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assignment

 Intro: Prepare a marketing plan for H&M clothing as they enter the new foreign emerging market of Cambodia. You are expected to justify your decision to use academic and research-based information and references to support your arguments and write a report with an academic tone of voice and writing style. (Roughly 15 cited academic sources)

The plan should cover the three-year period to May 2025 and the list of elements included in the plan is illustrated below:

· A brief overview of the brand

· Analyse the current market and the industry environment

Content of the plan

· The selection of the market to entry

· Customer segmentation, targeting, and positioning in the chosen market

· International marketing mix

· Branding strategies

tructure:

1). Introduction: Brief Summary

2). Selection for Market Entry: Describe market and reasoning / strategy for choosing to enter this market

3). Market Analysis: Analyze the market covering the socio cultural environment and other important elements of the sector

4). STP (Segmentation, Targeting Positioning): Discuss strategies for STP

5). Marketing Mix (Product, price, place, promotion): Pick and discuss the most important elements of marketing mix to talk about. (Only 2-3 necessary), cover brand strategy here

6). Conclusion: Conclude with recommended plan of action for the company plus potential drawbacks/ barriers of entry you have found.

Criteria for grading:

Strong organisation and coherence clearly enhance the work.

Well-developed writing style, appropriate to assignment, which enhances the argument. Grammar and spelling are accurate.

Demonstrates a comprehensive, detailed and in-depth knowledge base, the capacity to integrate theoretical and substantive knowledge.

Demonstrates broad and/or in-depth independent reading from appropriate sources. Choice of sources enhances the fulfilment of the assignment objectives. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material with developed and/or integrated critical appraisal.

Conclusions are well developed and show some originality. The recommendations reflect a strong understanding based on evidence and appropriate forms of applications 

assignment

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the assigned course textbook readings, the instructor guidance for the week, the Writing Center resource 
Writing an Article Critique (Links to an external site.)
, and the University of Arizona Global Campus Library tutorial 
How to Read a Scholarly Article (Links to an external site.)
. Your instructor will post an announcement with the reference for the quantitative research study to be critiqued in this assignment. After reading the posted study, use the 
Quantitative Research Critique Template


 
 Download Quantitative Research Critique Template
to compose and organize your assignment.

In your paper,

· Summarize the research question, hypothesis, methods, and results of the assigned quantitative study.

· Determine whether the study used an experimental or non-experimental approach.

· Evaluate the appropriateness of the research methods and analytical approaches used in the study. Support the position with evidence cited from the textbook and at least one other scholarly/peer-reviewed source about the research design or method.

· Analyze ethical issues pertaining to how the study was carried out.

· Critique the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the study.

· Recommend a research question and methods for a follow-up study on the topic.

· Utilize the provided template with section headings.

The Quantitative Research Critique paper

· Must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) using the template provided and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the 
Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
’s 
APA Style (Links to an external site.)
 The template is a Word document that is pre-formatted in APA style. If unable to use the pre-formatted template, see the following instructions for formatting.

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of paper

· Student’s name

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to 
APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.)
.

· Must utilize academic voice. See the 
Academic Voice (Links to an external site.)
 resource for additional guidance.

· Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

· For assistance on writing 
Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)
 as well as 
Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.)
, refer to the Writing Center resources.

· Must use at least one scholarly/peer-reviewed source in addition to the study being critiqued and the course text, for a total of at least three references.

· The 
Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)
 table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

· Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center’s 
Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)
 guide.

· Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the 
Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)
 resource in the Writing Center for specifications.

Assignment

Specifications


What to Include:

· Name

· Manufacturer

· Dimensions

· Characteristics

· Wattage, etc. (if light)

· Finishing/ Material

· Acoustical Properties

· Fire Rating

· Tests Passed

· Thumbnail image

· Elevations/ plan if custom made

· The quantity used in the project

· Location in project

· Durability

· Note: Every firm has its own format, some use software that creates specs.

· Furniture

· Finishes

· Fixtures

· Equipment

· Furnishings

Budget

What to Include:

· Name of category

· Description (color, where it will be used–In the case of light, CRI, color, wattage, number of lamps)

· Quantity

· Manufacturer

· Unit (is the unit you used for calculation in square feet, in linear feet, etc)

· Price per unit

· Total price

· Furniture

· Finishes

· Fixtures

· Equipment

· Furnishings

· Links for all Furniture, Finishes, Fixtures, Equipment, Furnishings

Aleta High Bar Stool With Armrests – Viccarbe

Aleta Chair Wooden Base – Viccarbe

Aleta Chair Wooden Base – Viccarbe

Season Sofa – Composition 3 – Viccarbe

Reverse Wood – Dining tables – Tables – Products – Andreu World

Williams Symphony Grand II Digital Micro Grand Piano With Bench Black 88 Key | Guitar Center

Nathan James Theo 5-Shelf Ladder Bookcase Wood with Metal Frame – Black | Google Shopping

Black Salon Reception Desk | Modern Office (modernofficefurniture.com)

MASTER – Cabinet Systems Summer 2021_Interactive.pdf (cabinetjoint.com) (only cabinet number 5)

Pendant lamp VESANTO By Cameron Design House (archiproducts.com)

LED Outdoor spotlight RADIIS 210 Radiis Collection By Louis Poulsen (archiproducts.com)

LED dimmable metal pendant lamp LOHJA By Cameron Design House (archiproducts.com)

LED brass pendant lamp LIGHT RINGS HORIZONTAL Light Rings Collection By Henge design Massimo Castagna (archiproducts.com)

Vibia | Halo Jewel Pendant Lamp

Opendo D LED surface-mounted ceiling luminaire › Surface-mounted luminaires › Indoor lighting › TRILUX products

BIM objects – Free download! Echo LED Recessed Downlight 3000K D137 mm | BIMobject

Tubular – TURF

Vapor® Verve: Linear Perforated Torsion Spring Panel System (arktura.com)

Torsion Spring Panel System – Aktura Vapor® Pixel (arktura.com)

BIM objects – Free download! Extruded Aluminum Square/Rectangular Louver Face Ceiling Diffuser – Model 5500 | BIMobject

Monarch Upholstery | KnollTextiles

White Beauty – ABC Stone : ABC Stone (abcworldwidestone.com)

Mud – Stone Source

Breach – Stone Source

Grey – Stone Source

White – Stone Source

Alaska Grey – Stone Source

Samplize HGTV Home by Sherwin-Williams Web Gray Hgsw1462 Peel and Stick Paint Sample (12-in x 12-in) in the Paint Samples department at Lowes.com

Gray Marble Texture Seamless Images – Browse 32,539 Stock Photos, Vectors, and Video | Adobe Stock

Calacatta Moon – Stone Source

Cipollino Apuano – Stone Source

Bianco – Rain A – Stone Source

Tricorn Black SW 6258 – Neutral Paint Color – Sherwin-Williams

Rivers Edge SW 7517 – Neutral Paint Color – Sherwin-Williams

Ibis White SW 7000 – White & Pastel Paint Color – Sherwin-Williams

Faux Olive Branch | Artificial Flowers | Pottery Barn

Bay Isle Home 36″ Artificial Palm Tree in Decorative Vase & Reviews | Wayfair

BIM objects – Free download! Kegs Cooler B-150 | BIMobject

https://www.knoll.com/knolltextileproductdetail/Splendid?sku=8

(If you didn’t find any price for them you can only search for the same product type and add that price)

(Do the assignment like the 2 doc examples that provide to you – in an excel file or word file)

Assignment

cid:D7D4B297-EEAE-4174-AD01-F87097282051@canyon.com

Intellectual Disabilities Worksheet

Directions: Create three fictional child or adolescent characters with three different intellectual disabilities. Fill out all sections of the worksheet below, one for each fictional child, by describing the presenting symptoms and/or challenges and a treatment plan or treatment approach for each of them as if you were a therapist presenting each of these cases to your supervisor.

Fictional Child #1

Name of Child:

Age:

Gender:

Family Culture:

Presenting Symptoms:

Treatment Plan:

Fictional Child #2

Name of Child:

Age:

Gender:

Family Culture:

Presenting Symptoms:

Treatment Plan:

Fictional Child #3

Name of Child:

Age:

Gender:

Family Culture:

Presenting Symptoms:

Treatment Plan:

© 2016. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2016. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

assignment

Running head: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CRITIQUE 1

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CRITIQUE 5

Quantitative Research Critique

[Student’s Name]

PSY 326 Research Design

[Instructor’s Name]

[Date submitted]

Quantitative Research Critique

Introduction

[Instructions for using this template: Replace the text in brackets on the title page with your information. Answer the questions and provide the required information indicated below, in the order these items are presented. Use complete sentences in your response and delete the question or instruction, including this paragraph, after you have finished typing your answers. Throughout the paper, cite the source of the information. List the references for all sources that are cited, as indicated in the note on the References page.]

What is your purpose for writing this paper?

What is the title of the study you are critiquing, and who are the authors?

Summarize the research question(s) in your own words as much as possible. If your instructor allows quotes and you find it necessary to quote from the article, use quotation marks around the quoted passage and cite the quote in APA format with author’s last name, year of publication, and page number where the quoted material appeared.

State the hypothesis being tested in the research.

Briefly summarize background information on the topic from the study’s literature review.

Comment on whether or not there is any apparent bias in the selection of studies in the literature review.

Summary of Methods

Was this quantitative study experimental or non-experimental? How can you tell?

If the study was non-experimental, was it descriptive or was it correlational?

Name the sampling method and describe how the participants were selected.

How did the researchers collect data from the participants?

Did the researchers use validated instruments for data collection?

What statistical procedures were used to analyze the data?

What efforts were made to ensure validity and reliability? If none were apparent, note this fact in your critique.

Summary of Results

What statistically significant results were found in the study?

Was there an estimate of the practical significance or effect size of the results?

Did the researchers’ conclusion follow logically from the statistical results? Explain your reasoning.

Ethical Aspects

Did the researchers explicitly address ethical issues in the article? If not, was there evidence in the report that the participants’ wellbeing and confidentiality were protected?

Was an approval process by an Institutional Review Board or similar ethics review committee mentioned?

Were any of the practices ethically questionable? If so, what could have been done to resolve these issues?

Evaluation of Study

Referring to a source about the research design and methods used in this study to support your evaluation, do you feel the researchers used these methods appropriately to investigate the research question?

What do you see as the strengths of how this study was done?

What limitations or weaknesses were mentioned by the authors?

What limitations do you see (if any) that they did not mention?

What suggestions did the authors make for future research on the topic?

Do you think another approach might be better for the research question than the research design and methods that were used in this study? If so, what other methods would you consider?

Conclusion

Briefly review the main points of your summary and evaluation of the study.

What would you recommend for a research question and methods for a follow-up study on this topic?

References

[Note: List references here in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name, in APA format with a hanging indent. Include all sources cited in the body of the paper. Do not list any that are not cited in the paper. At a minimum, you should use the article being critiqued, one article about the research design from the Research Methods research guide in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library, and the course textbook. An example citation featuring the textbook follows this note.]

