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Civil Engineering homework help

ENERGY EFFICIENT LOW-COST

BUILDING DESIGN IN SOUTH ASIA

USING COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCKS

AND SOLAR PANELS.

Vemury Structural Consultancy Ltd.

TEAM MEMBERS

– Boini Aishwarya Yadav
Project Manager

•Current Degree – MSc Construction Project Management

– Keshav ShipthiCommunication Lead
•Current Degree – MSc Construction Project Management

– Bhargava GullipalliResearch Lead
•Current Degree – MSc Construction Project Management

•Evaluate the Project performance

•Monitor the Project progress

•Manage the Resources

create, implement and oversee

communications programs

•Carry out work according to protocols

• Collect and log experimental data.

•Conduct statistical analyses of data sets

PROJECT ENGAGEMENT PROCESS

Project

Needs Strategies
Research &

Development

Client Requirements

Sustainable Needs Project Considerations

Manage

Plan

Build

Run

Project

AIM OF THE PROJECT

• To propose and implement various

construction techniques to aid in the

development of energy-efficient, low-cost

buildings in a specific region of south

Asian countries using compressed earth

blocks and solar panels.

https://images.app.goo.gl/Unh9LnKV7m6ffKze8

PROJECT KEY OBJECTIVES

https://images.app.goo.gl/7pUVJtBCcQSUQECA6

• Choosing an appropriate south Asian location.
• A proper research on incorporating earth blocks

and solar panels into the building with its
drawbacks.

• Research other low cost innovative ideas for
improved energy efficiency.

• A detailed report containing all the investigation
and research on energy-efficient low cost building
design.

PROJECT
ROADMAP

Location
Identification of location

Investigation
Investigation resources

Design process
Design process of the construction

as per client requirement
Implementation
Implementation of various

techniques

Challenges
To over come design challenges &

Implementations challenges
Solutions
Finding solutions for various

challenges

Status
Maintain the project status

Risk Management/analysis
Project cost Analysis

Project Delivery process

Maintenance
Project records and

Chick list

Delivery

SELECTED LOCATION

DUNDIGAL

• Dundigal is a city and municipality in the Medchal – Malkajgiri district, Telangana, India.

• Area : Total 65 km2 (25 sq mi)

• Population (2011) : 40,817

CLIMATE – MAY

30°C night

40°C day

Humidity level 30%

25.73mm (9 days)
rainfall

WHY DUNDIGAL?

• ,

• Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate.
Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in
the 42 °C (108 °F) range.

• Extreme heat and humidity

• The Economy of Telangana is mainly driven by
agriculture. Most of the families cannot afford air-
conditioning

INVESTIGATION

• Investigation resources is key point for any project, because every

project has their own needs based on their we need to find the

resources.

Hear our project is mainly based on LOW Cost Building

Constructions

Hear mainly two investigation concentrated

• Site Investigation

• Material Investigation

 Client availabilities are the main priorities for that we have to

investigate our client needs and, we have to make adjustments to

our project.

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nUDDbap1b9
https://images.app.goo.gl/WPe4RR

XKQjnXZeJR7

DESIGN PROCESS

• For the design process we need consider

lot of factors

• Mainly we have to show them our

project low cost, Eco friendly and

Sustainable

In this work, we are preparing one design

diagram using different design software

and implementing low-cost techniques

such as compressed earth blocks, solar

panels and some other.

IMPLEMENTATION

• To make this construction as low cost

we have to implement to many

techniques

• For make the construction cost is low

We consider following techniques

 Using Earth blocks

 Using low density concrete

 Use eco friendly martial

 Using solar panels

 Use standard reusable materials

Great material for thermal mass

It’s non toxic

Bricks are easy to work with

Incredibly environmental friendly

Reduce building’s electricity cost

No maintenance

Fire resistant,

Thermal and acoustical insulation properties make it ideal

for a wide range of purposes

Low Cost

• To make any project with low cost we have to

follow lot of challenges

 Handling of materials

 Maintain the proper resources

 Maintain work flow

 Handling of people

 Adjusting design concepts

CHALLENGES

https://images.app.goo.gl/PWmgjU2QdnSKtbbx7

SOLUTIONS

• To make the cost of the project is low hear

we consider following materials

 Interlinking Blocks

 Barriers

 EPS Core Panels

 Tree Barriers

 Stone walls

 Glass in construction

https://images.app.goo.gl/7oXA1

RLnLWshpkig6
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EKjiJbxm37jyV9
https://images.app.goo.gl/JEmEK

jiJbxm37jyV9

https://images.app.goo.gl/zww

yFAPcSzeGhexH9
https://images.app.goo.gl/qU

w53tadgt8kx6ku8

https://images.app.goo.gl/D8Mv

ZBWBDhLuU3zA7

Interlinking blocks Barrier EPS core Panels

Tree barriers Stone work walls Glass in Construction

PROJECT STATUS

The project status can be expressed in the following images

status

 Initiate : Hear our initiation of the project is to make

project is low cost and full fill the client needs.

 Plan : As per the client need we prepare the road map for

engaging the work.

 Design : To make our project in clear understanding we

made our own design and how to apply our thoughts in that

work.

 Construct : As per the client’s needs, we construct our

work plan, elaborate the work to all standards and all

together make our project in success.

 Close: We hope we present the best out put client and

we feel satisfies all the requirements of the client.

https://images.app.goo.gl/38DxMncLW3warYct8

RISK MANAGEMENT / ANALYSIS

Source: https://images.app.goo.gl/mp1BbHbKTdHZDCzd8

For adjusting the client in the specified location, we

have to face a lot of risks, we need to do a risk

management plan as per the diagram we should do

the risk management plan.

DELIVERY

To deliver any project, we have to follow proper manner, for

that to follow the all the steps like

•To check the client’s needs are done.

•To check the design standards are perfectly adjusted to the

client’s specifications.

•To explain what we have done and where we have adjusted

client points.

MAINTENANCE

Maintenance is the process of ensuring that

buildings and other assets retain a good

appearance and operate at optimum

efficiency. Inadequate maintenance can

result in decay, degradation and reduced

performance and can affect heath and

threaten the safety of users, occupants and

others in the vicinity

OUR LOW COST CONSTRUCTION HOUSE

COMPARISON BETWEEN NORMAL HOUSE AND OUR LOW COST AND
ECO FRIENDLY HOUSE

General House Low cost house

Regular use of material Using different materials

Design pattern is general Innovative designs used

Cost of the construction is standard

based of the price of the market

When combative general house the

cost of decreased 1/3

Damage of environmental is moderate Purely eco friendly

https://images.app.goo.gl/v1VR

vmdv8rJLiBjS6

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l/bywF4rMCE8cFzdZe8

https://images.app.goo.gl/S5r1TH3HqCYm

XXvP6

https://images.app.goo.gl/3hAE6X5ACDE

hFcsq9

CONCLUSION

To full the client needs we are adopted so many

techniques and process, if we follow the mentioned

processes in the required house it will definitely goes low

cost of constructions.

And what ever we suggest the techniques are

acceptable in ISO standards and practically provide.

THANK YOU

We are so grateful for the pleasure of

serving you and hope we met your

expectations

Civil Engineering homework help

Instructor:

Dr Reza Alavi

Overview of ISO 19650 Standard

Outline

• Need for BIM Standard

• BIM Standards

• Overview of ISO 19650

• Alignment of ISO 19650 with Other Standards

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 1

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 2

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 3

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 5

2

Learning Objectives

• Understand why BIM standards are required.

• Gain knowledge about the contents of ISO 19650.

3

Related Module Learning Outcomes

• Formulate BIM solutions to design challenges; and the BIM’s responses to

information management needs throughout the project life cycle.

• Justify and defend the information management strategy developed, and the

design or managerial choices made within the production process of

construction project.

Acronyms

• CDE: Common Data Environment

• OIR: Organisational Information Requirements

• AIR: Asset Information Requirements

• PIR: Project Information Requirements

• EIR: Exchange Information Requirements

• AIM: Asset Information Model

• PIM: Project Information Model

4

Need for BIM Standard

• BIM is increasingly being adopted for

collaborative working in built environment

projects and asset management.

• Interoperability and collaborative environment

needs efficient ways of communication and data

exchange.

• BIM standards can facilitate data sharing,

exchange and re-use, and reduce risks of

information loss, misinterpretation and

contradiction.
5

Source: NBS 10th Annual BIM Report (2020)

BIM Standards

6

Source: UK BIM Alliance (2019)

Equivalent Terms

BS 1192 term ISO 19650 term

Contract Appointment

Employer Appointing party, lead appointed party (Tier 1) and

appointed party (Tier 2 and below)

Employer’s Information Requirements (EIRs) Exchange Information Requirements (EIRs)

Level of model definition/level of detail (LOD)/level

of information (LOI)

Level of information need

Responsibility matrix Responsibility matrix/Assignment matrix

Supplier Lead appointed party (Tier 1)/appointed party (Tier 2

and below)
7

Source: Adopted from UK BIM Alliance (2019)

ISO 19650

• Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) —

Information management using building information modelling

• Part 1: Concepts and principles (2018-12)

• Part 2: Delivery phase of the assets (2018-12)

• Part 3: Operational phase of the assets (2020-07)

• Part 5: Security-minded approach to information management (2020-06)

• Applicable to projects with different sizes and levels of complexity.

8

Alignment with Other Standards

• ISO 9001:2015 Quality management systems

• ISO 55000:2014 Asset management

• ISO 21500:2012 Guidance on project management

• ISO 12006-2:2015 Building construction — Organization of

information about construction works

• ISO 8000 Data quality

• ISO/IEC 27000 Information security management

• ISO 31000 Risk management
9

Source: ISO 19650-1

ISO 9001 and ISO 19650 (1)

• Key principles of ISO 9001 were incorporated in

ISO 19650

• There is a focus on the customer (the recipient or user of

asset or project information);

• A Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is used (to develop and

provide asset or project information);

10
Source: https://kanbanize.com/lean-management/improvement/what-is-pdca-cycle

Customer Focus

ISO 9001 and ISO 19650 (2)

• Key principles of ISO 9001 were

incorporated in ISO 19650

• Engagement of people and the encouragement

of appropriate behaviours is central to the

delivery of consistent outputs;

• There is a focus on sharing of lessons learned

and continual improvement.

11

Source: https://civilservicelocal.blog.gov.uk/2019/08/09/engagement-what-does-it-mean-to-you/

Source: https://t2informatik.de/en/smartpedia/lessons-learned/

Key Actors and Teams in ISO 19650

12
Source: UK BIM Alliance (2019)

Relationships Between Parties

13
Source: UK BIM Alliance (2020)

ISO 19650 Part 1: Concepts and Principles

• “This document sets out the recommended concepts and principles for

business processes across the built environment sector in support of the

management and production of information during the life cycle of built assets

(referred to as “information management”) when using building information

modelling (BIM).” (ISO 19650-1)

14

Key Concepts and Principles Defined in ISO19650-1

• OIR, AIR, PIR, EIR

• AIM, PIM

• Principles of information delivery cycle

• Principles of project asset information management functions

• Principles of team capability and capacity

• Principles of information delivery planning

• Principles of managing collaborative production of information

• Principles of CDE
15

AIM and PIM

Conceptual
Design

Engineering
Design

Construction Commissioning Operation

16

Project/Asset Life Cycle

Delivery Phase Operation Phase

Project Information Model (PIM) AIM

• “AIM and PIM are the structured repositories of information needed for making

decisions during the whole life cycle of a built environment asset” (ISO 19650-1).

• CDE is an “agreed source of information for any given project or asset, for collecting,

managing and disseminating each information container through a managed process”
(ISO 19650-1).

Users of ISO 19650-1

• “Those involved in the procurement, design, construction and/or

commissioning of built assets,

• Those involved in delivering asset management activities, including

operations and maintenance.” (ISO-19650-1)

17

ISO 19650 Part 2: Delivery Phase of the Assets

• “This document is designed to enable an appointing party to establish their

requirements for information during the delivery phase of assets and to

provide the right commercial and collaborative environment within which

(multiple) appointed parties can produce information in an effective and

efficient manner.” (ISO 19650-2)

18

Conceptual
Design

Engineering
Design

Construction Commissioning Operation

ISO 19650 Part 2

Information Management During the Delivery

Phase of Assets

19
Source: ISO 19650-2

Users of ISO 19650-2

• Those involved in the management or production of information during the

delivery phase of assets;

• Those involved in the definition and procurement of construction projects;

• Those involved in the specification of appointments and facilitation of

collaborative working;

• Those involved in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and

decommissioning of assets; and

• Those responsible for the realization of value for their organization from their

asset base.
20

ISO 19650 Part 3: Operational Phase

• “This document is designed to enable an appointing party (such as an asset

owner, asset operator or outsourced asset management provider) to establish

their requirements for information during the operational phase of an asset.

This document is also designed to enable them to provide the appropriate

collaborative environment to fulfil commercial goals.” (ISO 19650-3)

21

Conceptual
Design

Engineering
Design

Construction Commissioning Operation

ISO 19650 Part 3

Users of ISO 19650-3

• “Those involved in the management of an asset and facility

• Those involved in the specification of appointments and the facilitation of

collaborative working during the entire life cycle of an asset

• Those involved in delivering asset management and facility management

during the operational phase of an asset

• Those involved in specifying the information required for operational purposes

that needs to be captured during the delivery phase of an asset” (ISO 19650-3)

23

ISO 19650 Part 5: Security-Minded Approach to

Information Management

• “This document provides a framework to assist organizations in understanding

the key vulnerability issues and the nature of the controls required to manage

the resultant security risks to a level that is tolerable to the relevant parties.” (ISO

19650-5)

• “Implementation of the measures outlined in this document will assist in

reducing the risk of the loss, misuse or modification of sensitive information that

can impact on the safety, security and resilience of assets, products, the built

environment, or the services provided by, from or through them.” (ISO 19650-5)

24

ISO 19650-5 Processes

• Establishing the need for a security-minded approach using a sensitivity

assessment process

• Initiating the security-minded approach

• Developing a security strategy

• Developing a security management plan

• Developing a security breach/incident management plan

• Working with appointed parties

27

Summary

• Understood ISO 19650 is related to other standards such as ISO 9001:2015

Quality management systems, and ISO 55000:2014 Asset management.

• Reviewed different processes in ISO 19650 Part 1, 2, 3 and 5.

28

How to Access ISO Standard

• Visit https://library.northumbria.ac.uk/home

29

Access BIM 360

• If you have not received BIM 360 license:

• Enter your Name and University Email in the Discussion Board dedicated for BIM 360.

30

References

• ISO 19650-1: 2018 (2018) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 1: Concepts and principles

• ISO 19650-2: 2018 (2018) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 2: Delivery phase of the assets

• ISO 19650-3:2020 (2020) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 3: Operational phase of the assets

• ISO 19650-5:2020 (2020) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 5: Security-minded approach to information management

• UK BIM Alliance (2019) Information management according to BS EN ISO 19650, Guidance Part 1:

Concepts.

• UK BIM Alliance (2020) Information management according to BS EN ISO 19650, Guidance Part 2:

Processes for Project Delivery.
31

Civil Engineering homework help

Instructor:

Dr Reza Alavi

Overview of ISO 19650 Standard

Outline

• Need for BIM Standard

• BIM Standards

• Overview of ISO 19650

• Alignment of ISO 19650 with Other Standards

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 1

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 2

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 3

• Overview of ISO 19650- Part 5

2

Learning Objectives

• Understand why BIM standards are required.

• Gain knowledge about the contents of ISO 19650.

3

Related Module Learning Outcomes

• Formulate BIM solutions to design challenges; and the BIM’s responses to

information management needs throughout the project life cycle.

• Justify and defend the information management strategy developed, and the

design or managerial choices made within the production process of

construction project.

Acronyms

• CDE: Common Data Environment

• OIR: Organisational Information Requirements

• AIR: Asset Information Requirements

• PIR: Project Information Requirements

• EIR: Exchange Information Requirements

• AIM: Asset Information Model

• PIM: Project Information Model

4

Need for BIM Standard

• BIM is increasingly being adopted for

collaborative working in built environment

projects and asset management.

• Interoperability and collaborative environment

needs efficient ways of communication and data

exchange.

• BIM standards can facilitate data sharing,

exchange and re-use, and reduce risks of

information loss, misinterpretation and

contradiction.
5

Source: NBS 10th Annual BIM Report (2020)

BIM Standards

6

Source: UK BIM Alliance (2019)

Equivalent Terms

BS 1192 term ISO 19650 term

Contract Appointment

Employer Appointing party, lead appointed party (Tier 1) and

appointed party (Tier 2 and below)

Employer’s Information Requirements (EIRs) Exchange Information Requirements (EIRs)

Level of model definition/level of detail (LOD)/level

of information (LOI)

Level of information need

Responsibility matrix Responsibility matrix/Assignment matrix

Supplier Lead appointed party (Tier 1)/appointed party (Tier 2

and below)
7

Source: Adopted from UK BIM Alliance (2019)

ISO 19650

• Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) —

Information management using building information modelling

• Part 1: Concepts and principles (2018-12)

• Part 2: Delivery phase of the assets (2018-12)

• Part 3: Operational phase of the assets (2020-07)

• Part 5: Security-minded approach to information management (2020-06)

• Applicable to projects with different sizes and levels of complexity.

8

Alignment with Other Standards

• ISO 9001:2015 Quality management systems

• ISO 55000:2014 Asset management

• ISO 21500:2012 Guidance on project management

• ISO 12006-2:2015 Building construction — Organization of

information about construction works

• ISO 8000 Data quality

• ISO/IEC 27000 Information security management

• ISO 31000 Risk management
9

Source: ISO 19650-1

ISO 9001 and ISO 19650 (1)

• Key principles of ISO 9001 were incorporated in

ISO 19650

• There is a focus on the customer (the recipient or user of

asset or project information);

• A Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is used (to develop and

provide asset or project information);

10
Source: https://kanbanize.com/lean-management/improvement/what-is-pdca-cycle

Customer Focus

ISO 9001 and ISO 19650 (2)

• Key principles of ISO 9001 were

incorporated in ISO 19650

• Engagement of people and the encouragement

of appropriate behaviours is central to the

delivery of consistent outputs;

• There is a focus on sharing of lessons learned

and continual improvement.

11

Source: https://civilservicelocal.blog.gov.uk/2019/08/09/engagement-what-does-it-mean-to-you/

Source: https://t2informatik.de/en/smartpedia/lessons-learned/

Key Actors and Teams in ISO 19650

12
Source: UK BIM Alliance (2019)

Relationships Between Parties

13
Source: UK BIM Alliance (2020)

ISO 19650 Part 1: Concepts and Principles

• “This document sets out the recommended concepts and principles for

business processes across the built environment sector in support of the

management and production of information during the life cycle of built assets

(referred to as “information management”) when using building information

modelling (BIM).” (ISO 19650-1)

14

Key Concepts and Principles Defined in ISO19650-1

• OIR, AIR, PIR, EIR

• AIM, PIM

• Principles of information delivery cycle

• Principles of project asset information management functions

• Principles of team capability and capacity

• Principles of information delivery planning

• Principles of managing collaborative production of information

• Principles of CDE
15

AIM and PIM

Conceptual
Design

Engineering
Design

Construction Commissioning Operation

16

Project/Asset Life Cycle

Delivery Phase Operation Phase

Project Information Model (PIM) AIM

• “AIM and PIM are the structured repositories of information needed for making

decisions during the whole life cycle of a built environment asset” (ISO 19650-1).

• CDE is an “agreed source of information for any given project or asset, for collecting,

managing and disseminating each information container through a managed process”
(ISO 19650-1).

Users of ISO 19650-1

• “Those involved in the procurement, design, construction and/or

commissioning of built assets,

• Those involved in delivering asset management activities, including

operations and maintenance.” (ISO-19650-1)

17

ISO 19650 Part 2: Delivery Phase of the Assets

• “This document is designed to enable an appointing party to establish their

requirements for information during the delivery phase of assets and to

provide the right commercial and collaborative environment within which

(multiple) appointed parties can produce information in an effective and

efficient manner.” (ISO 19650-2)

18

Conceptual
Design

Engineering
Design

Construction Commissioning Operation

ISO 19650 Part 2

Information Management During the Delivery

Phase of Assets

19
Source: ISO 19650-2

Users of ISO 19650-2

• Those involved in the management or production of information during the

delivery phase of assets;

• Those involved in the definition and procurement of construction projects;

• Those involved in the specification of appointments and facilitation of

collaborative working;

• Those involved in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and

decommissioning of assets; and

• Those responsible for the realization of value for their organization from their

asset base.
20

ISO 19650 Part 3: Operational Phase

• “This document is designed to enable an appointing party (such as an asset

owner, asset operator or outsourced asset management provider) to establish

their requirements for information during the operational phase of an asset.

