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43.4: 297-325.

· De Coster, Stacy and Rena Cornell Zito. 2010. “Gender and General Strain Theory: The Gendering of Emotional Experiences and Expressions”. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 26.2: 224-245.

· Agnew, Robert. 2012. “Reflection on ‘A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency’”. Social Forces 91.1: 33-38.

· Kaufman, Joanne M., Cesar J. Rebellon, Sherod Thaxton, and Robert Agnew. 2008. “A General Strain Theory of Racial Differences in Criminal Offending”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 41.3: 421-437.

· Moon, Byongook, Kraig Hays, and David Blurton. 2009. “General Strain Theory, Key Strains, and Deviance”. Journal of Criminal Justice 37: 98-106.

· Bernard, Thomas J. 1987. “Testing Structural Strain Theories.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 24:262-280.

· Chamlin, Mitchell B. and John K. Cochran. 1995. “Assessing Messner and Rosenfield’s Institutional Anomie Theory: A Partial Test.” Criminology 33:411-429.

· Menard, Scott. 1995. “A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32:136-174.

· Cloward, Richard. 1959. “Illegitimate Means, Anomie, and Deviant Behavior.” American Sociological Review 24:164-176.

· Kubrin, Charis E., Tim Wadsworth, and Stephanie DiPietro. 2006. “Deindustrialization, Disadvantage, and Suicide Among Young Black Males” Social Forces 84:1559-1578.

· Featherstone, Richard and Mathieu Deflem. 2003. “Anomie and Strain: Context and Consequence of Merton’s Two Theories.” Sociological Inquiry 73:471-89.

· Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory” Criminology 40:43-72.

Subcultural

Recommended

· Cullen, Francis T. 2010. “Cloward, Richard A., and Lloyd E. Ohlin: Delinquency and Opportunity” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.170-174), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Joe, K., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1995). “Just Every Mother’s Angel”: An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership. Gender and Society, 9(4), 408-431.

· Anderson, Elijah. 1998. “The Social Ecology of Youth Violence” Crime and Justice 24: 65-104.

· Matsueda, Ross, Kevin Drakulich and Charles Kubrin. 2006. Race and Neighborhood Codes of Violence. In The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America (pp.334-356), edited by Ruth D. Peterson, Lauren J. Krivo, and John Hagan. New York University Press.

· Cohen, Albert K. 1955. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. Free Press.

· Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1966. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. Free Press.

· Cullen, Francis T. 1988. “Were Cloward and Ohlin Strain Theorists? Delinquency and Opportunity Revisited”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 25.3: 214-241.

· Hagedorn, John M. 1998. “Gang Violence in the Postindustrial Era”. Crime and Justice 24: 365-419.

· Anderson, Elijah. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. W.W. Norton and Company.

· Campbell, Anne. 1987. “Self Definition by Rejection: The Case of Gang Girls”. Social Problems 34.5: 451-466.

· Joe, Karen A. and Meda Chesney-Lind. 1995. “’Just Every Mother’s Angel’: An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership”. Gender and Society 9.4: 408-431.

· Laidler, Karen Joe and Geoffrey Hunt. 2001. “Accomplishing Femininity Among the Girls in the Gang”. British Journal of Criminology 41: 656-678.

· Miller, Jody. 2001. One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender. Oxford University Press.

· McGloin, Jean Marie, Christopher J. Schrek, Eric A. Stewart and Graham C. Ousey. 2011. “Predicting the Violent Offender: The Discriminant Validity of the Subculture of Violence”. Criminology 49.3: 767-794.

· Miller, Walter B. 1958. “Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency”. Journal of Social Issues 14.3: 5-19.

· Smith, Chris M. 2014. “The Influence of Gentrification on Gang Homicides in Chicago Neighborhoods, 1994 to 2005”. Crime and Delinquency 60.4: 569-591.

· Papachristos, Andrew V. 2013. “The Importance of Cohesion for Gang Research, Policy, and Practice”. Criminology and Public Policy 12.1: 49-58.

· Papachristos, Andrew V., David M. Hureau, and Anthony A. Braga. 2013. “The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence”. American Sociological Review 78.3: 417-447.

Differential Association/Social Learning

Required

· Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. “Techniques of Neutralization”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.295-298), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Sutherland, Edwin H. 1947. “Differential Association”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.299-301), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Piquero, Nicole Leeper, Stephen G. Tibbetts and Michael B. Blankenship (2005) “Examining the role of differential association and techniques of neutralization in explaining corporate crime” Deviant Behavior, 26:2, 159-188.

· Sellers, Christine S. and Thomas Winfree. 2010. “Ackers, Ronald L.: Social Learning Theory” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.21-29), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

· Powers RA, Cochran JK, Maskaly J, Sellers CS. Social Learning Theory, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violent Victimization: A Structural Equations Approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2020;35(17-18):3554-3580.

Recommended

· Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. “Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency”. American Sociological Review 22.6: 664-670.

· Burgess, Robert L. and Ronald L. Akers. 1966. “A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior”. Social Problems 14.2: 128-147.

· Akers, Ronald L. 1990. “Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81.3: 653-676.

· Akers, Ronald L. 2009. Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Matsueda, Ross L. 1982. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Causal Modeling Approach”. American Sociological Review 47: 489-504.

· Matsueda, Ross L. 1988. “The Current State of Differential Association Theory”. Crime and Delinquency 34.3: 277-306.

· Akers, Ronald L. and Gary F. Jensen. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance: The Past, Present, and Future”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.37-76), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Heimer, Karen. 1997. “Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent Delinquency”. Social Forces 75.3: 799-833.

· Hoffmann, John P. 2003. “A Contextual Analysis of Differential Association, Social Control, and Strain Theories of Delinquency”. Social Forces 81.3: 753-785.

· Piquero, Nicole Leeper, Angela R. Gover, John M. MacDonald, and Alex R. Piquero. 2005. “The Influence of Delinquent Peers on Delinquency: Does Gender Matter?”. Youth and Society 36.3: 251-275.

· Haynie, Dana L. and D. Wayne Osgood. 2005. “Reconsidering Peers and Delinquency: How do Peers Matter?”. Social Forces 84.3: 1109-1130.

· Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Christine S. Sellers, L. Thomas Winfree Jr., Leah E. Daigle, Noelle E. Fearn, and Jancinta M. Gau. 2010. “The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory: A Meta-Analysis”. Justice Quarterly, 27.6: 765-802.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Karen Heimer. 1987. “Race, Family Structure and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories”. American Sociological Review 52.6: 826-840.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Kathleen Anderson. 1998. “The Dynamics of Delinquent Peers and Delinquent Behavior”. Criminology 36.2: 269-308.

· McCarthy, Bill, Diane Felmlee, and John Hagan. 2004. “Girl Friends are Better: Gender, Friends, and Crime among School and Street Youth”. Criminology 42.4: 805-836.

· Haynie, Dana L., Nathan J. Doogan, and Brian Soller. 2014. “Gender, Friendship Networks, and Delinquency: A Dynamic Network Approach”. Criminology 52.4: 688-722.

· Haynie, Dana L., Eric Silver, and Brent Teasdale. 2006. “Neighborhood Characteristics, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Violence”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22: 147-169.

· Haynie, Dana L. and Danielle C. Payne. 2006. “Race, Friendship Networks, and Violent Delinquency”. Criminology 44.4: 775-805.

· Akers, Ronald L. and Gary F. Jensen. 2006.”Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance: The Past, Present, and Future.” Advances in Criminological Theory 15:37-76.

· Rebellon, Cesar J. 2006. “Do Adolescents Engage in Delinquency to Attract the Social Attention of Peers? An Extension and Longitudinal Test of the Social Reinforcement Hypothesis.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43:387-411.

Social Control/Self-Control

Required

· Hirschi, Travis. 2002. “A Control Theory of Delinquency” In Causes of Delinquency (pp.16-34). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Gardner, L., & Shoemaker, D. J. (1989). Social bonding and delinquency: A comparative analysis. The Sociological Quarterly, 30(3), 481–500.

· Gottfredson, Michael R. and Travis Hirschi. 2010. “A General Theory of Crime” In Criminological Theory: Readings and Retrospectives (pp. 289-299), edited by Heith Copes and Volkan Topalli. New York: McGraw Hill.

· Pratt, Travis C. and Francis C. Cullen. 2000. “The Empirical Status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime: A Meta-Analysis.” Criminology 38:931-64.

Recommended

· Hirschi, Travis. 2002. Causes of Delinquency. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1990. “Crime and Deviance Over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds”. American Sociological Review 55: 609-627.

· Gottfredson, Michael R. and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford University Press.

· Taylor, Claire. 2001. “The Relationship between Social and Self-Control: Tracing Hirschi’s Criminological Career”. Theoretical Criminology 5.3: 369-388.

· Unnever, James D., Francis T. Cullen, Scott A. Mathers, Timothy E. McClure and Marisa C. Allison. 2009. “Racial Discrimination and Hirschi’s Criminological Classic: A Chapter in the Sociology of Knowledge”. Justice Quarterly 26.3: 377-409.

· Grasmick, Harold G., Charles R. Tittle, Robert J. Bursik Jr, and Bruce J. Arneklev. 1993. “Testing the Core Empirical Implications of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 30.1: 5-29.

· Brownfield, David. 2010. “Social Control, Self-Control, and Gang Membership”. Journal of Gang Research 17.4: 1-12.

· Hagan, John, John Simpson, and A.R. Gillis. 1987. “Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.329-338), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Piquero, Nicole Leeper and Alex R. Piquero. 2006. “Control Balance and Exploitative Corporate Crime”. Criminology 44.2: 397-430.

· Gottfredson, Michael R. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Control Theory in Criminology”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.77-100), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Karen Heimer. 1987. “Race, Family Structure and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories”. American Sociological Review 52.6: 826-840.

· Matsueda, Ross L. and Kathleen Anderson. 1998. “The Dynamics of Delinquent Peers and Delinquent Behavior”. Criminology 36.2: 269-308.

· Ward, Jeffrey T., John H. Boman, IV, and Shayne Jones. 2015. “Hirschi’s Redefined Self-Control: Assessing the Implications of the Merger Between Social- and Self-Control Theories”. Crime and Delinquency 61.9: 1206-1233.

· Wiatrowski, Michael D., David B. Griswold, and Mary K. Roberts. 1981. “Social Control Theory and Delinquency. American Sociological Review 46:525-41.

· Agnew, Robert. 1985. “Social Control Theory And Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test,” Criminology 23:47-61.

· Greenberg, David. 1999. “The Weak Strength of Social Control Theory.” Crime and Delinquency 45:66-81.

· Wright et al. (1999), “Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: Social causation, social selection, or both?” Criminology 37:479-514.

· Burt, Simons, and Simons. 2005. “A longitudinal test of the effects of parenting and the stability of self-control: Negative evidence for the general theory of crime,” Criminology 44: 353-396.

· Ward, Jeffrey T., John H. Boman, and Shayne Jones. 2012. “Hirschi’s Redefined Self-Control: Assessing the Implications of the Merger Between Social- and Self-Control Theories. Crime & Delinquency.

Developmental/Life-Course

Recommended

· Laub, John H., Robert J. Sampson, and Gary A. Sweeten. 2009. “Assessing Sampson and Laub’s Life-Course Theory of Crime”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.313-333), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

· Warr, Mark. 1998. “Life-Course Transitions and Desistance from Crime” Criminology 36(2): 183-216.

· Kazemian, L. (2007). Desistance From Crime: Theoretical, Empirical, Methodological, and Policy Considerations. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(1), 5–27.

· Brehm HN, Uggen C, McElrath S. 2018. A Dynamic Life-course Approach to Genocide. Social Currents 5(2):107-119.

· Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1992. “Crime And Deviance In The Life Course,” Annual Review of Sociology 18:63-84.

· Laub, John H., Daniel S. Nagin, and Robert J. Sampson. 1998. “Trajectories of Change in Criminal Offending: Good Marriages and the Desistance Process.” American Sociological Review 63:225-38.

· Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. 2003. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Harvard University Press.

· Blumstein, Alfred and Jacqueline Cohen. 1987. “Characterizing Criminal Careers”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.64-74), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Moffitt, Terrie E. 1993. “Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.84-112), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

· Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1990. “Crime and Deviance Over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds”. American Sociological Review 55: 609-627.

· Moffitt, Terrie E. 2009. “A Review of Research on the Taxonomy of Life-Course Persistent Versus Adolescence-Limited Antisocial Behavior”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.277-311), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transact

Criminal homework help

On the Moderation of Mechanisms:
A Conceptual Overview of Conditional Process Analysis

Andrew F. Hayes
Professor of Quantitative Psychology

The Ohio State University
Department of Psychology

www.afhayes.com
These are slides at:
www.afhayes.com/public/mobc.pdf

define the conditional indirect and direct effect.

do a brief review of the analysis of indirect and conditional effects.

do a conceptual introduction to “conditional process analysis.”

do one simple example, with relevant computer output.

…. talk about some interesting extensions of basic principles

turn you into a conditional process analysis expert.

teach you how to estimate such models in your chosen software.

get all your questions answered.

leave you with many new questions unanswered.

I will and will not

point you toward where you can learn more.

My objective is primarily to whet your appetite for learning more. Knowing what is possible analytically
can influence how we think about problems theoretically.

…. speak mostly in abstractions. You can fill in the blanks concretely.

What is “Conditional Process Analysis”

“Conditional process analysis”

is a modeling strategy undertaken with the goal of
describing the conditional

or

contingent

nature of the mechanism(s) by which a variable
transmits its effect on another, and testing hypotheses about such contingent effects.

“Process analysis”, used to quantify and examine the
direct and indirect pathways through which an antecedent
variable X

transmits its effect on a consequent variable
Y through an intermediary M. Better known as
“mediation analysis”

these days.

M

X Y

M

X Y

A melding of two ideas conceptually and analytically:

“Moderation analysis” used to examine how the
effect of an antecedent X

on an consequent Y

depends
on a third moderator variable M (a.k.a. “interaction”)

Mechanisms are quantified with indirect effects. Indirect effects can be moderated, meaning
mechanisms can be contingent. We can model such contingencies using rudimentary linear
modeling principles. It is not difficult once you learn the fundamentals.

YX

M

The “simple mediation”

model

X→M→Y

is a causal chain of events. A mediator variable can be a psychological
state, a cognitive process, an affective response, a biological change, or any other
conceivable “mechanism”

variable through which X

exerts an effect on Y. But it
must be causally between X and Y.

Mediation

A mediation model links a putative cause (X) to a presumed
effect (Y) at least in part through an intermediary or “mediator”

variable (M).

“Indirect effect”

ab

= “indirect effect”

of X

on Y

through M
c’

= “direct effect”

of X

on Y

c

c

= “total effect”

of X

on Y

Using OLS or ML, with Y

as continuous:

X YcXiY += 1ˆ

a b

c’

aXiM += 2ˆ

bMXciY +′+= 3ˆ
X M Y

Using OLS or ML, with M as continuous:

The indirect effect quantifies the effect of X

on Y

through M. Evidence that ab

is different
from zero is consistent with mediation. Evidence that path c

is different from zero is not a
requirement of 21st

century mediation analysis. Correlation between X

and Y

is neither
sufficient nor necessary

to claim that X

affects Y.

c

= c’ + ab

Moderation. The effect of X

on Y

can be said to be moderated

if its size or
direction is dependent on M. It tells us about the conditions that facilitate,
enhance, or inhibit the effect, or for whom or what the effect is large vs. small,
present versus absent, and so forth.

Moderation

M is depicted here to moderate

the size of the effect of X

on Y, meaning that the size of
the effect of X on Y

depends on M. We say M is the moderator

of the X

→ Y

relationship, or X

and M interact

in their influence on Y.

YX

M

“Linear moderation”

and “Conditional effect”

YX

M
Y

M

X

Conceptual diagram depicting X’s
effect on Y

moderated by M.
Linear moderation as a statistical model

XM

b1

b2

b3

“Simple linear moderation”

is typically estimated by allowing X’s effect on Y

to be a linear
function of M (other forms of moderation are possible):

In this model, the conditional effect of X

on Y, θX→Y

,

is b1

+ b3

M:

XMbMbXbiMbXMbbiY 32112311 )(ˆ +++=+++=

MbXiY YX 21ˆ ++= →θ MbbYX 31 +=→θ

θX→Y

There is no effect of X

on Y

that one can reduce to a single estimate, for the effect of X

on Y

depends on M unless b3

is zero. An inference about the coefficient for XM

in the model is a
widely used test of linear moderation.

where

Integrating mediation and moderation analysis

Combining moderation and mediation analysis, at least in principle, is not new at all. Many
have talked about it in the distant past (e.g., Judd & Kenny, 1981; James & Brett, 1984; Baron
and Kenny, 1986). It goes by various names that often confuse,

including “moderated
mediation”

and “mediated moderation.”