Newman, M. (2016). Research methods in psychology. (2nd ed.). Bridgepoint Education.

assignment

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the assigned course textbook readings, the instructor guidance for the week, the Writing Center resource 
Writing an Article Critique (Links to an external site.)
, and the University of Arizona Global Campus Library tutorial 
How to Read a Scholarly Article (Links to an external site.)
. Your instructor will post an announcement with the reference for the quantitative research study to be critiqued in this assignment. After reading the posted study, use the 
Quantitative Research Critique Template


 
 Download Quantitative Research Critique Template
to compose and organize your assignment.

In your paper,

· Summarize the research question, hypothesis, methods, and results of the assigned quantitative study.

· Determine whether the study used an experimental or non-experimental approach.

· Evaluate the appropriateness of the research methods and analytical approaches used in the study. Support the position with evidence cited from the textbook and at least one other scholarly/peer-reviewed source about the research design or method.

· Analyze ethical issues pertaining to how the study was carried out.

· Critique the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the study.

· Recommend a research question and methods for a follow-up study on the topic.

· Utilize the provided template with section headings.

The Quantitative Research Critique paper

· Must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) using the template provided and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the 
Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
’s 
APA Style (Links to an external site.)
 The template is a Word document that is pre-formatted in APA style. If unable to use the pre-formatted template, see the following instructions for formatting.

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of paper

· Student’s name

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to 
APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.)
.

· Must utilize academic voice. See the 
Academic Voice (Links to an external site.)
 resource for additional guidance.

· Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

· For assistance on writing 
Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)
 as well as 
Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.)
, refer to the Writing Center resources.

· Must use at least one scholarly/peer-reviewed source in addition to the study being critiqued and the course text, for a total of at least three references.

· The 
Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)
 table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

· Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center’s 
Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)
 guide.

· Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the 
Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)
 resource in the Writing Center for specifications.

assignment

‘Access to Literacy’ Is Not a Constitutional Right, Judge in Detroit Rules… https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/education/detroit-public-schools-e…

1 of 2 11/18/2019, 6:30 PM

‘Access to Literacy’ Is Not a Constitutional Right, Judge in Detroit Rules… https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/education/detroit-public-schools-e…

2 of 2 11/18/2019, 6:30 PM

assignment

9:15 PM (CT)

Assignment Details

Assignment Description
Watch the following LinkedIn Learning Videos to help you with the assignments in this Unit.

A company in Manhattan still keeps to the traditional mailing approaches even though the nature of their business strictly involves confidential documents that need to be sent to
clients. Tell this Manhattan company why you think their messages can be securely sent to clients using e­mail.

Write a 5­6 page Tech­Memo provided in the Libguide that includes the following:

Explain the features of secure e­mail and how secure e­mail works (2­3 pages).
As a good consultant, make sure that they are also aware of the cybersecurity vulnerabilities categorized into platforms, third­parties, patches and zero­day vulnerabilities,
(2­3 pages).

Refer to the Grading Rubric for this assignment.

Please submit your assignment.

For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

Reading Assignment
Ciampa, Part 2 (End Point Security), Module 3 (Threats and Attacks on Endpoints)
Ciampa, Part 2 (End Point Security), Module 4 (Endpoint and Application Security)

Assignment Objectives
Compare internal and external information security solutions for a given situation
Make decisions related to company data security, and explain the impact of those decisions on an organization

Other Information
There is no additional information to display at this time.

Legend
Extra Credit View Assignment Rubric

Unit 2 ­ Individual Project 

Assignment Overview

Unit:  Vulnerabilities
Due Date:  Tue,5/3/22
Grading Type:  Numeric
Points Possible:  140
Points Earned: 
Deliverable Length:  5­6 page e­mail

Type:  Individual Project

Go To:

Looking for tutoring? Go to Smarthinking

Assignment Details
Learning Materials
Reading Assignment

My Work:

Online Deliverables: Submissions

assignment

Your assignment is to read a recent article related to any physics concept ( magnetic field or, ohms law or refraction of light or kirchhoff’s rules any one of this topic you like ) covered in lab or lecture and write 400 to 600 words answering the following two components.

 

1. Summary: Summarize the content of the article. Describe what the study was investigating (what was the research question?), how they performed the research (experiments, observations, theoretical calculations, computer models, etc.), and what they found (what were the results?). State the facts as presented in the article. DO NOT copy any text from the article – summarize!

 

2. Critical Thinking: Describe how the results of the study may relate to the real-world issue/current event. (For example, what do the results of the study say about how we understand nature? Do the results of the study suggest the possibility of some new technology in the future? According to the results of the study, should there be any changes in programs, Policies, laws, or regulations? How should people think, feel, or act given the reported findings?)

 

At the end of your text, you must indicate the source you used. The format for the source is the following:

a. Journal article or book: Title of Article, Author, Publication, date of publication. The page numbers are required if a print source.

b. Website: exact URL and the date and time it was accessed.

 

Appropriate Sources: Credible sources only. The most likely sources will be publications such as Physics Today, Physics News, PhysicsWorld.com News, Scientific American, New Scientist, Health Physics Society Journal and many others. Wikipedia and any other news outlets which allow any public user to edit their contents are not appropriate sources.

You can also use newspapers, and internet articles. Just make sure that any internet sources you use are trustworthy. There is a lot of false information that can be obtained on the internet.)

 

assignment

‘Access to Literacy’ Is Not a Constitutional Right, Judge in Detroit Rules… https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/education/detroit-public-schools-e…

1 of 2 11/18/2019, 6:30 PM

‘Access to Literacy’ Is Not a Constitutional Right, Judge in Detroit Rules… https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/education/detroit-public-schools-e…

2 of 2 11/18/2019, 6:30 PM

assignment

The purpose of this assignment is to examine the components of a research article and help you identify guidelines for conducting critical analyses of published works.  The knowledge gained should be applied when completing your weeks 3 and 5 research assignments.  As you complete assignments it is a good idea to proof read your work or use the University writing center to help with APA formatting.  Both are great avenues for assistance in minimizing grammatical errors and conducting research. 

Please use the attached “Guidelines for Evaluating a Research Article” to answer the below questions: 

· What is an Information Technology Project?  

· Identify & explain the major parts of a research paper.

· Explain the difference(s) between qualitative vs quantitative research methods.

· Why use Peer Reviewed journals?

· Why are keywords used during the Literature Review process?

· Why are project deliverables, limitations & deadlines an important aspect of project development?

· Why use/apply APA Basic Citation Stiles in your writing assignments/research?

· Why is Academic Integrity important (see syllabus)?

· Explain the difference between plagiarism vs self-plagiarism?

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

· Use at least three – five (3 – 5 ) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

· Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format.

· Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page do not count toward the page count.

assignment

257

Speaking of research

Guidelines for evaluating research articles

Phillip Rumrill∗, Shawn Fitzgerald and
Megen Ware
Kent State University, Department of Educational
Foundations and Special Services Center for
Disability Studies, 405 White Hall, P.O. Box 5190,
Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA

The article describes the components and composition of
journal articles that report empirical research findings in the
field of rehabilitation. The authors delineate technical writing
strategies and discuss the contents of research manuscripts,
including the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results,
Discussion, and References. The article concludes with a
scale that practitioners, manuscript reviewers, educators, and
students can use in critically analyzing the content and scien-
tific merits of published rehabilitation research.

Keywords: Evaluation, research articles, guidelines for cri-
tique

1. Introduction

The purpose of this article is to examine the com-
ponents of a research article and provide guidelines
for conducting critical analyses of published works.
Distilled from the American Psychological Associa-
tion’s [1] Publication Manual and related descriptions
in several research design texts [4,8,9,12,15], descrip-
tions of how authors in rehabilitation and disability
studies address each section of a research article are
featured. The article concludes with a framework that
rehabilitation educators, graduate students, practition-
ers, and other Work readers can use in critiquing re-
search articles on the basis of their scientific merits and
practical utility.

∗Corresponding author: Tel.: +1 330 672 2294; Fax: +1 330 672
2512; E-mail: prumrill@educ.kent.edu.

2. Anatomy of a research article

For nearly 50 years, the American Psychological As-
sociation has presented guidelines for authors to follow
in composing manuscripts for publication in profes-
sional journals [1]. Most journals in disability studies
and rehabilitation adhere to those style and formatting
guidelines. In the paragraphs to follow, descriptions
of each section of a standard research article are pre-
sented: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results,
Discussion, and References.

2.1. Title

As with other kinds of literature, the title of a scien-
tific or scholarly journal article is a very important fea-
ture. At the risk of contravening the age-old adage “You
can’t judge a book by its cover,” Bellini and Rumrill [4]
speculated that most articles in rehabilitation journals
are either read or not read based upon the prospective
reader’s perusal of the title. Therefore, developing a
clear, concise title that conveys the article’s key con-
cepts, hypotheses, methods, and variables under study
is critical for researchers wishing to share their findings
with a large, professional audience. A standard-length
title for a journal article in the social sciences is 12–15
words, including a sub-title if appropriate. Because so-
cial science and medical indexing systems rely heavily
on titles in their codification schemes to track and cat-
egorize journal articles by topic, providing a title that
clearly delineates a general research domain or topic
area is of utmost importance. If the title is vague or
ambiguous, chances are that the prospective reader will
not continue to read through the document to establish
where it might fit in terms of a specific research domain
or topic area. Examples of clearly descriptive titles
that can be found in the contemporary rehabilitation
literature include:

“Rehabilitation Counselors’ Assessments of Appli-
cants’ Functional Limitations as Predictors of Rehabil-
itation Services Provided” [3].

Work 14 (2000) 257–263
ISSN 1051-9815 / $8.00  2000, IOS Press. All rights reserved

258 P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles

“Employer Concerns About Hiring Persons with
Psychiatric Disabilities: Results of the Employer Atti-
tude Questionnaire” [6].

“Self-Perceived Reasons for Unemployment Cited
by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship to
Gender, Race, Age, and Level of Injury” [13].

“Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors’ Attitudes
Toward Self-Employment Outcomes” [18].

“Surveying the Employment Concerns of People
with Multiple Sclerosis: A Participatory Action Re-
search Approach” [20].

“Effect of Graduate Research Instruction on Per-
ceived Research Anxiety, Research Utility, and Confi-
dence in Research Skills” [21].

Before we move into descriptions of the content sec-
tions of a research article, we want to briefly address
the concept of technical writing as it applies to the com-
position of academic manuscripts. Journals adhering
to the American Psychological Association’s [1] pub-
lication guidelines favor manuscripts that are written
in direct, uncomplicated sentences. Editors prefer that
text be written in the “active voice”; whenever possible,
sentences should begin with their subjects and follow
with verbs and objects (e.g., “The researcher conducted
an experiment” rather than “An experiment was con-
ducted by the researcher”). Technical writing is marked
by the “less is more” maxim; extraneous phrases and
clauses that add words to the sentence without enhanc-
ing the overall statement should be avoided (e.g., “In
order to. . . ”, “For purposes of. . . ”, “As far as. . . is
concerned. . . ”). Another element of sound technical
writing is the sparing use of adverbs (e.g., very, some-
what, strikingly) and adjectives that do not serve to fur-
ther define or specify the terms that they are modifying
(e.g., interesting, important, good, noteworthy).