This document is also designed to enable them to provide the appropriate

collaborative environment to fulfil commercial goals.” (ISO 19650-3)

21

Conceptual
Design

Engineering
Design

Construction Commissioning Operation

ISO 19650 Part 3

Users of ISO 19650-3

• “Those involved in the management of an asset and facility

• Those involved in the specification of appointments and the facilitation of

collaborative working during the entire life cycle of an asset

• Those involved in delivering asset management and facility management

during the operational phase of an asset

• Those involved in specifying the information required for operational purposes

that needs to be captured during the delivery phase of an asset” (ISO 19650-3)

23

ISO 19650 Part 5: Security-Minded Approach to

Information Management

• “This document provides a framework to assist organizations in understanding

the key vulnerability issues and the nature of the controls required to manage

the resultant security risks to a level that is tolerable to the relevant parties.” (ISO

19650-5)

• “Implementation of the measures outlined in this document will assist in

reducing the risk of the loss, misuse or modification of sensitive information that

can impact on the safety, security and resilience of assets, products, the built

environment, or the services provided by, from or through them.” (ISO 19650-5)

24

ISO 19650-5 Processes

• Establishing the need for a security-minded approach using a sensitivity

assessment process

• Initiating the security-minded approach

• Developing a security strategy

• Developing a security management plan

• Developing a security breach/incident management plan

• Working with appointed parties

27

Summary

• Understood ISO 19650 is related to other standards such as ISO 9001:2015

Quality management systems, and ISO 55000:2014 Asset management.

• Reviewed different processes in ISO 19650 Part 1, 2, 3 and 5.

28

How to Access ISO Standard

• Visit https://library.northumbria.ac.uk/home

29

Access BIM 360

• If you have not received BIM 360 license:

• Enter your Name and University Email in the Discussion Board dedicated for BIM 360.

30

References

• ISO 19650-1: 2018 (2018) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 1: Concepts and principles

• ISO 19650-2: 2018 (2018) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 2: Delivery phase of the assets

• ISO 19650-3:2020 (2020) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 3: Operational phase of the assets

• ISO 19650-5:2020 (2020) Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil

engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) — Information management using

building information modelling — Part 5: Security-minded approach to information management

• UK BIM Alliance (2019) Information management according to BS EN ISO 19650, Guidance Part 1:

Concepts.

• UK BIM Alliance (2020) Information management according to BS EN ISO 19650, Guidance Part 2:

Processes for Project Delivery.
31

Civil Engineering homework help

C O M P U T E R – A I D E D P L A N N I N G F O R H E A V Y L I F T S

By W. C. Hornaday I and C. T. H a a s , 2 Associate Members, A S C E ,
J. T. O’Connor, 3 Member, A S C E , and J. W e n 4

ABSTRACT: This article presents research into automating some lift planning prac-
tices common to industrial construction contractors and owners. A detailed inves-
tigation of heavy-lift planning methods was conducted through a series of interviews
and lift studies with expert lift planners. This investigation documented a wide
variety of manual and computer-aided lift planning methods to perform similar
types of planning tasks. Based on the information collected from these interviews
and lift studies, a structured systems model was developed of the typical heavy-lift
planning process. This structured model is used as an architecture for the devel-
opment of computer software to aid key planning tasks. An examination of major
planning tasks indicates that significant reductions in direct planning costs and
indirect construction heavy-lift costs are possible through the implementation of
computer-aided planning procedures. Computer-aided procedures would also im-
prove the overall quality of lift planning practices through the automation of tasks
which are difficult to perform and are critical to heavy-lift planning accuracy.

INTRODUCTION

I n industrial c o n s t r u c t i o n , it is b e c o m i n g m o r e c o m m o n t o r e d u c e plant
e q u i p m e n t fabrication costs b y fabricating larger p o r t i o n s o f e q u i p m e n t at
specialized off-site locations ( F i t z s i m m o n s 1991). This e q u i p m e n t includes
pressure vessels, r e a c t o r c o l u m n s , a n d e q u i p m e n t skids l o a d e d with h e a v y
steel walls o r f r a m i n g systems, internal piping, a n d trays, which collectively
can weigh up to 900 t (1,000 tons). T h e lifting costs to erect these large,
heavy objects in place g r o w excessively as t h e lifting c a p a c i t y o f t h e c r a n e
increases. H e a v y lifts using s t a n d a r d c r a n e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s can have total
planning and e x e c u t i o n costs r a n g i n g f r o m $50,000 to $300,000. Five p e r c e n t
to 10% o f the lift cost is c o n s u m e d b y p l a n n i n g activities while the m a j o r i t y
o f the total cost is a t t r i b u t e d t o the lifting e q u i p m e n t itself ( H o r n a d a y 1991).

A n estimated $25 m i l l i o n – S 5 0 million is spent a n n u a l l y b y U . S . industrial
owners, designers, and c o n t r a c t o r s o n the p l a n n i n g o f $500 million w o r t h
of heavy crane lifts ( H o r n a d a y 1991). T h e cost o f the lift is d e p e n d e n t o n
the lift p l a n n e r ‘ s e x p e r i e n c e a n d skill in selecting e q u i p m e n t a n d p r e p a r i n g
lift plans t h a t are o p t i m u m f o r given sets o f conditions. T h e n u m b e r o f lift
specialists with the e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e d t o effectively plan critical lifts is
dwindling, while the n u m b e r o f h e a v y lifts being p e r f o r m e d each y e a r is
increasing (C. W. M c C o y , vice p r e s i d e n t , D o w C h e m i c a l ; heavy-lift s u r v e y
interview; July 11, 1991). T h e activities o f t h e lift p l a n n e r are highly spe-
cialized and well r e w a r d e d b y c o n t r a c t o r s .

T h e h e a v y reliance o f industrial c o n s t r u c t o r s o n a small p o o l o f highly
specialized p l a n n e r s to plan a g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f lifts o f increasing mag-

1Appl. Const. Res., 902 Meriden, Bldg. B, Austin, TX 78703; formerly, Res.
Asst., Univ. of Texas, Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Austin, TX 78712-1076.

2Asst. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX.
3Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX.
4Res. Asst., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX.
Note. Discussion open until February 1, 1994. To extend the closing date one

month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Journals. The
manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and possible publication on
August 3, 1992. This paper is part of the Journal of Construction Engineering and
Management, Vol. 119, No. 3, September, 1993. �9 ISSN 0733-9364/93/0003-
0498/$1.00 + $.15 per page. Paper No. 4520.

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Construc~ion
Lift Planning

I Comme*cial I

Sm~cmnfl I ~ction

Gin Polc

Comulting
Engine, ors

Rotary Subcontractors
Crmes

FIG. 1. Scope of Construction Lift Planning Studied

nitude is a costly a n d risky practice. O p t i m u m use o f available c r a n e equip-
m e n t might n o t always t a k e place with limited p l a n n i n g resources. C o n –
struction c o n t r a c t o r s are also increasing their risk b y relying o n a few k e y
planners for t h e success o f lifts in which accidents can cost millions o f dollars.
T h e research discussed h e r e was m o t i v a t e d b y t h e n e e d t o b o t h i m p r o v e
the effectiveness a n d l o w e r t h e total cost o f heavy-lift planning. It is e x p e c t e d
that i m p r o v e d lift p l a n n i n g will also l o w e r t h e risks and costs associated with
the lift itself.

T h e scope o f this p a p e r is limited t o the p l a n n i n g o f h e a v y o r critical lifts
p e r f o r m e d o n industrial c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s using s t a n d a r d c r a n e config-
urations. I n d u s t r y lift p l a n n e r s define a h e a v y lift as a lift o f o v e r 2 2 – 4 0 t
( 2 5 – 5 0 tons), d e p e n d i n g o n the c o m p a n y . B u t as lifting e q u i p m e n t has
improved, the heavy-lift c u t o f f has increased. A s a result m a n y lift p l a n n e r s
identify lifts as critical, y e t m a k e n o distinction o f t h e lift’s n o m i n a l weight
o r heaviness. A critical lift is d e f i n e d b y lift p l a n n e r s as e i t h e r a lift o v e r an
area o f c o n c e r n such as an o p e r a t i n g process area, o r a lift t h a t exceeds a
certain p e r c e n t a g e o f a c r a n e ‘ s capacity. This critical definition allows plan-
ners to d e v o t e their effort t o t h e least reliable types o f lifts. This p a p e r
encompasses b o t h types o f definitions o f lifts a n d defines t h e lifts studied
merely as lifts requiring detailed planning. T h e detailed p l a n n e d lift, as a
m a t t e r o f c o n v e n t i o n , will be r e f e r r e d to as a heavy lift t h r o u g h o u t this

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document. This type of lift makes up less than 30% o f industrial crane lifts,
but requires the majority of planning effort from lift specialists.

Some of the very heavy lifts over 400 t (500 tons) use specially designed
lifting or jacking systems. The majority of heavy lifts, though, are p erfo rm ed
using standard crane configurations. Primarily this study is focused on the
use of single cranes that have the capacity to lift the object alone but often
use tailing cranes or “J-rails” for uprighting objects (Shapiro et al. 1991).
Lifts requiring the lifting capacities of multiple cranes were not examined
in detail in this study, but many of the basic planning functions identified
for single main crane lifts are applicable to multiple crane or multiple lift
object planning. Fig. 1 illustrates the segment of the lift planning industry
discussed.

This paper presents an overview of current industry practices, followed
by a formalized model of the heavy-lift planning process. Th e potential
impact of computer-aided lift planning methods is illustrated through an
examination of a common planning task. Using the planning model as an
architecture, a complete computer-aided planning system is proposed. Prog-
ress to date on the implementation of this system is described as well as
current research and development activities.

BACKGROUND

Methods of heavy-lift planning and execution in industry have many com-
mon elements that are independent of the project or organization involved.
But as the heavy-lift industry is introduced to new technology, these planning
methods are undergoing changes. The first m a j o r change has been the result
of the steady introduction of cranes with ever-larger lifting capacities. A
heavy lift around 1960 was defined as up to 22 t (25 tons), while today
rotary cranes are performing lifts 10 times that magnitude or m o re (Donnie
Gosch Sr., heavy-lift planner, Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, Tex.; heavy-
lift survey interviews; April 10, 1991, June 11, 1991). A second m aj o r change
is also evolving. New computing technologies, including computer-aided
design (CAD), geographic information systems (GIS), and artificial intel-
ligence (AI) tools are beginning to initiate significant changes in the way
planning is done (Varghese 1992).

Industrial heavy-lift planning is p e r f o r m e d in three basic stages:

1. Preliminary planning begins 12-24 months before the actual lift date.
Its purpose is to examine feasibility and establish the scope of the lift plan.
The planner uses preliminary vessel dimensions to make approximate es-
timates and consults preliminary site plans to establish lift requirements.
The results include an estimate of lift cost, an analysis of preliminary fea-
sibility, an outline for the detailed lift plan, and sometimes a short list of
potentially feasible cranes.

2. Detailed planning begins when the vessel information and the con-
struction schedule are accurate enough to commit to a schedule for a lift
date and equipment rentals. Based on a fixed set of site conditions and
vessel data, the planner determines, for example, what specific crane con-
figurations can perform the lift and where the equipment should be located.
The planner must also design the vessel rigging and the crane mat.

3. Final planning involves evaluation of the detailed plans and final se-
lection. Detailed lift plans are usually developed for at least two models of
cranes to allow for the competitive procurement of lift equipment (Donnie

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Gosch Jr., heavy-lift planner, Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, Tex.; heavy-
lift survey interviews; April 10, 1991, June 11, 1991). A ft er a level of ac-
ceptable risk has been determined, the selection of the lift plan is based
primarily on cost. The selection and evaluation phase is often a cooperative
effort between the construction contractor and the facility owner because
of the risk and high public profile of the heavy-lift execution.

Delays in the execution of detailed lift plans can have a n u m b er of causes.
The vessel delivery date, for instance, cannot be accurately determined to
within less than one week at almost any time during its fabrication. Many
planners will not commit to a detailed lift plan until the vessel has actually
entered the site due to the numerous fabrication and transportation prob-
lems that can delay a scheduled lift (Frankie Spates, lift planner, D o w
Chemical, Freeport, Tex.; heavy-lift survey interview; July 11, 1991). Th e
detailed planning period is therefore often very constrained. A structured
analysis of heavy-lift planning proves useful for understanding how complex
and conflicting planning factors are dealt with in this constrained time frame.

STRUCTURED ANALYSIS OF HEAVY-LIFT PLANNING

Industrial heavy-lift planning can be modeled as a function with inputs,
outputs, controls, mechanisms, and an internal process ( ” I D E F I ” 1981).
Heavy-lift planning takes as basic inputs the site, characteristics of the lift
object (vessel), and crane data. From this information a n u m b er of plan
outputs are produced (Fig. 2). T h e process is controlled by the lift planner
based on structural, spatial, and schedule constraints. Lift plan outputs
increase in detail as the lift plan evolves from preliminary planning, to
detailed planning, to final evaluation and selection. Cost and reliability are
of constant concern throughout this process. Those employed to execute

Inputs
Cranes
Lift Object
Site ~’~

Controls
Spatial Constraints

Stnlctural COnsSctrt ~ e C onstraints

1 +
Heavy Lift Planning

~prFeasible Cranes & Partial Lift Plan
eliminary Feasibility Planning) I

Feasible Cranes & Optimum Lift Plans I
(Detailed Optimization Planning) I

l

I Optimum Crane & Lift Plan
(Final Evaluation & Selection)

Planning Criteria
Cost
Reliability

Outputs

-I~Crane Location
~ e s s e l Pick Location
~ V e s s e l Lift Path
“l~’Failing Crane Location
~ e s s e l Upright Location
~ V e s s e l Upright Path

Constructor Owner Engineering Consultant
Mechanisms

FIG. 2. Heavy-Lift Planning Functional Model

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the planning functions include the construction lift planner, owner repre-
sentative, and engineering consultants.

Lift Plan Inputs
The inputs to the lift plan correspond to the physical breakdown of the

lift: the object, site, and crane. The characteristics of the cranes are orga-
nized in substantial manuals of information on each piece of lifting equip-
ment. Architectural and engineering drawings typically represent the site
data. The lift object or vessel is described by manufacturer shop drawings.

The lift object (vessel) can be described by three basic categories of
characteristics. The dimensions and shape of the vessel represent the in-
formation used to evaluate spatial constraints (Dharwadkar 1991). Th e lo-
cation and magnitude of the weight of the vessel determine the lifting ca-
pacity required to perform the heavy lift. The fabrication and delivery schedule
of the vessel establishes the work window in which the lift will be performed.

The second input to heavy-lift planning is the site. Th e site can also be
described by several basic characteristics. The spatial layout and dimensions
of the site are typically represented by drawings for lift planners. T h e struc-
tural stability of the site is represented quantitatively by engineering sheets
for specific areas of interest. The state of the site’s spatial and structural
conditions is also represented as it changes with time by the project con-
struction and plant operations schedule.

The crane can be represented by five primary categories of characteristics.
The crane’s physical dimensions define its spatial operating requirements.
The structural design and weight characteristics define the forces and stresses
that the crane can endure for a lift. The crane is also characterized by its
cost and availability. Subjectively, the crane is also characterized by its
reliability and service record.

Lift Plan Outputs
The lift planner structures the planning process around six basic spatial

outputs for each of a number of crane configurations. A single crane con-
figuration may include b o o m length, counter weight, b o o m size, jib type,
and boom tip type. Through each stage of the planning process, the n u m b er
of crane configurations are reduced while the lift plan outputs are refined.
In preliminary planning, approximate regions of feasible locations for the
lift plan spatial outputs are determined. In detailed planning, these regions
are more accurately determined and the location of each lift plan output is
optimized for each crane configuration. The objective is to choose outputs
that minimize the structural and spatial requirements of the crane to directly
improve the reliability and performance of the lift. Th e six outputs for the
uprighting and lifting of a single critical lift are:

�9 Main crane location: The main crane location is the plan location
of the center pin and the elevation of the top of the crane mat.

�9 Tailing crane location/path: T h e tailing crane location and/or path
is defined similarly as its center pin location as it uprights the vessel
or lift object.

�9 Vessel upright location: The vessel upright location is the main crane
hook location at which the vessel is uprighted for a lift.

�9 Vessel upright path and vessel lift path: Th e upright path and lift
path are the paths traveled by the main crane h o o k during uprighting
and lifting.

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�9 V e s s e l pick l o c a t i o n : T h e vessel p i c k l o c a t i o n is t h e u p r i g h t e d p o i n t
at which t h e m a i n lifting c r a n e first c a r r i e s t h e full w e i g h t o f t h e
vessel.

�9 Vessel p l a c e l o c a t i o n : T h e p l a c e l o c a t i o n is usually n o t v a r i a b l e a n d
is d e f i n e d as t h e c r a n e hoist h o o k l o c a t i o n w h e r e t h e vessel rests a t
t h e e n d o f t h e lift.

Lift Planning Mechanisms
T h e m e c h a n i s m s o f t h e lift p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s p o n –

sibility o f t h e lift p l a n n e r a n d t h e facility o w n e r . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e l a r g e –
plant o w n e r supplies c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r s with p r e l i m i n a r y lift plans.
M o r e typically, t h e o w n e r r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d lift p l a n s f r o m t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
c o n t r a c t o r . T h e lift p l a n n e r a n d t h e o w n e r in t u r n r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m
technical c o n s u l t a n t s such as c r a n e m a n u f a c t u r e r s , s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r s , a n d
o t h e r lift p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s . W h i l e n u m e r o u s p a r t i e s s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n t o
the lift p l a n n e r a n d t h e o w n e r , t h e e n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n o f
the lift p l a n falls with t h e lift p l a n n e r , a n i n d i v i d u a l o r s u b c o n t r a c t o r w h o
is usually e m p l o y e d b y t h e c o n t r a c t o r .

Lift Plan Controls
H e a v y – l i f t p l a n n i n g is c o n t r o l l e d b y s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r a l , a n d s c h e d u l e c o n –

straints. Spatial c o n s t r a i n t s t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e w o r k v o l u m e o r s p a c e
on the site r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c r a n e t o m o v e t h e v e s s e l t h r o u g h t h e lift p a t h .
T h e lift p l a n n e r c a n n o t c h e c k t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f e v e r y p o i n t o n t h e vessel,
crane, o r site with e a c h o t h e r . T h e lift p l a n n e r t h e r e f o r e uses e x p e r i e n c e
to identify t h e p o i n t s o n t h e lift c o m p o n e n t s t h a t a r e m o s t likely to i n t e r f e r e
with e a c h o t h e r . Fig. 3 is a small m a t r i x o f t h e c o m m o n i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n –
ditions t h a t a lift p l a n n e r c h e c k s f o r c l e a r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e ,
o n e o f the m o s t c o m m o n c o n d i t i o n s limiting a lift is t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e
c r a n e b o o m b o d y with t h e v e s s e l h e a d .

D u e to t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e c r a n e , vessel, a n d site

Common I
Spatial Inteferences L ~ E I I I I

-~ front swin

boom tiol I I I I I

FIG. 3.

N
l

I l l ‘
, , ; , i
ianll

Typical Heavy-Lift Interference Points

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during dynamic lift conditions, the lift planner defines the tolerances re-
quired at these interference points. This tolerance given by the lift planner
varies depending on the subjective analysis of the likelihood of an inter-
ference condition. T h e crane has unquantified variances such as b o o m flex-
ure, foundation settlement, and general mechanical slip. T h e vessel has
variances due to sway and hoist line elasticity during the lifting operations.
The shear size of the crane components justifies the planner’s assumption
that there is uncertainty in the control of the lift. A critical lift clearance
allowance is that between the crane b o o m body and the top o f the lift object.
A typical minimum clearance for this critical point is 6 0 – 9 0 cm ( 2 4 – 3 6 in.).

The structural constraints on the lift plan require determination of the
required strength of the vessel, site, and crane, as well as allowable loads
plus a safety factor. The weights of the lift components make up the static
forces acting on the lift. The safety factor to account for dynamic conditions
and uncertainties is typically set by the owner in consultation with the lift
planner, and is generally based on perception of risk. Th e lift planner and
consulting engineers often have difficulty evaluating the true capacity of the
lift when different structural guidelines apply to different components o f
the lift. The issue of the effectiveness of multiple structural safety factors
on the reliability of the heavy lift has been addressed in a previous lift study
(Duer 1989).

As the lift date approaches, the schedule begins to impose more fixed
constraints. The pick location for the vessel may be constrained by the date
that a certain construction activity must take place. Interfering structures
may be erected before or after a lift. In addition, physical precedences exist
such as the requirement for construction of a vessel foundation and pad
before placement. The schedule describes the time variance o f spatial and
structural constraints as well as the objectives of the project managers.

Evaluating Lift Plans
The complete lift plan is optimized with the simultaneous objectives o f

cost, reliability, safety, and performance. Interdependencies abound. F o r
example, the cost of a crane greatly increases as its structural capacity
increases.

The weight of each of these objectives or evaluation criteria varies, but
the method by which each criteria is applied to the lift plan is fairly uniform
throughout the industry.