More recently:

Muller, Judd, and Yzerbyt (2005): Describe analytical models and steps for assessing when
“mediation is moderated”

and “moderation is mediated.”
Edwards and Lambert (2007): Take a path analysis perspective and show how
various effects in a simple mediation model can be conditioned on a third variable.

Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007): Provide a formal definition of the conditional
indirect effect

and give formulas, standard errors, and a bootstrap approach for estimating
and testing hypotheses about moderated mediation in five different models.
MacKinnon and colleagues (e.g., Fairchild & MacKinnon, 2009): Explicate various
analytical approaches to testing hypotheses about mediated moderation and moderated
mediation.
Hayes (2013) and Hayes and Preacher (2013). Introduce the term “conditional process
modeling”

and (in Hayes and Preacher, 2013) take a structural equation modeling approach
to estimating the contingent nature of direct and indirect effects.

Examples in substance use research

As a result of these recent discussions and the analytical approaches described therein,
models that combine moderation and mediation are seen in the literature with increasing
frequency, including in alcoholism research.

Stein, L. A. R., Minugh, P. A. et al. (2009). Readiness to change as a mediator of
the effect of a brief motivational intervention on posttreatment

alcohol-related
consequences of injured emergency department hazardous drinkers. Psychology
of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 185-195.

Houben, K., Wiers, R. W., & Jansen, A. (2011). Getting a grip on drinking behavior:
Training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse. Psychological Science, 22,
968-975.

Malouf, E., Stuewig, J., & Tangney, J. (2012). Self-control and jail inmates’
substance misuse post-release: Mediation by friends’

substance use and
moderation by age. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 1198-1204.

Witkiewitz, K., & Bowen, S. (2010). Depressing, craving, and substance use
Following a randomized trial of mindfulness-based relapse prevention.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,

78, 362-374.

Integrating mediation and moderation

The indirect effect of X

on Y

through M is estimated as the product of the a

and b

paths

But what if size of a

or b

(or both) depends on another variable (i.e., is moderated)?

If so, then the magnitude of the indirect effect therefore depends on a third variable,
meaning that “mediation is moderated”.

When a

or b

is moderated, it is sensible then to estimate “conditional indirect
effects”—values of indirect effect conditioned on values of the moderator

variable that
moderates a

and/or b.

Direct effects can also be conditional. For instance, in the above, W moderates X’s
direct effect on Y.

YX

M

c’

a b

W Z

MBRP : Randomly assigned to treatment as usual (0)
or mindfulness-based relapse prevention therapy (1)

CRAVE2: Score on the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale at
2 month follow-up.

Example inspired by …

168 clients of a public service agency providing
treatment for alcohol and substance use disorders.

BDIP: Beck Depression Inventory scores immediately
following completion of therapy.

USE4: Alcohol and other substance use at 4-month
follow-up measured with the Timeline Follow-Back.

Witkiewitz, K., & Bowen, S. (2010). Depression, craving, and substance use following a randomized trial of mindfulness-
based relapse prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 362-374.

Covariates in the model included depression at start of
therapy (BDI0), craving at baseline (CRAVE0) and hours
in treatment (TREATHRS).

The model

Question: Do the skills acquired through MBRP therapy moderate craving as the
mechanism through which negative affect influences alcohol and other substance
use? This is a “first stage”

moderated mediation model that also allows for the
direct effect of X

to be moderated.

YX

M
W

U

Craving

Substance use
Depression

Treatment as
usual (0) versus
MBRP therapy (1).

Baseline craving (U1: CRAVE0) and depression (U2: BDI0)
and hours in treatment (U3: TREATHRS)

CRAVE2

USE4
BDIP

MBRP

The model in equation form

M

X Y

W

A conditional process model with a common moderator of the first

stage path of the
X→ M→Y

indirect effect (the mechanism) as well as the direct effect of

X

on Y.


…ˆ

3212

3211

++′+′+′+=
++++=
bMXWcWcXciY

XWaWaXaiM

This model is estimated (using OLS, for example) as:

…)(ˆ
…)(ˆ

2312

2311

++′+′+′+=

++++=

bMWcXWcciY

WaXWaaiM
or

equivalently

U

CRAVE2

USE4BDIP

MBRP
CRAVE0
BDI0
TREATHRS

…ˆ
…ˆ

22

21

++′++=

+++=

bMWcXiY

WaXiM

YX

MX

θ

θ

Using my “theta notation”:

where WaaMX 31 +=→θ WccYX 31 ′+′=→θand

The conditional indirect effect

M

X Y

W


…ˆ

3212

3211

++′+′+′+=
++++=
bMXWcWcXciY

XWaWaXaiM

This model is estimated as:

or

equivalently

U

…ˆ
…ˆ

22

21

++′++=

+++=

bMWcXiY

WaXiM

YX

MX

θ

θ

WaaMX 31 +=→θ WccYX 31 ′+′=→θand

θX→M

θX→Y

b

The indirect effect of X

on Y

through M is the product of the effect of X

on M and the effect
of M on Y: ωM

= θX→M

b = (a1 + a3

W)b

= a1

b + a3

bW. This is a function

of W. Plug in a value
of W and you get the “conditional indirect effect”

of X

on Y

through M, conditioned on that
value of W. An inference about that conditional indirect effect is an inference about
“conditional”

mediation. In this example, W is dichotomous, but it doesn’t have to be.

CRAVE2

USE4BDIP

MBRP
CRAVE0
BDI0
TREATHRS

The conditional direct effect

M

X Y

W


…ˆ

3212

3211

++′+′+′+=
++++=
bMXWcWcXciY

XWaWaXaiM

This model is estimated as:

or

equivalently

U

…ˆ
…ˆ

22

21

++′++=

+++=

bMWcXiY

WaXiM

YX

MX

θ

θ

WaaMX 31 +=→θ WccYX 31 ′+′=→θand

θX→M

θX→Y

b

The direct effect of X

on Y

through M is θX→M = c’1

+ c’3

W. This is a function

of W. Plug in a
value of W and you get the “conditional direct effect”

of X

on Y. An inference about that
conditional direct effect is an inference about whether X

affects Y

independent of the
mechanism through M, conditioned on that value of W.

CRAVE2

USE4BDIP

MBRP
CRAVE0
BDI0
TREATHRS

Easy to do with software you are (probably) already using

The PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS is turn-key and easy to use but less flexible because
the user is constrained to models PROCESS is programmed to estimate. PROCESS is freely
available at www.afhayes.com

SPSS:
process vars=crave2 use4 bdip mbrp
crave0 bdi0 treathrs/y=use4/m=crave2
/x=bdip/w=mbrp/model=8/boot=10000.

SAS:
%process (data=meditate,vars=crave2
use4 bdip mbrp crave0 bdi0 treathrs,
y=use4,m=crave2,x=bdip,w=mbrp,
model=8,boot=10000);

Mplus can also be used. It requires more programming skill but is more versatile with
more benefits and fewer limitations.

Model 8

PROCESS output

PROCESS Output
PROCESS output

(a1 + a3

W)bW Bootstrap confidence intervals

W (c’1 + c’3

W) NHSTs and confidence intervals

Difference between conditional indirect
effects (with bootstrap confidence interval)

Direct and indirect effects of depression on substance use are positive and statistically
different from zero among those given therapy as usual. No direct or indirect effects of
depression on substance use among those given MBRP therapy. The indirect effect through
craving differs between the two groups—”moderated mediation”

Some other examples

Stein, L. A. R., Minugh, P. A. et al. (2009). Readiness to change as a mediator of
the effect of a brief motivational intervention on post-treatment alcohol-related
consequences of injured emergency department hazardous drinkers. Psychology
of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 185-195.

Houben, K., Wiers, R. W., & Jansen, A. (2011). Getting a grip on drinking behavior:
Training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse. Psychological Science, 22,
968-975.

Malouf, E., Stuewig, J., & Tangney, J. (2012). Self-control and jail inmates’
substance misuse post-release: Mediation by friends’

substance use and
moderation by age. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 1198-1204.

We just examined a “first stage”

model. But moderation can occur in the “second stage”
of the mechanism as well:

….or a variable can moderate both
stages of the mechanism.

There are many possibilities. The
math is different, but the principles
are the same.

An intriguing possibility

A causal agent modifying the operation of its own mechanism by which it affects
an outcome.

M

X Y

XMbMbXciY

aXiM

212

11

ˆ

ˆ

++′+=

+=

This model is estimated as:

or

MXbbXciY

aXiM

)(ˆ

ˆ

212

11

++′+=

+=

equivalently

The effect of X

on M is just “a”, but the the effect of M on Y

depends on X: b1

+ b2

X.
The indirect effect of X

is the product of these effects: a(b1 + b2

X) = ab1 + ab2

X and so
depends on X. This makes sense to do only if X

is not dichotomous.

The effect of X

on M

The effect of M on Y

Multiple mechanisms modeled simultaneously

Kong, G., Bergman, A. (2010). A motivational model of alcohol misuse in
emerging adulthood. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 855-860.

Osberg, T. M., Billingsley,K., Eggert,M.,& Insana, M. (2012). From Animal
House

to Old School: A multiple mediation analysis of the association
between college drinking movie exposure and freshman drinking and its
consequences. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 922-930.

Litt, D. M., & Stock, M. L. (2011). Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions:
The roles of social norms and social networking sites. Psychology of
Addictive Behaviors, 25, 708-713.

Webb,J. R., Robinson, E. A. R., & Brower, K. J. (2013). Mental health, not
social support, mediates the forgiveness-alcohol outcome relationships.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 462-473.

Why estimate such a model?

Many causal effects probably operate through multiple mechanisms
simultaneously. Better to estimate a model consistent with such real-
world complexities.

If your proposed mediator is correlated with the “real”

mediator but not
caused by the independent variable, a model with only your

proposed
mediator in it will be a misspecification and will potentially misattribute the
process to your proposed mediator rather than the real mediator—
“epiphenomenality.”

Different theories may postulate different mediators as mechanisms.
Including them all in a model simultaneously allows for a formal statistical
comparison of indirect effects representing different theoretical
mechanisms.

When combined with moderation, allows for the modeling of different
mechanisms for different people defined by different values of a moderator.

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate. For example:

M1

M2

X Y

W

A conditional process model with a
common moderator of both of the
first stage paths of the mechanism.

22113

23222122

13121111

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

MbMbXciY

XWaWaXaiM

XWaWaXaiM

++′+=

+++=

+++=

This model is estimated as:

22113

22232122

12131111

ˆ
)(ˆ

)(ˆ

MbMbXciY

WaXWaaiM

WaXWaaiM

++′+=

+++=

+++=
or

equivalently

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

M1

M2

X Y

W

A conditional process model with a common moderator
of both of the first stage paths of the mechanism.

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
depends on W:

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
depends on W:

22113

22232122

12131111

ˆ
)(ˆ

)(ˆ

MbMbXciY

WaXWaaiM

WaXWaaiM

++′+=

+++=

+++=

An interesting extension

Waa 1311 +

Waa 2321 +

1b

2b

Wbaba
bWaa

223221

223212 )(
+=

+=ω

Wbaba
bWaa

113111

113111 )(

+=

+=ω

M1

M2

X Y

W

A conditional process model with a common moderator
of both of the first stage paths of the mechanism.

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
depends on W:

Wbaba
bWaa

223221

223212 )(
+=

+=ω

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
depends on W:

Wbaba
bWaa

113111

113111 )(

+=

+=ω

22113

22232122

12131111

ˆ
)(ˆ

)(ˆ

MbMbXciY

WaXWaaiM

WaXWaaiM

++′+=

+++=

+++=a11

= 0.40
a13

= -0.40
a21

= 0.00
a23

= 0.60
b1

= 0.50
b2

= 0.30

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

Waa 1311 +

Waa 2321 +

1b

2b

M1

M2

X Y

W

A conditional process model with a common moderator
of both of the first stage paths of the mechanism.

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
depends on W:

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
depends on W:

a11

= 0.40
a13

= -0.40
a21

= 0.00
a23

= 0.60
b1

= 0.50
b2

= 0.30

W
W
bWaa

20.020.0
50.0)40.040.0(

)(

1

1

113111

−=
−=

+=

ω
ω
ω

W
W
bWaa

18.000.0
30.0)60.000.0(

)(

2

2

223212

+=
+=

+=

ω
ω
ω

213

2222

1211

30.050.0ˆ
)60.000.0(ˆ

)40.040.0(ˆ

MMXciY

WaXWiM

WaXWiM

++′+=

+++=

+−+=

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

M1

M2

X Y

W

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
when W = 0:

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
when W = 0:

For people of type A

(e.g., W = 0) X

affects Y

through M1

but not through M2

.

a11

= 0.40
a13

= -0.40
a21

= 0.00
a23

= 0.60
b1

= 0.50
b2

= 0.30

20.0020.020.0
50.0)040.040.0(

)(

1

1

113111

=×−=
×−=

+=

ω
ω
ω bWaa

W
W
bWaa

18.000.0
30.0)60.000.0(

)(

2

2

223212

+=
+=

+=

ω
ω
ω

W
0

0

213

2222

1211

30.050.0ˆ
)60.000.0(ˆ

)40.040.0(ˆ

MMXciY

WaXWiM

WaXWiM

++′+=

+++=

+−+=

Indirect effect = 0.20

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

M1

M2

X Y

W

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
when W = 0:

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
when W = 0:

For people of type A

(e.g., W = 0) X

affects Y

through M1

but not through M2

.

20.0020.020.0
50.0)040.040.0(

)(

1

1

113111

=×−=
×−=

+=

ω
ω
ω bWaa

a11

= 0.40
a13

= -0.40
a21

= 0.00
a23

= 0.60
b1

= 0.50
b2

= 0.30

00.0018.000.0
30.0)060.000.0(

)(

2

2

223212

=×+=
×+=

+=

ω
ω
ω bWaa W

0
0

213

2222

1211

30.050.0ˆ
)60.000.0(ˆ

)40.040.0(ˆ

MMXciY

WaXWiM

WaXWiM

++′+=

+++=

+−+=

Indirect effect = 0.00

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

M1

M2

X Y

W

For people of type B

(e.g., W = 1) X

affects Y

through M2

but not through M1

.

a11

= 0.40
a13

= -0.40
a21

= 0.00
a23

= 0.60
b1

= 0.50
b2

= 0.30

Y
Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
when W = 1:

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
when W = 1:

00.0120.020.0
50.0)140.040.0(

)(

1

1

113111

=×−=
×−=

+=

ω
ω
ω bWaa

W
W
bWaa

18.000.0
30.0)60.000.0(

)(

2

2

223212

+=
+=

+=

ω
ω
ω

213

2222

1211

30.050.0ˆ
)60.000.0(ˆ

)40.040.0(ˆ

MMXciY

WaXWiM

WaXWiM

++′+=

+++=

+−+=

W
1

1

Indirect effect = 0.00

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

M1

M2

X Y

W

For people of type B

(e.g., W = 1) X

affects Y

through M2

but not through M1

.

a11

= 0.40
a13

= -0.40
a21

= 0.00
a23

= 0.60
b1

= 0.50
b2

= 0.30

Y
Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M1
when W = 1:

Indirect effect of X

on Y

through M2
when W = 1:

00.0120.020.0
50.0)140.040.0(

)(

1

1

113111

=×−=
×−=

+=

ω
ω
ω bWaa

18.0118.000.0
30.0)160.000.0(

)(

2

2

223212

=×+=
×+=

+=

ω
ω
ω bWaa

213

2222

1211

30.050.0ˆ
)60.000.0(ˆ

)40.040.0(ˆ

MMXciY

WaXWiM

WaXWiM

++′+=

+++=

+−+=

W
1

1

Indirect effect = 0.18

An interesting extension

Mechanisms might be different for different types of people. For some types, mechanism 1
may be dominant, whereas for other types, mechanism 2 may dominate.

In closing…

All causal effects operate through some kind of mechanism—a causal
chain of events. But all effects are contingent on something.

Mechanisms that are contingent can be modeled if we understand or can
at least hypothesize something about those contingencies.

Simple combinations of moderation and mediation can be put together to
yield complex models that are yet fairly simple to estimate and interpret.

Quantifications of mechanisms (indirect effects) can be modeled as functions
of other variables (moderators).

Statistical tools exist to make the modeling easy, and people are beginning to
do this in earnest in many areas of research, including substance use.

Learning resources are scattered throughout the methodology journals. The
advice they offer is often inconsistent, sometimes dated.