In addition to the American Psychological Associa-
tion’s guidelines for technical writing, authors should
consider these six criteria for effective composition
provided by George Orwell (1946) in Politics and the
English Language:

1. Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of
speech which you are used to seeing in print.

2. Never use a long word where a short one will do.
3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it

out.
4. Never use the passive (voice) where you can use

the active.
5. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or

jargon word if you can think of an everyday En-
glish equivalent.

6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything
outright barbarous (p. 170).

Organization is also key in preparing an effectively
composed journal manuscript, with multi-level head-
ings serving to guide the flow of text and keep the
reader on track. For authoritative information regard-
ing the style and formatting guidelines for submitting
manuscripts to most journals in social science fields,
readers should consult the American Psychological As-
sociation’s [1] Publication Manual. For information
concerning the style and formatting requirements of
Work and other journals published by IOS Press, see
the Guidelines for Authors section included in the be-
ginning of this edition.

2.2. Abstract

Next to the title, the abstract is the most widely read
section of a journal article. In an empirical article, the
abstract should be a succinct, 100–150 word summary
of the investigation’s key features, including purpose,
objectives, research questions/hypotheses, sample, sci-
entific procedures, independent and dependent vari-
ables, and salient results. Results of the study should
be summarized in full in the abstract; authors should
describe both significant and non-significant findings,
not only those which upheld their hypotheses or expec-
tations. The abstract serves as an advance organizer
for the article, and it should include every important
premise, method, and result of the investigation. Like
the Preface that commonly orients readers to full-length
textbooks, the abstract provides a complete, albeit sum-
mary, preview of the article. Some journals, includ-
ing Work and the Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation,
ask authors to list key descriptors on the abstract page,
which are then used for purposes of indexing. In most
cases, the title is what determines whether a reader will
read the abstract; the abstract determines whether the
reader will read the body of the article.

2.3. Introduction

Immediately following the abstract, the introductory
section of the article sets the stage for the study upon
which the article was based. It orients the reader to the
problem or issue being addressed, develops the logic
and rationale for conducting the investigation, and al-
most always expresses the empirical hypotheses or re-
search questions. Heppner et al. [9] suggested that
the introduction should answer questions such as why
the topic is an important one to study, what previous

P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles 259

work bears on the topic, how existing work logically
connects to the author’s research questions and/or hy-
potheses, how the question will be researched, and what
predictions can be made.

To answer these questions, authors typically address
three major elements in the introductory section of an
article: (1) The Research Problem, (2) The Framework
for the Study, and (3) The Research Questions and Hy-
potheses [8,15]. We will describe each of these intro-
ductory elements in linear fashion, but we do not mean
to imply an order in terms of how they should be ad-
dressed. Many (if not most) authors blend these con-
siderations to fit the flow and logic of their respective
manuscripts.

The research problem. Usually in the very first sen-
tences of an empirical journal article, the author draws
the reader’s attention to the scope, impact, and current
status of the problem or issue being investigated. This
orientation is most effectively achieved by applying the
broadest-possible perspective to the concern. A study
of success rates among participants in a stress inocula-
tion program for people with diabetes mellitus might be
introduced by citing national statistics concerning the
incidence and prevalence of this very common disease.
An article describing the effects of a model job place-
ment program for women with breast cancer might be-
gin with a review of existing literature concerning em-
ployment and breast cancer, with a particular focus on
the difficulties that women have in re-entering the la-
bor force following diagnosis and treatment. Authors
reporting a longitudinal study of the post- school em-
ployment outcomes of secondary students with devel-
opmental disabilities would likely introduce their arti-
cle with a review of the disappointing adult outcomes
which that population has experienced since the incep-
tion of formalized transition services in the mid–1980s.

The framework for the study. The specific theoret-
ical and empirical framework for the particular inves-
tigation is another important part of the Introduction.
Authors summarize existing literature related to the
identified problem, then build a logical rationale for a
study that addresses gaps or inconsistencies in the lit-
erature. The author should present the theoretical or
conceptual model that informs the inquiry and provides
enough background to enable the reader to appreciate
the rationale of the current study. This framework elu-
cidates the purpose of the current study (e.g., to eval-
uate the effectiveness of a job placement program for
women with breast cancer), which is then operational-
ized in the research questions or hypotheses. Social
scientific theories which have figured pominently in

the frameworks of recent rehabilitation investigations
include Hershenson’s [10] model of work adjustment,
Bandura’s [2] concept of situational self-efficacy, and
Bolton and Brookings’ [5] integrated model of empow-
erment.

The research questions and hypotheses. The Intro-
duction section of a research article typically includes
a statement of the research questions and/or hypothe-
ses that served to guide the study. A more specula-
tive research question tends to be used in descriptive
research designs (e.g., surveys, program evaluations,
empirical literature reviews) or in qualitative studies.
Examples of research questions could include: “What
concerns do college students with disabilities have re-
garding their future career prospects?”; “What themes
are evident in the psycholinguistic development of deaf
women?”; and “What steps are Fortune 500 employ-
ers taking to provide on-the-job accommodations for
workers with disabilities?”.

The hypothesis, on the other hand, is predictive by
design. Its specificity is dependent upon the theory un-
derlying it or previous, relevant research, but it should
include the direction of the expected results when-
ever possible. Independent and dependent variables
need not be operationalized in theory-based hypotheses
(because this is done in the Method section), but the
expected relationship among study variables must be
clearly articulated. Examples of directional hypotheses
could include: “Participation in a cognitive-behavioral
stress inoculation program will decrease symptom on-
set and magnification”; “Anxiety, depression, and low
self-esteem will be collectively, positively, and signif-
icantly related to work interference”; and “Rehabilita-
tion counselors will rate people with severe disabili-
ties as less favorable candidates for employment than
similarly qualified people with mild or no disabilities”.

2.4. Method

The Method section delineates how the research
questions were addressed and/or how the hypotheses
were tested. It should provide the reader with sufficient
information so that one could replicate the investiga-
tion, and it should leave no question as to what was
“done” to the participants. Because the Method section
is the primary source for determining the validity of the
study [4], the quality and clarity of this section are gen-
erally regarded as the strongest determinants of whether
an empirically-based manuscript will be accepted for
publication [9,16].

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260 P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles

Although the type and order of sub-sections found
in the Method section of a research article vary de-
pending upon the design of the study and the author’s
judgement related to the flow of text, most articles in-
clude descriptions of the study’s subjects/participants,
instruments/measures/variables, materials, design, and
procedures.

Subjects/participants. According to Heppner et
al. [8,9], the Method section should include (a) the total
number of subjects and numbers assigned to groups, if
applicable; (b) how subjects were selected and/or as-
signed; and (c) demographic and other characteristics
of the sample relevant to the study’s purpose. Some au-
thors also include a description of the population from
which the study sample was drawn, a description of the
specific sampling procedure used (e.g., simple random,
stratified, cluster; [4]), an indication of the represen-
tativeness of the sample vis a vis the broader popula-
tion, the circumstances under which subjects partici-
pated (e.g., whether they were compensated, what risks
they assumed), statistical power analyses, and response
rates (if applicable).

Instruments/measures/variables. The Method sec-
tion must include a detailed description of how all study
variables were operationalized, measured, scored, and
interpreted. All instruments or measures that were used
in sampling, conducting the study, and evaluating re-
sults must be specified in terms of content (e.g., num-
ber of items, response sets), how measures were ad-
ministered, scoring procedures, relationship to study
variables, and psychometric properties (e.g., standard-
ization, reliability, validity). Authors should also in-
clude a rationale for selecting each instrument, that is,
why that instrument was the best choice for measuring
a particular construct.

Materials. Researchers should also include a de-
scription of any materials that were used to carry out
the investigation. Written guides for participants, in-
structional manuals, media or technology, and scien-
tific apparatus or equipment should be described in de-
tail. Some authors include a description of the setting
in which the study was executed or data were collected.

Design. One of the most important features of the
Method section is a clear description of the design of
the study. This is essential because the design serves as
the link between (a) the research questions/hypotheses
and the scientific procedures used in carrying out the
study and (b) the findings of the study and how these
are interpreted. Authors typically label their designs
in terms of how variables were manipulated, observed,
and analyzed. Thereby, the design is the unifying force

in connecting the research objectives to both the results
and the knowledge claim that is made. To every extent
possible, a direct reference to the hypotheses should
be made when authors identify the design of a particu-
lar investigation. For example, Rumrill, Roessler, and
Denny [19] described their design as follows: “The re-
searchers selected a three-group, posttest-only (exper-
imental) design to assess the intervention’s univariate
and multivariate effects on (a) self-reported attitudes
(situational self-efficacy and acceptance of disability)
and (b) participation in the accommodation request pro-
cess.”

Procedures. The most important component of the
Method section is the easiest to describe. In chrono-
logical order, authors simply list every step they took
in developing, administering, and evaluating the study.
Beginning with the recruitment of participants, follow-
ing the study through collection of the last datum, and
including everything in-between – the Procedures sub-
section should provide the reader with a step-by-step
protocol that could serve as a guide for replicating the
study. Descriptions of any interventions should be pro-
vided in detail, along with summaries of the qualifi-
cations of project personnel who were instrumental in
executing the investigation. Procedures should also in-
clude how the investigation ended, along with a state-
ment of any debriefing or follow-up services provided
to participants.

2.5. Results

The Results section of a research article should in-
clude a complete inventory of all relevant findings ob-
tained by the investigators. In articles that report quan-
titative studies, results are typically presented in two
parts – (a) summary, or descriptive, statistics related
to participants’ performance on the measures that were
taken (e.g., means, standard deviations, frequencies,
percentages) and (b) statistical analyses related to the
specific hypotheses of the study (e.g., analysis of vari-
ance, multiple regression, factor analysis). We believe
that all analyses conducted as part of the investigation
should be reported in full, not only those which yielded
statistically significant results. The Publication Man-
ual of the American Psychological Association [1] pro-
vides considerable guidance related to how statistics
should be presented in the Results section, but it does
not always provide adequate guidelines regarding what
statistical information should be included. Heppner et
al. [9] identified a pattern in recent social science lit-
erature whereby researchers tend to err on the side of

262 P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles

providing too little statistical information: “The trend
has been to report less; for example, one rarely sees
analysis of variance source tables anymore. More dis-
turbing is the tendency not to report important informa-
tion (such as size of test statistic and probability levels)
when results are non-significant. This minimalist point
of view puts the emphasis on statistical significance and
ignores concepts such as effect size, estimation, and
power.”

In recent years, the “minimalist” perspective (in
terms of reporting statisitical findings) has been chal-
lenged by numerous researchers and statisticians [11,
14,22]. The most serious argument against this per-
spective relates to the influence that sample size has
in determining the significance of any statistical test.
Hayes [7], for example, pointed out that virtually any
study can be made to yield statistically significant re-
sults if the researcher includes enough subjects. To
avoid the possibility of misleading research consumers,
the latest edition of the Publication Manual [1] suggests
that all authors provide estimates of practical or clinical
significance along with all statistical significance tests
reported in the Results section.