In terms of reliability or safety, the lift planner’s objective is to minimize
the chances of catastrophic accidents and general lift failures. Catastrophic-
type accidents are failures involving the loss of life or extreme damage to
hazardous processes such as chlorine gas removal. Lift failures are defined
as structural failures or spatial interferences causing damage. Th e clearest
indicator of reliability of a lift is the percentage of the crane capacity used.
This is established by the fact that most lift failures are caused by the
overturning of cranes, or by exceeding the structural stable capacity of the
crane.

Primary lift cost components are the crane lease rate, crane transportation/
setup, engine mat/foundation construction cost, and the cost impact on area
construction activities. Ideally, the lift planner evaluates these components
together and selects the best lift plan, but typically the lift planner minimizes
the cost of the lift through the selection of the most economical crane based
on fixed object and site information. In the early planning stages, though,
lift planners are able to b e t t e r reduce the total lift cost by evaluating the

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site constraints on the lift along with the lift conditions (Donnie Gosch Sr.,
heavy-lift planner, Brown & R o o t , Inc., Houston, Tex.; heavy-lift survey
interviews; April 10, 1991, June 11, 1991). For example, a single crane
foundation can be used for the execution of several heavy lifts in an area.
This requires the coordination of construction plans to ensure that area
structures are constructed in a sequence that allows access to multiple place
points from a single crane location.

Performance criteria are also used by lift planners to optimize lift plans.
One performance factor is the use history of the crane. Th e history o f the
crane impacts both the structural and spatial reliability of the equipment
and potential maintenance and servicing costs. A u t o m a t e d measurement
devices have recently been introduced to allow the lift history o f the crane
be economically recorded.

DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPUTER-AIDED PROCEDURES AND THEIR IMPACT
ON LIFT PLANNING METHODS

A presentation of research findings for a common lift planning task serves
to illustrate the impact of computers on the overall lift planning process.
The sample planning task is the identification of the minimum radius at
which a single crane can lift an object. Since the structural reliability of the
lift increases significantly as the lift radius decreases, a primary objective
of all heavy lifts is to perform the lift as close to this minimum radius as
possible. The interference of the lift object with the crane base o r b o o m
determines the minimum radius on the majority of heavy lifts p e r f o r m e d
with rotary cranes. Occasionally, stability with respect to the crane’s coun-
terweights will also affect the minimum radius.

The method of performing this task for six engineering/procurement/
construction (EPC) contractors is presented in this section ( H o r n a d a y 1992).
The purpose of this section is to provide insight into planning methods of
industrial constructors, not to rank or compare. Some of the contractors
studied specifically requested that company references in lift planning ma-
terials not be disclosed. Thus, the planning methods and the drawings shown
in this section are not specifically referenced.

Three of the six E P C contractors and owners studied currently use manual
lift planning procedures. In determining the minimum crane radius, an
elevation view of the vessel is hand-drafted by the lift planner. Th en , for
each crane configuration under study, the lift planner drafts an elevation
view of the crane body and boom. T h e process of determining whether the
boom clears the vessel height is performed iteratively. F o r a single crane
configuration and vessel pair, lift planners take about 8 man-hours to ac-
curately calculate and document the minimum crane radius.

Lift planners may use shortcuts to improve the efficiency o f this planning
task. One planner keeps a n o t e b o o k of sketches of co m m o n crane models
drawn to scale. Common rigging attachments are also filed in a second
notebook. Using a photocopier, portions of the drawings are constructed
using cut-and-paste methods. Other planners who draw out the individual
components of the crane take shortcuts by only drawing the critical dimen-
sions needed. In Fig. 4, a lift planner sketched only the critical crane di-
mensions like the b o o m length and rotation center line.

The remaining three of the six planners use computers to aid in the
planning of heavy lifts ( H o r n a d a y 1992). Different levels o f technology were
observed.

The first documented use of computers for heavy-lift planning was a

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FIG. 4. Drafted Elevation Working Drawing of Crane Lift

planner’s use of A u t o C A D in 1982. Various common crane components,
such as boom sections, types of rigging, and crane bases, were saved to
scale in files. Once the vessel was drafted on the computer from shop
drawings, the lift planner would insert common crane

Civil Engineering homework help

C O M P U T E R – A I D E D P L A N N I N G F O R H E A V Y L I F T S

By W. C. Hornaday I and C. T. H a a s , 2 Associate Members, A S C E ,
J. T. O’Connor, 3 Member, A S C E , and J. W e n 4

ABSTRACT: This article presents research into automating some lift planning prac-
tices common to industrial construction contractors and owners. A detailed inves-
tigation of heavy-lift planning methods was conducted through a series of interviews
and lift studies with expert lift planners. This investigation documented a wide
variety of manual and computer-aided lift planning methods to perform similar
types of planning tasks. Based on the information collected from these interviews
and lift studies, a structured systems model was developed of the typical heavy-lift
planning process. This structured model is used as an architecture for the devel-
opment of computer software to aid key planning tasks. An examination of major
planning tasks indicates that significant reductions in direct planning costs and
indirect construction heavy-lift costs are possible through the implementation of
computer-aided planning procedures. Computer-aided procedures would also im-
prove the overall quality of lift planning practices through the automation of tasks
which are difficult to perform and are critical to heavy-lift planning accuracy.

INTRODUCTION

I n industrial c o n s t r u c t i o n , it is b e c o m i n g m o r e c o m m o n t o r e d u c e plant
e q u i p m e n t fabrication costs b y fabricating larger p o r t i o n s o f e q u i p m e n t at
specialized off-site locations ( F i t z s i m m o n s 1991). This e q u i p m e n t includes
pressure vessels, r e a c t o r c o l u m n s , a n d e q u i p m e n t skids l o a d e d with h e a v y
steel walls o r f r a m i n g systems, internal piping, a n d trays, which collectively
can weigh up to 900 t (1,000 tons). T h e lifting costs to erect these large,
heavy objects in place g r o w excessively as t h e lifting c a p a c i t y o f t h e c r a n e
increases. H e a v y lifts using s t a n d a r d c r a n e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s can have total
planning and e x e c u t i o n costs r a n g i n g f r o m $50,000 to $300,000. Five p e r c e n t
to 10% o f the lift cost is c o n s u m e d b y p l a n n i n g activities while the m a j o r i t y
o f the total cost is a t t r i b u t e d t o the lifting e q u i p m e n t itself ( H o r n a d a y 1991).

A n estimated $25 m i l l i o n – S 5 0 million is spent a n n u a l l y b y U . S . industrial
owners, designers, and c o n t r a c t o r s o n the p l a n n i n g o f $500 million w o r t h
of heavy crane lifts ( H o r n a d a y 1991). T h e cost o f the lift is d e p e n d e n t o n
the lift p l a n n e r ‘ s e x p e r i e n c e a n d skill in selecting e q u i p m e n t a n d p r e p a r i n g
lift plans t h a t are o p t i m u m f o r given sets o f conditions. T h e n u m b e r o f lift
specialists with the e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e d t o effectively plan critical lifts is
dwindling, while the n u m b e r o f h e a v y lifts being p e r f o r m e d each y e a r is
increasing (C. W. M c C o y , vice p r e s i d e n t , D o w C h e m i c a l ; heavy-lift s u r v e y
interview; July 11, 1991). T h e activities o f t h e lift p l a n n e r are highly spe-
cialized and well r e w a r d e d b y c o n t r a c t o r s .

T h e h e a v y reliance o f industrial c o n s t r u c t o r s o n a small p o o l o f highly
specialized p l a n n e r s to plan a g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f lifts o f increasing mag-

1Appl. Const. Res., 902 Meriden, Bldg. B, Austin, TX 78703; formerly, Res.
Asst., Univ. of Texas, Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Austin, TX 78712-1076.

2Asst. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX.
3Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX.
4Res. Asst., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., 5.2 ECJ Hall, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX.
Note. Discussion open until February 1, 1994. To extend the closing date one

month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Journals. The
manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and possible publication on
August 3, 1992. This paper is part of the Journal of Construction Engineering and
Management, Vol. 119, No. 3, September, 1993. �9 ISSN 0733-9364/93/0003-
0498/$1.00 + $.15 per page. Paper No. 4520.

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Construc~ion
Lift Planning

I Comme*cial I

Sm~cmnfl I ~ction

Gin Polc

Comulting
Engine, ors

Rotary Subcontractors
Crmes

FIG. 1. Scope of Construction Lift Planning Studied

nitude is a costly a n d risky practice. O p t i m u m use o f available c r a n e equip-
m e n t might n o t always t a k e place with limited p l a n n i n g resources. C o n –
struction c o n t r a c t o r s are also increasing their risk b y relying o n a few k e y
planners for t h e success o f lifts in which accidents can cost millions o f dollars.
T h e research discussed h e r e was m o t i v a t e d b y t h e n e e d t o b o t h i m p r o v e
the effectiveness a n d l o w e r t h e total cost o f heavy-lift planning. It is e x p e c t e d
that i m p r o v e d lift p l a n n i n g will also l o w e r t h e risks and costs associated with
the lift itself.

T h e scope o f this p a p e r is limited t o the p l a n n i n g o f h e a v y o r critical lifts
p e r f o r m e d o n industrial c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s using s t a n d a r d c r a n e config-
urations. I n d u s t r y lift p l a n n e r s define a h e a v y lift as a lift o f o v e r 2 2 – 4 0 t
( 2 5 – 5 0 tons), d e p e n d i n g o n the c o m p a n y . B u t as lifting e q u i p m e n t has
improved, the heavy-lift c u t o f f has increased. A s a result m a n y lift p l a n n e r s
identify lifts as critical, y e t m a k e n o distinction o f t h e lift’s n o m i n a l weight
o r heaviness. A critical lift is d e f i n e d b y lift p l a n n e r s as e i t h e r a lift o v e r an
area o f c o n c e r n such as an o p e r a t i n g process area, o r a lift t h a t exceeds a
certain p e r c e n t a g e o f a c r a n e ‘ s capacity. This critical definition allows plan-
ners to d e v o t e their effort t o t h e least reliable types o f lifts. This p a p e r
encompasses b o t h types o f definitions o f lifts a n d defines t h e lifts studied
merely as lifts requiring detailed planning. T h e detailed p l a n n e d lift, as a
m a t t e r o f c o n v e n t i o n , will be r e f e r r e d to as a heavy lift t h r o u g h o u t this

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document. This type of lift makes up less than 30% o f industrial crane lifts,
but requires the majority of planning effort from lift specialists.

Some of the very heavy lifts over 400 t (500 tons) use specially designed
lifting or jacking systems. The majority of heavy lifts, though, are p erfo rm ed
using standard crane configurations. Primarily this study is focused on the
use of single cranes that have the capacity to lift the object alone but often
use tailing cranes or “J-rails” for uprighting objects (Shapiro et al. 1991).
Lifts requiring the lifting capacities of multiple cranes were not examined
in detail in this study, but many of the basic planning functions identified
for single main crane lifts are applicable to multiple crane or multiple lift
object planning. Fig. 1 illustrates the segment of the lift planning industry
discussed.

This paper presents an overview of current industry practices, followed
by a formalized model of the heavy-lift planning process. Th e potential
impact of computer-aided lift planning methods is illustrated through an
examination of a common planning task. Using the planning model as an
architecture, a complete computer-aided planning system is proposed. Prog-
ress to date on the implementation of this system is described as well as
current research and development activities.

BACKGROUND

Methods of heavy-lift planning and execution in industry have many com-
mon elements that are independent of the project or organization involved.
But as the heavy-lift industry is introduced to new technology, these planning
methods are undergoing changes. The first m a j o r change has been the result
of the steady introduction of cranes with ever-larger lifting capacities. A
heavy lift around 1960 was defined as up to 22 t (25 tons), while today
rotary cranes are performing lifts 10 times that magnitude or m o re (Donnie
Gosch Sr., heavy-lift planner, Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, Tex.; heavy-
lift survey interviews; April 10, 1991, June 11, 1991). A second m aj o r change
is also evolving. New computing technologies, including computer-aided
design (CAD), geographic information systems (GIS), and artificial intel-
ligence (AI) tools are beginning to initiate significant changes in the way
planning is done (Varghese 1992).

Industrial heavy-lift planning is p e r f o r m e d in three basic stages:

1. Preliminary planning begins 12-24 months before the actual lift date.
Its purpose is to examine feasibility and establish the scope of the lift plan.
The planner uses preliminary vessel dimensions to make approximate es-
timates and consults preliminary site plans to establish lift requirements.
The results include an estimate of lift cost, an analysis of preliminary fea-
sibility, an outline for the detailed lift plan, and sometimes a short list of
potentially feasible cranes.

2. Detailed planning begins when the vessel information and the con-
struction schedule are accurate enough to commit to a schedule for a lift
date and equipment rentals. Based on a fixed set of site conditions and
vessel data, the planner determines, for example, what specific crane con-
figurations can perform the lift and where the equipment should be located.
The planner must also design the vessel rigging and the crane mat.

3. Final planning involves evaluation of the detailed plans and final se-
lection. Detailed lift plans are usually developed for at least two models of
cranes to allow for the competitive procurement of lift equipment (Donnie

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Gosch Jr., heavy-lift planner, Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, Tex.; heavy-
lift survey interviews; April 10, 1991, June 11, 1991). A ft er a level of ac-
ceptable risk has been determined, the selection of the lift plan is based
primarily on cost. The selection and evaluation phase is often a cooperative
effort between the construction contractor and the facility owner because
of the risk and high public profile of the heavy-lift execution.

Delays in the execution of detailed lift plans can have a n u m b er of causes.
The vessel delivery date, for instance, cannot be accurately determined to
within less than one week at almost any time during its fabrication. Many
planners will not commit to a detailed lift plan until the vessel has actually
entered the site due to the numerous fabrication and transportation prob-
lems that can delay a scheduled lift (Frankie Spates, lift planner, D o w
Chemical, Freeport, Tex.; heavy-lift survey interview; July 11, 1991). Th e
detailed planning period is therefore often very constrained. A structured
analysis of heavy-lift planning proves useful for understanding how complex
and conflicting planning factors are dealt with in this constrained time frame.

STRUCTURED ANALYSIS OF HEAVY-LIFT PLANNING

Industrial heavy-lift planning can be modeled as a function with inputs,
outputs, controls, mechanisms, and an internal process ( ” I D E F I ” 1981).
Heavy-lift planning takes as basic inputs the site, characteristics of the lift
object (vessel), and crane data. From this information a n u m b er of plan
outputs are produced (Fig. 2). T h e process is controlled by the lift planner
based on structural, spatial, and schedule constraints. Lift plan outputs
increase in detail as the lift plan evolves from preliminary planning, to
detailed planning, to final evaluation and selection. Cost and reliability are
of constant concern throughout this process. Those employed to execute

Inputs
Cranes
Lift Object
Site ~’~

Controls
Spatial Constraints

Stnlctural COnsSctrt ~ e C onstraints

1 +
Heavy Lift Planning

~prFeasible Cranes & Partial Lift Plan
eliminary Feasibility Planning) I

Feasible Cranes & Optimum Lift Plans I
(Detailed Optimization Planning) I

l

I Optimum Crane & Lift Plan
(Final Evaluation & Selection)

Planning Criteria
Cost
Reliability

Outputs

-I~Crane Location
~ e s s e l Pick Location
~ V e s s e l Lift Path
“l~’Failing Crane Location
~ e s s e l Upright Location
~ V e s s e l Upright Path

Constructor Owner Engineering Consultant
Mechanisms

FIG. 2. Heavy-Lift Planning Functional Model

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the planning functions include the construction lift planner, owner repre-
sentative, and engineering consultants.

Lift Plan Inputs
The inputs to the lift plan correspond to the physical breakdown of the

lift: the object, site, and crane. The characteristics of the cranes are orga-
nized in substantial manuals of information on each piece of lifting equip-
ment. Architectural and engineering drawings typically represent the site
data. The lift object or vessel is described by manufacturer shop drawings.

The lift object (vessel) can be described by three basic categories of
characteristics. The dimensions and shape of the vessel represent the in-
formation used to evaluate spatial constraints (Dharwadkar 1991). Th e lo-
cation and magnitude of the weight of the vessel determine the lifting ca-
pacity required to perform the heavy lift. The fabrication and delivery schedule
of the vessel establishes the work window in which the lift will be performed.

The second input to heavy-lift planning is the site. Th e site can also be
described by several basic characteristics. The spatial layout and dimensions
of the site are typically represented by drawings for lift planners. T h e struc-
tural stability of the site is represented quantitatively by engineering sheets
for specific areas of interest. The state of the site’s spatial and structural
conditions is also represented as it changes with time by the project con-
struction and plant operations schedule.

The crane can be represented by five primary categories of characteristics.
The crane’s physical dimensions define its spatial operating requirements.
The structural design and weight characteristics define the forces and stresses
that the crane can endure for a lift. The crane is also characterized by its
cost and availability. Subjectively, the crane is also characterized by its
reliability and service record.

Lift Plan Outputs
The lift planner structures the planning process around six basic spatial

outputs for each of a number of crane configurations. A single crane con-
figuration may include b o o m length, counter weight, b o o m size, jib type,
and boom tip type. Through each stage of the planning process, the n u m b er
of crane configurations are reduced while the lift plan outputs are refined.
In preliminary planning, approximate regions of feasible locations for the
lift plan spatial outputs are determined. In detailed planning, these regions
are more accurately determined and the location of each lift plan output is
optimized for each crane configuration. The objective is to choose outputs
that minimize the structural and spatial requirements of the crane to directly
improve the reliability and performance of the lift. Th e six outputs for the
uprighting and lifting of a single critical lift are:

�9 Main crane location: The main crane location is the plan location
of the center pin and the elevation of the top of the crane mat.

�9 Tailing crane location/path: T h e tailing crane location and/or path
is defined similarly as its center pin location as it uprights the vessel
or lift object.

�9 Vessel upright location: The vessel upright location is the main crane
hook location at which the vessel is uprighted for a lift.

�9 Vessel upright path and vessel lift path: Th e upright path and lift
path are the paths traveled by the main crane h o o k during uprighting
and lifting.

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�9 V e s s e l pick l o c a t i o n : T h e vessel p i c k l o c a t i o n is t h e u p r i g h t e d p o i n t
at which t h e m a i n lifting c r a n e first c a r r i e s t h e full w e i g h t o f t h e
vessel.

�9 Vessel p l a c e l o c a t i o n : T h e p l a c e l o c a t i o n is usually n o t v a r i a b l e a n d
is d e f i n e d as t h e c r a n e hoist h o o k l o c a t i o n w h e r e t h e vessel rests a t
t h e e n d o f t h e lift.

Lift Planning Mechanisms
T h e m e c h a n i s m s o f t h e lift p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s p o n –

sibility o f t h e lift p l a n n e r a n d t h e facility o w n e r . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e l a r g e –
plant o w n e r supplies c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r s with p r e l i m i n a r y lift plans.
M o r e typically, t h e o w n e r r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d lift p l a n s f r o m t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
c o n t r a c t o r . T h e lift p l a n n e r a n d t h e o w n e r in t u r n r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m
technical c o n s u l t a n t s such as c r a n e m a n u f a c t u r e r s , s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r s , a n d
o t h e r lift p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s . W h i l e n u m e r o u s p a r t i e s s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n t o
the lift p l a n n e r a n d t h e o w n e r , t h e e n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n o f
the lift p l a n falls with t h e lift p l a n n e r , a n i n d i v i d u a l o r s u b c o n t r a c t o r w h o
is usually e m p l o y e d b y t h e c o n t r a c t o r .

Lift Plan Controls
H e a v y – l i f t p l a n n i n g is c o n t r o l l e d b y s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r a l , a n d s c h e d u l e c o n –

straints. Spatial c o n s t r a i n t s t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e w o r k v o l u m e o r s p a c e
on the site r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c r a n e t o m o v e t h e v e s s e l t h r o u g h t h e lift p a t h .
T h e lift p l a n n e r c a n n o t c h e c k t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f e v e r y p o i n t o n t h e vessel,
crane, o r site with e a c h o t h e r . T h e lift p l a n n e r t h e r e f o r e uses e x p e r i e n c e
to identify t h e p o i n t s o n t h e lift c o m p o n e n t s t h a t a r e m o s t likely to i n t e r f e r e
with e a c h o t h e r . Fig. 3 is a small m a t r i x o f t h e c o m m o n i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n –
ditions t h a t a lift p l a n n e r c h e c k s f o r c l e a r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e ,
o n e o f the m o s t c o m m o n c o n d i t i o n s limiting a lift is t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e
c r a n e b o o m b o d y with t h e v e s s e l h e a d .

D u e to t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e c r a n e , vessel, a n d site

Common I
Spatial Inteferences L ~ E I I I I

-~ front swin

boom tiol I I I I I

FIG. 3.

N
l

I l l ‘
, , ; , i
ianll

Typical Heavy-Lift Interference Points

5 0 3

J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 1993, 119(3): 498-515

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during dynamic lift conditions, the lift planner defines the tolerances re-
quired at these interference points. This tolerance given by the lift planner
varies depending on the subjective analysis of the likelihood of an inter-
ference condition. T h e crane has unquantified variances such as b o o m flex-
ure, foundation settlement, and general mechanical slip. T h e vessel has
variances due to sway and hoist line elasticity during the lifting operations.
The shear size of the crane components justifies the planner’s assumption
that there is uncertainty in the control of the lift. A critical lift clearance
allowance is that between the crane b o o m body and the top o f the lift object.
A typical minimum clearance for this critical point is 6 0 – 9 0 cm ( 2 4 – 3 6 in.).