These are slides at www.afhayes.com/public/mobc.pdf

Some places to go for help

www.afhayes.com

Some places to go for help

www.statisticalhorizons.com

Some places to go for help

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation,
moderation, and conditional process analysis:
A regression based approach. New York: The
Guilford Press.

Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2013). Conditional
process modeling: Using SEM to examine contingent
causal processes. In G. R. Hancock and R. O. Mueller
(Eds.) Structural equation modeling: A second
course

(2nd

Ed). Information Age Publishing.

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Criminal homework help

Working as a criminal justice professional can often be stressful.

How do you handle stressful situations?

What steps have you taken to prepare yourself for a stressful career in criminal justice?

What advice would you offer your classmates about how to alleviate stress in a healthy way? 

Be certain to include specific strategies and resources you have used to mitigate this stress. 

350-450 words excluding, APA format and a minimum of 3 references

Criminal homework help

Short paper 2


Basic Information
:

Points: 40

Due date: May 5th by 11:00am

Page length: 4-5 pages double spaced, 12 point font

References needed: 5 minimum (APA citation format)


Topics
: This is a more traditional research paper and students can choose to write on
one
of the following prompts:

1. Highlight a real juvenile offender and apply at least two criminological theories to explain why they committed the crimes they committed. Then talk about, based on why they offended, what prevention programs would have been appropriate to stop their offending.

2. Discuss two risk factors (that we talked about in class), highlight at least 2 new facts about each risk factor, and present at least one prevention program that would be useful to combatting each risk factor.


Structure of paper for Prompt 1

I. Introduction: summarize in one paragraph what your paper will talk about.

a. I suggest writing this at the very end after you have already written up your paper and structured your argument.

II. Discuss your real juvenile offender (1 page or so)

a. This will require you to look around at famous cases of juvenile offenders. This can be any kid who has been convicted of a crime. You can find these cases anywhere (podcasts, movies, etc.), but you will use reputable news sources or articles to fill in your discussion of the youth and the case.

b. Most of this discussion should focus on the case.

III. Applying criminological theories (bulk of your paper)

a. Based on the facts of the real juvenile offenders’ case that you selected, you will discuss two criminological theories that can explain this person’s behavior

i. These theories can be ones we talk about in class or something you learned in the Criminological Theories/Criminology class.

b. You should not just speculate on the causes of this persons offending, but instead should use facts about the case and about their life to draw these conclusions.

IV. Prevention/rehabilitation programming

a. Based on what you determined the causes of your juvenile’s crime to be, what prevention programs or rehabilitation programs could be beneficial to this youth and kids that are similar to him/her?

b. Don’t forget to check the youth.gov website to look for effective programs! You can find this link in our last class PowerPoint.

V. Conclusion: students should, in 2-4 sentences, summarize the paper and present a new insight not drawn in the paper thus far.

Short paper 2 rubric: Prompt 1

Excellent

Above average

Acceptable

Below average

Non-existent

Introduction (2.5 points)

Student had an introduction that outlined the paper fully

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper and was confusing

Student had an introduction but it was off topic

Student did not include an intro

Discussing juvenile offender (10 points)

Student found a real juvenile offender, provided a clear description of who they are and the crime. It was well-researched and well-written.

Student found a real juvenile offender, provided a description of who they are and the crime. But the section was either not well-written or was not well-researched.

Student is missing 1 or more of the following: (1) found a real juvenile offender, (2) described a real juvenile offender, (3) well-researched and well-written.

Student is missing 2 or more of the following: (1) found a real juvenile offender, (2) described a real juvenile offender, (3) well-researched and well-written.

Student did not complete this section.

Applying theories/prevention programs (20 points)

Student presented two theories, used details about the youth to back up their case, and found appropriate programming. Well-written and researched.

Student is missing 1 of the following: (1) a discussion of theories, (2) why these theories apply, (3) a discussion of programming options, (4) why they apply, (5) well-written/researched

Student is missing 2 of the following: (1) a discussion of theories, (2) why these theories apply, (3) a discussion of programming options, (4) why they apply, (5) well-written/researched

Student is missing 3 or more of the following: (1) a discussion of theories, (2) why these theories apply, (3) a discussion of programming options, (4) why they apply, (5) well-written/researched

Student did not complete this section.

Conclusion (2.5 points)

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight and was well-written

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight but was not well-written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight, but was well written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight and it was not well-written

Student did not include a conclusion

References (5 points)

Student had at least 5 references, they were all reputable, and they were cited properly

Student had at least 5 references, but they were not reputable or were not cited properly

Student had fewer than 5 references but they were cited properly and were reputable

Student had fewer than 5 references and they were not cited properly or were not reputable

Student did not reference anything



Note: well-written = easy to understand, not 100% grammatically correct or perfect

.


Structure of paper for Prompt 2

I. Introduction: summarize in one paragraph what your paper will talk about.

a. I suggest writing this at the very end after you have already written up your paper and structured your argument.

II. Discuss the two risk factors you chose (bulk of your paper)

a. You should present the major key pieces of information on each risk factor.

i. This should include: the prevalence of that risk factor among the juvenile offending populations (aka what % of youth experience it), why its related to offending (any theoretical linkage to offending?), and present at least two facts about it that we did not discuss in class.

III. Prevention/rehabilitation programming

a. In this section, you should highlight at least one prevention or intervention program that could be used to combat each of your risk factors.

b. Don’t forget to check the youth.gov website to look for effective programs! You can find this link in our last class PowerPoint.

IV. Conclusion: students should, in 2-4 sentences, summarize the paper and present a new insight not drawn in the paper thus far.

Short paper 2 rubric: Prompt 2

Excellent

Above average

Acceptable

Below average

Non-existent

Introduction (2.5 points)

Student had an introduction that outlined the paper fully

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper

Student had an introduction but it only outlined part of the paper and was confusing

Student had an introduction but it was off topic

Student did not include an intro

Discussing risk factors (20 points)

Student met all of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student was missing one of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student was missing two of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student was missing three or more of the following criteria (1) selected two risk factors we discussed in class (2) provided prevalence and explanations for why this risk factor is related to delinquency, (3) provided two new facts about the risk factor, (4) it was well-written/researched

Student did not complete this section.

Applying prevention/rehab programs (10 points)

Student met the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student is missing one of the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student is missing two of the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student is missing all of the following criteria: (1) found one appropriate programming option for each risk factor, (2) explained why these are appropriate, (3) Well-written and researched.

Student did not complete this section.

Conclusion (2.5 points)

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight and was well-written

Student had a conclusion that summarized the paper and provided a new insight but was not well-written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight, but was well written

Student had a conclusion that was missing either (1) a summary of the paper or (2) a new insight and it was not well-written

Student did not include a conclusion

References (5 points)

Student had at least 5 references, they were all reputable, and they were cited properly

Student had at least 5 references, but they were not reputable or were not cited properly

Student had fewer than 5 references but they were cited properly and were reputable

Student had fewer than 5 references and they were not cited properly or were not reputable

Student did not reference anything



Note: well-written = easy to understand, not 100% grammatically correct or perfect

Criminal homework help

SOU-CCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System

SOU-CCJ230 Introduction to the

American Criminal Justice System

Alison S. Burke, David Carter, Brian Fedorek, Tiffany Morey, Lore

Rutz-Burri, and Shanell Sanchez

Open Oregon Educational Resources

SOU-CCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System by Alison S. Burke, David Carter, Brian Fedorek, Tiffany
Morey, Lore Rutz-Burri, and Shanell Sanchez is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

License, except where otherwise noted.

Contents

What is an OER textbook? 1

A Bit About Our Collaboration Project 2

Author Bios 3

Goals, Learning Objectives, and Skills 5

Table of Contents 7

Dedication 8

1: CRIME, CRIMINAL JUSTICE, AND CRIMINOLOGY

1.1. Crime and the Criminal Justice System
Shanell Sanchez

11

1.2. Deviance, Rule Violations, and Criminality
Shanell Sanchez

14

1.3. Social Norms: Folkways, Mores, Taboo, and Laws
Shanell Sanchez

16

1.4. Interactionist View
Shanell Sanchez

20

1.5. Consensus View and Decriminalizing Laws
Shanell Sanchez

24

1.6. Conflict View
Shanell Sanchez

27

1.7. The Three C’s: Cops, Courts, and Corrections
Shanell Sanchez

29

1.8. The Crime Control and Due Process Models
Shanell Sanchez

36

1.9. How Cases Move Through the System
Shanell Sanchez

39

1.10. Media Coverage of Crimes
Shanell Sanchez

43

1.11. Wedding Cake Model of Justice
Shanell Sanchez

48

1.12. Street Crime, Corporate Crime, and White-Collar Crime
Shanell Sanchez

51

1.13. Different Types of Crimes and Offenses
Shanell Sanchez

55

1.14. Victims and Victim Typologies
Shanell Sanchez

57

1.15. Victim Rights and Assistance
Shanell Sanchez

60

1.16. “Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child” Myth/Controversy 65

2: DEFINING AND MEASURING CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

2.1. Dark or Hidden Figure of Crime
Shanell Sanchez

69

2.2. Official Statistics
Shanell Sanchez

71

2.3. Victimization Studies
Shanell Sanchez

77

2.4. Self-Report Statistics
Shanell Sanchez

79

2.5. Misusing Statistics
Shanell Sanchez

82

3: CRIMINAL LAW

3.1. Functions and Limitations of Law
Lore Rutz-Burri

87

3.2. Civil, Criminal, and Moral Wrongs
Lore Rutz-Burri

89

3.3. Sources of Criminal Law: Federal and State Constitutions
Lore Rutz-Burri

92

3.4. Sources of Criminal Law: Statutes, Ordinances, and Other Legislative Enactments
Lore Rutz-Burri

100

3.5. Sources of Law: Administrative Law, Common Law, Case Law and Court Rules
Lore Rutz-Burri

103

3.6. Classifications of Law
Lore Rutz-Burri

110

3.7. Substantive Law: Defining Crimes, Inchoate Liability, Accomplice Liability, and Defenses
Lore Rutz-Burri

113

3.8. Substantive Law: Punishment: Incarceration and Confinement Sanctions
Lore Rutz-Burri

117

3.9. Substantive Law: Physical Punishment Sentences
Lore Rutz-Burri

122

3.10. Substantive Law: Monetary Punishment Sentences
Lore Rutz-Burri

126

3.11. Substantive Law: Community-Based Sentences
Lore Rutz-Burri

129

3.12. Procedural Law
Lore Rutz-Burri

134

4: CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY

4.1. Importance of Policy in Criminal Justice
Alison S. Burke

139

4.2. The Myth of Moral Panics
Alison S. Burke

142

4.3. The Stages of Policy Development
Alison S. Burke

147

4.4. Importance of Evidence Based Practices
Alison S. Burke

151

4.5. Re-Evaluating Policy
Alison S. Burke

153

5: CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY

5.1. What is Theory?
Brian Fedorek

159

5.2. What Makes a Good Theory?
Brian Fedorek

161

5.3. Pre-Classical Theory
Brian Fedorek

163

5.4. Classical School
Brian Fedorek

164

5.5. Neoclassical
Brian Fedorek

167

5.6. Positivist Criminology
Brian Fedorek

170

5.7. Biological and Psychological Positivism
Brian Fedorek

172

5.8. The Chicago School
Brian Fedorek

174

5.9. Strain Theories
Brian Fedorek

176

5.10. Learning Theories
Brian Fedorek

179

5.11. Control Theories
Brian Fedorek

183

5.12. Other Criminological Theories
Brian Fedorek

186

6: POLICING

6.1. Policing in Ancient Times
Tiffany Morey

191

6.2. Sir Robert Peel
Tiffany Morey

193

6.3. Policing Eras
Tiffany Morey

196

6.4. Levels of Policing and Role of Police
Tiffany Morey

207

6.5. Recruitment and Hiring in Policing
Tiffany Morey

224

6.6. Recruitment and Hiring Websites for Future Careers
Tiffany Morey

235

6.7. Police Misconduct, Accountability, and Corruption
Tiffany Morey

244

6.8. Current Issues: Police Shootings
Tiffany Morey

247

6.9. Current Issues: Use of Force and Vehicle Pursuits
Tiffany Morey

250

6.10. Current Issues: Stereotypes in Policing
Tiffany Morey

252

6.11. Current Issues: Accountability
Tiffany Morey

255

6.12. Current Issues: Internal Affairs and Discipline
Tiffany Morey

257

6.13.Current Issues: Body Cameras
Tiffany Morey

260

6.14. Myth: “Police Only Write Speeding Tickets to Harass Citizens and it is Entrapment.”
Tiffany Morey

261

7: COURTS

7.1. Introduction to the U.S. Court System
Lore Rutz-Burri

265

7.2. Jurisdiction
Lore Rutz-Burri

266

7.3. Structure of the Courts: The Dual Court and Federal Court System
Lore Rutz-Burri

269

7.4. Structure of the Courts: State Courts
Lore Rutz-Burri

276

7.5. American Trial Courts and the Principle of Orality
Lore Rutz-Burri

279

7.6. The Appeals Process, Standard of Review, and Appellate Decisions
Lore Rutz-Burri

280

7.7. Federal Appellate Review of State Cases
Lore Rutz-Burri

284

7.8. Courtroom Players: Judges and Court Staff
Lore Rutz-Burri

286

7.9. Courtroom Players: Prosecutors
Lore Rutz-Burri

293

7.10. Courtroom Workgroup: Defense Attorneys
Lore Rutz-Burri

297

8: CORRECTIONS

8.1. A Brief History of The Philosophies of Punishment
David Carter

311

8.2. Retribution
David Carter

313

8.3. Deterrence
David Carter

315

8.4. Incapacitation
David Carter

318

8.5. Rehabilitation
David Carter

321

8.6. Prisons and Jails
David Carter

324

8.7. A Brief History of Prisons and Jails
David Carter

325

8.8. Types of Jails
David Carter

329

8.9. Who Goes to Jail?
David Carter

332

8.10. Growth of Prisons in the United States
David Carter

334

8.11. Types of Prisons
David Carter

336

8.12. Prison Levels
David Carter

339

8.13. Who Goes to Prison?
David Carter

342

9: COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS

9.1. Diversion
David Carter

347

9.2. Intermediate Sanctions
David Carter

349

9.3. Probation
David Carter

352

9.4. Boot Camps/Shock Incarceration
David Carter

357

9.5. Drug Courts
David Carter

359

9.6. Halfway Houses
David Carter

360

9.8. House Arrest
David Carter

362

9.9. Community Residential Facilities
David Carter

363

9.10. Restorative Justice
David Carter

365

9.11. Parole
David Carter

367

9.12. Current Issues in Corrections
David Carter

371

9.13. Current Issues in Corrections: Mass Incarceration
David Carter

372

9.14. Current Issues in Corrections: War on Drugs and Gangs
David Carter

376

9.15. Current Issues in Corrections: Aging and Overcrowding
David Carter

379

9.16. Current Issues in Corrections: Reentry and the Future of Corrections
David Carter

384

10: JUVENILE JUSTICE

10.1. Youth Crime
Alison S. Burke

389

10.2. Juvenile Justice
Alison S. Burke

390

10.3. History of the Juvenile Justice System
Alison S. Burke

392

10.4. Delinquency
Alison S. Burke

396

10.5. Juvenile Justice Process
Alison S. Burke

398

10.6. Due Process in the Juvenile Court
Alison S. Burke

399

10.7. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
Alison S. Burke

402

10.8. Getting Tough: Initiatives for Punishment and Accountability
Alison S. Burke

403

10.9. Returning to Rehabilitation in the Contemporary Juvenile Justice System
Alison S. Burke

407

10.10. The Structure of the Juvenile Justice System
Alison S. Burke

410

10.11. Juvenile Institutions
Alison S. Burke

413

Glossary 417

We hope you are as excited about this textbook as we were writing it. This is a free academic resource and

a free textbook that can be printed at low-cost if you prefer paper. Southern Oregon University’s Disability

Resource has reviewed this textbook for accessibility to all students.

Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System is an Open Educational Resource (OER)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources that is licensed under the Creative Commons

(CC 4.0) format https://creativecommons.org with support to complete this project from Open Oregon

Educational Resources https://openoregon.org.

This introductory textbook is unique because it was a collaborative effort by all Criminology and Criminal

Justice professors at Southern Oregon University (SOU) in Ashland, Oregon. This textbook will meet the

learning objectives outlined through SOU and as a community college transfer course, as well as cover all

other topics expected to find in an introductory course. This book can be used on a quarter or semester

system, as well as cover topics that may get left out of some introductory texts such as controversial issues in

the criminal justice system. Further, we made it as comprehensive as possible to cover core concepts and areas

in the criminal justice system including theory, policing, courts, corrections, and the juvenile justice system.