A quantitative Results section should be limited to
the findings obtained by the researcher(s) in the cur-
rent investigation. Speculation concerning what those
findings mean in a larger context is reserved for the
Discussion section.

The Results sections of qualitatively oriented articles
display much more variety in the content and manner of
presentation than is found in quantitative studies. Be-
cause the researcher’s subjective interpretations help to
shape the processes and outcomes of qualitative inves-
tigations, results are often framed in broad, interpretive
contexts. In that regard, the lines between the Results
and Discussion sections are often blurred in qualitative
research.

Researchers (qualitative and quantitative) commonly
use tables and figures to summarize and/or graphically
present their results. There is wide variability in the
content and presentation of tables and figures, with
the most important universal requirement being easy
interpretability for the reader.

2.6. Discussion

The Discussion section serves as the researcher’s fo-
rum to go beyond the current investigation and discuss
the contributions of study findings to existing litera-
ture, theory, and professional practices. The first part
of a thoughtful Discussion is often an analysis of the

study’s results vis a vis the research questions and hy-
potheses. Researchers should begin with a discussion
of whether the hypotheses were upheld, posit possible
explanations for those outcomes, and draw implications
from the findings back to the research problem that was
identified in the Introduction. If the results provide
a warrant for modifying or re-testing the conceptual
framework upon which the investigation was based, the
Discussion section is the place to suggest a reformula-
tion of the underlying theory. Researchers should also
include a statement of the scientific limitations of the
current study, along with specific recommendations for
future research. Finally, the researcher ends the arti-
cle with a cogent summary of the conclusions, in the
most general sense, that can be drawn from the methods
and findings of the current study. Some authors use a
separate Conclusion section for this purpose.

2.7. References

The final section of a research article is always a
listing of the references that were cited in the body of
the text. References are listed in alphabetical order,
according to authors’ last names. Most rehabilitation
journals require adherence to the American Psycholog-
ical Association’s [1] guidelines regarding the compo-
sition of the References section.

3. A scale for critiquing research manuscript and
articles

Understanding the components, organization, and
composition of a research article will help make Work
subscribers better informed consumers as they read em-
pirically based publications. As readers digest the con-
tents of research articles and apply them to their prac-
tices, the “anatomy” of research reports can serve as a
useful rubric for critically analyzing the quality, con-
tent, and practical significance of published articles.
Table 1 presents specific questions for conducting a
section-by-section critique of a rehabilitation research
article.

4. Conclusion

This article examined the components of a research
article and provided guidelines for conducting a critical
analysis of published research. Although the descrip-
tions of the components of a research article provide

P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles 263

only a skeletal summary of what should be included
in a published research article, they should provide the
reader enough information to both prepare manuscripts
for publication and evaluate the empirical research that
appears in Work and other rehabilitation journals.

References

[1] Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association, Pub-
lication manual of the American Psychological Association,
(Fourth Edition), 1994.

[2] Bandura, A., Social foundations of thought and action: A
social cognitive theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
1986.

[3] Bellini, J., Bolton, B. and Neath, J., Rehabilitation counselors
assessments of applicants functional limitations as predictors
of rehabilitation services provided, Rehabilitation Counseling
Bulletin 41(4) (1998), 242–258.

[4] Bellini, J. and Rumrill, P., Research in rehabilitation counsel-
ing: A guide to design, methodology, and utilization, Spring-
field, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1999.

[5] Bolton, B. and Brookings, J., Development of a multifaceted
definition of empowerment, Rehabilitation Counseling Bul-
letin 39(4) (1996), 256–264.

[6] Diksa, E. and Rogers, E., Employer concerns about hiring per-
sons with psychiatric disability: Results of the employer atti-
tude questionnaire, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 40(1)
(1996), 31–44.

[7] Hayes, W., Statistics for psychologists, New York: Holt, Rine-
hart, and Winston, 1981.

[8] Heppner, P., Kivlighan, D. and Wampold, B., Research design
in counseling, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1992.

[9] Heppner, P., Kivlighan, D. and Wampold, B., Research design
in counseling, (2nd Edition), Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole,
1999.

[10] Hershenson, D., A systems reformulation of a developmental
model of work adjustment, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin

40(1) (1996), 2–10.
[11] Hunter, J., Needed: A ban on the significance test, Psycholog-

ical Science 8 (1997), 3–7.
[12] Kazdin, A., Research design in clinical psychology, (2nd Edi-

tion), Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1998.
[13] Krause, J. and Anson, C., Self-perceived reasons for unem-

ployment cited by persons with spinal cord injury: Relation-
ship to gender, race, age, and level of injury, Rehabilitation
Counseling Bulletin 39(3) (1996), 217–227.

[14] McClure, P., Determining the significance of significance: P-
values, effect size, and clinical judgement, Journal of Hand
Therapy 12 (1999), 40–41.

[15] McMillan, J. and Schumacher, S., Research in education: A
conceptual introduction, (Fourth Edition), New York: Long-
man, 1997.

[16] Munley, P., Sharkin, B. and Gelso, C., Reviewer ratings
and agreement on manuscripts reviewed for the Journal of
Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling Psychology 35
(1988), 198–202.

[17] Orwell, G., Politics and the English language, in: A collection
of essays, G. Orwell ed., San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, and
Jovanovich, 1946, pp. 156–171.

[18] Ravesloot, C. and Seekins, T., Vocational rehabilitation coun-
selors’ attitudes toward self-employment outcomes, Rehabili-
tation Counseling Bulletin 39(3) (1996), 189–201.

[19] Rumrill, P., Roessler, R. and Denny, G., Increasing confidence
in the accommodation request process among persons with
multiple sclerosis: A career maintenance self-efficacy inter-
vention, Journal of Job Placement 13(1) (1997), 5–9.

[20] Rumrill, P., Roessler, R. and Koch, L., Surveying the employ-
ment concerns of people with multiple sclerosis: A participa-
tory action research approach, Journal of Vocational Rehabil-
itation 12(2) (1999), 75–82.

[21] Schaller, J. and Parker, R., Effect of graduate research in-
struction on perceived research anxiety, research utility, and
confidence in research skills, Rehabilitation Education 11(4)
(1997), 273–287.

[22] Thompson, B., AERA editorial policies regarding statistical
significance testing: Three suggested reforms, Educational
Researcher 25(2) (1996), 26–30.

P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles 261

Table 1
A scale for critiquing research articles

Instructions: Answer the following questions regarding the article, “ ”. Use examples
from the article to support your analyses.

A. Title

1. Does the title describe the study?
2. Do the key words of the title serve as key elements of the article?
3. Is the title concise, i.e., free of distracting or extraneous phrases?

B. Abstract

4. Does the abstract summarize the study’s purpose, methods, and findings?
5. Does the abstract reveal the independent and dependent variables under study?
6. Are there any major premises or findings presented in the article that are not mentioned in the abstract?
7. Does the abstract provide you with sufficient information to determine whether you would be interested in reading

the entire article?

C. Introduction

8. Is the research problem clearly identified?
9. Is the problem significant enough to warrant the study that was conducted?

10. Do the authors present a theoretical rationale for the study?
11. Is the conceptual framework of the study appropriate in light of the research problem?
12. Do the author’s hypotheses and/or research questions seem logical in light of the conceptual framework and research

problem?
13. Are hypotheses and research questions clearly stated? Are they directional?
14. Overall, does the literature review lead logically into the Method section?

D. Method

15. Is the sample clearly described, in terms of size, relevant characteristics, selection and assignment procedures, and
whether any inducements were used to solicit subjects?

16. Do the instruments described seem appropriate as meausres of the variables under study?
17. Have the authors included sufficient information about the psychometric properties (e.g., reliability and validity) of

the instruments?
18. Are the materials used in conducting the study or in collecting data clearly described?
19. Are the study’s scientific procedures thoroughly described in chronological order?
20. Is the design of the study identified (or made evident)?
21. Do the design and procedures seem appropriate in light of the research problem, conceptual framework, and research

questions/hypotheses?
22. Overall, does the method section provide sufficient information to replicate the study?

E. Results

23. Is the Results section clearly written and well organized?
24. Are data coding and analysis appropriate in light of the study’s design and hypotheses?
25. Are salient results connected directly to hypotheses?
26. Are tables and figures clearly labeled? Well organized? Necessary (non-duplicative of text)?

F. Discussion and Conclusion

27. Are the limitations of the study delineated?
28. Are findings discussed in terms of the research problem, conceptual framework, and hypotheses?
29. Are implications for future research and/or rehabilitation counseling practice identified?
30. Are the author’s general conclusions warranted in light of the results?

G. References

31. Is the reference list sufficiently current?
32. Do works cited reflect the breadth of existing literature regarding the topic of the study?
33. Are bibliographic citations used appropriately in the text?

H. General Impressions

34. Is the article well written and organized?
35. Does the study address an important problem in the lives of people with disabilities?
36. What are the most important things you learned from this article?
37. What do you see as the most compelling strengths of this study?
38. How might this study be improved?

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assignment

The purpose of this assignment is to examine the components of a research article and help you identify guidelines for conducting critical analyses of published works.  The knowledge gained should be applied when completing your weeks 3 and 5 research assignments.  As you complete assignments it is a good idea to proof read your work or use the University writing center to help with APA formatting.  Both are great avenues for assistance in minimizing grammatical errors and conducting research. 

Please use the attached “Guidelines for Evaluating a Research Article” to answer the below questions: 

· What is an Information Technology Project?  

· Identify & explain the major parts of a research paper.

· Explain the difference(s) between qualitative vs quantitative research methods.

· Why use Peer Reviewed journals?

· Why are keywords used during the Literature Review process?

· Why are project deliverables, limitations & deadlines an important aspect of project development?

· Why use/apply APA Basic Citation Stiles in your writing assignments/research?

· Why is Academic Integrity important (see syllabus)?

· Explain the difference between plagiarism vs self-plagiarism?

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

· Use at least three – five (3 – 5 ) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

· Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format.

· Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page do not count toward the page count.

assignment

257

Speaking of research

Guidelines for evaluating research articles

Phillip Rumrill∗, Shawn Fitzgerald and
Megen Ware
Kent State University, Department of Educational
Foundations and Special Services Center for
Disability Studies, 405 White Hall, P.O. Box 5190,
Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA

The article describes the components and composition of
journal articles that report empirical research findings in the
field of rehabilitation. The authors delineate technical writing
strategies and discuss the contents of research manuscripts,
including the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results,
Discussion, and References. The article concludes with a
scale that practitioners, manuscript reviewers, educators, and
students can use in critically analyzing the content and scien-
tific merits of published rehabilitation research.

Keywords: Evaluation, research articles, guidelines for cri-
tique

1. Introduction

The purpose of this article is to examine the com-
ponents of a research article and provide guidelines
for conducting critical analyses of published works.
Distilled from the American Psychological Associa-
tion’s [1] Publication Manual and related descriptions
in several research design texts [4,8,9,12,15], descrip-
tions of how authors in rehabilitation and disability
studies address each section of a research article are
featured. The article concludes with a framework that
rehabilitation educators, graduate students, practition-
ers, and other Work readers can use in critiquing re-
search articles on the basis of their scientific merits and
practical utility.