The structural constraints on the lift plan require determination of the
required strength of the vessel, site, and crane, as well as allowable loads
plus a safety factor. The weights of the lift components make up the static
forces acting on the lift. The safety factor to account for dynamic conditions
and uncertainties is typically set by the owner in consultation with the lift
planner, and is generally based on perception of risk. Th e lift planner and
consulting engineers often have difficulty evaluating the true capacity of the
lift when different structural guidelines apply to different components o f
the lift. The issue of the effectiveness of multiple structural safety factors
on the reliability of the heavy lift has been addressed in a previous lift study
(Duer 1989).

As the lift date approaches, the schedule begins to impose more fixed
constraints. The pick location for the vessel may be constrained by the date
that a certain construction activity must take place. Interfering structures
may be erected before or after a lift. In addition, physical precedences exist
such as the requirement for construction of a vessel foundation and pad
before placement. The schedule describes the time variance o f spatial and
structural constraints as well as the objectives of the project managers.

Evaluating Lift Plans
The complete lift plan is optimized with the simultaneous objectives o f

cost, reliability, safety, and performance. Interdependencies abound. F o r
example, the cost of a crane greatly increases as its structural capacity
increases.

The weight of each of these objectives or evaluation criteria varies, but
the method by which each criteria is applied to the lift plan is fairly uniform
throughout the industry.

In terms of reliability or safety, the lift planner’s objective is to minimize
the chances of catastrophic accidents and general lift failures. Catastrophic-
type accidents are failures involving the loss of life or extreme damage to
hazardous processes such as chlorine gas removal. Lift failures are defined
as structural failures or spatial interferences causing damage. Th e clearest
indicator of reliability of a lift is the percentage of the crane capacity used.
This is established by the fact that most lift failures are caused by the
overturning of cranes, or by exceeding the structural stable capacity of the
crane.

Primary lift cost components are the crane lease rate, crane transportation/
setup, engine mat/foundation construction cost, and the cost impact on area
construction activities. Ideally, the lift planner evaluates these components
together and selects the best lift plan, but typically the lift planner minimizes
the cost of the lift through the selection of the most economical crane based
on fixed object and site information. In the early planning stages, though,
lift planners are able to b e t t e r reduce the total lift cost by evaluating the

504

J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 1993, 119(3): 498-515

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site constraints on the lift along with the lift conditions (Donnie Gosch Sr.,
heavy-lift planner, Brown & R o o t , Inc., Houston, Tex.; heavy-lift survey
interviews; April 10, 1991, June 11, 1991). For example, a single crane
foundation can be used for the execution of several heavy lifts in an area.
This requires the coordination of construction plans to ensure that area
structures are constructed in a sequence that allows access to multiple place
points from a single crane location.

Performance criteria are also used by lift planners to optimize lift plans.
One performance factor is the use history of the crane. Th e history o f the
crane impacts both the structural and spatial reliability of the equipment
and potential maintenance and servicing costs. A u t o m a t e d measurement
devices have recently been introduced to allow the lift history o f the crane
be economically recorded.

DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPUTER-AIDED PROCEDURES AND THEIR IMPACT
ON LIFT PLANNING METHODS

A presentation of research findings for a common lift planning task serves
to illustrate the impact of computers on the overall lift planning process.
The sample planning task is the identification of the minimum radius at
which a single crane can lift an object. Since the structural reliability of the
lift increases significantly as the lift radius decreases, a primary objective
of all heavy lifts is to perform the lift as close to this minimum radius as
possible. The interference of the lift object with the crane base o r b o o m
determines the minimum radius on the majority of heavy lifts p e r f o r m e d
with rotary cranes. Occasionally, stability with respect to the crane’s coun-
terweights will also affect the minimum radius.

The method of performing this task for six engineering/procurement/
construction (EPC) contractors is presented in this section ( H o r n a d a y 1992).
The purpose of this section is to provide insight into planning methods of
industrial constructors, not to rank or compare. Some of the contractors
studied specifically requested that company references in lift planning ma-
terials not be disclosed. Thus, the planning methods and the drawings shown
in this section are not specifically referenced.

Three of the six E P C contractors and owners studied currently use manual
lift planning procedures. In determining the minimum crane radius, an
elevation view of the vessel is hand-drafted by the lift planner. Th en , for
each crane configuration under study, the lift planner drafts an elevation
view of the crane body and boom. T h e process of determining whether the
boom clears the vessel height is performed iteratively. F o r a single crane
configuration and vessel pair, lift planners take about 8 man-hours to ac-
curately calculate and document the minimum crane radius.

Lift planners may use shortcuts to improve the efficiency o f this planning
task. One planner keeps a n o t e b o o k of sketches of co m m o n crane models
drawn to scale. Common rigging attachments are also filed in a second
notebook. Using a photocopier, portions of the drawings are constructed
using cut-and-paste methods. Other planners who draw out the individual
components of the crane take shortcuts by only drawing the critical dimen-
sions needed. In Fig. 4, a lift planner sketched only the critical crane di-
mensions like the b o o m length and rotation center line.

The remaining three of the six planners use computers to aid in the
planning of heavy lifts ( H o r n a d a y 1992). Different levels o f technology were
observed.

The first documented use of computers for heavy-lift planning was a

505

J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 1993, 119(3): 498-515

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FIG. 4. Drafted Elevation Working Drawing of Crane Lift

planner’s use of A u t o C A D in 1982. Various common crane components,
such as boom sections, types of rigging, and crane bases, were saved to
scale in files. Once the vessel was drafted on the computer from shop
drawings, the lift planner would insert common crane

Civil Engineering homework help

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Environment

MCE | Learning and Teaching Page 1 of 4

Coursework Specification

1 Module Information

1.1 Module Title: Integrated Building Information Modelling Project

1.2 Module Code Number: KB7038

1.3 Module Level and Credit Points: Level 7 – 20 credits

1.4 Module Leader: Nima Gerami Seresht

1.5 Assessment Component Number: 001

1.6 Assessment Weighting: 100%

1.7 Coursework Title: Information management and Integrated BIM solutions for construction

planning

1.8 Coursework Specification Author: Nima Gerami Seresht and SeyedReza RazaviAlavi

1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s): 2021-2022 Semester 2

2 Coursework Submission and Feedback

2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students: 24th January 2022

2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students: Blackboard

2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students: 23:59 BST 15th May 2022

2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students: Turnitin submission link on

Blackboard

2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students: No later than

23:59 BST 12th June 2022

2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to

Students: Individual mark from Grade Centre in Blackboard and feedback comments from
Feedback Studio in TurnitinUK in Blackboard.

3 Assessment Details

3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

What will I be expected to achieve?

1. Analyse the role of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in construction planning and management.
2. Formulate BIM solutions to design challenges; and the BIM’s responses to information management

needs throughout the project life cycle.
3. Justify and defend the information management strategy developed, and the design or managerial

choices made within the production process of construction project.
4. Apply disciplinary knowledge and multi-disciplinary skills to overcome complex problems of practice

and identify appropriate solutions.

MCE | Learning and Teaching Page 2 of 4

3.2 Coursework Overview

The assessment requires you to develop BIM-based solutions for a case study project, which has been
uniquely chosen for this academic year and will be presented and illustrated to you in the first seminar
session of the module. You need to critically analyse the project and evaluate potential digital solutions for
the challenges encountered with the planning and management of the project throughout the project life
cycle. To this end, the planning and management requirements need to be clearly identified for the case
study project; and the relevant BIM-based solutions need to be proposed with sufficient details for
implementation to address such requirements. Additionally, you will need to develop the information
management strategy for the case study project to facilitate BIM implementation in the project.

3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students

You are required to write an individual report including the following:

1. For the case study project, analyse the project and describe three significant challenges associated

with the project’s design management and planning, which the application of BIM can address. The

challenges need to be relevant to the project’s design and planning phases.

2. Propose BIM-based solutions for the identified three significant challenges based on the industry

best practices and academic literature. The solutions need to be tailored to the case study project

and their practicality — using BIM software packages — need to be discussed. The used industry

practices and academic literature need to be cited in the report (see section 3.5)

3. Evaluate your proposed solutions and discuss how they will address the design management and

planning of the case study project.

4. Formulate the information management strategy of the case study project by developing a detailed

responsibility matrix for the post-contract award in the delivery phase of the project. The matrix must

be aligned with Section 5.4 of ISO 19650-2 and address the following requirements:

• Identification of what information is to be produced (i.e., information needs)

• Identification of when the information is to be exchanged and with whom (i.e., schedule)

• Identification of which task team is responsible for its production (i.e., roles & responsibilities)

3.4 Expected Size of Submission

▪ The maximum word count for your submission is 4,000 words or equivalent (excluding the cover
page and list of references).

▪ Figures (diagrams, illustrations, photographs etc.) and tables are welcome but must be fully
incorporated into the submission, integrated with the text, and thoroughly explained why they are
exhibited. (200 words are counted for each figure/table used).

▪ The work must form a structured and coherent whole. On the cover page, identify the total number
of words used (excluding the cover page and references section) and the number of figures/tables
used.

▪ The Northumbria University policy on word limits is available here. You will see the policy explains
the point at which examiners will stop reading your work if you exceed the maximum word limit.

▪ Students’ reports must be submitted as a single digital file in either pdf or Microsoft Word format
using the TurnitinUK portal on the Blackboard course. The University has published guides to help
you submit your work using Turnitin Assignment submission portals, which you can find under
Assessment Submission, Grades & Feedback and from here.

3.5 Referencing Style

You need to prepare the references of your report based on the Harvard referencing style using the Cite
Them Right webpage. An online guide to Cite Them Right is available to Northumbria University students
here.

MCE | Learning and Teaching Page 3 of 4

3.6 Distribution of Assessment Weighting

Quality of presentation (including writing style, visualisation, and formatting) 15%

Depth of analysis of the case study project (planning and construction management
requirements) for assessing the role of BIM for addressing the planning and management
challenges

25%

Relevance of the proposed BIM-based solutions to the identified
challenges and the justifications of solutions

25%

Comprehensiveness and relevance of the detailed responsibility matrix developed to formulate
the information management strategy based on the requested requirements

35%

4 Referral

If the Progression and Awards Board (PAB) decides to give you a referral attempt of the module, the
module leader may ask you to retake the examination at another time. The referral attempt opportunity
will typically occur after the end-of-level Progression and Awards Board (PAB). If you pass the module
following a referral attempt, you will be awarded the module pass mark for level 7 modules, i.e., 50%. If
you become eligible to complete a referral attempt but are subsequently unable to undertake the
opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled sitting; this will
generally entail the suspension of your progression on your programme of study until such time that you
have completed the level and become eligible to proceed. The date and time of the examination for your
referral attempt will usually be confirmed to you by Academic Registry via the University’s website and not
by the module leader.

5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you
from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies
(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
(b) Group Work Assessments Policy
(c) Moderation Policy
(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback
(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
(6) Student Complaints and Appeals
(7) Academic Misconduct
(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/university-services/academic-registry/quality-and-teaching-
excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

MCE | Learning and Teaching Page 4 of 4

Assessment Criteria Matrix

The following assessment criteria matrix will be used by academic staff members to grade your work.

OUTCOMES Excellent
[ 90-100]

Very Good
[ 80-89]

DISTINCTIVE
[ 70-79]

COMMENDABLE
[ 60-69]

PASS [ 50-59] FAIL [ 40-49] POOR FAIL
[ 0-39]

Quality of
presentation (writing
style, visualisation,
and formatting)
15%

Exceptionally
well-structured
work that
comprehensively
addresses the
module learning
outcomes and
specific criteria

Very well-structured
work that addresses
the learning
outcomes and
specific criteria for
the module

Very clear presentation
with few problems.

Reasonably clear
presentation with some
problems.

Presentation has a few
problems but the
message is delivered
correctly

The presentation has
too many problems so
the message was
unclear.

Very poor with little
ability to convey the
message in a clear
manner.

Depth of analysis of
the project 25%

A very good attempt
with few mistakes – the
student clearly
understands the
requirements.

A good attempt with
some mistakes – the
student generally
understanding the
requirements

Some attempt with
some mistakes – the
student’s
understanding from the
requirements is
acceptable.

Little attempt with
many mistakes – the
student shows little
understanding of the
requirements.

Very little effort has
gone into this – the
student shows no real
understanding of the
requirements.

Relevance of the
proposed BIM-based
solutions and
justifications
25%

Solutions are clearly
and logically linked to
identified requirements,
and justified properly

Solutions arise from
identified requirements in
most instances although
there is some lack of
clarity and proper
justifications.

Some linkage of
solutions and identified
requirements but the
work lacks depth and
proper justifications.

Evidence of only
surface understanding
of linkages.

Little evidence of ability
to derive the solutions
from identified
requirements.

Comprehensiveness
and relevance of the
detailed responsibility
matrix 35%

Detailed responsibility
matrix is relevant and
addresses most of the
requested
requirements

Detailed responsibility
matrix is relevant and
addresses some of the
requested requirements

Detailed responsibility
matrix is somewhat
relevant but failed to
address some of the
requested
requirements

Detailed responsibility
matrix is mostly
irrelevant and failed to
address most of the
requested
requirements

Little evidence of ability
to develop the
responsibility matrix
and address the
requested
requirements

Civil Engineering homework help


Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Environment

Coursework Specification (Resit)

Module Information

Module Title

Advance Practice

Module Code Number

KB7056

Module Level and Credit Points

Level 7, 60 Credits

Module Leader

Dr Shahid Rasul

Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification)

01 and 02

Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification)

Component 01 – Pass/Fail

Component 02 – Pass/Fail

Both Components must be passed

Coursework Title

Component 01 – Individual Reflective Report

Component 02 – Group Project Presentation

Coursework Specification Author

Dr Shahid Rasul

Michelle Littlemore

Prof James Martin

Academic Year and Semester(s)

2021/2022

Coursework Submission and Feedback

Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students

22nd August 2022

Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students

Via eLP and in class


Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students

Group Project Presentation

Presentations (e.g. PowerPoint file) to be submitted Blackboard 6th May 2022 23:58 GMT – Only one member of the team must submit the presentation. The format for handing in the presentation is outlined in the expected size of the submission.

Presentations to academics and external project sponsors where appropriate will be held w/c 9nd May 2022 – you will be informed of a date and time prior to the end of semester 2.

Individual Reflective Report – to be submitted via TurnitinUK 17th May 2022 23:58 GMT

The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students

TurnitinUK


Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students

20th June 16:00 GMT

The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students

• Formative feedback/tutorial support will be given during the stages of the module delivery.

• Summative feedback/feedforward will be made via eLP TurnitinUK and during the Final Presentations

The Advance Practice Award

Your Advance Practice semester will be assessed on a pass/fail basis and does not contribute to the classification of your degree. However when taken and passed it is recognised both in your transcript as a 60 credit Advance Practice Module and in your degree title.



Assessment Details

Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

Specific achievements will be defined within your individual learning contract. However, all students are expected demonstrate an ability to achieve the following:

Knowledge & Understanding:

• MLO1: Reflect upon, challenge and extend existing personal knowledge of your discipline.

• MLO2: Evidence an enhanced understanding of your discipline through the application of existing knowledge in unfamiliar learning environments and through the acquisition of new knowledge and perspectives derived from experience out-with your formal taught programme.

Intellectual/Professional skills & abilities:

• MLO3: Exercise self-direction of your own learning by identifying and managing tasks individually and as a member of a team which address your personal goals.

• MLO4: Demonstrate mastery of intellectual and professional skills appropriate to your discipline.

• MLO5: Critically analyse and communicate ideas in appropriate written and verbal forms.

Personal Values/Attributes:

• MLO6: Demonstrate self-awareness of personal development.

Coursework Task to be completed by Students


Component 01 – Individual Reflective Report

During your Advance Practice you will have developed a number of skills and will have experienced a number of emotions. This component gives you the opportunity to reflect, analyse and propose future actions as a result of your experiences during this module in order to enhance your ability to become a reflective practitioner.

The Individual Reflective Report must demonstrate a critical and analytic thought process, a clear line of argument, and the use of evidence through examples of personal experiences, thoughts, and possibly theoretical literature. It must also contain the following 4 Rs of Reflective Writing:

· Reporting and Responding – Describe your experience, report what happened. Why is it relevant? Respond to your experiences with observations or expressing your opinion

· Relating – Draw a relationship between your experiences during the project and past experiences or modules/concepts/theories. Make a connection between how your skills, past professional experiences or discipline knowledge helped you during the project. Did you have the skills and knowledge to deal with task?

· Reasoning – Rationalise your experiences and make sense of the experiences through theory, ethical, social or political factors.

Reconstructing – Develop a plan to change your future actions/behaviours and to develop gaps in your skills. How would I deal with this next time?


Component 02 – Group Presentation.

As an output of your Advance Practice experience, you will be required to present the findings/solutions from your project brief to your industry client. You will also present your findings to a panel of academics for your final assessment.

If you are part of a group, then it is expected that each member of the group will contribute to the presentation and that each person will present an element of the presentation.

The presentation must clearly and concisely communicate the following:

· A brief background to the company and the objectives of the brief

· The research that you undertook

· The methods that you employed

· The findings and the solutions

· Conclusions

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON GROUP WORK

As a member of your project team you are expected to fully contribute to the output of the project brief. If there are any issues regarding you not contributing fully to the task you will be addressed by the module tutor and the Advance practice co-ordinator to assess your position on the project.

Expected Size of Coursework

Individual Reflective Account

· The work should be formatted as a Advance reflective report with numbered headings and subheadings

· The work should be formatted using ‘Arial’ font, of font size ‘11’, with 1.5 line spacing.

· The work shall be a maximum of 3,000 words (max 12 sides of A4 sheets)

· Figures and tables (diagrams, illustrations, photographs etc.) and tables are welcome to support the text. Figures, tables etc must be the author’s own and must add value to the report.

· The work must form a structured and coherent whole. It must contain a contents page and a basic front sheet that identifies the student number (not name), the total number of words used (excluding references, abstract and appendices section), and the number of figures/tables used.

· Submission of the reflective report should be titled in the following format

· Student name followed by Academic supervisors last name followed by the Client and the Project name

For example: Student Name_LITTLEMORE Bowmer and Kirkland Warehouse

Group Presentation

· The presentation will be conducted by all members of the group. The presentation will last 15 minutes with an additional 5 minutes for questions and answers

· The presentation format will be in PowerPoint (PPT)

· Submission of the PowerPoint should be titled in the following format

Group number followed by Academic supervisors last name followed by the Client and the Project name

For example: Group 2 LITTLEMORE Bowmer and Kirkland Warehouse

The University word limit policy is accessible here: https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/university-services/academic-registry/quality-and-teaching-excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

Referencing Style

You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system. An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:


https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

Assessment Criteria


Component 01 – Group Presentation


Pass and Fail grades are determined from the weighted sum of marks from each criterion as defined in the table below:

Criterion/Level


Fail (<40)

Adequate (50-59)

Good (60-69)

Excellent (>70)

Presentation Quality, Clarity and Skill (20%)

A poor presentation that demonstrates no cohesiveness amongst the team. Has little logic and lacks clarity

An adequate presentation that is presented with some logic and clarity but lacks a good level of professionalism

A good presentation that is logical, clear and conducted in a professional manner

An excellent presentation that is logical, clear and conducted in a professional manner

Industrial Sympathy (application in the real world) (30%)

Non-Coherent and no clear advice to the client. Shows limited/no understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer. Unable to defend the success of the project

Adequate advice to the client showing some understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer and risk. Defends the applicable success of the project

Good advice to the client showing good understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer and risk. Defends the applicable success of the project

Coherent and clear advice to client showing clear understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer and risk. Defends the applicable success of the project

Level of expertise in subject matter (30%)

No grip on the subject matter. No grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

An adequate grip on the subject matter. Limited grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

A good grip on the subject matter. Grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

An excellent grip on the subject matter. Expertise evidenced. Grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

Conclusions and Recommendations (10%)

Poor Clarity. Not clearly defined in a real-world context

Adequate clarity with some evidence of thinking through the process. Some explanation in a real-world context

Good clarity and well thought out process. Clearly explained in a real-world context

Excellent clarity and extremely well thought out. Clearly explained in a real-world context

Management of Questions and Answers (10%)

Poor management of questions

Adequate management of questions

Good management of questions

Excellent management of questions


Component 02 – Reflective Account

Criterion/Level

Fail (<40)

Adequate (50-59)

Good (60-69)

Excellent (>70)

Clarity – 20%

Language is vague and confusing throughout the report

There are frequent lapses in clarity and accuracy in the report

Minor infrequent gaps in clarity and accuracy in the report

The language is clear and expressive. The reviewer can clearly understand the purpose and position of the report

Relevance – 20%

Most of the reflection does not relate to the learning experiences of the student and/or learning objectives in the context of the project brief and learning contract

Student makes attempts to demonstrate relevance, but the relevance is unclear to the reader. Some linkage to project brief, AP learning objectives and the learning contract

The learning experience being reflected upon is good, relevant, and meaningful to the student and the AP learning objectives in the context of the project brief and learning contract

The learning experience being reflected upon is excellent, relevant, and meaningful to the student and the AP learning objectives in the context of the project brief and learning contract

Analysis – 20%

Reflection does not move beyond description of the learning experiences during the AP project

Student makes attempts at applying the learning experience to understanding of AP project concepts but fails to demonstrate depth of analysis

The reflection demonstrates a good level of applying the learning experience and analyses elements that have contributed to the students understanding of the AP project

The reflection moves beyond simple description of the experience to an analysis of how the experience contributed to the students understanding of the AP project

Interconnections – 15%

No attempt to demonstrate connections to previous learning or experiences with AP project

The reflection demonstrates little or no attempt to make connections between the experience and material from other modules at Northumbria University, past experiences and/or personal goals for their AP project

The reflection demonstrates good connections between the experience and material from other modules at Northumbria University, past experiences and/or personal goals for their AP project

The reflection demonstrates excellent connections between the experience and material from other modules at Northumbria University, past experiences and/or personal goals for their AP project

Self-Criticism – 15%

No attempt at self-criticism and relevant improvement strategies

There is some attempt at self-criticism, but the self-reflection fails to demonstrate a new awareness of personal learning developments

The reflection demonstrates ability of the student to question their own biases, project implementation strategy, team dynamics and skills but is limited in formulating new modes of thinking

The reflection demonstrates ability of the student to question their own biases, project implementation strategy, team dynamics and skills to formulation new modes of thinking.