Additionally, we created examples that will help make difficult concepts or ideas more relatable. Every

section provides an overview of key terms, critical thinking questions for course engagement, assignments,

and other ancillaries such as multimedia links, images, activity ideas, and more.

Feel free to ask any questions. Email Shanell Sanchez at sanchezs2@sou.edu with any specific questions

about the book or any other professor if it is specific to their page.

1

A Bit About Our Collaboration Project

This OER could not be possible without the support from many different people. Our financial support came

from a grant through Open Oregon https://openoregon.org.

Dr. Shanell Sanchez wants to personally thank all her colleagues at SOU for taking on this endeavor with

her. The first plan was to adapt and edit an existing OER, but after an exhaustive search of OER’s, we found

there is a dearth of CCJ OER’s. We realized that if we wrote this book, we would be one of the first CCJ

OER’s available. The initial idea seemed a bit overwhelming, but watching it come together was amazing.

Dr. Sanchez had a vision for what an ideal textbook should look like for first-year students and our newest

majors or potential majors, but it was not possible without all of us working together.

Amy Hofer at Linn-Benton Community College served as our grant manager, but she went beyond that.

She has served as an excellent resource, mentor, and helped us find opportunities to present our experiences

at conferences.

Dr. Jeffrey Gayton is our university librarian at Southern Oregon University and helped coordinate this

project from the start of our application to the release of our OER going live.

Brian Stonelake, a professor in the Mathematics department at Southern Oregon University, provided

excellent guidance and insight to us when we were applying for the grant.

Christina Richardson was our student that served as a contributing editor, as well as created our glossary

for this OER. She went through the entire book to pose suggestions, edits, and comments that helped make

the end product better.

2

Author Bios

Alison S. Burke, Ph.D., Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon University,
https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/burke.html

Alison S. Burke is a professor of criminology and criminal justice at Southern Oregon University.

She earned her Ph.D. from Indiana University of Pennsylvania and her MCJ from the University of

Colorado Denver. While in Denver, she worked with adjudicated youth in residential treatment facilities

and group homes. She has published a variety of journal articles and book chapters related to juvenile justice,

delinquency, and gender, and her primary research interests involve women and crime, juvenile justice

and delinquency, and pedagogy in higher education. Her most recent book is titled Teaching Introduction to
Criminology (2019).

David E. Carter, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern
Oregon University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/davidcarter.html

David E. Carter joined the Criminology and Criminal Justice Department in 2008. He received his Ph.D.

from the University of Cincinnati. Dave served in the U.S. Army for 8 years as a linguist prior to attending

school. He has published works in the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency in the area of life-

course research, as well as in the Corrections Compendium, where he wrote about U.S. inmate populations.

He also works with local agencies (in a consultative role) providing evidence-based practices and evaluations

for correctional programs in the area of effective interventions and evidence-based programming. At SOU,

Dave has helped facilitate the Lock-In event and annual that provides students with a hands-on experience

of the justice system.

Brian Fedorek, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon
University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/brianfedorek.html

Brian Fedorek earned his doctorate at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania in Criminology. He has

taught classes in Terrorism, Comparative Criminal Justice, Theories of Criminal Behavior, and introductory

courses. His research interests include media and crime, criminological theory, and criminal violence. He has

served on the board of the Western Association of Criminal Justice.

Tiffany L. Morey, M.S., Instructor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon
University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/tiffany-morey-m-s.html

Tiffany L. Morey has an almost three-decade career in the law enforcement arena. She retired as a

Lieutenant from a police department in Las Vegas, Nevada. Her expertise is in the law enforcement, crime

scene investigation (CSI), and forensics fields. During her tenure in policing in Las Vegas she worked

in patrol, the crime prevention division, community services, recruitment, special events, problem-solving

unit (first ever unit/substation for her department in a high gang and drug area), undercover prostitution

3

and narcotics stings, search warrant service assistance, mounted unit departmental work, CSI (crime scene

investigator), forensics, Sergeant and Sergeant field training program and master trainer, Lieutenant and

Lieutenant field training program, and finally Acting Captain. During this time, she was also chosen and paid

by an independent firm to travel the country and conduct oral board interviews and assessment center testing

and recruiting for law enforcement agencies and fire departments. She developed a ground-breaking class

to assist candidates in the law enforcement hiring process and is now under contract to publish the related

textbook/study guide. Tiffany continues to operate in the field of CSI and forensics as an expert investigator

and witness on violent crime. She also runs a Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

business, offering citizens and owners of businesses CPTED reviews to ensure the safety of their homes and

buildings. Finally, in her free time, she runs SOAR Wildlife Center (SoarWildlife.org), which is a non-profit

organization, that rehabilitates sick, injured, or orphaned fawns and other baby mammals.

Lore Rutz-Burri, J.D., Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon
University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/rutz.html

Lore Rutz-Burri is a 1982 graduate of Southern Oregon State College (now SOU) with a Bachelors of

Arts degree in Criminology and Political Science. After graduating, she lived in Southern Austria until 1984.

Upon returning to the states, she earned an M.C.J (Master’s degree in Criminal Justice) from the University

of South Carolina. In 1985 she started in a Ph.D. program at the University of Maryland, College Park, but

early on decided she would rather pursue a law degree. In 1989 she graduated “order of the coif” with her

doctor of jurisprudence (JD) from the University of Oregon School of Law. Following law school, Lore

clerked for the Superior Court of Alaska in Fairbanks for one year and then worked for 5 years as a deputy

district attorney in Josephine County, Oregon. There, she prosecuted a variety of crimes, but mostly assault

cases. In 1995, she began teaching criminology and criminal justice at SOU. Since 2015 she has been a

part-time Circuit Court judge in the Josephine County courts. Lore has been married for over 27 years to

her husband, Markus (a Swiss national). They have two sons– Severin (who studied at SOU and majored in

psychology) and Jaston (who studied at U of O and majored in philosophy). She has both case books and

introductory text on criminal law and criminal procedure.

Shanell K. Sanchez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern
Oregon University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/dr-shanell-sanchez.html

Shanell Sanchez joined the Criminology and Criminal Justice department at Southern Oregon University

in Ashland, Oregon in 2016. Prior to that, Shanell was an Assistant Professor in Criminal Justice at Colorado

Mesa University in Grand Junction, Colorado. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska-

Lincoln in Sociology in 2012. Her research and teaching interests are centered around social change and

justice, inequality, and comparative crime and justice.

ALISON S. BURKE, DAVID CARTER, BRIAN FEDOREK, TIFFANY MOREY, LORE RUTZ-BURRI, AND SHANELL
SANCHEZ

4

Goals, Learning Objectives, and Skills

There is a dearth of OER textbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice, which made creating this textbook

all the more exciting. At times we faced challenges about what or how much to cover, but our primary goal

was to make sure this book was as in-depth as the two textbooks we were currently using for our CCJ 230

introduction course. The only way we were willing to undertake this project as if it was as good, or better

than the current books students read. We have had very positive feedback about the required textbooks in

the course but consistently heard how expensive the books were to buy. We also needed to ensure we met

the learning outcomes outlined by SOU for a general education course, as well as the state of Oregon, to

make sure this textbook helps students meet those outcomes.

SOU’s catalog course description for CCJ 230 states this course surveys the functional areas of criminal

justice in the United States. This OER covers law enforcement, criminal courts, sentencing, penal

institutions, and community-based sanctions. It also includes historical and contemporary perspectives on

components of the criminal justice system, as well as the legal and constitutional frameworks in which they

operate.

Learning Objectives

• Students will increase the breadth of their knowledge and understanding of the American Criminal

Justice System.

• Students will enhance their critical thinking skills via writing, reading, and discussion.

• Students will learn the history, functions, responsibilities, processes, and importance of each

component of the criminal justice system.

• Students will become familiar with research and its relationship to criminal justice policy.

• Students will use the foundations learned about the American criminal justice system in future CCJ

courses.

Additionally, myths and controversies are incorporated in the course covering the above-noted content areas

in the American criminal justice system. In our experience, this tends to be the most exciting part of the

class. It also helps students build all learning outcomes through assignments, readings, and materials covered

in class. The primary goal when writing this book was to make it easy to read, with fun examples, thought-

5

provoking discussion questions, and is accessible to all to ensure that students would read. The content level

targeted first-year students who are taking their first course in Criminology and Criminal Justice, but also as

a general education course for those that may not intend to major. In order to ensure each area has accessible

materials for the course and meets our learning objectives and goals, we have conducted preliminary research

in order to determine our best option is moving forward.

ALISON S. BURKE, DAVID CARTER, BRIAN FEDOREK, TIFFANY MOREY, LORE RUTZ-BURRI, AND SHANELL
SANCHEZ

6

Table of Contents

1. Crime, Criminal Justice and Criminology

2. Defining and Measuring Crime and Criminal Justice

3. Criminal Law

4. Criminal Justice Policy

5. Criminological Theory

6. Policing

7. Courts

8. Corrections

9. Community Corrections

10. Juvenile Justice

7

Dedication

We dedicate this book to our students at Southern Oregon University, who continuously work hard in our

classes and develop lasting relationships with us. We also dedicate this book to all our partners, children, fur

babies, and friends that supported us in the writing process.

8

1: Crime, Criminal Justice, and

Criminology

Learning Objectives

This section will broadly introduce crime, criminal justice, and criminology. This section is designed to be a

broad overview of what the subsequent chapters will cover in detail. It also demonstrates how the United States

create laws, policies enacted to enforce laws, and the role of the media. After reading this section, students will be

able to:

• Understand the differences between deviance, rule violations, and criminality

• Explain the differences between the interactionist, consensus, and conflict views in the creation of

laws

• Identify the three components of the criminal justice system

• Discuss the differences between crime control and due process model, and application examples to

each

• Describe the wedding cake model theory and application examples to each tier

• Briefly explain the role of the media and how media may spread myths in society

• Briefly understand the unique role of victims in the criminal justice process

Background Knowledge Probe: The goal here is to assess current knowledge about the criminal
justice system at the start of the course. Each of these topics is covered throughout the course, and they will

often be a controversial topic and topic for debate.

You will indicate whether you know each statement to be True or False, but there is no right or wrong

answer since it is just to assess your background knowledge.

1. Blacks commit more crime than any other racial group.

9

2. The United States has the lowest recidivism rates in the world (return to prison).

3. The death penalty is cheaper than life imprisonment.

4. Politicians shape our thoughts on crime, even if they are inaccurate.

5. Children are most likely to be killed by a stranger.

6. A stranger is most likely to physically harm you.

7. White-collar crime costs our country more every year than street-crime.

8. Juveniles are more violent today than ever before.

9. Immigrants commit more crime than native-born people.

10. Violent crime has risen in the United States over the last 20 years.

ALISON S. BURKE, DAVID CARTER, BRIAN FEDOREK, TIFFANY MOREY, LORE RUTZ-BURRI, AND SHANELL
SANCHEZ

10

1.1. Crime and the Criminal Justice System

SHANELL SANCHEZ

Theft as a Child

The first lesson in crime and criminality I remember was when I was in second grade and stole something from

a local drug store. I thought that the bracelet was shiny and perfect. At first, I remember wanting to try it on, but

then I did not want to take it off. I had more questions than my Nana may have been ready to answer about why I

did it and why I could not keep it. I had to take the bracelet back, which hurt because I loved it. Because of guilt or

shame, I told my grandma what I did.

Think about a time in your life that you may have done something similar. Was this first lesson in crime and

criminality from the person you were raised by such as a parent(s) or grandparent(s)? Did they teach you that what

you did was a crime and, hopefully, how to correct this wrong at a young age?

You were probably punished, and they may have consisted of helping out with more chores or losing your

allowance to pay back what you stole.

Imagine all the questions you may have for your parents at the moment: Why was it wrong? What would happen

to me if I did not tell you? What is a crime? Who decides what makes a crime? What happens to me if I commit a

crime and get caught? What is my punishment? Why was it wrong when there were so many polishes there?

Further, I had to help out around the house for the weekend. In exchange for all this, she did not tell my dad

because she knew her punishment was sufficient and to tell him may be excessive. She took a balanced approach to

punishment and I think this is why it was so effective. It was not too strict, it was hard to complete, and I had to

think about what I did.

Most criminologists define crime as the violation of the laws of a society by a person or a group of
people who are subject to the laws of that society (citizens). Thus, crime as defined by the State or Federal

government. Essentially, crime is what the law states and a violation of the law, stated in the statue, would

make actions criminal.
1

1. Lynch, M., Stretesky, P., Long, M. (2015). Defining crime: A critique of the concept and its implication. Palgrave Macmillan: US.

11

For example, if someone murdered another individual in the process of stealing their automobile most

people would see this as a criminal and a straight-forward example of crime. We often see murder and

robbery as wrong and harms society, as well as social order. However, there are times crime is not as straight-

forward though and people may hesitate to call it criminal. The community I live in, and many others

throughout the area, post signs that it is illegal to give food and other items to homeless individuals in need.

If one were to violate this law and give food to a homeless person it would not involve harm to individuals,

but the social order.

Adele MacLean joined others in an At

Criminal homework help

2

Evaluate Restorative Justice

Write an essay to address the following and support your points with the cases provided in the module content (Page III): 

· Identify the key principles of restorative justice and what it aims to achieve.

· What are the key elements that restorative justice programs must observe in order to achieve the goal of healing and repairing relationships?  

· Who should be involved in the restorative justice process for it to function effectively? Why is each role important?

· Do you agree that restorative justice will transform the traditional criminal justice? Explain your answer and support it with evidence.

· Do you have concerns or criticisms of this program? Please explain your answer.  

Write a paper that meets the following requirements:

· Be 2-3 pages in length not counting the title and reference pages, which you must include.

· Use terms, evidence, and concepts from class readings.

· Cite at least three scholarly sources for this assignment. Scholarly resources include peer-reviewed journal articles, books, the class textbook, or reports/documents from the government (.gov sites). A scholarly source does not include general sources from the internet (.com, .org, .edu, and .net sites are not scholarly). Scholarly resources should be current (no older than five years). If the class textbook is used as a source, then five other scholarly sources must be used. 

Criminal homework help

Fostering topic knowledge: essential for academic
writing

Antje Proske • Felix Kapp

Published online: 30 November 2012

� Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Abstract Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer’s topic knowledge
for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying

source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is

to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an

adequate situation model by initiating macro-strategies. In order to examine whether

the provision of interactive learning questions during studying source texts leads to

better results in academic writing both writing process and performance of a group

supported by interactive learning questions was compared to a study-only group

which read the source texts without learning questions. Results revealed that stu-

dents provided with interactive learning questions wrote longer essays and spend

significantly more time prewriting and writing/revising their essays than did the

students of the study-only group. Studying source texts with learning questions

resulted in text products of better readability and partly better accuracy and cov-

erage of content. These findings suggest that engaging students in answering

learning questions when reading source texts can positively affect both writing

process and performance.

Keywords Writing from sources � Academic writing � Learning questions �
Writing process � Topic knowledge � Text comprehension � Macro-strategies

Introduction

Scientific texts are fundamental for the communication of knowledge. In academic

writing writers usually compose from sources. Thus, they are also readers, transform-

ing source texts in order to create their own text product (Spivey & King, 1989).

A. Proske (&) � F. Kapp
Psychology of Learning and Instruction, TU Dresden, Zellescher Weg 17, 01062 Dresden, Germany

e-mail: antje.proske@tu-dresden.de

123

Read Writ (2013) 26:1337–1352

DOI 10.1007/s11145-012-9421-4

While using source texts for the creation of one’s own text product, writers employ

the constructive operations of selecting, organizing, and connecting to construct

meaning (Spivey, 1990). Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer’s topic

knowledge for these processes (e.g., Ackerman, 1991; Spivey, 1990; Spivey &

King, 1989). In order to produce a scientific text as good as possible writers need to

transform their knowledge and the source text information to explain, evaluate,

analyze, and argue aspects of a scientific topic (McCarthy Young & Leinhardt,

1998). This requires a richly connected and well-structured situation model of the

writing topic. However, research rarely addressed the importance of situation

models for writing (e.g., Eigler, Jechle, Merziger, & Winter, 1990; Parodi, 2007).

The purpose of this study was to investigate if fostering writers’ topic knowledge

by learning questions improves academic writing. The learning questions were

specifically designed to require writers performing a particular series of cognitive

processes (i.e., macro-strategies) in order to construct an adequate situation model

of the writing topic (Proske, Körndle, & Narciss, 2012).