∗Corresponding author: Tel.: +1 330 672 2294; Fax: +1 330 672
2512; E-mail: prumrill@educ.kent.edu.

2. Anatomy of a research article

For nearly 50 years, the American Psychological As-
sociation has presented guidelines for authors to follow
in composing manuscripts for publication in profes-
sional journals [1]. Most journals in disability studies
and rehabilitation adhere to those style and formatting
guidelines. In the paragraphs to follow, descriptions
of each section of a standard research article are pre-
sented: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results,
Discussion, and References.

2.1. Title

As with other kinds of literature, the title of a scien-
tific or scholarly journal article is a very important fea-
ture. At the risk of contravening the age-old adage “You
can’t judge a book by its cover,” Bellini and Rumrill [4]
speculated that most articles in rehabilitation journals
are either read or not read based upon the prospective
reader’s perusal of the title. Therefore, developing a
clear, concise title that conveys the article’s key con-
cepts, hypotheses, methods, and variables under study
is critical for researchers wishing to share their findings
with a large, professional audience. A standard-length
title for a journal article in the social sciences is 12–15
words, including a sub-title if appropriate. Because so-
cial science and medical indexing systems rely heavily
on titles in their codification schemes to track and cat-
egorize journal articles by topic, providing a title that
clearly delineates a general research domain or topic
area is of utmost importance. If the title is vague or
ambiguous, chances are that the prospective reader will
not continue to read through the document to establish
where it might fit in terms of a specific research domain
or topic area. Examples of clearly descriptive titles
that can be found in the contemporary rehabilitation
literature include:

“Rehabilitation Counselors’ Assessments of Appli-
cants’ Functional Limitations as Predictors of Rehabil-
itation Services Provided” [3].

Work 14 (2000) 257–263
ISSN 1051-9815 / $8.00  2000, IOS Press. All rights reserved

258 P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles

“Employer Concerns About Hiring Persons with
Psychiatric Disabilities: Results of the Employer Atti-
tude Questionnaire” [6].

“Self-Perceived Reasons for Unemployment Cited
by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship to
Gender, Race, Age, and Level of Injury” [13].

“Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors’ Attitudes
Toward Self-Employment Outcomes” [18].

“Surveying the Employment Concerns of People
with Multiple Sclerosis: A Participatory Action Re-
search Approach” [20].

“Effect of Graduate Research Instruction on Per-
ceived Research Anxiety, Research Utility, and Confi-
dence in Research Skills” [21].

Before we move into descriptions of the content sec-
tions of a research article, we want to briefly address
the concept of technical writing as it applies to the com-
position of academic manuscripts. Journals adhering
to the American Psychological Association’s [1] pub-
lication guidelines favor manuscripts that are written
in direct, uncomplicated sentences. Editors prefer that
text be written in the “active voice”; whenever possible,
sentences should begin with their subjects and follow
with verbs and objects (e.g., “The researcher conducted
an experiment” rather than “An experiment was con-
ducted by the researcher”). Technical writing is marked
by the “less is more” maxim; extraneous phrases and
clauses that add words to the sentence without enhanc-
ing the overall statement should be avoided (e.g., “In
order to. . . ”, “For purposes of. . . ”, “As far as. . . is
concerned. . . ”). Another element of sound technical
writing is the sparing use of adverbs (e.g., very, some-
what, strikingly) and adjectives that do not serve to fur-
ther define or specify the terms that they are modifying
(e.g., interesting, important, good, noteworthy).

In addition to the American Psychological Associa-
tion’s guidelines for technical writing, authors should
consider these six criteria for effective composition
provided by George Orwell (1946) in Politics and the
English Language:

1. Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of
speech which you are used to seeing in print.

2. Never use a long word where a short one will do.
3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it

out.
4. Never use the passive (voice) where you can use

the active.
5. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or

jargon word if you can think of an everyday En-
glish equivalent.

6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything
outright barbarous (p. 170).

Organization is also key in preparing an effectively
composed journal manuscript, with multi-level head-
ings serving to guide the flow of text and keep the
reader on track. For authoritative information regard-
ing the style and formatting guidelines for submitting
manuscripts to most journals in social science fields,
readers should consult the American Psychological As-
sociation’s [1] Publication Manual. For information
concerning the style and formatting requirements of
Work and other journals published by IOS Press, see
the Guidelines for Authors section included in the be-
ginning of this edition.

2.2. Abstract

Next to the title, the abstract is the most widely read
section of a journal article. In an empirical article, the
abstract should be a succinct, 100–150 word summary
of the investigation’s key features, including purpose,
objectives, research questions/hypotheses, sample, sci-
entific procedures, independent and dependent vari-
ables, and salient results. Results of the study should
be summarized in full in the abstract; authors should
describe both significant and non-significant findings,
not only those which upheld their hypotheses or expec-
tations. The abstract serves as an advance organizer
for the article, and it should include every important
premise, method, and result of the investigation. Like
the Preface that commonly orients readers to full-length
textbooks, the abstract provides a complete, albeit sum-
mary, preview of the article. Some journals, includ-
ing Work and the Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation,
ask authors to list key descriptors on the abstract page,
which are then used for purposes of indexing. In most
cases, the title is what determines whether a reader will
read the abstract; the abstract determines whether the
reader will read the body of the article.

2.3. Introduction

Immediately following the abstract, the introductory
section of the article sets the stage for the study upon
which the article was based. It orients the reader to the
problem or issue being addressed, develops the logic
and rationale for conducting the investigation, and al-
most always expresses the empirical hypotheses or re-
search questions. Heppner et al. [9] suggested that
the introduction should answer questions such as why
the topic is an important one to study, what previous

P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles 259

work bears on the topic, how existing work logically
connects to the author’s research questions and/or hy-
potheses, how the question will be researched, and what
predictions can be made.

To answer these questions, authors typically address
three major elements in the introductory section of an
article: (1) The Research Problem, (2) The Framework
for the Study, and (3) The Research Questions and Hy-
potheses [8,15]. We will describe each of these intro-
ductory elements in linear fashion, but we do not mean
to imply an order in terms of how they should be ad-
dressed. Many (if not most) authors blend these con-
siderations to fit the flow and logic of their respective
manuscripts.

The research problem. Usually in the very first sen-
tences of an empirical journal article, the author draws
the reader’s attention to the scope, impact, and current
status of the problem or issue being investigated. This
orientation is most effectively achieved by applying the
broadest-possible perspective to the concern. A study
of success rates among participants in a stress inocula-
tion program for people with diabetes mellitus might be
introduced by citing national statistics concerning the
incidence and prevalence of this very common disease.
An article describing the effects of a model job place-
ment program for women with breast cancer might be-
gin with a review of existing literature concerning em-
ployment and breast cancer, with a particular focus on
the difficulties that women have in re-entering the la-
bor force following diagnosis and treatment. Authors
reporting a longitudinal study of the post- school em-
ployment outcomes of secondary students with devel-
opmental disabilities would likely introduce their arti-
cle with a review of the disappointing adult outcomes
which that population has experienced since the incep-
tion of formalized transition services in the mid–1980s.

The framework for the study. The specific theoret-
ical and empirical framework for the particular inves-
tigation is another important part of the Introduction.
Authors summarize existing literature related to the
identified problem, then build a logical rationale for a
study that addresses gaps or inconsistencies in the lit-
erature. The author should present the theoretical or
conceptual model that informs the inquiry and provides
enough background to enable the reader to appreciate
the rationale of the current study. This framework elu-
cidates the purpose of the current study (e.g., to eval-
uate the effectiveness of a job placement program for
women with breast cancer), which is then operational-
ized in the research questions or hypotheses. Social
scientific theories which have figured pominently in

the frameworks of recent rehabilitation investigations
include Hershenson’s [10] model of work adjustment,
Bandura’s [2] concept of situational self-efficacy, and
Bolton and Brookings’ [5] integrated model of empow-
erment.

The research questions and hypotheses. The Intro-
duction section of a research article typically includes
a statement of the research questions and/or hypothe-
ses that served to guide the study. A more specula-
tive research question tends to be used in descriptive
research designs (e.g., surveys, program evaluations,
empirical literature reviews) or in qualitative studies.
Examples of research questions could include: “What
concerns do college students with disabilities have re-
garding their future career prospects?”; “What themes
are evident in the psycholinguistic development of deaf
women?”; and “What steps are Fortune 500 employ-
ers taking to provide on-the-job accommodations for
workers with disabilities?”.

The hypothesis, on the other hand, is predictive by
design. Its specificity is dependent upon the theory un-
derlying it or previous, relevant research, but it should
include the direction of the expected results when-
ever possible. Independent and dependent variables
need not be operationalized in theory-based hypotheses
(because this is done in the Method section), but the
expected relationship among study variables must be
clearly articulated. Examples of directional hypotheses
could include: “Participation in a cognitive-behavioral
stress inoculation program will decrease symptom on-
set and magnification”; “Anxiety, depression, and low
self-esteem will be collectively, positively, and signif-
icantly related to work interference”; and “Rehabilita-
tion counselors will rate people with severe disabili-
ties as less favorable candidates for employment than
similarly qualified people with mild or no disabilities”.

2.4. Method

The Method section delineates how the research
questions were addressed and/or how the hypotheses
were tested. It should provide the reader with sufficient
information so that one could replicate the investiga-
tion, and it should leave no question as to what was
“done” to the participants. Because the Method section
is the primary source for determining the validity of the
study [4], the quality and clarity of this section are gen-
erally regarded as the strongest determinants of whether
an empirically-based manuscript will be accepted for
publication [9,16].

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260 P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles

Although the type and order of sub-sections found
in the Method section of a research article vary de-
pending upon the design of the study and the author’s
judgement related to the flow of text, most articles in-
clude descriptions of the study’s subjects/participants,
instruments/measures/variables, materials, design, and
procedures.

Subjects/participants. According to Heppner et
al. [8,9], the Method section should include (a) the total
number of subjects and numbers assigned to groups, if
applicable; (b) how subjects were selected and/or as-
signed; and (c) demographic and other characteristics
of the sample relevant to the study’s purpose. Some au-
thors also include a description of the population from
which the study sample was drawn, a description of the
specific sampling procedure used (e.g., simple random,
stratified, cluster; [4]), an indication of the represen-
tativeness of the sample vis a vis the broader popula-
tion, the circumstances under which subjects partici-
pated (e.g., whether they were compensated, what risks
they assumed), statistical power analyses, and response
rates (if applicable).

Instruments/measures/variables. The Method sec-
tion must include a detailed description of how all study
variables were operationalized, measured, scored, and
interpreted. All instruments or measures that were used
in sampling, conducting the study, and evaluating re-
sults must be specified in terms of content (e.g., num-
ber of items, response sets), how measures were ad-
ministered, scoring procedures, relationship to study
variables, and psychometric properties (e.g., standard-
ization, reliability, validity). Authors should also in-
clude a rationale for selecting each instrument, that is,
why that instrument was the best choice for measuring
a particular construct.