Student Engagement – 10%

(Based on engagement with the process and your team throughout the module)

Less than 50% attendance recorded at scheduled meetings. Little or no information, that has been asked for, has been provided. Lack of engagement with the process and the team

50% attendance at scheduled meetings. An adequate level of the information, that has been asked for, has been provided There has been some engagement with the process and the team.

80% attendance at scheduled meetings and gateways in the module. Most of the information asked for has been provided. Good level of team engagement

100% attendance at scheduled meetings and gateways in the module. All information that has been asked for has been provided. Fully engaged in the team and their activities

Referral

The Referral Attempt opportunity will generally take place after the end-of-level Progression and Awards Board (PAB). If you become eligible to complete a Referral Attempt but are subsequently unable to undertake the opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled sitting of the module assessment. This will typically entail the suspension of your progression on your programme of study until such time that you have completed the level and become eligible to proceed.


Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies

(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards

(b) Group Work Assessments Policy

(c) Moderation Policy

(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy

(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback

(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests

(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances

(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances

(6) Student Complaints and Appeals

(7) Academic Misconduct

(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/university-services/academic-registry/quality-and-teaching-excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/



MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 1 of 5

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 2 of 5

Civil Engineering homework help


Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Environment

Coursework Specification (Resit)

Module Information

Module Title

Advance Practice

Module Code Number

KB7056

Module Level and Credit Points

Level 7, 60 Credits

Module Leader

Dr Shahid Rasul

Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification)

01 and 02

Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification)

Component 01 – Pass/Fail

Component 02 – Pass/Fail

Both Components must be passed

Coursework Title

Component 01 – Individual Reflective Report

Component 02 – Group Project Presentation

Coursework Specification Author

Dr Shahid Rasul

Michelle Littlemore

Prof James Martin

Academic Year and Semester(s)

2021/2022

Coursework Submission and Feedback

Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students

22nd August 2022

Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students

Via eLP and in class


Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students

Group Project Presentation

Presentations (e.g. PowerPoint file) to be submitted Blackboard 6th May 2022 23:58 GMT – Only one member of the team must submit the presentation. The format for handing in the presentation is outlined in the expected size of the submission.

Presentations to academics and external project sponsors where appropriate will be held w/c 9nd May 2022 – you will be informed of a date and time prior to the end of semester 2.

Individual Reflective Report – to be submitted via TurnitinUK 17th May 2022 23:58 GMT

The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students

TurnitinUK


Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students

20th June 16:00 GMT

The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students

• Formative feedback/tutorial support will be given during the stages of the module delivery.

• Summative feedback/feedforward will be made via eLP TurnitinUK and during the Final Presentations

The Advance Practice Award

Your Advance Practice semester will be assessed on a pass/fail basis and does not contribute to the classification of your degree. However when taken and passed it is recognised both in your transcript as a 60 credit Advance Practice Module and in your degree title.



Assessment Details

Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

Specific achievements will be defined within your individual learning contract. However, all students are expected demonstrate an ability to achieve the following:

Knowledge & Understanding:

• MLO1: Reflect upon, challenge and extend existing personal knowledge of your discipline.

• MLO2: Evidence an enhanced understanding of your discipline through the application of existing knowledge in unfamiliar learning environments and through the acquisition of new knowledge and perspectives derived from experience out-with your formal taught programme.

Intellectual/Professional skills & abilities:

• MLO3: Exercise self-direction of your own learning by identifying and managing tasks individually and as a member of a team which address your personal goals.

• MLO4: Demonstrate mastery of intellectual and professional skills appropriate to your discipline.

• MLO5: Critically analyse and communicate ideas in appropriate written and verbal forms.

Personal Values/Attributes:

• MLO6: Demonstrate self-awareness of personal development.

Coursework Task to be completed by Students


Component 01 – Individual Reflective Report

During your Advance Practice you will have developed a number of skills and will have experienced a number of emotions. This component gives you the opportunity to reflect, analyse and propose future actions as a result of your experiences during this module in order to enhance your ability to become a reflective practitioner.

The Individual Reflective Report must demonstrate a critical and analytic thought process, a clear line of argument, and the use of evidence through examples of personal experiences, thoughts, and possibly theoretical literature. It must also contain the following 4 Rs of Reflective Writing:

· Reporting and Responding – Describe your experience, report what happened. Why is it relevant? Respond to your experiences with observations or expressing your opinion

· Relating – Draw a relationship between your experiences during the project and past experiences or modules/concepts/theories. Make a connection between how your skills, past professional experiences or discipline knowledge helped you during the project. Did you have the skills and knowledge to deal with task?

· Reasoning – Rationalise your experiences and make sense of the experiences through theory, ethical, social or political factors.

Reconstructing – Develop a plan to change your future actions/behaviours and to develop gaps in your skills. How would I deal with this next time?


Component 02 – Group Presentation.

As an output of your Advance Practice experience, you will be required to present the findings/solutions from your project brief to your industry client. You will also present your findings to a panel of academics for your final assessment.

If you are part of a group, then it is expected that each member of the group will contribute to the presentation and that each person will present an element of the presentation.

The presentation must clearly and concisely communicate the following:

· A brief background to the company and the objectives of the brief

· The research that you undertook

· The methods that you employed

· The findings and the solutions

· Conclusions

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON GROUP WORK

As a member of your project team you are expected to fully contribute to the output of the project brief. If there are any issues regarding you not contributing fully to the task you will be addressed by the module tutor and the Advance practice co-ordinator to assess your position on the project.

Expected Size of Coursework

Individual Reflective Account

· The work should be formatted as a Advance reflective report with numbered headings and subheadings

· The work should be formatted using ‘Arial’ font, of font size ‘11’, with 1.5 line spacing.

· The work shall be a maximum of 3,000 words (max 12 sides of A4 sheets)

· Figures and tables (diagrams, illustrations, photographs etc.) and tables are welcome to support the text. Figures, tables etc must be the author’s own and must add value to the report.

· The work must form a structured and coherent whole. It must contain a contents page and a basic front sheet that identifies the student number (not name), the total number of words used (excluding references, abstract and appendices section), and the number of figures/tables used.

· Submission of the reflective report should be titled in the following format

· Student name followed by Academic supervisors last name followed by the Client and the Project name

For example: Student Name_LITTLEMORE Bowmer and Kirkland Warehouse

Group Presentation

· The presentation will be conducted by all members of the group. The presentation will last 15 minutes with an additional 5 minutes for questions and answers

· The presentation format will be in PowerPoint (PPT)

· Submission of the PowerPoint should be titled in the following format

Group number followed by Academic supervisors last name followed by the Client and the Project name

For example: Group 2 LITTLEMORE Bowmer and Kirkland Warehouse

The University word limit policy is accessible here: https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/university-services/academic-registry/quality-and-teaching-excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

Referencing Style

You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system. An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:


https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

Assessment Criteria


Component 01 – Group Presentation


Pass and Fail grades are determined from the weighted sum of marks from each criterion as defined in the table below:

Criterion/Level


Fail (<40)

Adequate (50-59)

Good (60-69)

Excellent (>70)

Presentation Quality, Clarity and Skill (20%)

A poor presentation that demonstrates no cohesiveness amongst the team. Has little logic and lacks clarity

An adequate presentation that is presented with some logic and clarity but lacks a good level of professionalism

A good presentation that is logical, clear and conducted in a professional manner

An excellent presentation that is logical, clear and conducted in a professional manner

Industrial Sympathy (application in the real world) (30%)

Non-Coherent and no clear advice to the client. Shows limited/no understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer. Unable to defend the success of the project

Adequate advice to the client showing some understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer and risk. Defends the applicable success of the project

Good advice to the client showing good understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer and risk. Defends the applicable success of the project

Coherent and clear advice to client showing clear understanding of the technology/knowledge transfer and risk. Defends the applicable success of the project

Level of expertise in subject matter (30%)

No grip on the subject matter. No grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

An adequate grip on the subject matter. Limited grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

A good grip on the subject matter. Grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

An excellent grip on the subject matter. Expertise evidenced. Grasp of the wider application relating to the subject area

Conclusions and Recommendations (10%)

Poor Clarity. Not clearly defined in a real-world context

Adequate clarity with some evidence of thinking through the process. Some explanation in a real-world context

Good clarity and well thought out process. Clearly explained in a real-world context

Excellent clarity and extremely well thought out. Clearly explained in a real-world context

Management of Questions and Answers (10%)

Poor management of questions

Adequate management of questions

Good management of questions

Excellent management of questions


Component 02 – Reflective Account

Criterion/Level

Fail (<40)

Adequate (50-59)

Good (60-69)

Excellent (>70)

Clarity – 20%

Language is vague and confusing throughout the report

There are frequent lapses in clarity and accuracy in the report

Minor infrequent gaps in clarity and accuracy in the report

The language is clear and expressive. The reviewer can clearly understand the purpose and position of the report

Relevance – 20%

Most of the reflection does not relate to the learning experiences of the student and/or learning objectives in the context of the project brief and learning contract

Student makes attempts to demonstrate relevance, but the relevance is unclear to the reader. Some linkage to project brief, AP learning objectives and the learning contract

The learning experience being reflected upon is good, relevant, and meaningful to the student and the AP learning objectives in the context of the project brief and learning contract

The learning experience being reflected upon is excellent, relevant, and meaningful to the student and the AP learning objectives in the context of the project brief and learning contract

Analysis – 20%

Reflection does not move beyond description of the learning experiences during the AP project

Student makes attempts at applying the learning experience to understanding of AP project concepts but fails to demonstrate depth of analysis

The reflection demonstrates a good level of applying the learning experience and analyses elements that have contributed to the students understanding of the AP project

The reflection moves beyond simple description of the experience to an analysis of how the experience contributed to the students understanding of the AP project

Interconnections – 15%

No attempt to demonstrate connections to previous learning or experiences with AP project

The reflection demonstrates little or no attempt to make connections between the experience and material from other modules at Northumbria University, past experiences and/or personal goals for their AP project

The reflection demonstrates good connections between the experience and material from other modules at Northumbria University, past experiences and/or personal goals for their AP project

The reflection demonstrates excellent connections between the experience and material from other modules at Northumbria University, past experiences and/or personal goals for their AP project

Self-Criticism – 15%

No attempt at self-criticism and relevant improvement strategies

There is some attempt at self-criticism, but the self-reflection fails to demonstrate a new awareness of personal learning developments

The reflection demonstrates ability of the student to question their own biases, project implementation strategy, team dynamics and skills but is limited in formulating new modes of thinking

The reflection demonstrates ability of the student to question their own biases, project implementation strategy, team dynamics and skills to formulation new modes of thinking.

Student Engagement – 10%

(Based on engagement with the process and your team throughout the module)

Less than 50% attendance recorded at scheduled meetings. Little or no information, that has been asked for, has been provided. Lack of engagement with the process and the team

50% attendance at scheduled meetings. An adequate level of the information, that has been asked for, has been provided There has been some engagement with the process and the team.

80% attendance at scheduled meetings and gateways in the module. Most of the information asked for has been provided. Good level of team engagement

100% attendance at scheduled meetings and gateways in the module. All information that has been asked for has been provided. Fully engaged in the team and their activities

Referral

The Referral Attempt opportunity will generally take place after the end-of-level Progression and Awards Board (PAB). If you become eligible to complete a Referral Attempt but are subsequently unable to undertake the opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled sitting of the module assessment. This will typically entail the suspension of your progression on your programme of study until such time that you have completed the level and become eligible to proceed.


Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies

(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards

(b) Group Work Assessments Policy

(c) Moderation Policy

(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy

(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback

(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests

(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances

(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances

(6) Student Complaints and Appeals

(7) Academic Misconduct

(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/university-services/academic-registry/quality-and-teaching-excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/



MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 1 of 5

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 2 of 5

Civil Engineering homework help

1 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Class Project 2021/2022
Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Introduction

the geotechnical report is used to communicate the site conditions and design and construction
recommendations to the site design, building design, and construction personnel. Site
investigations for building design projects have the purpose of providing specific information on
subsurface soil, rock, and water conditions. Interpretation of the site investigation information by
a geotechnical engineer, results in design and construction recommendations that should be
presented in a project geotechnical report.

Geotechnical investigation reports present site-specific data and has three major components:

1. Background Information: The initial sections of the report summarize the geotechnical
engineer’s understanding of the facility for which the report is being prepared and the purposes
of the geotechnical investigation. This section would include information on loads, deformations,
and additional performance requirements. This section also presents a general description of site
conditions, geology and geologic features, drainage, ground cover and accessibility, and any
peculiarities of the site that may affect the design.

2. Work Scope: The second part of the investigation report documents the scope of the
investigation program and the specific procedures used to perform this work. These sections will
identify the types of investigation methods used; the number, location, and depths of borings,
exploration pits, and in situ tests; the types and frequency of samples obtained; the dates when
the field investigation was performed; the subcontractors used to perform the work; the types and
number of laboratory tests performed; the testing standards used; and any variations from
conventional procedures.

3. Data Presentation: This portion of the report, generally contained in appendices, presents
the data obtained from the field investigation and laboratory testing program and typically includes
final logs of all borings, exploration pits, piezometer or well installations, water level readings, data
plots from each in-situ test hole, summary tables and individual datasheets for all laboratory tests
performed, rock core photographs, geologic mapping data sheets, and summary plots,
subsurface profiles developed from the field and laboratory test data, as well as statistical
summaries. The investigation report will often include copies of existing information, such as
boring logs or laboratory test data from previous investigations at the project site. The intent of a
geotechnical investigation report should be to document the investigation performed and present
the data obtained. The report should include a summary of the subsurface and lab data.

4. Conclusion and recommendations: this is the most important part; conclusions should be
drawn based on the results of both in-situ and laboratory soil testing. These conclusions are used
to come out with the foundation design and construction recommendations.

2 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

The Project Statement:

The residential villa shown in the Figure below will be constructed in Red Sea city (KSA), in front of

the sea beach. This building consists of only two floors. According to the architectural design, the

ground floor will be used as a reception area, and the second floor will be used as bedrooms and living

space.

Figure (1): Architectural Design fo the residential villa

The structural system is shown in the drawings below, and the columns and beams distribution on

both first and second slabs of the two floors are presented. As shown in Figures (2 and 3), The

structural system mainly depends on the Solid Slab system, and the load will be transferred from slabs

to beams and then to columns.

Based on the initial calculations performed by the structural consultant, it was found that the load

transferred from each of columns A,D,F, and K (Corner columns) is 1000 kN, and for the interior

columns B, C, G, and H each of them transfer 2500 kN to the foundations, as shown in Figure 4.

3 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (2): Structural system of The First Floor

Figure (3): Structural system of The Roof Floor

.

4 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (4): Cross Section.

The geotechnical consultant has performed site investigation works at the construction site, and the

following section presents the results of field and laboratory tests conducted using both disturbance

and un-disturbance soil samples

1. The Soil profile shown in Figure (5) organizes the results obtained for soil samples taken

along the borehole depth. The profile shows the results of the in-situ standard penetration test

SPT and atterberg limit test for soil samples at each 1m depth.

2. Sieve analysis test results for three disturbance samples obtained from boreholes (Layer 1

and 2) at depths of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 m below the ground surface are shown in Figure (6). Also,

results of the Sieve analysis test for another three disturbance samples obtained from

boreholes at depths 7.0 and 8.50 m below the ground surface (Layer3 and 4) are shown in

Figure (7).

3. Permeability test has performed for a soil sample taken from layer (1); the sample length

and diameter were 16.10 cm and 11.21 cm, respectively. Also, cross-section area of the test

equipment tube was 1.83 cm2. After 6 days, the water head was changed from 120 cm to 110

cm.

4. A consolidation Test has also been performed for un-distrubance sample taken from layer

(1), and mv was obtained with 4.5 * 10-4 m2/kN. Besides, the unconfined test that shown the

unconfined strength of this soil sample equals 160 kN\m2.

5 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (5): Borehole Profile with atterberg limit and SPT test results

6 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (6): Sieve analysis test results of three samples extracted at depths 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 m

below ground surface.

Figure (7): Sieve analysis test results of three samples extracted at depths 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 m

below ground surface.

7 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Based upon, if you are the geotechnical consultant, it is required to:

1. Use the given data of field and laboratory tests to classify and describe the four soil layers and
complete the soil profile (Layers 1,2,3, and 4).

2. Correct N-SPT values and calculate bearing capacity for the first and second soil layers only.
3. Choose a suitable foundation level.
2. Based on the given columns loads, Choose the suitable foundation system to support this

column load. Consider the factor of safety of 3.0.

3. Calculate the predicted immediate settlement under this footing (1) and (2) (Figure4); if the soil
passion’s ratio is 0.30.

4. Recalculate the settlement after 5 Years.
5. If the allowable settlement is 15 cm and the allowable differential settlement is 1:300. Check the

safety and servsiabilty of this building.

6. Write down a summary of the geotechnical work and give your fundamental recommendations
for foundation design and construction.

Deadline: May 15, 2022

NO Surname

a1

(m)

a2

(m)

a3

(m)

b1

(m)

b2

(m)

b3

(m)

1 AHMMAD BASEL HELMI AL DROBI 3 4 4 5 1.5 2

2 HUSSAIN ZIYAD HUSSAIN ALHABILI 3 4 5 5 1.5 2

3 HASSAN ABDALLAH HEMAID ALOUFI 3 5 5 5 1.5 2

4 FAISAL THAAR MOHAMMAD ALSOBIAI 4 4 4 5 1.5 2

5 ABDULLAH ALI HAMED BALHARETH 5 5 5 5 1.5 2

6 ABDULAZIZ ABDULLAH MOHAMMED ALABDULKAREEM 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 1.5 2

7 ABDALLAH ABUBAKAR AHMAD BAWAZIR 3 4 4 5 2.5 3

Civil Engineering homework help

1 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Class Project 2021/2022
Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Introduction

the geotechnical report is used to communicate the site conditions and design and construction
recommendations to the site design, building design, and construction personnel. Site
investigations for building design projects have the purpose of providing specific information on
subsurface soil, rock, and water conditions. Interpretation of the site investigation information by
a geotechnical engineer, results in design and construction recommendations that should be
presented in a project geotechnical report.

Geotechnical investigation reports present site-specific data and has three major components:

1. Background Information: The initial sections of the report summarize the geotechnical
engineer’s understanding of the facility for which the report is being prepared and the purposes
of the geotechnical investigation. This section would include information on loads, deformations,
and additional performance requirements. This section also presents a general description of site
conditions, geology and geologic features, drainage, ground cover and accessibility, and any
peculiarities of the site that may affect the design.

2. Work Scope: The second part of the investigation report documents the scope of the
investigation program and the specific procedures used to perform this work. These sections will
identify the types of investigation methods used; the number, location, and depths of borings,
exploration pits, and in situ tests; the types and frequency of samples obtained; the dates when
the field investigation was performed; the subcontractors used to perform the work; the types and
number of laboratory tests performed; the testing standards used; and any variations from
conventional procedures.

3. Data Presentation: This portion of the report, generally contained in appendices, presents
the data obtained from the field investigation and laboratory testing program and typically includes
final logs of all borings, exploration pits, piezometer or well installations, water level readings, data
plots from each in-situ test hole, summary tables and individual datasheets for all laboratory tests
performed, rock core photographs, geologic mapping data sheets, and summary plots,
subsurface profiles developed from the field and laboratory test data, as well as statistical
summaries. The investigation report will often include copies of existing information, such as
boring logs or laboratory test data from previous investigations at the project site. The intent of a
geotechnical investigation report should be to document the investigation performed and present
the data obtained. The report should include a summary of the subsurface and lab data.