The construction of topic knowledge when writing from sources

When using source texts to create one’s own text, writers are engaged into acts of

discourse synthesis in which they possess not only the role of a writer, but also the role

of a reader (Spivey, 1990; Spivey & King, 1989). In transforming source text

information into their text product, reading and writing processes are blended in which

writers actively select, organize, and connect information. This information can

originate from the source texts, from one’s own text, or the writers’ prior knowledge.

Writers generate relationships (a) within and between several source texts, (b) between

source text information and the writers’ prior knowledge, and (c) within and between

the source texts, the current own text product, and the writers’ prior knowledge. Thus,

one’s own text product is built through the purposeful interaction of comprehension

and composing processes (e.g., Parodi, 2007).

The comprehension processes require the application of macro-strategies which

transform sequences of propositions of the local text level into a set of macro-

propositions that represent the macro-structure of a text. To this end, all micro-

propositions that are either irrelevant or redundant are deleted or generalized, or new

inferred propositions are constructed (van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983). Each level of text

processing leaves a memory trace. The result is an elaborated situation model of the

writing topic that may include some of the surface features of the source texts, its

meaning at the local text level, the global meaning of the source texts, as well as an

interpretation of the text meaning in the light of writers’ experiences, knowledge, or goals

(Kintsch, 2005). The situation model allows the writer to easily retrieve knowledge from

memory for writing. The generated macro-propositions become part of the situation

model and will be of potential meaning for the composition activity (Spivey, 1990).

The composition activity is made up of a series of strategies which either retrieve

stored information included within the situation model (reproduction) and/or

construct plausible inferences from the situation model (reconstruction, van Dijk &

Kintsch, 1983). For these composition processes three macro-operators can be

applied: (a) addition of details and properties, (b) particularization, and

1338 A. Proske, F. Kapp

123

(c) specification of conditions, components, or consequences. The retrieved

information then has to be translated into words and sentences.

The macro-structural processes, either comprehension or composition, are

facilitated when more topic knowledge is available or when the topic knowledge

is better structured within long term memory (Benton, Corkill, Sharp, Downey, &

Khramtsova, 1995; Dansac & Alamargot, 1999; Kellogg, 2001; Kucer, 1985). If the

needed information is not prominent or available in the situation model, either

extensive search procedures or structural elaborations of the content to be retrieved

will become necessary (Benton et al., 1995; Dansac & Alamargot, 1999).

Topic knowledge, the writing process, and the quality of written products

High-knowledge writers need less effort to retrieve and use the relevant knowledge

for their written text product (Dansac & Alamargot, 1999; Kellogg, 1987) which

allows them to fluently generate ideas and text segments (McCutchen, 2000). In

addition, more topic knowledge is associated with more revision of meaning (e.g.,

Butterfield, Hacker, & Albertson, 1996; McCutchen, Francis, & Kerr, 1997).

With respect to the written products, topic knowledge is considered to affect both

text length and topic-relevance of a text, with more topic knowledge related to

longer texts and more topic-relevance (e.g., Benton et al., 1995; Eigler et al., 1990;

Kellogg, 2001). High topic knowledge further contributes to coherent, elaborated,

and specific ideas in text products (e.g., Ackerman, 1991; McCarthy Young &

Leinhardt, 1998; McCutchen, 1986) that present relevant information well-

organized (e.g., Spivey & King, 1989) in ways that anticipate the needs or interests

of the reader (e.g., Ackerman, 1991; Benton et al., 1995).

Most research on topic knowledge in writing focused on assignments in which topic

knowledge was operationalized in terms of prior knowledge on a topic. Here it was

also found that the use of writing strategies may depend on students’ level of topic

knowledge. Hammann and Stevens (2003) reported less application of strategies in

case of high topic knowledge. Writers may not perceive a need to utilize a strategy if

they think they already understand the writing topic, even if their knowledge is

insufficient for the writing task (e.g., Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987; Hammann &

Stevens, 2003). Accordingly, writing assignments encouraging students to improve

their current situation model (e.g., argumentative writing) proved to be superior to

other assignments (e.g., writing a narrative or a summary) in terms of writing

performance (Durst, 1987), as well as learning gains (Wiley & Voss, 1999).

However, research about how to foster topic knowledge in writing is sparse

(Eigler et al., 1990). Butcher and Kintsch (2001) found that students given topic-

related computer devices planned and drafted significantly longer than students that

were given rhetorical devices. In addition, students who received topic-related

support discriminated better between important and unimportant information for

their essays (Butcher & Kintsch, 2001). Other research showed that presenting

source information well-structured (i.e., in a way that the information could easily

be chunked) reduced the cognitive demands of organizational processing when

constructing a situation model of the writing topic, as well as when retrieving

information for composition processes (Dansac & Alamargot, 1999). Altogether, the

Fostering topic knowledge 1339

123

above reviewed findings indicate that fostering topic knowledge when writing from

sources may be a promising means of improving students’ writing performance.

Learning questions and the construction of topic knowledge

A learning question is a specifically designed task in which the series of cognitive

operations and actions conducing to the answer production lead learners to be

actively engaged in information processing (Proske et al., 2012). Thus, learning

questions will foster cognitive operations that the learner would have difficulty

using without them. In this way, learning questions might also be suitable to support

the construction of a richly interconnected situation model of a writing topic which

in turn may allow writers to produce better text products.

Theories of instructional design (e.g., Merrill, 2002) as well as theories of complex

learning (e.g., van Merriënboer & Dijkstra, 1997) emphasize to analyze prior to the

construction of learning questions the demands of the particular domain. This includes

identifying what the learners will be required to do, as well as the knowledge and skills

that may be helpful to meet these requirements. Deep comprehension of unfamiliar

source text information most likely does require the conscious and goal directed

application of macro-operators (McNamara & Magliano, 2009). One of the greatest

differences between good and poor writing from sources lies in the ability to make two

important kinds of inferences when reading (e.g., Brown & Day, 1983; Hidi &

Anderson, 1986): inferring a superordinate information to subsume several informa-

tion and inferring a macro-proposition to replace several propositions. According to

van Dijk and Kintsch (1983) both kinds of inferences belong to the macro-strategies

necessary to build the macro-structure of a source text. The former is also referred to as

the macro-strategy of generalizing, the latter to as the macro-strategy of constructing

(van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983). These kinds of macro-strategies are difficult because they

require that the readers/writers add information rather than just delete or select

information provided within the source texts (Brown & Day, 1983; Parodi, 2007).

Research shows that answering macro-structural text questions improved source

text comprehension compared to answering questions focusing on the micro-structure

of a source text (Britt & Sommer, 2004). As such they can be classified as deeper

questions. Deeper questions in general tend to encourage deeper text processing,

which is more beneficial to a better understanding of what the given text is about

(Kintsch, 2005). Similarly, learning questions guide learning and facilitate learners’

retention and deep understanding of the learning topic (e.g., Cerdán, Vidal-Abarca,

Martı́nez, Gilabert, & Gil, 2009; Hamaker, 1986; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006).

Furthermore, learning questions can trigger metacognitive processes devoted to

learning process regulation (McDaniel & Wooldridge, 2012). For example, they might

indicate which of the source text information is relevant to provoke learners to reread a

given text (e.g., Hamaker, 1986; Kapp, Narciss, Körndle, & Proske, 2011).

The purpose of this study is to investigate if students’ academic writing can be

improved by learning questions that support them in constructing a situation model

of the writing topic. More specifically, it will be investigated if and how learning

questions requiring students to apply the macro-strategies of generalizing and

constructing can affect writing process and performance.

1340 A. Proske, F. Kapp

123

Method

Participants

Forty-eight university students (39 women, 9 men, M age = 20.79 years,

SD = 2.54) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were native

German speakers recruited from several introductory lectures in psychology and

education. The average number of completed writing assignments at the university

was 1.5 (SD = 2.15). The mean time studying at the university was 1.92 semester

(SD = 1.97). As compensation for the participation students received a guideline

for writing academic texts and took part in a lottery. The prizes were books from the

field of psychology or a cinema voucher.

Design and procedure

In order to answer a given writing assignment students were required to study two

source texts and to write an essay with a web-based editor. Participants were

randomly assigned to one of the following two conditions of a between-subject

design. Students in the learning-questions condition (n = 22) answered 10 learning

questions after studying each source text. In the study-only condition (n = 26), the

participants did not receive learning questions. There were no statistically

significant differences between the groups with respect to age, gender, semester,

course of studies, and experience in academic writing in terms of already completed

writing assignments at university.

At the beginning of the experimental session, all students received brief

instructions in using the web-based editor. Subsequently, they completed a

questionnaire on their writing motivation and usual writing activities. In the next

step, the writing assignment was presented on the computer screen. The source texts

were given on paper one by one. Students were free to work with the source texts as

often and as long as desired. All students were provided with two different text

markers, two pens, as well as draft paper. There were no restrictions to use these

tools. Hence, students were free to deploy their own study technique when working

on the source texts. After studying each source text the learning-questions group

answered the respective learning questions on computer. There were no time

restrictions so that students could work on the assignment as long as they wanted.

The experimental session lasted about 2.5 h.

Materials

Writing assignment and source texts

The writing assignment was about Loftus’ position on the reliability of suppressed

memories (Loftus, 1979). Students were asked to present (A) Loftus’ academic

position, (B) evidence in favor of this position, (C) evidence against this position,

and (D) their own opinion.

Fostering topic knowledge 1341

123

In order to complete the assignment, students were asked to integrate information

from two German source texts. The first source text supported Loftus’ position, the

other argued against the position. The source texts were taken from an excursus of

the German translation of Hilgard’s introduction to psychology (Atkinson,

Atkinson, Smith, Bem, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000). Each source text was written

like an original scientific paper and explicitly presented evidence for the particular

position. The source texts consisted of 805 and 874 words (445 and 426 different

words, 38 and 41 sentences). For all texts the sentences per paragraph ranged from

5.1 to 5.5. The readability indices of the texts, as indicated by the Wiener

Sachtextformel, were 13, thereby suggesting that both source texts were appropriate

for the age of 13. The Wiener Sachtextformel (Bamberger & Rabin, 1984) was

developed for German non-fictional texts. This formula takes into consideration the

length of the sentences and the proportion of polysyllabic words as a measure of

readability. It results in scores approximately corresponding with the reader’s

recommended age, so a value of 4 indicates a very easy text and a value of 15 is

indicative of a more challenging text.

Learning questions

To support the construction of a situation model for each source text 10 interactive

learning questions (i.e., a total of 20 learning questions) were developed on the basis

of the model of text comprehension and production (van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983).

These learning questions required students to perform text reduction processes

either by applying the macro-strategy of generalizing single source text information

(5 for each source text = 10) or by applying the macro-strategy of constructing an

inferred statement from a number of single source text information (5 for each

source text = 10).

All sub-parts of the writing assignment were covered by the learning questions.

Three learning questions explicitly addressed Loftus’ academic position (part A),

two learning questions dealt with evidence in favor (part B), seven questions with

evidence against Loftus’ position (part C), and two learning questions regarded the

evaluation of Loftus’ position (part D). Three learning questions were related to

Loftus’ position and evidence in favor of this position (AB), and the remaining three

learning questions addressed part B and C, namely pro and counter arguments. The

total coverage of the learning questions was as follows: part A: 6, part B: 8, part C:

10, part D: 2. Form and interactivity of the learning questions were held constant

(multiple-choice with two trials, explanation of correct answer). Figure 1 shows an

example of an interactive learning question.

Web-based editor

Both experimental groups used a text editor with the typical editor functions copy

and paste, font formatting, and listing (see Fig. 2). These functions are also usually

provided in free web-based email services. The writing assignment was continu-

ously present at the top of the screen. The textbook articles were given on paper. As

mentioned before, students could work on the assignment as long as they wanted.

1342 A. Proske, F. Kapp

123

Measures

Writing motivation

Writing motivation is defined as the students’ feelings and beliefs about writing

(Bruning & Horn, 2000; Hidi & Boscolo, 2006). It was measured by a questionnaire

developed on the basis of an integrative expectation-value model of learners’

motivation (Narciss, 2008). The response scale ranged from 1 (not at all true) to 6

(very true). The questionnaire consists of the two scales intrinsic value of writing

(4 items, Cronbach’s alpha = .85, e.g., I enjoy academic writing) and competence

beliefs (4 items, Cronbach’s alpha = .84, e.g., I think I am very gifted in academic

writing). In case the instrument is used for group comparisons in research, several

researchers recommend a Cronbach’s alpha between .80 and .90 as very good (e.g.,

DeVellis, 2003). Thus, the Cronbach’s alpha of the scales can be considered as

adequate for comparing groups with respect to writing motivation.

Usual writing activities

A 23-item questionnaire was used to assess writing activity use (Proske, 2007). For

each item, the students indicated whether they typically carry out the presented

activity during their academic writing. The questionnaire included the following

writing activities: establishing coherence (e.g., I check whether transitions clarify

relations between the text sections; translated from German to English), processing

information (e.g., I write down my ideas regarding a source text), and processing

Fig. 1 The user interface of an interactive learning question

Fostering topic knowledge 1343

123

source texts (e.g., During intensive reading, I highlight the relevant information in a

source text). The students were asked to rate the truth of each statement on a 6-point

scale ranging from 1 (not at all true) to 6 (very true). Scores on this questionnaire

showed an internal consistency adequate for group comparisons as demonstrated by

a Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of .85.

Behavior and success while working on the learning questions

All students’ activities on the learning questions were recorded in log-files. For each

source text the time of working on the respective learning questions was

summarized from these log-files. The measure of total time spent for working on

the learning questions represents the sum of time on all 20 learning questions. All

interactive learning questions provided a two-trial strategy and informative tutoring

feedback information. After participants failed on their first solution attempt, they

received immediate feedback indicating a mistake had been made. Therefore, in

order to assess success on the learning questions, the number of correctly answered

questions in the first, as well as in the second attempt was analyzed.

Writing performance

Writing performance was evaluated on the dimensions readability and content

coverage. The texts of the participants were rated independently by two trained

persons. A questionnaire (Jucks, 2001) was used to measure readability, whereas a

Fig. 2 The user interface of the web-based editor

1344 A. Proske, F. Kapp

123

coding scheme was developed for assessing the accuracy and coverage of content.

Interrater agreement was calculated by using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient

(ICC, Rae, 1988; Shrout & Fleiss, 1979). The correlational coefficients for interrater

agreement were ICC = 0.73, p \ .01 for readability and ICC = 0.90, p \ .01 for
content coverage. The ratings were averaged for further analyses.

The assessment of readability was carried out using a 22-item questionnaire

covering four dimensions of text-readability (Groeben, 1982; Langer, Schulz von

Thun, & Tausch, 1993): (a) simplicity, (b) structure-organization, (c) brevity-

shortness, and (d) interest-liveliness. The questionnaire was developed to evaluate

the comprehensibility of non-fictional texts (Jucks, 2001). Each item was rated on a

five-point-scale, with a small number indicating poor readability. The Cronbach’s

alpha reliability coefficient for this questionnaire was .89.

Accuracy and coverage of content was rated using a coding scheme. It consisted

of anchor examples illustrating poor to very good answers to the four parts of the

writing assignment (presentation of the academic position, evidence pro position,

evidence contra position, and presentation of own opinion). The anchor examples

were constructed based on the source texts. For each part of the writing assignment,

accuracy and coverage of information from the source texts was evaluated on a

scale from 1 (poor quality) to 5 (very good quality). The sub categories of the

writing assignment were analyzed separately.

Writing activities

All students’ writing activities were recorded in log-files. The number of words

included in the final essay was summarized from these log-files. Furthermore, we

calculated prewriting time and writing/revising time on the basis of the log-files.

Prewriting time is defined as the time between activation of the writing assignment

and when the student began writing the essay. It is important to note that for the

learning-questions group time on learning questions was excluded from the

prewriting measure. Writing/revising time represents the time between the first

fluent entries into the text-editor and clicking the button ‘close program’.

Results

Control variables

Table 1 presents the means and standard deviations of the control variables.

Students in both groups reported medium intrinsic value of writing, medium

competence beliefs, and a relatively high use of writing activities. There were no

significant differences between the learning-questions and the study-only group with

respect to writing motivation (Wilk’s K = 0.98, F(2, 45) = 0.37, p = .69).
However, the groups statistically significant differed in their self-reported use of

writing activities (F(1, 47) = 24.81, p \ .01). Therefore, the usual writing activities
scale was included as a covariate in all statistical analyses for group comparison.

Fostering topic knowledge 1345

123

Behavior and success while working on the learning questions

As shown in Table 2, the participants of the learning-questions group needed a total

of 10–12 min to answer the provided 20 learning questions. For the learning

questions of the first source text students invested slightly more time than for the

second source text. Overall 17 out of 20 learning questions were correctly solved,

mostly at the first attempt. Students were somewhat more successful in answering

the learning questions with respect to the first source text. As represented by a mean

of M = 2.91 only very few learning questions were incorrectly solved. These results

indicate that students were able to perform the generalization and construction

macro-strategies required by the learning questions.