Materials. Researchers should also include a de-
scription of any materials that were used to carry out
the investigation. Written guides for participants, in-
structional manuals, media or technology, and scien-
tific apparatus or equipment should be described in de-
tail. Some authors include a description of the setting
in which the study was executed or data were collected.

Design. One of the most important features of the
Method section is a clear description of the design of
the study. This is essential because the design serves as
the link between (a) the research questions/hypotheses
and the scientific procedures used in carrying out the
study and (b) the findings of the study and how these
are interpreted. Authors typically label their designs
in terms of how variables were manipulated, observed,
and analyzed. Thereby, the design is the unifying force

in connecting the research objectives to both the results
and the knowledge claim that is made. To every extent
possible, a direct reference to the hypotheses should
be made when authors identify the design of a particu-
lar investigation. For example, Rumrill, Roessler, and
Denny [19] described their design as follows: “The re-
searchers selected a three-group, posttest-only (exper-
imental) design to assess the intervention’s univariate
and multivariate effects on (a) self-reported attitudes
(situational self-efficacy and acceptance of disability)
and (b) participation in the accommodation request pro-
cess.”

Procedures. The most important component of the
Method section is the easiest to describe. In chrono-
logical order, authors simply list every step they took
in developing, administering, and evaluating the study.
Beginning with the recruitment of participants, follow-
ing the study through collection of the last datum, and
including everything in-between – the Procedures sub-
section should provide the reader with a step-by-step
protocol that could serve as a guide for replicating the
study. Descriptions of any interventions should be pro-
vided in detail, along with summaries of the qualifi-
cations of project personnel who were instrumental in
executing the investigation. Procedures should also in-
clude how the investigation ended, along with a state-
ment of any debriefing or follow-up services provided
to participants.

2.5. Results

The Results section of a research article should in-
clude a complete inventory of all relevant findings ob-
tained by the investigators. In articles that report quan-
titative studies, results are typically presented in two
parts – (a) summary, or descriptive, statistics related
to participants’ performance on the measures that were
taken (e.g., means, standard deviations, frequencies,
percentages) and (b) statistical analyses related to the
specific hypotheses of the study (e.g., analysis of vari-
ance, multiple regression, factor analysis). We believe
that all analyses conducted as part of the investigation
should be reported in full, not only those which yielded
statistically significant results. The Publication Man-
ual of the American Psychological Association [1] pro-
vides considerable guidance related to how statistics
should be presented in the Results section, but it does
not always provide adequate guidelines regarding what
statistical information should be included. Heppner et
al. [9] identified a pattern in recent social science lit-
erature whereby researchers tend to err on the side of

262 P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles

providing too little statistical information: “The trend
has been to report less; for example, one rarely sees
analysis of variance source tables anymore. More dis-
turbing is the tendency not to report important informa-
tion (such as size of test statistic and probability levels)
when results are non-significant. This minimalist point
of view puts the emphasis on statistical significance and
ignores concepts such as effect size, estimation, and
power.”

In recent years, the “minimalist” perspective (in
terms of reporting statisitical findings) has been chal-
lenged by numerous researchers and statisticians [11,
14,22]. The most serious argument against this per-
spective relates to the influence that sample size has
in determining the significance of any statistical test.
Hayes [7], for example, pointed out that virtually any
study can be made to yield statistically significant re-
sults if the researcher includes enough subjects. To
avoid the possibility of misleading research consumers,
the latest edition of the Publication Manual [1] suggests
that all authors provide estimates of practical or clinical
significance along with all statistical significance tests
reported in the Results section.

A quantitative Results section should be limited to
the findings obtained by the researcher(s) in the cur-
rent investigation. Speculation concerning what those
findings mean in a larger context is reserved for the
Discussion section.

The Results sections of qualitatively oriented articles
display much more variety in the content and manner of
presentation than is found in quantitative studies. Be-
cause the researcher’s subjective interpretations help to
shape the processes and outcomes of qualitative inves-
tigations, results are often framed in broad, interpretive
contexts. In that regard, the lines between the Results
and Discussion sections are often blurred in qualitative
research.

Researchers (qualitative and quantitative) commonly
use tables and figures to summarize and/or graphically
present their results. There is wide variability in the
content and presentation of tables and figures, with
the most important universal requirement being easy
interpretability for the reader.

2.6. Discussion

The Discussion section serves as the researcher’s fo-
rum to go beyond the current investigation and discuss
the contributions of study findings to existing litera-
ture, theory, and professional practices. The first part
of a thoughtful Discussion is often an analysis of the

study’s results vis a vis the research questions and hy-
potheses. Researchers should begin with a discussion
of whether the hypotheses were upheld, posit possible
explanations for those outcomes, and draw implications
from the findings back to the research problem that was
identified in the Introduction. If the results provide
a warrant for modifying or re-testing the conceptual
framework upon which the investigation was based, the
Discussion section is the place to suggest a reformula-
tion of the underlying theory. Researchers should also
include a statement of the scientific limitations of the
current study, along with specific recommendations for
future research. Finally, the researcher ends the arti-
cle with a cogent summary of the conclusions, in the
most general sense, that can be drawn from the methods
and findings of the current study. Some authors use a
separate Conclusion section for this purpose.

2.7. References

The final section of a research article is always a
listing of the references that were cited in the body of
the text. References are listed in alphabetical order,
according to authors’ last names. Most rehabilitation
journals require adherence to the American Psycholog-
ical Association’s [1] guidelines regarding the compo-
sition of the References section.

3. A scale for critiquing research manuscript and
articles

Understanding the components, organization, and
composition of a research article will help make Work
subscribers better informed consumers as they read em-
pirically based publications. As readers digest the con-
tents of research articles and apply them to their prac-
tices, the “anatomy” of research reports can serve as a
useful rubric for critically analyzing the quality, con-
tent, and practical significance of published articles.
Table 1 presents specific questions for conducting a
section-by-section critique of a rehabilitation research
article.

4. Conclusion

This article examined the components of a research
article and provided guidelines for conducting a critical
analysis of published research. Although the descrip-
tions of the components of a research article provide

P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles 263

only a skeletal summary of what should be included
in a published research article, they should provide the
reader enough information to both prepare manuscripts
for publication and evaluate the empirical research that
appears in Work and other rehabilitation journals.

References

[1] Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association, Pub-
lication manual of the American Psychological Association,
(Fourth Edition), 1994.

[2] Bandura, A., Social foundations of thought and action: A
social cognitive theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
1986.

[3] Bellini, J., Bolton, B. and Neath, J., Rehabilitation counselors
assessments of applicants functional limitations as predictors
of rehabilitation services provided, Rehabilitation Counseling
Bulletin 41(4) (1998), 242–258.

[4] Bellini, J. and Rumrill, P., Research in rehabilitation counsel-
ing: A guide to design, methodology, and utilization, Spring-
field, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1999.

[5] Bolton, B. and Brookings, J., Development of a multifaceted
definition of empowerment, Rehabilitation Counseling Bul-
letin 39(4) (1996), 256–264.

[6] Diksa, E. and Rogers, E., Employer concerns about hiring per-
sons with psychiatric disability: Results of the employer atti-
tude questionnaire, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 40(1)
(1996), 31–44.

[7] Hayes, W., Statistics for psychologists, New York: Holt, Rine-
hart, and Winston, 1981.

[8] Heppner, P., Kivlighan, D. and Wampold, B., Research design
in counseling, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1992.

[9] Heppner, P., Kivlighan, D. and Wampold, B., Research design
in counseling, (2nd Edition), Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole,
1999.

[10] Hershenson, D., A systems reformulation of a developmental
model of work adjustment, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin

40(1) (1996), 2–10.
[11] Hunter, J., Needed: A ban on the significance test, Psycholog-

ical Science 8 (1997), 3–7.
[12] Kazdin, A., Research design in clinical psychology, (2nd Edi-

tion), Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1998.
[13] Krause, J. and Anson, C., Self-perceived reasons for unem-

ployment cited by persons with spinal cord injury: Relation-
ship to gender, race, age, and level of injury, Rehabilitation
Counseling Bulletin 39(3) (1996), 217–227.

[14] McClure, P., Determining the significance of significance: P-
values, effect size, and clinical judgement, Journal of Hand
Therapy 12 (1999), 40–41.

[15] McMillan, J. and Schumacher, S., Research in education: A
conceptual introduction, (Fourth Edition), New York: Long-
man, 1997.

[16] Munley, P., Sharkin, B. and Gelso, C., Reviewer ratings
and agreement on manuscripts reviewed for the Journal of
Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling Psychology 35
(1988), 198–202.

[17] Orwell, G., Politics and the English language, in: A collection
of essays, G. Orwell ed., San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, and
Jovanovich, 1946, pp. 156–171.

[18] Ravesloot, C. and Seekins, T., Vocational rehabilitation coun-
selors’ attitudes toward self-employment outcomes, Rehabili-
tation Counseling Bulletin 39(3) (1996), 189–201.

[19] Rumrill, P., Roessler, R. and Denny, G., Increasing confidence
in the accommodation request process among persons with
multiple sclerosis: A career maintenance self-efficacy inter-
vention, Journal of Job Placement 13(1) (1997), 5–9.

[20] Rumrill, P., Roessler, R. and Koch, L., Surveying the employ-
ment concerns of people with multiple sclerosis: A participa-
tory action research approach, Journal of Vocational Rehabil-
itation 12(2) (1999), 75–82.

[21] Schaller, J. and Parker, R., Effect of graduate research in-
struction on perceived research anxiety, research utility, and
confidence in research skills, Rehabilitation Education 11(4)
(1997), 273–287.

[22] Thompson, B., AERA editorial policies regarding statistical
significance testing: Three suggested reforms, Educational
Researcher 25(2) (1996), 26–30.

P. Rumrill et al. / Guidelines for evaluating research articles 261

Table 1
A scale for critiquing research articles

Instructions: Answer the following questions regarding the article, “ ”. Use examples
from the article to support your analyses.

A. Title

1. Does the title describe the study?
2. Do the key words of the title serve as key elements of the article?
3. Is the title concise, i.e., free of distracting or extraneous phrases?

B. Abstract

4. Does the abstract summarize the study’s purpose, methods, and findings?
5. Does the abstract reveal the independent and dependent variables under study?
6. Are there any major premises or findings presented in the article that are not mentioned in the abstract?
7. Does the abstract provide you with sufficient information to determine whether you would be interested in reading

the entire article?

C. Introduction

8. Is the research problem clearly identified?
9. Is the problem significant enough to warrant the study that was conducted?

10. Do the authors present a theoretical rationale for the study?
11. Is the conceptual framework of the study appropriate in light of the research problem?
12. Do the author’s hypotheses and/or research questions seem logical in light of the conceptual framework and research

problem?
13. Are hypotheses and research questions clearly stated? Are they directional?
14. Overall, does the literature review lead logically into the Method section?

D. Method

15. Is the sample clearly described, in terms of size, relevant characteristics, selection and assignment procedures, and
whether any inducements were used to solicit subjects?