4. Conclusion and recommendations: this is the most important part; conclusions should be
drawn based on the results of both in-situ and laboratory soil testing. These conclusions are used
to come out with the foundation design and construction recommendations.

2 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

The Project Statement:

The residential villa shown in the Figure below will be constructed in Red Sea city (KSA), in front of

the sea beach. This building consists of only two floors. According to the architectural design, the

ground floor will be used as a reception area, and the second floor will be used as bedrooms and living

space.

Figure (1): Architectural Design fo the residential villa

The structural system is shown in the drawings below, and the columns and beams distribution on

both first and second slabs of the two floors are presented. As shown in Figures (2 and 3), The

structural system mainly depends on the Solid Slab system, and the load will be transferred from slabs

to beams and then to columns.

Based on the initial calculations performed by the structural consultant, it was found that the load

transferred from each of columns A,D,F, and K (Corner columns) is 1000 kN, and for the interior

columns B, C, G, and H each of them transfer 2500 kN to the foundations, as shown in Figure 4.

3 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (2): Structural system of The First Floor

Figure (3): Structural system of The Roof Floor

.

4 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (4): Cross Section.

The geotechnical consultant has performed site investigation works at the construction site, and the

following section presents the results of field and laboratory tests conducted using both disturbance

and un-disturbance soil samples

1. The Soil profile shown in Figure (5) organizes the results obtained for soil samples taken

along the borehole depth. The profile shows the results of the in-situ standard penetration test

SPT and atterberg limit test for soil samples at each 1m depth.

2. Sieve analysis test results for three disturbance samples obtained from boreholes (Layer 1

and 2) at depths of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 m below the ground surface are shown in Figure (6). Also,

results of the Sieve analysis test for another three disturbance samples obtained from

boreholes at depths 7.0 and 8.50 m below the ground surface (Layer3 and 4) are shown in

Figure (7).

3. Permeability test has performed for a soil sample taken from layer (1); the sample length

and diameter were 16.10 cm and 11.21 cm, respectively. Also, cross-section area of the test

equipment tube was 1.83 cm2. After 6 days, the water head was changed from 120 cm to 110

cm.

4. A consolidation Test has also been performed for un-distrubance sample taken from layer

(1), and mv was obtained with 4.5 * 10-4 m2/kN. Besides, the unconfined test that shown the

unconfined strength of this soil sample equals 160 kN\m2.

5 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (5): Borehole Profile with atterberg limit and SPT test results

6 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Figure (6): Sieve analysis test results of three samples extracted at depths 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 m

below ground surface.

Figure (7): Sieve analysis test results of three samples extracted at depths 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 m

below ground surface.

7 | P a g e Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Prince Sultan University

College of engineering

Engineering Management Department.

Academic Year 2021-2022 – Semester (212)

EM 306: Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Based upon, if you are the geotechnical consultant, it is required to:

1. Use the given data of field and laboratory tests to classify and describe the four soil layers and
complete the soil profile (Layers 1,2,3, and 4).

2. Correct N-SPT values and calculate bearing capacity for the first and second soil layers only.
3. Choose a suitable foundation level.
2. Based on the given columns loads, Choose the suitable foundation system to support this

column load. Consider the factor of safety of 3.0.

3. Calculate the predicted immediate settlement under this footing (1) and (2) (Figure4); if the soil
passion’s ratio is 0.30.

4. Recalculate the settlement after 5 Years.
5. If the allowable settlement is 15 cm and the allowable differential settlement is 1:300. Check the

safety and servsiabilty of this building.

6. Write down a summary of the geotechnical work and give your fundamental recommendations
for foundation design and construction.

Deadline: May 15, 2022

NO Surname

a1

(m)

a2

(m)

a3

(m)

b1

(m)

b2

(m)

b3

(m)

1 AHMMAD BASEL HELMI AL DROBI 3 4 4 5 1.5 2

2 HUSSAIN ZIYAD HUSSAIN ALHABILI 3 4 5 5 1.5 2

3 HASSAN ABDALLAH HEMAID ALOUFI 3 5 5 5 1.5 2

4 FAISAL THAAR MOHAMMAD ALSOBIAI 4 4 4 5 1.5 2

5 ABDULLAH ALI HAMED BALHARETH 5 5 5 5 1.5 2

6 ABDULAZIZ ABDULLAH MOHAMMED ALABDULKAREEM 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 1.5 2

7 ABDALLAH ABUBAKAR AHMAD BAWAZIR 3 4 4 5 2.5 3

Civil Engineering homework help

KB7052 Research Project Page 2 of 3

 

  Suggested Format 3000 word Reflective report  ( this is an example and not mandatory) 

Part 1 
500 – 
750 
words 

Abstract of 
Project 

 Abstract description of project 
 The client and specific requirement  
 Project Aims and Objectives 
 Group roles 
 Outcomes Achieved 

 
Part 2: 
1500 – 
2000 
words 

Research 
Methodologies 
Applied 

 Research methodologies applied 
 Target Audience Learning Styles considered to support your 

outcomes (Cognitive/ Psychomotor) 

 Identified Knowledge transfer skills employed to support 
client’s requirements 

 Processes embedded within your outcomes (online 
collaboration/ Video presenting) 

 New skills learnt or adopted 
 Timeline / overview of key stages  
 Evidence of Teamwork/ Collaboration 
 Engagement with the Industrial Simulation 
 Feedback‐ from client/ academic supervisor ( may wish to 

support this with the minutes from meetings)  
Part 3: 
500 – 
750 
words 

Conclusion  Evaluation of outcomes achieved 
 Skills learnt  
 Impact of Covid on Teaching and Learning (changes/ 

knowledge transfer and the lessons learnt) 
What you will do next: 

 Explore some of the theory and processes to support your final 
dissertation 

 Engagement with client to support their needs 
 SWOT assessment      

 
Ray Elysee  updated 17.5.21 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Civil Engineering homework help

Date: 25/1/2022

Introduction to

KB 7038: Integrated Building

Information Modelling Project

Module Leader

• Dr. Nima Gerami Seresht

• Senior Lecturer

• PhD in Construction Engineering and Management

from the University of Alberta

• More than eight years of experience in R&D in

energy sector; and two years of experience in

project management

• Areas of Expertise

• Smart and Resilient Infrastructure

• AI Applications in Construction

• Construction Simulation

2

Email:

nima.gerami@northumbria.ac.uk

Module Tutor

• Dr Reza Alavi

• Senior Lecturer

• PhD in Construction Engineering and Management

from the University of Alberta

• Five years of work experience as a project

management consultant in Canada

• Areas of Expertise

• Construction Project Management

• Construction Simulation

• AI and Robotics in Construction

3

Email:

reza.alavi@northumbria.ac.uk

LRT Projects

4

Tunnel Projects

5

Some Other Projects

• Drainage Neighborhood Renewal

Program

• Failure Analysis of Edmonton

International Airport Heating

System

• Transportation Oriented

Development (TOD)

6

Module Introduction (1)

• This module will help you learn and
develop professional skills appropriate for
project management professionals
operating within the context of
Architectural Engineering and
Construction (AEC) projects which are
Building Information Modelling (BIM)
enabled.

• There is a strong emphasis on
management of the design process in
order to formulate solutions to project
challenges.

7

Source: https://blog.mobilemodularcontainers.com/how-pre-construction-planning-can-enable-smooth-execution-

and-strong-returns-your-project

Module Introduction (2)

• Key module content focuses on aspects of
design management, communication and
collaboration on AEC projects and provides
further background context of Building
Information Modelling.

• This learning will equip you with knowledge
and skills highly valued by employers that will
enable you to help deliver effective
construction engineering projects in future
practice.

• The module has been designed to satisfy
several of the programme learning outcomes
related to learning, knowledge and practice.

8

Source: https://www.sbci.com/bim-technology-building-today-tomorrow/

Module Learning Outcomes

❖ Knowledge & Understanding:

• Analyse the role of Building Information Modelling within the production management process.

❖ Intellectual / Professional skills & abilities:

• Formulate solutions to design and production problems through a simulated project life cycle.

• Justify and defend design or managerial choices made within the production process of a simulated

project.

❖ Personal Values Attributes (Global / Cultural awareness, Ethics, Curiosity) (PVA):

• Apply disciplinary knowledge and multi-disciplinary skill to overcome complex problems of practice and

identify appropriate solutions.

• Reflect upon learning achieved within integrated collaborative environments.

9

Source: https://pcrest.com/LO/learning_outcomes/1.htm

What will I learn on this module?

• You will learn and develop professional skills appropriate for project management

professionals operating within the context of Architectural Engineering and

Construction (AEC) projects which are Building Information Modelling (BIM) enabled.

• In this module, there is a strong emphasis on management of the design process in
order to formulate project solutions. Topics include:

• Management of the design process and the roles and responsibilities of actors involved in

such project phases.

• Further exploration of the background context of BIM, including a focus on its development

and key issues such as parametric modelling, interoperability and information exchange

processes.

• How to address the interaction and interface challenges faced by project teams and groups.

Issues that affect collaborative project working including people, process, technologies and

trust.

• Key aspects of project communication.

• Opportunities to reflect and learn through project experiences.

• Learning from this module can be reinforced through study of the related module

KB7034 Building Information Modelling Management, Theory and Practice.

10

Where To Learn About ELearning

How will I learn on this module?

• On this module, the predominant form of activity will be Project based

learning (PBL). Much of your work will require engagement in disciplinary,

interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary group interactions through your

involvement on a simulated project.

• You will learn through a combination of lectures, technologically- enhanced

learning (TEL), and group seminars.

• Your learning will also be facilitated through a combination of tutor guided

independent learning (TGIL) activities (e.g., directed reading), and student

identified independent learning activities.

• Lectures and seminars will be used to support effective transmission of

information and is delivered via a combination of face-to-face ‘live’ sessions

and the use of digitally pre-recorded sessions. All ‘live’ teaching lecture

sessions will be captured and made available to you from the University’s

eLearning Portal (eLP). 11

Source: https://enterprisersproject.com/article/2020/12/it-careers-10-critical-skills-master-2021

How will I be supported academically on this

module?

• You will be supported through tutor feedback during small-group seminars,

and in doing assessment tasks set up to enable you to learn from feedback

which attracts no marks.

• There will be regular announcements issued on the eLearning Portal (eLP)

that will direct you to suitable learning opportunities and activities that will

enhance your understanding, knowledge and intellectual development based

on your own research

12
Source: https://depetroleo.com/juicios-en-medio-de-un-feedback/

Key Reading Material

❖ Essential Textbooks

• BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners,

Designers, Engineers, Contractors, and Facility Managers by Sacks, R.,

Eastman, C. M., Lee, G., & Teicholz, P. (2018). (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New

Jersey: Wiley.

• ISO 19650: 2018 Organization and digitization of information about

buildings and civil engineering works, including building information

modelling (BIM) — Information management using building information

modelling (2018)

❖ Recommended/Further Reading

• Construction project management: a practical guide to field

construction management by Sears, S. Keoki ; Clough, Richard H ;

Sears, Glenn A ; Segner, Robert O ; Rounds, Jerald L (2015) Wiley-

Blackwell

13

https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/best-

books-most-read-uk-war-peace-lie-1984-a9145946.html

Mode of Delivery

• 1-hr Lecturial Session every week

• Tuesday 1-2 pm

• 2-hr Group Seminar Session every other week

• Tuesday 9-11 am or Tuesday 3-5 pm

• Attend only the one timetabled for you

• 1 Pre-recorded lecture

• Provided on eLP every Friday

• 1 Tutor Guided independent learning

• Provided on eLP every Friday

• Additional learning material

• Provided on eLP as needed

14

Source: https://blog.coursify.me/en/blended-learning-in-schools/

Communication (1)

• Check eLP for announcements, messages, posted

materials.

• Every Friday:

• A teaching plan reminder for a week ahead is posted on eLP

• The pre-recorded lecture is uploaded on eLP

• Tutor Guided independent learning is uploaded on eLP

• Draft of presentations is upload on eLP a few hours

before the sessions, but the changes are likely, and it will

be updated after the session.

• Recordings of the face-to-face sessions will be uploaded

on eLP during the week.
15

https://www.blackboard.com/en-eu/teaching-learning/learning-

management/blackboard-learn/blackboard-assist

Communication (2)

• Discussion board is used for sharing common issues and

students’ self-support.

• Ask questions about previous sessions and pre-recorded

lectures at the beginning of the face-to-face sessions.

• Dedicated Q&A sessions for the coursework (the time will

be communicated).

• Meet the module leader/tutor without appointment at their

office hours.

• Dr Gerami: Tuesdays 11 to13

• Dr Alavi: Fridays 11 to 13

• For more urgent queries email the module leader/tutor
16

Tips to Improve Your Online Communication

Assessment Strategy (1)

❖ Formative Assessment

• Formative assessment designed using principles of authentic, and

problem-based learning will be used to allow you to build

confidence and highlight any misunderstandings you may have of

the theoretical and professional concepts presented in the

module.

• Additional formative feedback shall be delivered to you verbally by

academic staff during formally-scheduled teaching and individual

or group activity-based sessions to help you learn and prepare

you for the submission of your summative assessment.

17

https://www.theconfidentteacher.com/2017/05/rethinking-assessment/

Assessment Strategy (2)

❖ Summative Assessment

• Summative assessment will be by one piece of coursework

that will assess your ability to satisfy all the module learning

outcomes. Its design will employ the principles of authentic,

and problem-based learning.

• You will use Turnitin to submit your coursework digitally and will

receive your feedback using appropriate digital feedback tools.

18

Summative

Formative

Other Considerations

• Professionalism

• Do not distract other students

• Use mobile phone outside the class

• Diversity and Inclusion

• Participate in group discussion

• Share your ideas, experiences and opinions

• Diversity and uniqueness are highly appreciated

• Respect others

19

Our Refreshed Global Inclusion & Diversity Strategy   

Questions?

20

Civil Engineering homework help

School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering
Coursework Brief

1

Module Code: 21CVP326
Module Name: Management of Construction Processes and Techniques
Assessment Title: Canada Tower Group Coursework
Assessment Type: Report Other:
Date Due: 9 May 2022 Date

Returned:
Week commencing 30 May
2022

Method of
Submission

Virtual only Feedback
delivery:

Feedback Proforma

Weighting: 40% Other: 2 reports, each makes 20%
Individual or
Group:

Group

Word Length Other Other: 2 reports, each 2500 words max
Total number of hours expected to be spent on
assignment:

45

Assessment aims:
You are an ‘up and coming’ construction and project management organisation having been asked
to help a high-profile client, Innovation Inc., to plan a complex construction project, Canada Tower,
in Central Business District in the City of Birmingham, UK. You need to produce an ‘early-stage’
summary construction strategy (Report 1) and a risk assessment (Report 2).

Task description:
The proposal is for a mixed-use development including a 49-
storey, 150m tall residential tower with a 9-storey podium which
includes market rental housing, commercial uses, and a
childcare facility. There is also a six-storey building providing
retail and office space.

The project area is 60670 m2, including:

• 39465 m2 strata residential
• 6340 m2 rental residential
• 6300 m2 retail
• 5935 m2 office space
• 650 m2 childcare

The client is very keen on innovation; they do not need to choose
the cheapest first cost option, they are after a high-quality end
product.

The client’s project manager who is assessing the report has a good knowledge of construction
techniques and therefore you should not concentrate on basic construction technology aspects.
Rather you should focus on the innovative technologies to be employed and on your strategy to
deliver the project on time, on budget and to the required quality. This will require some additional
research on site strategy, means and methods.

School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering
Coursework Brief

2

Summary details of the project are available on LEARN – you will have to make assumptions
regarding certain aspects of the project, buildings and surrounding area.

There will be various bookable coursework tutorials through the semester.

Do not contact anyone connected with the development of the project. This is important for
us to retain our credibility within the industry.

Report requirements and assessment criteria:
Report 1 – Construction strategy (50% of coursework weight, max 2500 words)

…including rationale for what was considered and chosen, including but not limited to:

a. Main materials, methods & techniques
b. Site layout
c. Major plant and equipment, including a detailed lift plan for one important mobile crane
d. Summary programme of main activities

Assessment based on:

• Explanation of technical aspects and practicality of construction strategy
• Detailed lift plan (including a discussion) for one important mobile crane
• Response to site constraints
• Response to client’s needs
• Annotated construction site layout plan and schedule
• Presentation and clarity in communication

Report 2 – Innovation & risk management (50% of coursework weight, max 2500 words)

… focussing on three main innovations.

Assessment based on:

• Clarity in the description of innovation and the related dimension
• Identification of risks associated with innovative technologies used along with the timeframe

for each risk
• Identification of risk owners and reporting mitigation plans
• Report specifically written for the client and sensitive to clients’ requirements for RM plan
• Presentation and clarity in communication

Extra marks for the two reports will be given for evidence of additional research work, however, do
not include large amounts of unnecessary literature.

Specific requirements and submission details:
1. This coursework must be done in groups of four (with the same group for both Reports 1 & 2).

You have a freedom to select and form a group with your colleagues. However, there must be
at least 2 different nationalities in a group. This should provide an effective cross-cultural
learning opportunity.

School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering
Coursework Brief

3

2. Precise format of the report is up to you, but make sure you pay sufficient attention to
readership, and produce a ‘professional’ report.

3. Please submit Reports1 & 2 separately via the portal on the module LEARN.
4. Please state the word count on the cover. The length of discussion should be no more 2500

words for each report. Additionally, you may include other information as appendices. The
reference list and appendices are not part of the word count. Please note that the appendices
should: (i) include only necessary information, (ii) be kept to a minimum, and (iii) be referred
to, in the main report. These appendices will not be marked, but they are only included to
provide support to your discussion in the main report. Thus, the report should be focussed,
succinct, and contain no unnecessary detail.

5. Each report and its appendices should be submitted via LEARN in one PDF file. Name the file
with: “Group [number]_Report 1” and “Group [number]_Report 2”.

Peer assessment
Peer assessment is an essential requirement for each submission. You will need to agree with
your group, a percentage of group mark which each individual member should be awarded. This
percentage will be used as a multiplication factor to produce mark for individual member. For
example, if a group report is awarded 68%, and a percentage awarded to a member is agreed to
be 95%, then the individual mark for this member is 65%. If the group agrees to award each
member 100% of group mark, then all members will be awarded 68%. The proforma for the peer
assessment is provided below. For each report, completed and signed proforma must be included
in a page after the cover page. Should there be anomaly in the percentages, the module leader
reserves the right to adjust the individual marks, as he deems appropriate and reflecting the quality
of the submitted reports. As it is an essential requirement, a submitted report without signed
proforma will not be marked, and no mark will be awarded to each group member.

Our group has agreed the following percentage of group mark should be awarded to our group
member.

Student name Percentage of group
mark awarded to

Signature Date

Student A

Student B

Student C

Student D

School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering
Coursework Brief

4

Robby Soetanto
Francis Edum-Fotwe

February 2022

Civil Engineering homework help

1/03/2022

1

SARENS
NOTHING TOO HEAVY, NOTHING TOO HIGH

STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION

Introduction

1. Who are Sarens?

2. Who am I?

3. Aim of the Presentation.

4. Why do we need cranes?

Lecture 1: Mobile Cranes

1. Types of Mobile Cranes

2. Planning Factors

3. Planning The Operation

4. Consequences of Poor Planning

5. Understanding Lift Plans

INTRODUCTION

2

Lecture 2: Tower Cranes

1. Types of Tower Cranes

2. Tower Crane Components

3. Planning Factors

4. Tower Crane vs. Mobile Crane

Conclusion

1. Aim of the Presentation

2. Additional Resources

1

2

1/03/2022

2

WHO ARE SARENS?

Sarens is an international heavy lift and transport company.

At Sarens, we have the noble mission to be the reference in crane
rental services, heavy lifting, and engineered transport for our clients.

To do this, we deploy our 5 unwavering values:

Dedication
to Safety

Zeal for
Excellence

Love for
Tradition

Brilliant
Solutions

Global
Spirit

INTRODUCTION

3

4

Source: Sarens, 2017

3

4

1/03/2022

3

WE ARE AN INTERNATIONAL COMPANY INTRODUCTION

9 Geographical Regions, 67 Countries, 100 Offices

5

OUR MAIN SECTORS INTRODUCTION

Oil and Gas Mining Infrastructure Offshore & Module Yards

Solar On-Shore and Offshore Wind Forwarding General Industry

Maintenance and Installation Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

6

5

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1/03/2022

4

OUR FLEET AND EQUIPMENT

CRANES TRANSPORT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic
Cranes

Lattice Boom
Cranes

Heavy Luffing
Tower Cranes

Conventional Trailers

Modular Trailers

Self-propelled
Modular Trailers

Barges

Gantries

Jacking

Strand Jacks

Twin Barges

Modular Barges

Skidding

INTRODUCTION

7

WHO AM I?