Writing performance and activities

Table 3 presents the descriptive statistics for both groups on the writing

performance and activity variables. A one-way MANCOVA was conducted

including condition (learning-questions vs. study-only) as independent variable

and self-reported usual writing activities as covariate, with the following dependent

variables: readability, accuracy and coverage of content for the four sub-parts of the

writing assignment, number of words in final essay, prewriting time, and writing/

revising time. This MANCOVA revealed a significant main effect of condition

(Wilks’ K = .38, F(8, 38) = 7.67, p \ .01, g2 = .62). Univariate tests (see
Table 3) showed that the main effect was significant for all writing activity

measures: number of words in final essay (p \ .05, g2 = .10), prewriting time
(p \ .01, g2 = .19), and writing/revising time (p \ .05, g2 = .10). These results
indicate that students in the learning-questions group spent considerably more time

on prewriting than did the study-only group. Furthermore, they expended much

more time typing and revising the final essay and included more words than the

study-only group (see Table 3). With respect to writing performance the learning-

questions group showed a significant advantage in terms of readability (p \ .01,
g2 = .41), as well as accuracy and coverage of content for the second sub-part of
the writing assignment, that is evidence in favor of Loftus’ position (p \ .01,
g2 = .15). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the
groups for accuracy and coverage of content for the other three sub-parts of the

writing assignment.

Table 1 Means and standard deviations of writing motivation and usual writing activities scales

Variable Learning-questions (n = 22) Study-only (n = 26)

M SD M SD

Writing motivation

Intrinsic value 3.22 1.12 3.27 0.94

Competence beliefs 3.39 0.98 3.60 1.09

Usual writing activities 4.25 0.46 4.96 0.51

A value of 6 denotes a high level in the particular variable. Averaged scale values are reported

1346 A. Proske, F. Kapp

123

Discussion

In academic writing, writers typically transform source text information into their

text product. Thus, comprehension and composing processes are blended during

academic writing (Parodi, 2007; Spivey, 1990; Spivey & King, 1989). The purpose

of this study was to investigate if students’ writing can be improved by learning

questions that support their construction of topic knowledge. One of the greatest

differences between good and poor academic writers lies in the ability to make

inferences when reading source texts (Brown & Day, 1983; Hidi & Anderson,

1986). Thus, in this study the interactive learning questions were specifically

designed to engage writers in employing the macro-strategies of generalization and

construction when reading. It was expected that providing these learning questions

will positively affect both, writing process and performance. First, we address the

effects of answering interactive learning questions on writing process by analyzing

the time students spent planning, drafting, and revising their texts. Then we examine

the effects of interactive learning questions on the quality of the written product.

Results of this study show that students of the learning-questions group expended

more time on prewriting, such as collecting and structuring information from the

source texts and planning their essays. This result is in line with prior research on

supporting topic knowledge in writing (e.g., Butcher & Kintsch, 2001). Expert

writers also have longer prewriting phases in which they are expected to plan their

texts at higher conceptual and rhetorical levels (e.g., Hayes & Flower, 1986). Thus,

this result suggests that providing learning questions encourages students to d

Criminal homework help

SOU-CCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System

SOU-CCJ230 Introduction to the

American Criminal Justice System

Alison S. Burke, David Carter, Brian Fedorek, Tiffany Morey, Lore

Rutz-Burri, and Shanell Sanchez

Open Oregon Educational Resources

SOU-CCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System by Alison S. Burke, David Carter, Brian Fedorek, Tiffany
Morey, Lore Rutz-Burri, and Shanell Sanchez is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

License, except where otherwise noted.

Contents

What is an OER textbook? 1

A Bit About Our Collaboration Project 2

Author Bios 3

Goals, Learning Objectives, and Skills 5

Table of Contents 7

Dedication 8

1: CRIME, CRIMINAL JUSTICE, AND CRIMINOLOGY

1.1. Crime and the Criminal Justice System
Shanell Sanchez

11

1.2. Deviance, Rule Violations, and Criminality
Shanell Sanchez

14

1.3. Social Norms: Folkways, Mores, Taboo, and Laws
Shanell Sanchez

16

1.4. Interactionist View
Shanell Sanchez

20

1.5. Consensus View and Decriminalizing Laws
Shanell Sanchez

24

1.6. Conflict View
Shanell Sanchez

27

1.7. The Three C’s: Cops, Courts, and Corrections
Shanell Sanchez

29

1.8. The Crime Control and Due Process Models
Shanell Sanchez

36

1.9. How Cases Move Through the System
Shanell Sanchez

39

1.10. Media Coverage of Crimes
Shanell Sanchez

43

1.11. Wedding Cake Model of Justice
Shanell Sanchez

48

1.12. Street Crime, Corporate Crime, and White-Collar Crime
Shanell Sanchez

51

1.13. Different Types of Crimes and Offenses
Shanell Sanchez

55

1.14. Victims and Victim Typologies
Shanell Sanchez

57

1.15. Victim Rights and Assistance
Shanell Sanchez

60

1.16. “Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child” Myth/Controversy 65

2: DEFINING AND MEASURING CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

2.1. Dark or Hidden Figure of Crime
Shanell Sanchez

69

2.2. Official Statistics
Shanell Sanchez

71

2.3. Victimization Studies
Shanell Sanchez

77

2.4. Self-Report Statistics
Shanell Sanchez

79

2.5. Misusing Statistics
Shanell Sanchez

82

3: CRIMINAL LAW

3.1. Functions and Limitations of Law
Lore Rutz-Burri

87

3.2. Civil, Criminal, and Moral Wrongs
Lore Rutz-Burri

89

3.3. Sources of Criminal Law: Federal and State Constitutions
Lore Rutz-Burri

92

3.4. Sources of Criminal Law: Statutes, Ordinances, and Other Legislative Enactments
Lore Rutz-Burri

100

3.5. Sources of Law: Administrative Law, Common Law, Case Law and Court Rules
Lore Rutz-Burri

103

3.6. Classifications of Law
Lore Rutz-Burri

110

3.7. Substantive Law: Defining Crimes, Inchoate Liability, Accomplice Liability, and Defenses
Lore Rutz-Burri

113

3.8. Substantive Law: Punishment: Incarceration and Confinement Sanctions
Lore Rutz-Burri

117

3.9. Substantive Law: Physical Punishment Sentences
Lore Rutz-Burri

122

3.10. Substantive Law: Monetary Punishment Sentences
Lore Rutz-Burri

126

3.11. Substantive Law: Community-Based Sentences
Lore Rutz-Burri

129

3.12. Procedural Law
Lore Rutz-Burri

134

4: CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY

4.1. Importance of Policy in Criminal Justice
Alison S. Burke

139

4.2. The Myth of Moral Panics
Alison S. Burke

142

4.3. The Stages of Policy Development
Alison S. Burke

147

4.4. Importance of Evidence Based Practices
Alison S. Burke

151

4.5. Re-Evaluating Policy
Alison S. Burke

153

5: CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY

5.1. What is Theory?
Brian Fedorek

159

5.2. What Makes a Good Theory?
Brian Fedorek

161

5.3. Pre-Classical Theory
Brian Fedorek

163

5.4. Classical School
Brian Fedorek

164

5.5. Neoclassical
Brian Fedorek

167

5.6. Positivist Criminology
Brian Fedorek

170

5.7. Biological and Psychological Positivism
Brian Fedorek

172

5.8. The Chicago School
Brian Fedorek

174

5.9. Strain Theories
Brian Fedorek

176

5.10. Learning Theories
Brian Fedorek

179

5.11. Control Theories
Brian Fedorek

183

5.12. Other Criminological Theories
Brian Fedorek

186

6: POLICING

6.1. Policing in Ancient Times
Tiffany Morey

191

6.2. Sir Robert Peel
Tiffany Morey

193

6.3. Policing Eras
Tiffany Morey

196

6.4. Levels of Policing and Role of Police
Tiffany Morey

207

6.5. Recruitment and Hiring in Policing
Tiffany Morey

224

6.6. Recruitment and Hiring Websites for Future Careers
Tiffany Morey

235

6.7. Police Misconduct, Accountability, and Corruption
Tiffany Morey

244

6.8. Current Issues: Police Shootings
Tiffany Morey

247

6.9. Current Issues: Use of Force and Vehicle Pursuits
Tiffany Morey

250

6.10. Current Issues: Stereotypes in Policing
Tiffany Morey

252

6.11. Current Issues: Accountability
Tiffany Morey

255

6.12. Current Issues: Internal Affairs and Discipline
Tiffany Morey

257

6.13.Current Issues: Body Cameras
Tiffany Morey

260

6.14. Myth: “Police Only Write Speeding Tickets to Harass Citizens and it is Entrapment.”
Tiffany Morey

261

7: COURTS

7.1. Introduction to the U.S. Court System
Lore Rutz-Burri

265

7.2. Jurisdiction
Lore Rutz-Burri

266

7.3. Structure of the Courts: The Dual Court and Federal Court System
Lore Rutz-Burri

269

7.4. Structure of the Courts: State Courts
Lore Rutz-Burri

276

7.5. American Trial Courts and the Principle of Orality
Lore Rutz-Burri

279

7.6. The Appeals Process, Standard of Review, and Appellate Decisions
Lore Rutz-Burri

280

7.7. Federal Appellate Review of State Cases
Lore Rutz-Burri

284

7.8. Courtroom Players: Judges and Court Staff
Lore Rutz-Burri

286

7.9. Courtroom Players: Prosecutors
Lore Rutz-Burri

293

7.10. Courtroom Workgroup: Defense Attorneys
Lore Rutz-Burri

297

8: CORRECTIONS

8.1. A Brief History of The Philosophies of Punishment
David Carter

311

8.2. Retribution
David Carter

313

8.3. Deterrence
David Carter

315

8.4. Incapacitation
David Carter

318

8.5. Rehabilitation
David Carter

321

8.6. Prisons and Jails
David Carter

324

8.7. A Brief History of Prisons and Jails
David Carter

325

8.8. Types of Jails
David Carter

329

8.9. Who Goes to Jail?
David Carter

332

8.10. Growth of Prisons in the United States
David Carter

334

8.11. Types of Prisons
David Carter

336

8.12. Prison Levels
David Carter

339

8.13. Who Goes to Prison?
David Carter

342

9: COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS

9.1. Diversion
David Carter

347

9.2. Intermediate Sanctions
David Carter

349

9.3. Probation
David Carter

352

9.4. Boot Camps/Shock Incarceration
David Carter

357

9.5. Drug Courts
David Carter

359

9.6. Halfway Houses
David Carter

360

9.8. House Arrest
David Carter

362

9.9. Community Residential Facilities
David Carter

363

9.10. Restorative Justice
David Carter

365

9.11. Parole
David Carter

367

9.12. Current Issues in Corrections
David Carter

371

9.13. Current Issues in Corrections: Mass Incarceration
David Carter

372

9.14. Current Issues in Corrections: War on Drugs and Gangs
David Carter

376

9.15. Current Issues in Corrections: Aging and Overcrowding
David Carter

379

9.16. Current Issues in Corrections: Reentry and the Future of Corrections
David Carter

384

10: JUVENILE JUSTICE

10.1. Youth Crime
Alison S. Burke

389

10.2. Juvenile Justice
Alison S. Burke

390

10.3. History of the Juvenile Justice System
Alison S. Burke

392

10.4. Delinquency
Alison S. Burke

396

10.5. Juvenile Justice Process
Alison S. Burke

398

10.6. Due Process in the Juvenile Court
Alison S. Burke

399

10.7. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
Alison S. Burke

402

10.8. Getting Tough: Initiatives for Punishment and Accountability
Alison S. Burke

403

10.9. Returning to Rehabilitation in the Contemporary Juvenile Justice System
Alison S. Burke

407

10.10. The Structure of the Juvenile Justice System
Alison S. Burke

410

10.11. Juvenile Institutions
Alison S. Burke

413

Glossary 417

We hope you are as excited about this textbook as we were writing it. This is a free academic resource and

a free textbook that can be printed at low-cost if you prefer paper. Southern Oregon University’s Disability

Resource has reviewed this textbook for accessibility to all students.

Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System is an Open Educational Resource (OER)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources that is licensed under the Creative Commons

(CC 4.0) format https://creativecommons.org with support to complete this project from Open Oregon

Educational Resources https://openoregon.org.

This introductory textbook is unique because it was a collaborative effort by all Criminology and Criminal

Justice professors at Southern Oregon University (SOU) in Ashland, Oregon. This textbook will meet the

learning objectives outlined through SOU and as a community college transfer course, as well as cover all

other topics expected to find in an introductory course. This book can be used on a quarter or semester

system, as well as cover topics that may get left out of some introductory texts such as controversial issues in

the criminal justice system. Further, we made it as comprehensive as possible to cover core concepts and areas

in the criminal justice system including theory, policing, courts, corrections, and the juvenile justice system.

Additionally, we created examples that will help make difficult concepts or ideas more relatable. Every

section provides an overview of key terms, critical thinking questions for course engagement, assignments,

and other ancillaries such as multimedia links, images, activity ideas, and more.

Feel free to ask any questions. Email Shanell Sanchez at sanchezs2@sou.edu with any specific questions

about the book or any other professor if it is specific to their page.

1

A Bit About Our Collaboration Project

This OER could not be possible without the support from many different people. Our financial support came

from a grant through Open Oregon https://openoregon.org.

Dr. Shanell Sanchez wants to personally thank all her colleagues at SOU for taking on this endeavor with

her. The first plan was to adapt and edit an existing OER, but after an exhaustive search of OER’s, we found

there is a dearth of CCJ OER’s. We realized that if we wrote this book, we would be one of the first CCJ

OER’s available. The initial idea seemed a bit overwhelming, but watching it come together was amazing.

Dr. Sanchez had a vision for what an ideal textbook should look like for first-year students and our newest

majors or potential majors, but it was not possible without all of us working together.

Amy Hofer at Linn-Benton Community College served as our grant manager, but she went beyond that.

She has served as an excellent resource, mentor, and helped us find opportunities to present our experiences

at conferences.

Dr. Jeffrey Gayton is our university librarian at Southern Oregon University and helped coordinate this

project from the start of our application to the release of our OER going live.

Brian Stonelake, a professor in the Mathematics department at Southern Oregon University, provided

excellent guidance and insight to us when we were applying for the grant.

Christina Richardson was our student that served as a contributing editor, as well as created our glossary

for this OER. She went through the entire book to pose suggestions, edits, and comments that helped make

the end product better.

2

Author Bios

Alison S. Burke, Ph.D., Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon University,
https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/burke.html

Alison S. Burke is a professor of criminology and criminal justice at Southern Oregon University.

She earned her Ph.D. from Indiana University of Pennsylvania and her MCJ from the University of

Colorado Denver. While in Denver, she worked with adjudicated youth in residential treatment facilities

and group homes. She has published a variety of journal articles and book chapters related to juvenile justice,

delinquency, and gender, and her primary research interests involve women and crime, juvenile justice

and delinquency, and pedagogy in higher education. Her most recent book is titled Teaching Introduction to
Criminology (2019).

David E. Carter, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern
Oregon University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/davidcarter.html

David E. Carter joined the Criminology and Criminal Justice Department in 2008. He received his Ph.D.

from the University of Cincinnati. Dave served in the U.S. Army for 8 years as a linguist prior to attending

school. He has published works in the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency in the area of life-

course research, as well as in the Corrections Compendium, where he wrote about U.S. inmate populations.

He also works with local agencies (in a consultative role) providing evidence-based practices and evaluations

for correctional programs in the area of effective interventions and evidence-based programming. At SOU,

Dave has helped facilitate the Lock-In event and annual that provides students with a hands-on experience

of the justice system.

Brian Fedorek, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon
University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/brianfedorek.html

Brian Fedorek earned his doctorate at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania in Criminology. He has

taught classes in Terrorism, Comparative Criminal Justice, Theories of Criminal Behavior, and introductory

courses. His research interests include media and crime, criminological theory, and criminal violence. He has

served on the board of the Western Association of Criminal Justice.