16. Do the instruments described seem appropriate as meausres of the variables under study?
17. Have the authors included sufficient information about the psychometric properties (e.g., reliability and validity) of

the instruments?
18. Are the materials used in conducting the study or in collecting data clearly described?
19. Are the study’s scientific procedures thoroughly described in chronological order?
20. Is the design of the study identified (or made evident)?
21. Do the design and procedures seem appropriate in light of the research problem, conceptual framework, and research

questions/hypotheses?
22. Overall, does the method section provide sufficient information to replicate the study?

E. Results

23. Is the Results section clearly written and well organized?
24. Are data coding and analysis appropriate in light of the study’s design and hypotheses?
25. Are salient results connected directly to hypotheses?
26. Are tables and figures clearly labeled? Well organized? Necessary (non-duplicative of text)?

F. Discussion and Conclusion

27. Are the limitations of the study delineated?
28. Are findings discussed in terms of the research problem, conceptual framework, and hypotheses?
29. Are implications for future research and/or rehabilitation counseling practice identified?
30. Are the author’s general conclusions warranted in light of the results?

G. References

31. Is the reference list sufficiently current?
32. Do works cited reflect the breadth of existing literature regarding the topic of the study?
33. Are bibliographic citations used appropriately in the text?

H. General Impressions

34. Is the article well written and organized?
35. Does the study address an important problem in the lives of people with disabilities?
36. What are the most important things you learned from this article?
37. What do you see as the most compelling strengths of this study?
38. How might this study be improved?

<

Assignment

SPECIFICATIONS
ABBEY KNOODLE

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERISTY – SPRING 2019
INSTRUCTORS: DR. LINDA NUBANI & MRS. HEBA NAZMY

Rectangle

FURNITURE

Selection No. BD001
Type Bed
Item Name (ID) Maxime Wing Bed
Application Guest Room Bed
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors
Color Way N/A
Quantity 1
Upholstery UP001
Dimensions 68-1/2”H x 85”W x 94-5/8”D
Features Button Headboard

Three slat support system with adjustable center
supports.

Other/Notes Includes headboard and footboard/side rails.
Headboard cannot be used alone.
Also available as 57-1/2” H.
https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/bernhardt-
interiors/maxime/wing-bed-68-12-h-1

Selection No. TB001
Type Nightstand
Item Name (ID) Madigan Nightstand
Application Guest Room
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors
Color Way SW 6258 Tricorn Black
Quantity 2
Upholstery N/A
Dimensions 30”H x 32-5/16”W x 19”D
Features Tubular Steel Posts

One drawer
Adjustable glides

Other/Notes Anti-tip Kit
Rustic flat cut white oak veneers.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/bernhardt-
interiors/madigan/nightstand

1 2

Selection No. TB003

Type End Table

Item Name (ID) Grand tour Martini Luxe End Table

Application Guest Suite Living Room

Manufacturer Perigold

Color Way Gold Metal

Quantity 1

Upholstery N/A

Dimensions 24”H x 11.5”W x 11.5”D

Features • Base material is gold.
• Top material is acrylic in clear.

Other/Notes • Weight of 26 lb.
• Price is $912
• https://www.perigold.com/furniture/
• pdp/century-grand-tour-martini-

luxe-
• end-table-cetu1092.html

Selection No. TB002

Type Dresser

Item Name (ID) Madigan Tall Chest

Application Guest Room

Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors

Color Way SW 6258 Tricorn Black

Quantity 1
Upholstery N/A

Dimensions 56”H x 42-5/16”W x 19”D

Features • Five Drawers
• Tubular Steel Posts
• Adjustable Gliders

Other/Notes • Anti-tip Kit
• Specifications are subject to change

without notice.
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/ber

nhardt-interiors/madigan/tall-chest

3 4

Selection No. CH002

Type Barstool

Item Name (ID) Barstool 4127-2

Application Kitchen Island

Manufacturer Shelby Williams

Color Way Opaque Black Wood

Quantity 2

Upholstery
Dimensions 42”H x 19”W x 21.5”D

Features • Standard Self Welt
• Brass Footrail Trim
• Quality Frame Construction

Other/Notes • Contrast Welt Available
• Various finishes available.
• https://www.shelbywilliams.com/
• products/wood-chairs/4127-2

Selection No. CH001

Type Chaise Lounge
Item Name (ID) Lorient Right Arm Chaise

Application Guest Room

Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors

Color Way N/A

Quantity 1

Upholstery
Dimensions 35”H x 83”W x 39-1/2”D
Features • Sinuous Spring

• Spring Down Cushion

Other/Notes • Available in any upholstery wood finish.
• COM Yardage 13.40
• Cerused Greige Wood Finish
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/ber

nhardt-interiors/lorient/right-arm-chaise

5 6

Selection No. CH003
Type Chair
Item Name (ID) Andre Chair
Application Guest Suite Living Room
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors
Color Way Mango Wood Finish
Quantity 2
Upholstery Maharam Manner in Magic
Dimensions 41-1/2”H x 29-1/2”W x 39”D
Features • Fiesta Webbing

• Fiber back pillow-box edge weltless with
topstitch.

• Luxe down cushion.
Other/Notes • Exposed Wood Frame

• Advice desired COM finishes and nails
upon ordering.

• COL Square Footage 126.
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/ber

nhardt-interiors/andre/chair-0

Selection No. SF001

Type Sofa

Item Name (ID) Beckett Sofa

Application Guest Suite
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors

Color Way N/A

Quantity 1

Upholstery UP001

Dimensions 33”H x 83”W x 36”D

Features • Luxe Down
• Sinuous Spring

Other/Notes • COM Yardage 19
• Available in multiple finishes.
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/

bernhardt-interiors/beckett/sofa

7 8

UPHOLSTERY

Selection No. UP001
Type Upholstery

Item Name (ID) Gridley 4148-101
Application BD-001 – Maxime Wing Bed

SF-001 – Beckett Sofa
Manufacturer Design Tex

Color Way Penguin
Content 15% Polyester, 85% Polyester (Postconsumer

Recycled)
Features • Ships carbon Neutral

• 100,000 Wyzenbeek Double Rubs
• 40 Hours Lightfastness

Other/Notes • Flammability CA TB 117-2014
• Nano Stain Resistant
• Cleaning WS
• Warranty of 5 years

Selection No. UP002

Type Upholstery

Item Name (ID) Alpaca Epingle 465902-001

Application CH001 – Lorient Right Arm Chaise

Manufacturer Maharam

Color Way Vellum

Content 100% Alpaca

Features • 110,000 cycles, Martindale
method

• Mild, water-free dry cleaning
solvent.

• Meets appropriate flammability
requirements.

Other/Notes • 40+ Lightfastness
• Greenguard and Greenguard Gold

Certified

1 2

Selection No. UP003
Type Upholstery
Item Name (ID) Huddle 466420-002
Application CH002 – Barstool 4127-2
Manufacturer Maharam
Color Way Pottery
Content 41% Wool, 31% Rayon, 27% Cotton, 1% Nylon
Features • 15,000 cycles, Martindale method

• S-Clean
• Meets appropriate flammability

requirements.
Other/Notes • Contains Bio-Based Materials

• PFC-Free
• LBC Red List Compliant
• Stain Resistant Finish

Selection No. UP004

Type Upholstery

Item Name (ID) Manner 466177-001

Application CH003 – Andre Chair

Manufacturer Maharam

Color Way Magic

Content 65% Post-Industrial Recycled Polyester,
35% Post-Consumer Recycled Polyester

Features • Finish PFOA-Free Stain Resistant
• W/S Clean
• 300,000 double rubs

Other/Notes • Offer acoustical rating.
• 40+ Lightfastness
• Greenguard/Greenguard Gold

Certified

3 4

FINISHES

Selection No. PT001
Type Wall Finish
Color SW 7069
Application Bedroom Wall Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

Selection No. PT002
Type Wall Finish

Color SW 7004
Application Living/Kitchen Wall Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

1 2

Selection No. PT003
Type Trim/Ceiling Finish
Color SW 6258
Application Trim and Ceiling Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

Selection No. PT004
Type Furniture Finish

Color SW 6993
Application TB001 and TB002
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

3 4

Selection No. WC001
Type Wallcovering
Color NBZ-10
Application Sitting Area Walls
Manufacturer D.L. Couch
Other/Notes Class A Flame Spread

5 Year Warranty
60% Wood Pulp, 40% Polyester

Selection No. PT003
Type Trim/Ceiling Finish
Color SW 6258
Application Trim and Ceiling Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

5 6

Selection No. TL001
Type Wall Mosaic

Color Blue
Application Kitchen Backsplash
Manufacturer SICIS
Other/Notes SICIS Orientale

Mosaic applied in design below.

Selection No. TL001
Type Floor Tile

Color White
Application Living Space
Manufacturer Armstrong Flooring
Other/Notes • Resembles carrara marble

• Easy care
• More comfortable underfoot
• Lasting strength with lifetime

warranty

7 8

Selection No. WD001
Type Hardwood Flooring
Color Walnut Deep Twilight
Application Community Space
Manufacturer Armstrong Flooring
Other/Notes • Engineered

• High Gloss
• Armstrong Flooring Lifetime Finish
• Lock&Fold Installation Method

9

CABINETRY

Selection No. CB001
Type Base Full Door Cabinet w/Butt Doors
Item Name (ID) BFD_BD
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer Cabinet Joint
Color Way SW 7004
Quantity 2
Dimensions 36”W x 48”H x 30”D
Features • Double Doors

• Custom Painted
• Full Butt Doors no Drawer

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/base-cabinets/

Selection No. CB002
Type Base Cabinet Three Drawer

Item Name (ID) B3D
Application Kitchen

Manufacturer Cabinet Joint

Color Way SW 7004

Quantity 1

Dimensions 28”W x 47.5”H x 18”D

Features • Custom Painted
• Three Drawers

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple Wood
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/base-cabinets/

1 2

Selection No. CB003
Type Single Door Wall Cabinet
Item Name (ID) W
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer Cabinet Joint
Color Way SW 7004
Quantity 1
Dimensions 24”W x 48”H x 27”D
Features • Single Door

• Custom Painted
• Wall Cabinet

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/wall-cabinets/

Selection No. CB004
Type Double Door Wall Cabinet w/Butt Doors

Item Name (ID) W_BD
Application Kitchen

Manufacturer Cabinet Joint

Color Way SW 7004

Quantity 1

Dimensions 36”W x 48”H x 27”D

Features • Custom Painted
• Double Door Wall Cabinet

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple Wood
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/wall-cabinets/

3 4

Selection No. CB005
Type Vent Cover
Item Name (ID) Signature Arched Wall Hood
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer Omega National Products
Color Way SW 7004
Quantity 1
Dimensions 30”Width
Features • 40 lbs.