 Andrew Cockshoot EngTech TMIET

– Loughborough University Graduate

– Sarens Project Engineer

– Engineering Technician of the Institution of Engineering and Technology

 Education:

– Civil Engineering Higher National Degree 2013 – 2016

– Construction Engineering Management BSc 2017 – 2021

 Work Experience

– Sir Robert McAlpine, Lift Planning CAD Technician 2012 – 2017

– Sarens UKTS, Project Engineer 2019 – Present

INTRODUCTION

8

7

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5

AIM OF THIS PRESENTATION

 By the end of this presentation you should be able to:

…understand the different types of cranes.

…identify the components of mobile and tower cranes.

…recognise common constraints inherent in crane operations.

…read and understand crane schemes.

…understand where mobile cranes and tower cranes are the suitable option.

 If you have any questions during this presentation, please feel free
to ask at any time!

INTRODUCTION

9

THE USE OF CRANES INTRODUCTION

10

Question:

Why do we use cranes?

9

10

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6

THE USE OF CRANES INTRODUCTION

11

 Crane provide vertical and horizontal
movement to materials / loads.

 Cranes enable us to be build bigger and
higher structures.

 They are an essential part of modern
construction.

 Their need is further expanding with the
increased use of pre-fabrication.

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF MOBILE CRANE PLANNING
Lecture 1 of 2

11

12

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7

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

14

Question:

What types of mobile cranes are there?

13

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1/03/2022

8

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

1. All-Terrain Crane

2. Lattice Boom Crawler Crane

3. Telescopic Boom Crawler Crane

4. Self-Erecting Mobile Tower Crane

5. Lattice Boom Truck Crane

6. Telescopic Truck-Mounted Crane

7. Rough Terrain Crane

8. Pick and Carry Crane

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

Crane types you are most
likely to encounter in the UK.

15

ALL-TERRAIN CRANES

 Telescopic main boom.

 High level of mobility; able to drive on
public roads.

 Short mobilisation and set-up time
(dependent on configuration).

 Versatile due to the wide variety of lifting
accessories.

 Capacities from 5 to 1,200Te.

 Higher capacity all-terrain cranes may
need to travel without the boom
attached.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

16

15

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1/03/2022

9

LATTICE BOOM CRAWLER CRANES

 Transported by truck and assembled
on site.

 Suitable for the heaviest of loads.

 Boom length can be adjusted by the
addition and removal of boom
sections – requires an additional
support crane to do so.

 Can have a relatively compact
footprint for the capacities offered.

 Can track (travel) with a load.

 Capacities range from 50 to 3,200Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

17

TELESCOPIC CRAWLER CRANES

 Crane on crawlers with telescopic
boom.

 Combines the advantages of a
hydraulic boom with the stability and
manoeuvrability of a crawler crane.

 Can track while carrying a load.

 Capacities range from 16 to 220Te.

 Can self-rig or use support cranes for
initial set up.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

18

17

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10

LATTICE BOOM TRUCK CRANE

 Road-going substructure consists of
the slewing ring and a partial
superstructure and derrick mast.

 The rest of the crane is delivered by
additional truck transport

 Requires support cranes for rigging.

 Combines the mobility of all-terrain
cranes with the capacity range of
crawler cranes.

 Capacities range from 130 to 1,200Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

19

SELF-ERECTING MOBILE TOWER CRANES

 A tower crane that can drive on public
roads.

 Self-erecting, can erect itself in
approximately 15mins.

 Taxi crane, no additional support
vehicles are required.

 Best-suited for when reach is more
important than capacity.

 Can be operated remotely or by a
height-adjustable operating cab.

 Capacities range from 5 to 18Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

20

19

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1/03/2022

11

TELESCOPIC TRUCK-MOUNTED CRANES

 Telescopic boom superstructure fitted
to a conventional truck chassis.

 Efficient road transport and fast
mobilisation makes these perfect taxi
cranes.

 Designed for frequent and long
distance travel.

 Capacities range from 30 to 80Te

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

21

ROUGH TERRAIN CRANES

 Designed to operate in the roughest
conditions.

 Compact and versatile.

 Excellent gradeability.

 Can drive with small suspended
loads.

 Capacities range from 12 to 150Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

22

21

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12

PICK AND CARRY CRANES

 Designed to be able to pick up and
travel with a suspended load.

 Work ready, no outriggers are
required.

 Typically used in industrial contexts
rather than construction projects.

 Capacities range from 5 to 40Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

23

PLANNING FACTORS
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

23

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HEAVY LIFT PLANNING FUNCTIONAL MODEL PLANNING FACTORS

25

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

INPUTS

 Inputs relate to the physical aspects of the operation including the
crane, load and site.

 Inputs can be categorised into:

– Crane data sourced from CAD models, manufacturer manuals and websites.

– Load data is defined by manufacturer shop drawings.

– Site details are described by architectural and engineering drawings.

PLANNING FACTORS

26

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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14

INPUTS

 Crane Data:

– Physical dimensions.

– Crane capacities.

– Cost.

– Availability.

– Reliability.

– Service record.

PLANNING FACTORS

27

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

INPUTS

 Load Data:

– Dimensions and shape.

– Weight.

– Centre of gravity location.

– Fabrication and delivery schedule.

└ these establish a work window.

PLANNING FACTORS

28

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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15

INPUTS

 Site Data:

– Spatial layout and dimensions.

– Ground conditions.

– Changes in onsite structures over time:

└ Permanent structures.

└ Mobile structures (scaffold etc.).

PLANNING FACTORS

29

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

CONTROLS

 Controls relate to aspects of the operation that constrain the planning
scope and dictates how the operation can be undertaken.

 Controls can be categorised into:

– Spatial constraints defining the space for the operation.

– Structural constraints strength of the crane, site and load.

– Schedule constraints describes when the project needs to be done and the variance
of the spatial and structural constraints.

PLANNING FACTORS

30

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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16

CONTROLS

 Spatial Constraints

– Volume of work.

– Access / egress from site.

– Space for the crane.

– Space for the load to move (lift path).

– Pinch points.

└ Minimum clearance defined to
accommodate for boom deflection,
settlement and on-site inaccuracies in
positioning.

PLANNING FACTORS

31

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

CONTROLS

 Structural Constraints

– Determine the required strength of:

└ The crane

└ The site

└ The load

– The load’s ability to accommodate
the forces imparted into it during the
lift operation is the client’s
responsibility.

– Client should calculate and define the
ground’s allowable bearing pressures.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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CONTROLS

 Schedule Constraints

– Become more powerful as the
operation date gets closer.

– Other construction operations may be
taking place at the same time.

– Interfering structures may be
constructed before or after the
operation.

– Critical activities may need
completing before the lift can be
undertaken (foundations etc.).

PLANNING FACTORS

33

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

MECHANISMS

 Mechanisms are the factors that bring a lift plan into existence; i.e.,
the exchange of information.

 Mechanisms can be categorised into:

– Constructor provides information about the site and / or load to the lift planner.

– Engineering Consultants provides information as per their role to the lift planner
(i.e. ground investigation studies etc.).

– The Owner has final ownership of the project information, and therefore must
ensure sufficient information is provided to the lift planner to enable them to
safely plan the operation.

 The final execution of the lift plan is the responsibility of the Lift
Planner.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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OUTPUTS

 The interaction of the inputs, controls and mechanisms will define the
outputs of the planning activity.

 Outputs can change as a reaction to a change in the inputs, controls
and mechanisms.

 Outputs can exist in three forms:

– Preliminary: to confirm the feasibility of the operation.

– Detailed: to represent the optimisation of the preliminary output.

– Final: the final scheme for execution.

 The output will be in the form of a single or a series of technical
drawings detailing the operation with associated risk and method
statements (RAMS).

PLANNING FACTORS

35

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

HEAVY LIFT FUNCTIONAL MODEL

 A simple model to understand the
interaction of factors in lift planning.

 Was originally developed to describe
lifts in industrial settings (oil and gas) so
not all outputs need to be considered
for every lift operation.

 Overlap between controls, inputs and
mechanisms since they are not
undertaken in isolation.

 The interaction of controls, inputs and
mechanisms defines the operation, its
feasibility and its optimum form.

36

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

PLANNING FACTORS

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37

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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Question:

Can you identify what controls were in the previous video?

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PLANNING THE OPERATION
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

HEAVY LIFT PLANNING STEPS

STEP-1: Determine load radius

STEP-2: Determine minimum hook height (minimum boom length)
└ Min. Hook Height = Elevation + Clearance + Load Height + Tackle Height + Chandelier Height

STEP-3: Define an approximate boom length requirement

STEP-4 Determine total load
└ Total Load = Net Load + Tackle + Hook block

STEP-5: Propose an initial crane.

STEP-6: Check proposed crane’s capacity.

STEP-7: Calculate outrigger loads

STEP-8: Optimise the preliminary proposal.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-1: DETERMINE LOAD RADIUS

 What is the maximum radius you
need to reach?

 Where can the crane be cited in
relation to the load?

– Available space on site.

– Current plant onsite.

– Storage areas on site.

– Sufficient bearing capacities.

– Voids / trenches.

– Proximity to structures.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

41

STEP-2: DETERMINE MIN. HOOK HEIGHT

 Elevation + Clearance + Load
Height + Tackle Height +
Chandelier Height
└ Elevation = difference between the level of the

crane and the load (-’ve if load is lower than the
crane).

└ Clearance = allowance for clearance to
obstructions.

└ Chandelier height = minimum distance between
the head sheave and the hook block.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-3: DETERMINE HOOK HEIGHT

 Using Step 1 and 2 an
approximate boom length can be
calculated.

C = (𝐴 +𝐵 )

Where:

(A) = Min. Hook Height

(B) = Load Radius

This will give an approximate boom length.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

43

(C)

(B)

(A)

Example:
C = ( 3900 + 10450 + 11120) + 12000
C = 28,155mm (~28m Boom)

STEP-4: DETERMINE TOTAL LOAD WEIGHT

 Net Load + Tackle + Hook Block

 Everything underneath the sheave
needs to be considered in the
load weight.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-5: PROPOSE AN INITIAL CRANE

 With the results of stages 1-4 in mind a
preliminary crane can be defined.

 A lift weight, lift radius and
approximate boom length is the
minimum information you need to
define a crane.

 Online crane calculators, specialist lift
planning software (Liebherr Crane
Planner 2.0) or engineering
experience can be used to speed up
the process.

 Trial and error is also an option.

45

PLANNING THE OPERATION

STEP-5: PROPOSE AN INITIAL CRANE

 Crane choice can be dictated by a
number of external factors:
– Availability: is the crane you need

available, do you need to substitute for a
larger crane?

– Cost: is the crane within the clients budget?

– Reliability: is the proposed crane reliable,
subject to regular breakdowns?

– Reputation: is the company supplying the
crane you want reliable? Is it available
from other crane rental companies with a
better reputation?

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PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 First, consult crane capacity charts.

 Use manufacturer provided capacity
charts.

 Maximum utilisation should ideally not
exceed 90%
└ Maximum utilisation = ( lift weight ÷ ( capacity –

deductions ) ) x 100

└ Generally work to a 10% safety factor.

 The glossy brochures provided by
crane manufacturers do not provide
a complete representation of a
crane’s capacities.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

47

STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 The glossy brochure only considers best case capacity at a defined
radius for a boom length. However, each boom length has multiple
hydraulic configurations with different capacities.

41.3m [00, 92, 92, 92, 92]
└ 17.4Te at 7.0m

41.3m [46, 46, 92, 92, 92]
└ 17.9Te at 7.0m

41.3m [46, 92, 92, 92, 46]
└ 20.9Te at 7.0m

41.3m [92, 92, 92, 46, 46]
└ 22.4Te at 7.0m

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 It is very common for crane
capacities to be subject to
deductions.

– External factors (site constraints).

– Internal factors (crane specific).

 Neither the glossy brochure or the
manufacturers literature will
include deductions in their
capacities; the latter will define
what the deductions should be.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 Internal sources affecting crane
capacities:
– Lifting with the fixed fly stowed on the main

boom.

– Lifting with the TY-frame stowed on the
main boom.

 Exact capacity deductions will
depend on length of main boom and
the crane model.

 Components can be removed to
negate the deductions but tends to
be avoided if possible.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 External factors affecting crane
capacities:

– Operating in sensitive areas (i.e.
nuclear) where higher safety factors
are required.

– Operating in proximity to Network Rail
assets (in accordance with CPA-1801).

– Client request.

 Common deduct is 25% of rated
capacity.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-7: CALCULATE OUTRIGGER LOADS

 The crane will impart load into the
ground via the outriggers.

 This load from the outriggers is
dictated by the lift weight, lift radius
and the configuration of the crane.

 The ground must be checked to
ensure it can accommodate the
anticipated loads.

 Outrigger loads can be distributed
through the use of outrigger mats to
reduce the bearing pressures.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-8: OPTIMISE THE PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL

 Go back through the operation, can
the crane be made smaller from the
current proposal?

 What can be done to make the
crane smaller?

 What risks can be avoided?

 Reduced counterweight
requirements or the use of a main
boom only configuration can reduce
the required transport.

 Check the crane plan against all new
information

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PLANNING THE OPERATION

CONSQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

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MODES OF FAILURE

 Crane accidents can be
categorised as either:

– Structural failure

– Stability failure

 A multitude of factors can cause
a structural or stability failure.

 Commonly, a crane accident can
be linked to insufficient or
incorrect planning.

55

CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

STABILITY AND STRUCTURAL FAILURE

 Stability or structural failure.

– Exceeding the crane’s rated capacity.

– Pulling or dragging a load.

– Excessive swinging the load due to
improper control of the crane

– Operating in excessive wind
conditions.

– Lifting submerged loads.

 Failure by structural failure can
also be a result of poor
maintenance.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

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FAILURE DUE TO GROUND CONDITIONS

 Insufficient distance from trenches
or underlying voids (basements
etc.).

 The ground does not have
sufficient bearing capacity to
carry the weight / loading of the
crane.

 Ground is not level or within the
acceptable incline that the crane
is rated for.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

FAILURE DUE TO CLASHES

 Collision with street furniture.

 Collision with permeant or mobile
structures.

 Contact with overhead services.

 Contact with a leading edge.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

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OTHER FAILURES

 Not all failures of planning lead to
an accident / incident.

 Other outcomes can include:

– Failure of the crane to fit on-site
(access / egress).

– Clashes between the crane and
ground-based obstructions (street
furniture etc.)

– Becoming jib bound.

– Crane becomes unavailable.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

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WHAT IS A LIFT PLAN?

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UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

 A document that collates all
information about a proposed lift
into a single (or series) of drawings.

 It is a living document, even during
the operation in some cases.

 A ‘simulation’ of the proposed lift to
identify areas of concern / risk.

 A means of communicating a visual
representation of the operation to
the client and operational team.

INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR A LIFT PLAN

 A lift plan requires the following:
– Information / layout of the site.

– Sections / elevations of any obstruction / surrounding structures.

– Local ground levels.

– Local underlying services.

– Local street furniture

– Access / egress route restrictions.

– Load weight and load dimensions.

– Lifting points on the load.

– Location of site obstructions (storage areas, trenches, scaffolding etc.)

– Pickup and laydown positions of the load.

– Available resources on site (existing matting etc.)

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Preferably in a useable
CAD format if available.

UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

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CONSTITUENT PARTS OF A LIFT PLAN

 A lift plan details the following:
– Crane manufacturer and model

– Crane configuration

– Lift weight

– Deductions considered.

– Lift radius

– Crane capacities (capacity utilisation)

– Hook block type

– Crane mat requirements

– Outrigger loads (bearing pressures)

– Plan and Section

– Relevant warnings / risks identified.

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UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

EXAMPLE LIFT PLAN UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

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THE FUNDAMENTALS OF TOWER CRANE PLANNING
Lecture 2 of 2

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES
The Fundamentals of Tower Crane Planning

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TYPES OF TOWER CRANES TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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Question:

What types of tower cranes are there?

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

Tower cranes are usually categorised by what type of jib they utilise:

1. Saddle Jib (Hammerhead)

2. Luffing Jib

3. Topless (Flat Top)

4. Articulated

5. Self-Erecting

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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SADDLE JIB (HAMMERHEAD) TOWER CRANES

 Horizontal jib that can be erected in
several lengths, commonly 30 – 70m

 The trolley travels along the jib to change
the lifting radius (aka. racking).

 Suitable where oversailing issues are not
a critical factor.

 Interaction between other cranes need
to be carefully planned as they affect a
large airspace.

 Oversailing a major concern with this
type of tower crane.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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LUFFING JIB TOWER CRANES

 The jib can be luffed up and down to
reduce or increase the lifting radius.

 Larger minimum radius than flat-jib
alternatives.

 Can utilise several jib lengths, commonly
30 – 60m

 When left out-of-service the crane can
reduce its radius to minimise oversailing
issues.

 Reduced out of service also enables
closer spacing of tower cranes.

 Ideal for congested sites.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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TOPLESS (FLAT TOP) TOWER CRANES

 Similar in operation to a Saddle Jib
tower crane.

 No A-frame and associated tie-bars
for neighbouring cranes to clear,
resulting in overall lower tower heights
for all site cranes.

 Ideal for congested sites.

 Jib can be installed piecemeal
instead of needing to be installed as
fully constructed jib.

 Typically offer lower capacities than
Saddle Jib alternatives.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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ARTICULATED TOWER CRANES

 Specially designed for inner-city sites
where air space restrictions are the
driving factor.

 The out-of-service radius is the smallest
out of all available tower crane types.

 Minimised tail-swing.

 Capacities are more limited, maximum
of ~8.0Te.

 Minimised base loadings and
component weights.

– Possible to fix these cranes to slipform rigs.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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SELF ERECTING TOWER CRANES

 Smaller, lower capacity alternatives to
traditional tower cranes best suited for
smaller projects.

 Transported to site as a single unit plus
counterweight and able to erect itself.

 Minimal foundation requirements.

 Can be easily relocated around site as
needed.

 Horizontal jib will require detailed
planning for oversailing and interface
with other cranes on site.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS
The Fundamentals of Tower Crane Planning

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COMMON TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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Mast

Base and Foundation

Counter jib

Trolley
Slewing Ring

Jib

A-Frame

Operators Cab

Base and Foundation

Mast

Slewing Ring
Operators Cab

Jib

Counter jib

A-Frame

Saddle Jib Tower Crane Luffing Jib Tower Crane

TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Tower cranes can have a variety of base
types, each type will affect:

– Free-standing height

– Spatial implications of the base.

 Common foundation types are:

– Cast-in Concrete foundations

– Ballasted Bases

– Grillages

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Tower crane bases are the main factor
affecting stability.

 Bases need to be able to effectively
resist:

– Vertical Reactions (V).

– Horizontal Forces (Hx, Hy).

– Moments (My, Mx).

– Torque (Mt).

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Cast-In Concrete Bases

– Specific designs vary but are based around
casting in a set of threaded bars or a frame
into a concrete base to which the tower crane
fixing angles are connected to.

– Depending on ground conditions and the
specific crane the base will be supporting, the
concrete base can either:

• be a simple concrete pad where the self
weight of the concrete provides stability,
i.e., a gravity base

• or may require piles

 These types of bases can enable higher
crane free-standing heights.

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Cast-In Concrete Bases

– Concrete bases can be relatively
compact enabling them to be
constructed within the building.

– If effectively planned, the crane can take
advantage of the permanent structure’s
foundations.

– When decommissioning the tower crane
the base can either be broken out or
simply left in place and covered.

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Ballasted Bases

– Sometimes also referred to as ‘Gravity
Bases’.

– Ballasted bases rely on the weight of
ballast to provide stability to the crane.

– These bases can either be founded on the
engineered ground, on a concrete
foundation or on rails.

– The amount of counterweight required
depends on the crane and will be
specified by the manufacturer.

– Loads exerted by the base are purely
compressive – no tension.

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Grillages

– A steel frame to which a tower crane is
connected to.

– Commonly used when positioning a crane
on top of a building’s core.

– Can be either ballasted or tied into the
building structure.

– May affect the design of the core (the
permanent structure) due to the
increased tension loads imparted by the

Civil Engineering homework help

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SARENS
NOTHING TOO HEAVY, NOTHING TOO HIGH

STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION

Introduction

1. Who are Sarens?

2. Who am I?

3. Aim of the Presentation.

4. Why do we need cranes?

Lecture 1: Mobile Cranes

1. Types of Mobile Cranes

2. Planning Factors

3. Planning The Operation

4. Consequences of Poor Planning

5. Understanding Lift Plans

INTRODUCTION

2

Lecture 2: Tower Cranes

1. Types of Tower Cranes

2. Tower Crane Components

3. Planning Factors

4. Tower Crane vs. Mobile Crane

Conclusion

1. Aim of the Presentation

2. Additional Resources

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WHO ARE SARENS?

Sarens is an international heavy lift and transport company.

At Sarens, we have the noble mission to be the reference in crane
rental services, heavy lifting, and engineered transport for our clients.