Tiffany L. Morey, M.S., Instructor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon
University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/tiffany-morey-m-s.html

Tiffany L. Morey has an almost three-decade career in the law enforcement arena. She retired as a

Lieutenant from a police department in Las Vegas, Nevada. Her expertise is in the law enforcement, crime

scene investigation (CSI), and forensics fields. During her tenure in policing in Las Vegas she worked

in patrol, the crime prevention division, community services, recruitment, special events, problem-solving

unit (first ever unit/substation for her department in a high gang and drug area), undercover prostitution

3

and narcotics stings, search warrant service assistance, mounted unit departmental work, CSI (crime scene

investigator), forensics, Sergeant and Sergeant field training program and master trainer, Lieutenant and

Lieutenant field training program, and finally Acting Captain. During this time, she was also chosen and paid

by an independent firm to travel the country and conduct oral board interviews and assessment center testing

and recruiting for law enforcement agencies and fire departments. She developed a ground-breaking class

to assist candidates in the law enforcement hiring process and is now under contract to publish the related

textbook/study guide. Tiffany continues to operate in the field of CSI and forensics as an expert investigator

and witness on violent crime. She also runs a Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

business, offering citizens and owners of businesses CPTED reviews to ensure the safety of their homes and

buildings. Finally, in her free time, she runs SOAR Wildlife Center (SoarWildlife.org), which is a non-profit

organization, that rehabilitates sick, injured, or orphaned fawns and other baby mammals.

Lore Rutz-Burri, J.D., Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon
University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/rutz.html

Lore Rutz-Burri is a 1982 graduate of Southern Oregon State College (now SOU) with a Bachelors of

Arts degree in Criminology and Political Science. After graduating, she lived in Southern Austria until 1984.

Upon returning to the states, she earned an M.C.J (Master’s degree in Criminal Justice) from the University

of South Carolina. In 1985 she started in a Ph.D. program at the University of Maryland, College Park, but

early on decided she would rather pursue a law degree. In 1989 she graduated “order of the coif” with her

doctor of jurisprudence (JD) from the University of Oregon School of Law. Following law school, Lore

clerked for the Superior Court of Alaska in Fairbanks for one year and then worked for 5 years as a deputy

district attorney in Josephine County, Oregon. There, she prosecuted a variety of crimes, but mostly assault

cases. In 1995, she began teaching criminology and criminal justice at SOU. Since 2015 she has been a

part-time Circuit Court judge in the Josephine County courts. Lore has been married for over 27 years to

her husband, Markus (a Swiss national). They have two sons– Severin (who studied at SOU and majored in

psychology) and Jaston (who studied at U of O and majored in philosophy). She has both case books and

introductory text on criminal law and criminal procedure.

Shanell K. Sanchez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern
Oregon University, https://inside.sou.edu/criminology/faculty/dr-shanell-sanchez.html

Shanell Sanchez joined the Criminology and Criminal Justice department at Southern Oregon University

in Ashland, Oregon in 2016. Prior to that, Shanell was an Assistant Professor in Criminal Justice at Colorado

Mesa University in Grand Junction, Colorado. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska-

Lincoln in Sociology in 2012. Her research and teaching interests are centered around social change and

justice, inequality, and comparative crime and justice.

ALISON S. BURKE, DAVID CARTER, BRIAN FEDOREK, TIFFANY MOREY, LORE RUTZ-BURRI, AND SHANELL
SANCHEZ

4

Goals, Learning Objectives, and Skills

There is a dearth of OER textbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice, which made creating this textbook

all the more exciting. At times we faced challenges about what or how much to cover, but our primary goal

was to make sure this book was as in-depth as the two textbooks we were currently using for our CCJ 230

introduction course. The only way we were willing to undertake this project as if it was as good, or better

than the current books students read. We have had very positive feedback about the required textbooks in

the course but consistently heard how expensive the books were to buy. We also needed to ensure we met

the learning outcomes outlined by SOU for a general education course, as well as the state of Oregon, to

make sure this textbook helps students meet those outcomes.

SOU’s catalog course description for CCJ 230 states this course surveys the functional areas of criminal

justice in the United States. This OER covers law enforcement, criminal courts, sentencing, penal

institutions, and community-based sanctions. It also includes historical and contemporary perspectives on

components of the criminal justice system, as well as the legal and constitutional frameworks in which they

operate.

Learning Objectives

• Students will increase the breadth of their knowledge and understanding of the American Criminal

Justice System.

• Students will enhance their critical thinking skills via writing, reading, and discussion.

• Students will learn the history, functions, responsibilities, processes, and importance of each

component of the criminal justice system.

• Students will become familiar with research and its relationship to criminal justice policy.

• Students will use the foundations learned about the American criminal justice system in future CCJ

courses.

Additionally, myths and controversies are incorporated in the course covering the above-noted content areas

in the American criminal justice system. In our experience, this tends to be the most exciting part of the

class. It also helps students build all learning outcomes through assignments, readings, and materials covered

in class. The primary goal when writing this book was to make it easy to read, with fun examples, thought-

5

provoking discussion questions, and is accessible to all to ensure that students would read. The content level

targeted first-year students who are taking their first course in Criminology and Criminal Justice, but also as

a general education course for those that may not intend to major. In order to ensure each area has accessible

materials for the course and meets our learning objectives and goals, we have conducted preliminary research

in order to determine our best option is moving forward.

ALISON S. BURKE, DAVID CARTER, BRIAN FEDOREK, TIFFANY MOREY, LORE RUTZ-BURRI, AND SHANELL
SANCHEZ

6

Table of Contents

1. Crime, Criminal Justice and Criminology

2. Defining and Measuring Crime and Criminal Justice

3. Criminal Law

4. Criminal Justice Policy

5. Criminological Theory

6. Policing

7. Courts

8. Corrections

9. Community Corrections

10. Juvenile Justice

7

Dedication

We dedicate this book to our students at Southern Oregon University, who continuously work hard in our

classes and develop lasting relationships with us. We also dedicate this book to all our partners, children, fur

babies, and friends that supported us in the writing process.

8

1: Crime, Criminal Justice, and

Criminology

Learning Objectives

This section will broadly introduce crime, criminal justice, and criminology. This section is designed to be a

broad overview of what the subsequent chapters will cover in detail. It also demonstrates how the United States

create laws, policies enacted to enforce laws, and the role of the media. After reading this section, students will be

able to:

• Understand the differences between deviance, rule violations, and criminality

• Explain the differences between the interactionist, consensus, and conflict views in the creation of

laws

• Identify the three components of the criminal justice system

• Discuss the differences between crime control and due process model, and application examples to

each

• Describe the wedding cake model theory and application examples to each tier

• Briefly explain the role of the media and how media may spread myths in society

• Briefly understand the unique role of victims in the criminal justice process

Background Knowledge Probe: The goal here is to assess current knowledge about the criminal
justice system at the start of the course. Each of these topics is covered throughout the course, and they will

often be a controversial topic and topic for debate.

You will indicate whether you know each statement to be True or False, but there is no right or wrong

answer since it is just to assess your background knowledge.

1. Blacks commit more crime than any other racial group.

9

2. The United States has the lowest recidivism rates in the world (return to prison).

3. The death penalty is cheaper than life imprisonment.

4. Politicians shape our thoughts on crime, even if they are inaccurate.

5. Children are most likely to be killed by a stranger.

6. A stranger is most likely to physically harm you.

7. White-collar crime costs our country more every year than street-crime.

8. Juveniles are more violent today than ever before.

9. Immigrants commit more crime than native-born people.

10. Violent crime has risen in the United States over the last 20 years.

ALISON S. BURKE, DAVID CARTER, BRIAN FEDOREK, TIFFANY MOREY, LORE RUTZ-BURRI, AND SHANELL
SANCHEZ

10

1.1. Crime and the Criminal Justice System

SHANELL SANCHEZ

Theft as a Child

The first lesson in crime and criminality I remember was when I was in second grade and stole something from

a local drug store. I thought that the bracelet was shiny and perfect. At first, I remember wanting to try it on, but

then I did not want to take it off. I had more questions than my Nana may have been ready to answer about why I

did it and why I could not keep it. I had to take the bracelet back, which hurt because I loved it. Because of guilt or

shame, I told my grandma what I did.

Think about a time in your life that you may have done something similar. Was this first lesson in crime and

criminality from the person you were raised by such as a parent(s) or grandparent(s)? Did they teach you that what

you did was a crime and, hopefully, how to correct this wrong at a young age?

You were probably punished, and they may have consisted of helping out with more chores or losing your

allowance to pay back what you stole.

Imagine all the questions you may have for your parents at the moment: Why was it wrong? What would happen

to me if I did not tell you? What is a crime? Who decides what makes a crime? What happens to me if I commit a

crime and get caught? What is my punishment? Why was it wrong when there were so many polishes there?

Further, I had to help out around the house for the weekend. In exchange for all this, she did not tell my dad

because she knew her punishment was sufficient and to tell him may be excessive. She took a balanced approach to

punishment and I think this is why it was so effective. It was not too strict, it was hard to complete, and I had to

think about what I did.

Most criminologists define crime as the violation of the laws of a society by a person or a group of
people who are subject to the laws of that society (citizens). Thus, crime as defined by the State or Federal

government. Essentially, crime is what the law states and a violation of the law, stated in the statue, would

make actions criminal.
1

1. Lynch, M., Stretesky, P., Long, M. (2015). Defining crime: A critique of the concept and its implication. Palgrave Macmillan: US.

11

For example, if someone murdered another individual in the process of stealing their automobile most

people would see this as a criminal and a straight-forward example of crime. We often see murder and

robbery as wrong and harms society, as well as social order. However, there are times crime is not as straight-

forward though and people may hesitate to call it criminal. The community I live in, and many others

throughout the area, post signs that it is illegal to give food and other items to homeless individuals in need.

If one were to violate this law and give food to a homeless person it would not involve harm to individuals,

but the social order.

Adele MacLean joined others in an At

Criminal homework help

Article

Journal of Interpersonal Violence
26(5) 899 –929

© The Author(s) 2011
Reprints and permission: http://www.
sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav

DOI: 10.1177/0886260510365867
http://jiv.sagepub.com

Reconsidering the
Culture and
Violence
Connection:
Strategies of Action
in the Rural South

Matthew R. Lee1 and
Graham C. Ousey2

Abstract

Crime scholars have long conceptualized culture as a set of values that
violence is used to defend or reinforce (i.e., honor). This analysis moves
beyond this framework by conceptualizing culture as a toolkit providing
strategies of action that individuals use to negotiate social situations.
Qualitative data obtained from participant responses to vignettes describing
potential conflict situations are analyzed to explore the merit of the cultural
toolkit framework as it pertains to the “southern culture of violence” thesis.
Contrary to the traditional culture as values model, these data indicate that
interpersonal violence is a situationally viable response for diverse groups of
people, including males and females, Blacks and Whites, the young and the
older. The interplay between culture and social structure is also apparent.
Although culture provides individuals with a toolkit, structural factors provide
situations in which individuals must decide which cultural tools are most
appropriately used. Violence is most viable when individuals feel that the
police cannot be relied on and when they perceive that there is an imminent

1Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
2The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA

Corresponding Author:
Matthew R. Lee, Department of Sociology, Louisiana State University, 126 Stubbs Hall,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, LA 70803
Email: mlee@lsu.edu

900 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5)

or potentially recurring threat to their family or themselves. Rarely is violent
action justified to achieve overarching values, although values are clearly
part of the toolkit that informs social action. Participants also frequently
report that some segments of their community would consider violence to
be an appropriate response even when they personally disagree with that
assessment. This highlights the role of agency, where individual lines of action
may be constructed independently from perceived community expectations,
another major point of departure from the values model.

Keywords

culture, violence

Introduction

The southern region of the United States has experienced high rates of inter-
personal violence since its earliest settlement (see Brearley, 1932; Brown,
1975; Redfield, 1880), but there has never been agreement on the sources of
this differential. Structuralists have argued that the socioeconomic climate of
the south is the likely culprit, emphasizing that factors like poverty can cause
strain or undermine community social control processes (Loftin & Hill, 1974).
In contrast, cultural theorists have argued that a set of values (e.g., a southern
code of honor) stitched deeply into the social fabric of southern communities for
centuries is the root of violence in Dixie (Gastil, 1971; Hackney, 1969; Nisbett &
Cohen, 1996).

Debate between the structural and cultural camps has been running for sev-
eral decades, but we suggest that much of this dialogue—to borrow a phrase
from Mayhew (1980)—is “shadowboxing in the dark.” The reason for our
skepticism is straightforward. From an evidentiary standpoint, the epistemo-
logical nature of structural analysis differs so much from cultural analysis that
the two perspectives do not lend themselves to a classic “either this theory or
that theory” duel. In recognition of this, we suggest that southern violence has
roots in both structural and cultural factors. Although noteworthy evidence has
accumulated in support of structural influences (e.g., Ellison, Burr, & McCall,
2003; Lee, Hayes, & Thomas, 2008; Loftin & Hill, 1974; Smith & Parker,
1980), empirical evidence backing the cultural argument is not particularly
compelling. As we argue in more detail below, this is primarily because such
evidence requires an epistemological frame and empirical method grounded in
a more qualitative analytical approach, which has been relatively scarce in the
culture of violence literature.

Lee and Ousey 901

The current study focuses on this latter issue and seeks to shed light on the
cultural sources of southern violence. To accomplish this objective, we draw
on the cultural paradigm advanced by Swidler (1986, 2001), which conceptu-
alizes culture not as a set of values but as a repertoire of strategies for action.
Framed within this “culture in action” model, the goals of this study are (a) to
discern the cultural scripts or tools that people use to construct lines of social
action and frame expectations regarding violence and (b) to examine the con-
ditions under which scripts supportive of violence emerge. In other words, we
do not attempt to identify fundamental values that promote or govern violent
behavior (see Ball-Rokeach, 1973) but to illustrate that culture may contribute
to violence by providing a set of “skills, habits, and styles” (Swidler, 1986, p.
275) that are differentially available to individuals as they navigate and
attempt to interpret cues in social situations. Evidence of these cultural skills,
habits, and styles are obtained from responses to a series of vignettes provided
to a sample of residents from two geographically isolated southern rural com-
munities. This evidence includes participant assessments of whether the situ-
ations described to them warranted a violent response and, most critically,
their explanations of why the situation was deemed violence worthy or not.
Through the analysis of these responses, we attempt to cast new light on the
nature of the culture/violence nexus in the rural south with the expectation
that this model can be fruitfully applied to other contexts. The study attempts
to significantly advance criminological research by better illuminating the
interplay between structure, culture, and agency in the production of interper-
sonal violence.

Background and Conceptual Framework
Values Models

Cultural explanations for interpersonal violence have waxed and waned in
popularity over time and no general theory of culture and violence has been
established. Instead, culture of violence theories have typically emerged as
explanations for the behavior of specific population subgroups in particular
historical or geographic contexts. Perhaps the most influential argument per-
tinent to the current research is the southern culture of honor/Scots-Irish/
Conservative Protestant thesis (Ellison, Burr, & McCall, 2003; Hackney,
1969; McWhiney, 1988; Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). This explanation and its
various permutations emerged in reaction to the centuries long regional dis-
parity in lethal violence rates observed in the United States (Brearley, 1932,
1935; Redfield, 1880). In one of the classic statements of this perspective,

902 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5)

Hackney (1969) argued that values centering on honor and the protection of
family and property lie at the root of the southern violence problem.

This culture of honor argument was later given an ethnic basis by Nisbett
and Cohen (1996) who formulated a Scots-Irish/herding thesis. Their argu-
ment suggests that because of the rough terrain in parts of the British Isles,
herding and livestock management supplanted agriculture as the primary
economic occupation of many Scots-Irish. Because herders are often in
remote locations for long periods of time, they are vulnerable to robbery and
theft at the hands of raiders and thieves. Hence herding peoples developed a
survival mechanism embodied in a culture of defensive self reliance, which
demands a quick resort to violence in the face of perceived threats. With the
migration of large numbers of these Scots-Irish highlanders to North Amer-
ica between 1717 and 1775, it is argued that the defensive culture of honor
was imported to the United States and has remained a prominent part of the
culture in the southern United States where Scots-Irish settled, particularly in
hilly and mountainous locations where herding was a prominent economic
activity (Fischer, 1989; Leyburn, 1962).

Although this imported culture of honor has been maintained over centu-
ries through a process of intergenerational socialization, one line of argument
suggests that it has been fortified by southern fundamentalist and evangelical
Protestant religious beliefs. Indeed, some scholars maintain that key features
of conservative Protestantism—such as its literalist biblical orientation (i.e.,
“An eye for an eye”), its focus on the relationship between God and man
instead of social altruism, and the belief that deviant behavior reflects indi-
vidual moral failings (Ellison, 1991; Ellison, Burr, & McCall, 2003; Gregory,
1993)—serve to support the violence-conducive culture of honor of the south.
The common thread running through this body of literature is the belief that
southerners, on average, are more likely to hold a particular set of values that
define violence as a normative means for achieving certain ends.

The evidence for whether or not southerners actually have an identifiable
set of values supporting the use of violence is mixed. General population
surveys are the main method used to examine this issue. Based on survey
data, Doerner (1978) reports that southerners are no more likely to approve of
punching an adult male stranger than respondents from other regions, while
Hayes and Lee (2005) report that southern White males from rural areas are
more likely to support assaultive violence in situations where general approval
is very low to begin with. Erlanger (1975) finds that southern Whites and
Blacks are no more likely to approve of various forms of assaultive vio-
lence than nonsouthern Whites and Blacks, while Cao, Adams, and Jensen
(1997) report that Whites are more supportive of “defensive violence,”

Lee and Ousey 903

whereas southerners are more supportive of “offensive violence.” In contrast,
Ellison (1991) reports that Whites and native southerners are more supportive
of defensive violence than members of other groups. A host of other studies
provide equally mixed evidence, but the key issue from our point of view is
that all of these studies focus on values as the critical causal link to interper-
sonal violence.

Cultural Scripts and Strategies of Action
In a recent critique and reformulation of the values model, Sampson and Bean
(2006) develop a useful heuristic framework for evaluating the ways that cul-
ture may influence violence. Based on their review of extant scholarship, they
contend that three positions are evident: (a) culture doesn’t matter; (b) culture
is a malleable adaptation to particular structural conditions; and (c) culture is
an independent causal force, distinct from structural roots (see Sampson &
Bean, 2006, pp. 22-23). In their review, they argue that the classic culture of
honor model has been cast as an independent causal force, whereas the promi-
nent social isolation model of William Julius Wilson (1987) views culture as
a malleable factor that is endogenous to social structure.

Most important, Sampson and Bean draw on the culture in action frame-
work, grounded in the work of Swidler (1986) and others, to begin defining
the parameters of potentially more powerful contemporary cultural explana-
tions of violence. This emerging cultural theory of violence contrasts with
the more traditional view of culture as a widely shared set of values that con-
stantly reside in and define the worldview of individuals embedded within
the culture. Specifically, Sampson and Bean argue for a relational theory in
which culture is conceptualized not as a mediator of structural conditions,
nor as an independent causal force. Rather, culture is viewed as intersubjec-
tive, performative, affective-cognitive, relational, and worldmaking. Thus to
say that an individual has a culturally based tolerance for violence is not to
say that violence is motivated by a desire to uphold some fundamental set of
values; it is to say simply that the individual holds a repertoire of interpretive
scripts and action frames that define violence as a situationally viable strat-
egy for constructing or maintaining a particular position in a social field. This
distinction is important because it recognizes that violence scripts are likely
to be one of several—including nonviolence—that an individual has to
choose from. The interpretive script and action strategy that an individual
employs is therefore not rigidly determined by an underlying value but is
influenced in part by the nature of the interactional situation and the broader
social context that they encounter. Thus, although the values model suggests

904 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5)

that a violent course of action typically can be justified prospectively, the
culture in action model suggests that violence often is justified retrospec-
tively. In essence, people commit violence NOT because it is the right thing
to do in terms of some preestablished value or worldview but because given
a set of interactional circumstances, it is an action strategy perceived to be
available and effective for the situation at hand.

Although there are substantive analytic differences between the culture as
values and culture as a strategy of action models, many of the issues relevant
to studying cultural sources of violence in the rural south are similar. First,
as with the values based model, the use of interpersonal violence as a strat-
egy of action will only be a viable tool in some situations. Historically the
values model suggests that threats to individual or family honor or personal
property would be a stimulus for violent response (Hackney, 1969; Reed,
1982). This is supposedly because of the core values of individual self-worth
and independence, threats to which must be dealt with violently to, by defi-
nition, maintain the integrity of the value itself. The famous account of being
a jury foreman in 1930s Louisiana, as documented by journalist Hodding
Carter, is frequently interpreted this way. As Carter (1950, pp. 48-51) relates,
an older man in rural Louisiana was being taunted by a group of young men
at a filling station. When they persisted with their taunts, he got his gun and
opened fire, maiming one, wounding another, and killing an innocent
bystander. In the culture as values paradigm, the value directed the action
with the end of preserving the value itself. In this case, the values might have
been independence, autonomy, and the right to stand up for oneself. More-
over, in this paradigm the value-based expectations of other community
members required such a response. However, viewing his actions through
the strategies of action paradigm complicates the idea that he opened fire
because he thought it was the right thing to do. Rather, under this alternative
conceptualization he opened fire because this was the culturally scripted
strategy of action he was most familiar with (i.e., that’s simply what people
do in these situations). By extension, a violent response wouldn’t emerge in
every occasion.

This leads to the second point, which is that not everyone will have the
same cultural competencies at their disposal. Debate has raged for quite some
time about what groups would possess the values supporting a culture of
honor (Bankston, Thompson, Jenkins, & Forsyth, 1990; Nisbett & Cohen,
1996; Sowell, 2005). For example, Nisbett and Cohen (1996) argue under the
culture as values paradigm that the culture of honor is basically specific to
White males. Unfortunately, as some scholars have illustrated, this fails then
to explain why southern females and southern Blacks also exhibit high
rates of violence (Butterfield, 1995; DeWees & Parker, 2003; Huff-Corzine,

Lee and Ousey 905

Corzine, & Moore, 1986; Parker & Pruitt, 2000; Vandal, 2000). It also
doesn’t explain very well the historical fact that violence was found across
the spectrum of social classes (Bruce, 1979; Cooney, 1997). Under the new
culture as a strategy of action paradigm, this would be explained by the fact
that in places where violence flourishes, residents from all walks of life are
relatively more likely to have violent dispute resolution strategies in their
cultural tool kits and are more likely to choose them for the job at hand. Thus,
where rates of violence are high, it tends to be higher among both males and
females, among members of both minority and majority racial and ethnic
groups, and among people of varying social classes. This is consistent with
what Sampson and Bean (2006, pp. 27-29) call culture as “worldmaking.”
Notice that this is also consistent with Anderson’s (1999) notion that even
“decent” kids are familiar with the code of the street because it is necessary
for survival in the milieu in which they are embedded.

Although the influence of the “culture as strategy of action” paradigm has
penetrated other fields of social science, it has yet to be fully absorbed into
the mainstream criminological approach to understanding violence. The culture
as values model continues to dominate academic discussions of the culture–
violence link, but remains unsatisfying for a number of reasons. For example,
although a few violent offenders express true remorse for their actions, a
great deal of them excuse or justify their behavior based on a variety of fac-
tors that appear to have nothing to do with their personal values (Presser,
2003; Scully & Marolla, 1984). This sequence of actions is inconsistent with
the values model, where by definition the ends essentially justify the means.
In addition, the values model does not explain why two people with substan-
tively identical value systems and worldviews may react completely differ-
ently to a given situation, one committing violence and the other not doing
so. In other words, it doesn’t account for individual agency very well. The
values model also falls short in its ability to explain why it is that some indi-
viduals become heavily invested in violent lifestyles that seem miserable and
extremely dangerous by most standards (see Katz, 1988; Miller & Schwartz,
1995). The cultural paradigm treating violence as an intersubjective process
can explain these and other issues that are not consistent with the values
model. This is because of its focus on the resources that people collabora-
tively share to create social interactions and reinforce social structures.

In light of the deficits associated with a values-driven model, this study
examines cultural sources of violence utilizing the culture as strategy of action
paradigm. Our intent is not to test a “southern culture of violence” thesis.
Rather, we utilize data collected from a context where cultural influences on
violence are thought to exist to evaluate the integrity of the competing cul-
tural explanations. From the preceding discussion we generally expect

906 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5)

that willingness to use interpersonal violence can be understood as emerging
situationally through cultural scripts defining it as a viable strategy for action.
Below we describe the method of qualitative data collection that allows us
(a) to discern the cultural scripts or tools that people use to construct lines of
social action and frame expectations regarding violence and (b) to examine
the conditions under which scripts supportive of violence emerge.

Research Design and Method
Although there are clearly similar issues pertaining to both approaches to
understanding cultural sources of violence, it is also true that different meth-
odological approaches are necessary to successfully study them. Although
the culture as values approach has been most frequently studied using closed
ended survey instruments in general population surveys (Ball-Rokeach,
1973; Borg, 1997; Cao, Adams, & Jensen, 1997; Doerner, 1978; Ellison,
1991; Erlanger, 1975; Hayes & Lee, 2005), the culture as strategies for action
approach requires sensitivity to a host of additional issues. Specifically, to
analyze when violence is a viable strategy of action, the methodological logic
of variable-based quantitative analysis is less appropriate. Instead, qualita-
tive methods that provide rigorous data collection tools to ensure a high level
of validity are necessary. Because few if any studies have directly tried to
investigate cultural tolerance of violence from the strategies of action per-
spective, there is little guidance available. Several imperative issues are
apparent though. First, it is necessary to find a context in which it is likely
that the use of violence is part of the cultural repertoire. Second, because
interpersonal violence is not something that is easy to observe ethnographi-
cally, a method is required that prompts people to reveal the contents of their
cultural toolkits in a way that treats culture as an intersubjective and con-
structive process. To address these issues, we have implemented an innovative
methodology to assess whether people commit violence because community
values situationally demand it as suggested by the values model (see Reed,
1982, p. 143) or because violent response is the cultural script that individu-
als are familiar with as the cultural toolkit model states. Our methodology
consists of semistructured in-depth face-to-face interviews with vignettes
pertaining to interpersonal violence. We begin by providing participants a
situation detailed in a vignette and then use open-ended interviews asking
them how they would respond, how most people in their community would
respond, and most important, why this is the case. Because interpersonal vio-
lence may be a sensitive issue for some people to discuss, we decided to
frame vignettes in terms of the third person, so that some of the burden of
making a decision on whether to inflict injury on another person is displaced

Lee and Ousey 907

from the participant. Finally, although several studies recently have investi-
gated the behavior of criminals “in the wild” (see Jacobs, 2000; Jacobs &
Wright, 2006), to avoid the pitfalls associated with sampling on the depen-
dent variable (i.e., finding what you are looking for) we focus on the nature
and diversity of cultural scripts pertaining to violence in the population at
large. The vignettes themselves are discussed below.

Sampling Methods and Interview Setting
Participants for this study were culled from two rural parishes (county equiva-
lents) in the state of Louisiana. The research sites were situated in rural areas for
three reasons: (a) because the majority of the regional difference in serious
violence is due to its prevalence in rural areas of the south (see Lee, Bankston,
Hayes, & Thomas, 2007), (b) because much of the theoretical literature refers
to the cultural homogeneity of southern rural communities (Lee & Shihadeh,
2009), and (c) because interpersonal violence remains a problem in many parts
of the rural south (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). The communities were selected
based on their diversity in terms of ethnocultural history and development,
population characteristics, religious characteristics, and violent crime rates.

Louisiana is perhaps more diverse than any other southern state because
of its unique history of settlement, the peculiarity of its political history,
and the immense natural resources she harbors. Louisiana has significant
rural Black populations because of its plantation agricultural history and a
significant rural French ancestry component in the southern part of the
state, with substantial Scots-Irish and English ancestral populations
throughout the rest of the state. It is also essentially dichotomized in terms
of religious dominance, with the French Acadian parishes in the southern
part of the state being predominantly Catholic and most of the rest of the
state being predominantly Baptist—although there are substantial numbers
of United Methodists, Presbyterians, Pentacostals, Episcopalians, Assem-
blies of God, Church of Christ, and African Methodist Episcopal adherents
as well. The two parishes used as research sites are only 60 miles apart, but
reflect this marked diversity. According to official statistics, one of the
parishes is reasonably characterized as a persistently high violence parish,
whereas the other maintains a low to middle range violent crime rate.

Snowball sampling based on personal contacts, cold relationship forma-
tion, and the use of kinship networks resulted in a total of 39 completed
interviews with a very diverse group of participants, drawn equally from the
two communities. To minimize sample and interviewer bias, local graduate
students conducted the bulk of the interviews and a locally born and raised
African American graduate student conducted most of the interviews with

908 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5)

African American participants to enhance interviewer–participant rapport.
This strategy seemed to be effective, as the consent rate from African American
participants was very high. Overall, the participants were both African
American (N = 20) and White (N = 19), males (N = 17) and females (N = 22),
ranged in age from 18 to 88, and were diverse in denominational background
including Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, African Methodist Episcopal, Penta-
costal, and nondenominational Christian.1 Several participants had also
switched denominations during their adult lifetime. The participants were
also from a wide range of socioeconomic and status attainment backgrounds.
Interviews were conducted at the leisure of participants in their homes, at
workplaces, in public places, and on a university campus.

Data Collection and Analysis Strategies
In addition to the vignettes relating to violence (provided in Appendix A), a
variety of questions relating to demographics, social integration, cultural and
religious background, and social trust were asked. The interview schedule
ran from about 30 min to 1 hr and 45 min. Given our interest in flushing out
the cultural scripts and schemas that are available to independent actors as
they confront situations and draw on their cultural tool boxes to formulate
strategies of action, we presented a set of vignettes and response options to
each of the participants. They were then asked to indicate which response
was most appropriate in their view and to explain why this was the case.
Follow-up questions asked them to evaluate what they perceived the com-
munity standard to be and again to explain that perception. For example, see
Vignette 1 in Appendix A.

In analyzing the data that emerged from these interviews, we drew on the
constant comparative analysis method from the grounded theory paradigm,
repeatedly canvassing the verbatim transcripts to identify the salient emer-
gent themes related to the use of violent or nonviolent action strategies (see
Glaser & Strauss, 1967). By cross-referencing demographic characteristics
of the participants with vignette responses, it was also possible to address
important issues relating to “whom” violence is a viable option and under
what conditions this is the case.

The usual caveats with respect to reliability and validity that pertain to many
qualitative studies apply here as well. Specifically, although major efforts were
made to ensure the diversity of the sample along standard demographic dimen-
sions (age, sex, race, socioeconomic status), the use of nonprobability sampling
and the limited sample size make it difficult to know the extent to which our
sample is representative of the larger population of the parishes from which
respondents were selected. However, our goal here simply is to illuminate the

Lee and Ousey 909

content and utilization of cultural scripts pertaining to violence and the condi-
tions under which they emerge; we make no claims that the results documented
here are exhaustive or generalize to the entire universe of potential subjects.

In addition, by its very nature, the presentation of sections of transcripted
interviews will involve selection issues. In the following analysis, we try to
maximize the presentation of the depth and breadth of information in the data
by purposefully including substantively varying, and sometimes contradic-
tory, accounts offered by the participants. Finally, we note that in the course
of natural conversation, which was established with most participants, pat-
terns of speech are frequently interrupted and not fluid. The transcriptions
reported below have been “cleaned up” to facilitate readability while making
every effort to adhere to the original intent of the interviewee. The reader
should keep in the mind that for the present purposes, the goal is not to dis-
cern “modal” responses but to highlight the variation in responses that are
evident in the interviews.

Findings
When Is Violence Acceptable and to Whom?

To begin the analysis, we establish that in fact some participants do find the use
of violence a viable strategy of action in certain situations and examine the
demographics of such respondents. The six vignettes provided in Appendix A
were intentionally varied in terms of their context, with the expectation that
participants would be likely to see violence as a more viable strategy of action
in some situational contexts than in others. This is clearly the case with these
data. Vignette No. 1, where Tom is confronted with a burglar in the house, was
the modal vignette in which participants responded in the affirmative. The
main themes to emerge from our analysis of the affirmative responses (e.g.,
shoot the burglar) centered on the availability of law enforcement, the imme-
diacy of the threat to the respondent or the family, and the likelihood of a
continuing threat over the longer term. Gerald (a pseudonym), a White male in
his 60s with several college degrees, illustrates the general pattern found
among those reporting violence as a viable action strategy:

Gerald: Well, I suspect that I would find the second the most appropri-
ate, although I might have given some kind of warning.

Interviewer: Can you explain a little why you think that’s the appropri-
ate response.

Gerald: Well, going back into another room and calling the police—
let’s see—you’re probably looking at at least 20 to 30 minutes, you

910 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5)

know you really can’t depend on the police to protect you. The other
thing is that you’re shooting someone, you don’t know that it is a
burglar. There is the possibility that somebody else is wandering
around, and so just whipping out a gun and shooting without know-
ing who it is—but if it was a threat and I knew who it was, that’s
what I would do, alright?

Notice here that the participant does not fall back on some conventional
value that is calling him forth to shoot the burglar. Rather, he delineates a
strategy of action based on his informal assessment of how long he thinks
it would take the police to get there. He knows that living in a rural area
police response time is significant, perhaps as long as a half an hour. Thus
relying on the police to protect him and

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