To do this, we deploy our 5 unwavering values:

Dedication
to Safety

Zeal for
Excellence

Love for
Tradition

Brilliant
Solutions

Global
Spirit

INTRODUCTION

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4

Source: Sarens, 2017

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WE ARE AN INTERNATIONAL COMPANY INTRODUCTION

9 Geographical Regions, 67 Countries, 100 Offices

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OUR MAIN SECTORS INTRODUCTION

Oil and Gas Mining Infrastructure Offshore & Module Yards

Solar On-Shore and Offshore Wind Forwarding General Industry

Maintenance and Installation Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

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OUR FLEET AND EQUIPMENT

CRANES TRANSPORT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic
Cranes

Lattice Boom
Cranes

Heavy Luffing
Tower Cranes

Conventional Trailers

Modular Trailers

Self-propelled
Modular Trailers

Barges

Gantries

Jacking

Strand Jacks

Twin Barges

Modular Barges

Skidding

INTRODUCTION

7

WHO AM I?

 Andrew Cockshoot EngTech TMIET

– Loughborough University Graduate

– Sarens Project Engineer

– Engineering Technician of the Institution of Engineering and Technology

 Education:

– Civil Engineering Higher National Degree 2013 – 2016

– Construction Engineering Management BSc 2017 – 2021

 Work Experience

– Sir Robert McAlpine, Lift Planning CAD Technician 2012 – 2017

– Sarens UKTS, Project Engineer 2019 – Present

INTRODUCTION

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AIM OF THIS PRESENTATION

 By the end of this presentation you should be able to:

…understand the different types of cranes.

…identify the components of mobile and tower cranes.

…recognise common constraints inherent in crane operations.

…read and understand crane schemes.

…understand where mobile cranes and tower cranes are the suitable option.

 If you have any questions during this presentation, please feel free
to ask at any time!

INTRODUCTION

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THE USE OF CRANES INTRODUCTION

10

Question:

Why do we use cranes?

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THE USE OF CRANES INTRODUCTION

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 Crane provide vertical and horizontal
movement to materials / loads.

 Cranes enable us to be build bigger and
higher structures.

 They are an essential part of modern
construction.

 Their need is further expanding with the
increased use of pre-fabrication.

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF MOBILE CRANE PLANNING
Lecture 1 of 2

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TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

14

Question:

What types of mobile cranes are there?

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TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

1. All-Terrain Crane

2. Lattice Boom Crawler Crane

3. Telescopic Boom Crawler Crane

4. Self-Erecting Mobile Tower Crane

5. Lattice Boom Truck Crane

6. Telescopic Truck-Mounted Crane

7. Rough Terrain Crane

8. Pick and Carry Crane

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

Crane types you are most
likely to encounter in the UK.

15

ALL-TERRAIN CRANES

 Telescopic main boom.

 High level of mobility; able to drive on
public roads.

 Short mobilisation and set-up time
(dependent on configuration).

 Versatile due to the wide variety of lifting
accessories.

 Capacities from 5 to 1,200Te.

 Higher capacity all-terrain cranes may
need to travel without the boom
attached.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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LATTICE BOOM CRAWLER CRANES

 Transported by truck and assembled
on site.

 Suitable for the heaviest of loads.

 Boom length can be adjusted by the
addition and removal of boom
sections – requires an additional
support crane to do so.

 Can have a relatively compact
footprint for the capacities offered.

 Can track (travel) with a load.

 Capacities range from 50 to 3,200Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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TELESCOPIC CRAWLER CRANES

 Crane on crawlers with telescopic
boom.

 Combines the advantages of a
hydraulic boom with the stability and
manoeuvrability of a crawler crane.

 Can track while carrying a load.

 Capacities range from 16 to 220Te.

 Can self-rig or use support cranes for
initial set up.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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LATTICE BOOM TRUCK CRANE

 Road-going substructure consists of
the slewing ring and a partial
superstructure and derrick mast.

 The rest of the crane is delivered by
additional truck transport

 Requires support cranes for rigging.

 Combines the mobility of all-terrain
cranes with the capacity range of
crawler cranes.

 Capacities range from 130 to 1,200Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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SELF-ERECTING MOBILE TOWER CRANES

 A tower crane that can drive on public
roads.

 Self-erecting, can erect itself in
approximately 15mins.

 Taxi crane, no additional support
vehicles are required.

 Best-suited for when reach is more
important than capacity.

 Can be operated remotely or by a
height-adjustable operating cab.

 Capacities range from 5 to 18Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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TELESCOPIC TRUCK-MOUNTED CRANES

 Telescopic boom superstructure fitted
to a conventional truck chassis.

 Efficient road transport and fast
mobilisation makes these perfect taxi
cranes.

 Designed for frequent and long
distance travel.

 Capacities range from 30 to 80Te

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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ROUGH TERRAIN CRANES

 Designed to operate in the roughest
conditions.

 Compact and versatile.

 Excellent gradeability.

 Can drive with small suspended
loads.

 Capacities range from 12 to 150Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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PICK AND CARRY CRANES

 Designed to be able to pick up and
travel with a suspended load.

 Work ready, no outriggers are
required.

 Typically used in industrial contexts
rather than construction projects.

 Capacities range from 5 to 40Te.

TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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PLANNING FACTORS
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

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HEAVY LIFT PLANNING FUNCTIONAL MODEL PLANNING FACTORS

25

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

INPUTS

 Inputs relate to the physical aspects of the operation including the
crane, load and site.

 Inputs can be categorised into:

– Crane data sourced from CAD models, manufacturer manuals and websites.

– Load data is defined by manufacturer shop drawings.

– Site details are described by architectural and engineering drawings.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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INPUTS

 Crane Data:

– Physical dimensions.

– Crane capacities.

– Cost.

– Availability.

– Reliability.

– Service record.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

INPUTS

 Load Data:

– Dimensions and shape.

– Weight.

– Centre of gravity location.

– Fabrication and delivery schedule.

└ these establish a work window.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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INPUTS

 Site Data:

– Spatial layout and dimensions.

– Ground conditions.

– Changes in onsite structures over time:

└ Permanent structures.

└ Mobile structures (scaffold etc.).

PLANNING FACTORS

29

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

CONTROLS

 Controls relate to aspects of the operation that constrain the planning
scope and dictates how the operation can be undertaken.

 Controls can be categorised into:

– Spatial constraints defining the space for the operation.

– Structural constraints strength of the crane, site and load.

– Schedule constraints describes when the project needs to be done and the variance
of the spatial and structural constraints.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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CONTROLS

 Spatial Constraints

– Volume of work.

– Access / egress from site.

– Space for the crane.

– Space for the load to move (lift path).

– Pinch points.

└ Minimum clearance defined to
accommodate for boom deflection,
settlement and on-site inaccuracies in
positioning.

PLANNING FACTORS

31

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

CONTROLS

 Structural Constraints

– Determine the required strength of:

└ The crane

└ The site

└ The load

– The load’s ability to accommodate
the forces imparted into it during the
lift operation is the client’s
responsibility.

– Client should calculate and define the
ground’s allowable bearing pressures.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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CONTROLS

 Schedule Constraints

– Become more powerful as the
operation date gets closer.

– Other construction operations may be
taking place at the same time.

– Interfering structures may be
constructed before or after the
operation.

– Critical activities may need
completing before the lift can be
undertaken (foundations etc.).

PLANNING FACTORS

33

(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

MECHANISMS

 Mechanisms are the factors that bring a lift plan into existence; i.e.,
the exchange of information.

 Mechanisms can be categorised into:

– Constructor provides information about the site and / or load to the lift planner.

– Engineering Consultants provides information as per their role to the lift planner
(i.e. ground investigation studies etc.).

– The Owner has final ownership of the project information, and therefore must
ensure sufficient information is provided to the lift planner to enable them to
safely plan the operation.

 The final execution of the lift plan is the responsibility of the Lift
Planner.

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

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OUTPUTS

 The interaction of the inputs, controls and mechanisms will define the
outputs of the planning activity.

 Outputs can change as a reaction to a change in the inputs, controls
and mechanisms.

 Outputs can exist in three forms:

– Preliminary: to confirm the feasibility of the operation.

– Detailed: to represent the optimisation of the preliminary output.

– Final: the final scheme for execution.

 The output will be in the form of a single or a series of technical
drawings detailing the operation with associated risk and method
statements (RAMS).

PLANNING FACTORS

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

HEAVY LIFT FUNCTIONAL MODEL

 A simple model to understand the
interaction of factors in lift planning.

 Was originally developed to describe
lifts in industrial settings (oil and gas) so
not all outputs need to be considered
for every lift operation.

 Overlap between controls, inputs and
mechanisms since they are not
undertaken in isolation.

 The interaction of controls, inputs and
mechanisms defines the operation, its
feasibility and its optimum form.

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(Adapted from Hornaday et al., 1993)

PLANNING FACTORS

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TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES TYPES OF MOBILE CRANES

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Question:

Can you identify what controls were in the previous video?

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PLANNING THE OPERATION
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

HEAVY LIFT PLANNING STEPS

STEP-1: Determine load radius

STEP-2: Determine minimum hook height (minimum boom length)
└ Min. Hook Height = Elevation + Clearance + Load Height + Tackle Height + Chandelier Height

STEP-3: Define an approximate boom length requirement

STEP-4 Determine total load
└ Total Load = Net Load + Tackle + Hook block

STEP-5: Propose an initial crane.

STEP-6: Check proposed crane’s capacity.

STEP-7: Calculate outrigger loads

STEP-8: Optimise the preliminary proposal.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-1: DETERMINE LOAD RADIUS

 What is the maximum radius you
need to reach?

 Where can the crane be cited in
relation to the load?

– Available space on site.

– Current plant onsite.

– Storage areas on site.

– Sufficient bearing capacities.

– Voids / trenches.

– Proximity to structures.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-2: DETERMINE MIN. HOOK HEIGHT

 Elevation + Clearance + Load
Height + Tackle Height +
Chandelier Height
└ Elevation = difference between the level of the

crane and the load (-’ve if load is lower than the
crane).

└ Clearance = allowance for clearance to
obstructions.

└ Chandelier height = minimum distance between
the head sheave and the hook block.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-3: DETERMINE HOOK HEIGHT

 Using Step 1 and 2 an
approximate boom length can be
calculated.

C = (𝐴 +𝐵 )

Where:

(A) = Min. Hook Height

(B) = Load Radius

This will give an approximate boom length.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

43

(C)

(B)

(A)

Example:
C = ( 3900 + 10450 + 11120) + 12000
C = 28,155mm (~28m Boom)

STEP-4: DETERMINE TOTAL LOAD WEIGHT

 Net Load + Tackle + Hook Block

 Everything underneath the sheave
needs to be considered in the
load weight.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-5: PROPOSE AN INITIAL CRANE

 With the results of stages 1-4 in mind a
preliminary crane can be defined.

 A lift weight, lift radius and
approximate boom length is the
minimum information you need to
define a crane.

 Online crane calculators, specialist lift
planning software (Liebherr Crane
Planner 2.0) or engineering
experience can be used to speed up
the process.

 Trial and error is also an option.

45

PLANNING THE OPERATION

STEP-5: PROPOSE AN INITIAL CRANE

 Crane choice can be dictated by a
number of external factors:
– Availability: is the crane you need

available, do you need to substitute for a
larger crane?

– Cost: is the crane within the clients budget?

– Reliability: is the proposed crane reliable,
subject to regular breakdowns?

– Reputation: is the company supplying the
crane you want reliable? Is it available
from other crane rental companies with a
better reputation?

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PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 First, consult crane capacity charts.

 Use manufacturer provided capacity
charts.

 Maximum utilisation should ideally not
exceed 90%
└ Maximum utilisation = ( lift weight ÷ ( capacity –

deductions ) ) x 100

└ Generally work to a 10% safety factor.

 The glossy brochures provided by
crane manufacturers do not provide
a complete representation of a
crane’s capacities.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 The glossy brochure only considers best case capacity at a defined
radius for a boom length. However, each boom length has multiple
hydraulic configurations with different capacities.

41.3m [00, 92, 92, 92, 92]
└ 17.4Te at 7.0m

41.3m [46, 46, 92, 92, 92]
└ 17.9Te at 7.0m

41.3m [46, 92, 92, 92, 46]
└ 20.9Te at 7.0m

41.3m [92, 92, 92, 46, 46]
└ 22.4Te at 7.0m

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 It is very common for crane
capacities to be subject to
deductions.

– External factors (site constraints).

– Internal factors (crane specific).

 Neither the glossy brochure or the
manufacturers literature will
include deductions in their
capacities; the latter will define
what the deductions should be.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 Internal sources affecting crane
capacities:
– Lifting with the fixed fly stowed on the main

boom.

– Lifting with the TY-frame stowed on the
main boom.

 Exact capacity deductions will
depend on length of main boom and
the crane model.

 Components can be removed to
negate the deductions but tends to
be avoided if possible.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-6: CHECK PROPOSED CRANE’S CAPACITY

 External factors affecting crane
capacities:

– Operating in sensitive areas (i.e.
nuclear) where higher safety factors
are required.

– Operating in proximity to Network Rail
assets (in accordance with CPA-1801).

– Client request.

 Common deduct is 25% of rated
capacity.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-7: CALCULATE OUTRIGGER LOADS

 The crane will impart load into the
ground via the outriggers.

 This load from the outriggers is
dictated by the lift weight, lift radius
and the configuration of the crane.

 The ground must be checked to
ensure it can accommodate the
anticipated loads.

 Outrigger loads can be distributed
through the use of outrigger mats to
reduce the bearing pressures.

PLANNING THE OPERATION

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STEP-8: OPTIMISE THE PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL

 Go back through the operation, can
the crane be made smaller from the
current proposal?

 What can be done to make the
crane smaller?

 What risks can be avoided?

 Reduced counterweight
requirements or the use of a main
boom only configuration can reduce
the required transport.

 Check the crane plan against all new
information

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PLANNING THE OPERATION

CONSQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

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MODES OF FAILURE

 Crane accidents can be
categorised as either:

– Structural failure

– Stability failure

 A multitude of factors can cause
a structural or stability failure.

 Commonly, a crane accident can
be linked to insufficient or
incorrect planning.

55

CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

STABILITY AND STRUCTURAL FAILURE

 Stability or structural failure.

– Exceeding the crane’s rated capacity.

– Pulling or dragging a load.

– Excessive swinging the load due to
improper control of the crane

– Operating in excessive wind
conditions.

– Lifting submerged loads.

 Failure by structural failure can
also be a result of poor
maintenance.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

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FAILURE DUE TO GROUND CONDITIONS

 Insufficient distance from trenches
or underlying voids (basements
etc.).

 The ground does not have
sufficient bearing capacity to
carry the weight / loading of the
crane.

 Ground is not level or within the
acceptable incline that the crane
is rated for.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

FAILURE DUE TO CLASHES

 Collision with street furniture.

 Collision with permeant or mobile
structures.

 Contact with overhead services.

 Contact with a leading edge.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

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OTHER FAILURES

 Not all failures of planning lead to
an accident / incident.

 Other outcomes can include:

– Failure of the crane to fit on-site
(access / egress).

– Clashes between the crane and
ground-based obstructions (street
furniture etc.)

– Becoming jib bound.

– Crane becomes unavailable.

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CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING

UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS
The Fundamentals of Mobile Crane Planning

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WHAT IS A LIFT PLAN?

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UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

 A document that collates all
information about a proposed lift
into a single (or series) of drawings.

 It is a living document, even during
the operation in some cases.

 A ‘simulation’ of the proposed lift to
identify areas of concern / risk.

 A means of communicating a visual
representation of the operation to
the client and operational team.

INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR A LIFT PLAN

 A lift plan requires the following:
– Information / layout of the site.

– Sections / elevations of any obstruction / surrounding structures.

– Local ground levels.

– Local underlying services.

– Local street furniture

– Access / egress route restrictions.

– Load weight and load dimensions.

– Lifting points on the load.

– Location of site obstructions (storage areas, trenches, scaffolding etc.)

– Pickup and laydown positions of the load.

– Available resources on site (existing matting etc.)

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Preferably in a useable
CAD format if available.

UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

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CONSTITUENT PARTS OF A LIFT PLAN

 A lift plan details the following:
– Crane manufacturer and model

– Crane configuration

– Lift weight

– Deductions considered.

– Lift radius

– Crane capacities (capacity utilisation)

– Hook block type

– Crane mat requirements

– Outrigger loads (bearing pressures)

– Plan and Section

– Relevant warnings / risks identified.

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UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

EXAMPLE LIFT PLAN UNDERSTANDING LIFT PLANS

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THE FUNDAMENTALS OF TOWER CRANE PLANNING
Lecture 2 of 2

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES
The Fundamentals of Tower Crane Planning

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TYPES OF TOWER CRANES TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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Question:

What types of tower cranes are there?

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

Tower cranes are usually categorised by what type of jib they utilise:

1. Saddle Jib (Hammerhead)

2. Luffing Jib

3. Topless (Flat Top)

4. Articulated

5. Self-Erecting

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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SADDLE JIB (HAMMERHEAD) TOWER CRANES

 Horizontal jib that can be erected in
several lengths, commonly 30 – 70m

 The trolley travels along the jib to change
the lifting radius (aka. racking).

 Suitable where oversailing issues are not
a critical factor.

 Interaction between other cranes need
to be carefully planned as they affect a
large airspace.

 Oversailing a major concern with this
type of tower crane.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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LUFFING JIB TOWER CRANES

 The jib can be luffed up and down to
reduce or increase the lifting radius.

 Larger minimum radius than flat-jib
alternatives.

 Can utilise several jib lengths, commonly
30 – 60m

 When left out-of-service the crane can
reduce its radius to minimise oversailing
issues.

 Reduced out of service also enables
closer spacing of tower cranes.

 Ideal for congested sites.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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TOPLESS (FLAT TOP) TOWER CRANES

 Similar in operation to a Saddle Jib
tower crane.

 No A-frame and associated tie-bars
for neighbouring cranes to clear,
resulting in overall lower tower heights
for all site cranes.

 Ideal for congested sites.

 Jib can be installed piecemeal
instead of needing to be installed as
fully constructed jib.

 Typically offer lower capacities than
Saddle Jib alternatives.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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ARTICULATED TOWER CRANES

 Specially designed for inner-city sites
where air space restrictions are the
driving factor.

 The out-of-service radius is the smallest
out of all available tower crane types.

 Minimised tail-swing.

 Capacities are more limited, maximum
of ~8.0Te.

 Minimised base loadings and
component weights.

– Possible to fix these cranes to slipform rigs.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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SELF ERECTING TOWER CRANES

 Smaller, lower capacity alternatives to
traditional tower cranes best suited for
smaller projects.

 Transported to site as a single unit plus
counterweight and able to erect itself.

 Minimal foundation requirements.

 Can be easily relocated around site as
needed.

 Horizontal jib will require detailed
planning for oversailing and interface
with other cranes on site.

TYPES OF TOWER CRANES

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS
The Fundamentals of Tower Crane Planning

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COMMON TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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Mast

Base and Foundation

Counter jib

Trolley
Slewing Ring

Jib

A-Frame

Operators Cab

Base and Foundation

Mast

Slewing Ring
Operators Cab

Jib

Counter jib

A-Frame

Saddle Jib Tower Crane Luffing Jib Tower Crane

TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Tower cranes can have a variety of base
types, each type will affect:

– Free-standing height

– Spatial implications of the base.

 Common foundation types are:

– Cast-in Concrete foundations

– Ballasted Bases

– Grillages

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Tower crane bases are the main factor
affecting stability.

 Bases need to be able to effectively
resist:

– Vertical Reactions (V).

– Horizontal Forces (Hx, Hy).

– Moments (My, Mx).

– Torque (Mt).

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Cast-In Concrete Bases

– Specific designs vary but are based around
casting in a set of threaded bars or a frame
into a concrete base to which the tower crane
fixing angles are connected to.

– Depending on ground conditions and the
specific crane the base will be supporting, the
concrete base can either:

• be a simple concrete pad where the self
weight of the concrete provides stability,
i.e., a gravity base

• or may require piles

 These types of bases can enable higher
crane free-standing heights.

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Cast-In Concrete Bases

– Concrete bases can be relatively
compact enabling them to be
constructed within the building.

– If effectively planned, the crane can take
advantage of the permanent structure’s
foundations.

– When decommissioning the tower crane
the base can either be broken out or
simply left in place and covered.

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Ballasted Bases

– Sometimes also referred to as ‘Gravity
Bases’.

– Ballasted bases rely on the weight of
ballast to provide stability to the crane.

– These bases can either be founded on the
engineered ground, on a concrete
foundation or on rails.

– The amount of counterweight required
depends on the crane and will be
specified by the manufacturer.

– Loads exerted by the base are purely
compressive – no tension.

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TOWER CRANE COMPONENTS

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TOWER CRANE FOUNDATIONS

 Grillages

– A steel frame to which a tower crane is
connected to.

– Commonly used when positioning a crane
on top of a building’s core.

– Can be either ballasted or tied into the
building structure.

– May affect the design of the core (the
permanent structure) due to the
increased tension loads imparted by the