• Species: Hickory
• Custom Painted

Other/Notes • Ordered unfinished.
• Available in other wood species.
• Ventilators sold separately

5

LIGHTING

Selection No. L001
Type Pendant Light, Accent
Item Name (ID) Baskin Dome Pendant
Application Kitchen Above Bar
Manufacturer Feiss
Finish Clear Glass with Polished Nickel
Dimensions H 10.75” x D 9”
Quantity See lighting plan.
Features • Vintage bulb recommended

• Up to 60W bulb (40W recommended)
• ETL Listed
• Controls: ON/OFF

Other/Notes • Maximum hanging height of 190.75”.
• https://www.lumens.com/baskin-dome-

nickel-pendant-by-feiss-
FSSP95149.html#cgid=12&prefn1=Style&sz
=24&start=24&prefv1=Classic+&+Traditiona
l=&tileIndex=10

Selection No. L002

Type Recessed Light

Item Name (ID) 6” Standard Slope Lensed

Application Guest Suite

Manufacturer Juno

Finish Black Baffle

Dimensions H 2” x W 7 5/8”

Quantity See lighting plan.

Features • For use on sloped ceilings
• 50 Watt recommended
• UL Listed

Other/Notes • Made in USA
• 1 Year Warranty
• https://www.lumens.com/6-inch-standard-

slope-lensed-shower-trim-with-diffuser-by-
juno-uu463474.html#cgid=300&&tileIndex=3

1 2

Selection No. L003
Type Pendant Light, Accent
Item Name (ID) Monae LED Pendant
Application Guest Room
Manufacturer Kuzco Lighting
Finish Black with Opal Glass
Dimensions H 7.88”, D 7.88”
Quantity See lighting plan.
Features • Cloth covered cord

• Dimmer Range: 10% -100%
• Multiple Size Options

Other/Notes • Warranty 1 year, 5 years for LED
module

• https://www.lumens.com/monae-led-mini-
pendant-by-kuzco-lighting-
KUZP135555.html#cgid=662&sz=24&start=
0&tileIndex=14

Selection No. L004

Type Floor Lamp

Item Name (ID) Momo Floor Lamp

Application Guest Room

Manufacturer Astro Lighting

Finish Bronze

Dimensions D 11.81”, L 122.05”, W13.31”, H 51.97”

Quantity See lighting plan.

Features • Up to 60W base bulbs
• Dimmable with standard incandescent

dimmer (not included)
• Switch included

Other/Notes • 1 Year Warranty
• https://www.lumens.com/6-inch-standard-

slope-lensed-shower-trim-with-diffuser-by-
juno-uu463474.html#cgid=300&&tileIndex=3

3 4

APPLIANCES

Selection No. RF001
Type Refrigerator
Item Name (ID) French Door Refrigerator
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer KitchenAid
Finish SW 7004
Dimensions 83”H x 41”W x 27”D
Quantity 1
Features • Cabinet Finish

• Finished in SW 7004
• Flat Door Style

Other/Notes • No Dispenser
• Exterior Water Filter
• https://www.kitchenaid.com/major-

appliances/refrigeration/built-in-
refrigerators/built-in-french-door/p.24.2-cu.-
ft.-42-width-built-in-panel-ready-french-door-
refrigerator-with-platinum-interior-
design.kbfn502epa.html

Selection No. VT001

Type Vent Hood

Item Name (ID) KF2-30

Application Kitchen

Manufacturer Zline

Finish Brushed Stainless Steel

Dimensions D 20 1/2”, W 30”, H 13”

Quantity 1

Features • Vertical Duct Discharge
• LED Bulb Type
• 30”-36” Height Above Cooktop

Other/Notes • 3 Year Warranty
• https://www.build.com/zline-kf2-430-

30/s1444937?uid=3400474

1 2

Selection No. DW001
Type Dishwasher
Item Name (ID) 46 DBA Dishwasher with Third Level Rack
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer KitchenAid
Finish PrintShield Stainless
Dimensions 34”H x 23”W x 24”D
Quantity 1
Features • Flat Door Style

• 5.0 Wash Levels
• Water Filtration

Other/Notes • Adjustable Racks
• Energy Star Certified
• NSF Certified
• https://www.kitchenaid.com/major-

appliances/dishwashers/integrated-
control/p.46-dba-dishwasher-with-third-level-
rack,-bottle-wash-and-printshield-
finish.kdte304gps.html

Selection No. GD001
Type Waste Disposer
Item Name (ID) ¾ Horsepower Continuous Feed Food Disposer
Application Kitchen

Manufacturer KitchenAid

Finish N/A

Dimensions W 7 1/4”, H 12 5/8”

Quantity 1

Features • Dishwasher Connections
• Stainless Steel Shredder Ring
• Centrifugal Switch

Other/Notes • Rotates at 1725 RPM for effective
grinding

• https://www.kitchenaid.com/major-
appliances/disposals-and-
compactors/disposals/p.3-4-horsepower-
continuous-feed-food-waste-
disposer.kcdi075b.html

3 4

APPENDIX

assignment

Qualitative Thematic Analysis (Coding to Theme Creation)

The word “data” is often used in qualitative discussions. In this case, ‘data’ (instead of numbers found in quantitative research) refers to narrative, pictures, videos and observations.

Qualitative analysis requires an examination and organization of the data in order to make sense of that data. The analysis of a qualitative study is time consuming, and although there are software programs that can help with the beginning of this process (such as picking out repeated words or phrases), nothing can surpass the ‘hands-on’ review of the data by an experienced researcher. Although there are multiple steps to a complete analysis, beginning with the basics will help you understand the initial steps of coding the data to theme creation. For this demonstration, using a simple letter (like the following), is a good place to start – as compared to having ten pages of interview information from ten sample participants.

The Letter

Dear Julie:

Thank you for your letter last week. I’ve been tied up trying to finish inventory, so didn’t e-mail you back. You know I will help as much as I can. It seems times just roars by.

Your have mentioned in your past three letters how badly you want to go to graduate school, but are still not sure about what area to choose. I have thought a lot about this. You should know I started out thinking I wanted to be a teacher, but ended up managing a big store. Guess it’s still all about people!

But here are some ideas: I would like you to go to the university counseling center and take some career surveys that may help you pick an area of study. You can also talk to a counselor or two, asking about how they got there and what is important to know. You could also talk to someone in the local university about programs in counseling. Sis, I guess these will take a lot of time.

I don’t want to ignore your question about money. The Pell Grant will pay for half of the costs, so I guess I can provide another $300 per month – leaving you $300 a month short. We will work on this.

Lastly, I want you to know I love you and want you to succeed. I say, go for the degree you want, and I will be with you all the way! Love, Craig

Basic steps to the qualitative analysis of the letter

1. Read (or review) the data a number of times to become familiar with the ideas.

2. Take notes as a way to identify important ideas, as well as questions the researcher might have.

3. There are two important ways to identify key ideas. One is to identify the benchmarks that provide a major reference point – like a mountain on a flat prairie. The benchmarks can provide additional or special meaning to other ideas related to that benchmark. The second is to identify the junctions – where a given set of ideas intersects with a different set of ideas. For example, when the person who is explaining about a terrible car accident, all of a sudden is talking about the noise and confusion of the people around him/her. The researcher takes notes about benchmarks and junctions to help make sense of (organize) the data.

4. Coding: The primary starting point in qualitative data analysis.

Before we think about coding, we must pay attention to a critical rule. One of the researcher’s favorite assets is the research question. This critical question “fences off “or separates the researcher’s work from an unfocused position to a focused position. As researchers we must lean on the research question and the ‘purpose of the study’ to direct our design and goals.

In the letter from Craig to sister Julie, Craig’s focus is to determine how and what to do to help his sister find the most realistic career choice. This is not the research question, but for this example, it does direct the study.

a) After reading the letter five times I have identified three sets of codes. These three different sets I can call ‘categories.’ The researcher will list and label the codes:

Code F F is for family

Code F1 You know I will help

Code F2 I love you

Code F3 Want you to succeed

Code F4 Be with you all the way

(IMPORTANT): You will ask: “How much do I code? How detailed? “

Response: After multiple readings and note taking and examining the purpose, the questions can be answered.

b) Code I I is for ideas

Code I1 Three different ideas given to do personal research

c) Code M M is for money

Code M1 Preliminary budget overview

We can identify a category for the (F) codes, simply because there are four items. At this point we can engage in the process called “coding to theme creation.” The researcher’s challenge is to find creative ways to write the themes. If we gave these codes to different qualitative researchers it is possible to come up with different themes. In this case, we would do a re-examination of our codes and theme creation. For our letter example, this likely would not happen.

A theme is a brief summary-like statement about a code (where there is one item) or a number of highly related codes, like the Family category in the letter. A good example of a theme is when your father often reminds you to “pick up your room.”

This is just a very brief and beginning overview of what we mean by thematic analysis – or the process used to categorize qualitative data. In a nutshell, the researcher will be looking to identify, label and categorize the data. He/she will look for junctions and links to subsequently decipher emerging themes and meaning.

3

Assignment

SPECIFICATIONS
ABBEY KNOODLE

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERISTY – SPRING 2019
INSTRUCTORS: DR. LINDA NUBANI & MRS. HEBA NAZMY

Rectangle

FURNITURE

Selection No. BD001
Type Bed
Item Name (ID) Maxime Wing Bed
Application Guest Room Bed
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors
Color Way N/A
Quantity 1
Upholstery UP001
Dimensions 68-1/2”H x 85”W x 94-5/8”D
Features Button Headboard

Three slat support system with adjustable center
supports.

Other/Notes Includes headboard and footboard/side rails.
Headboard cannot be used alone.
Also available as 57-1/2” H.
https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/bernhardt-
interiors/maxime/wing-bed-68-12-h-1

Selection No. TB001
Type Nightstand
Item Name (ID) Madigan Nightstand
Application Guest Room
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors
Color Way SW 6258 Tricorn Black
Quantity 2
Upholstery N/A
Dimensions 30”H x 32-5/16”W x 19”D
Features Tubular Steel Posts

One drawer
Adjustable glides

Other/Notes Anti-tip Kit
Rustic flat cut white oak veneers.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/bernhardt-
interiors/madigan/nightstand

1 2

Selection No. TB003

Type End Table

Item Name (ID) Grand tour Martini Luxe End Table

Application Guest Suite Living Room

Manufacturer Perigold

Color Way Gold Metal

Quantity 1

Upholstery N/A

Dimensions 24”H x 11.5”W x 11.5”D

Features • Base material is gold.
• Top material is acrylic in clear.

Other/Notes • Weight of 26 lb.
• Price is $912
• https://www.perigold.com/furniture/
• pdp/century-grand-tour-martini-

luxe-
• end-table-cetu1092.html

Selection No. TB002

Type Dresser

Item Name (ID) Madigan Tall Chest

Application Guest Room

Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors

Color Way SW 6258 Tricorn Black

Quantity 1
Upholstery N/A

Dimensions 56”H x 42-5/16”W x 19”D

Features • Five Drawers
• Tubular Steel Posts
• Adjustable Gliders

Other/Notes • Anti-tip Kit
• Specifications are subject to change

without notice.
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/ber

nhardt-interiors/madigan/tall-chest

3 4

Selection No. CH002

Type Barstool

Item Name (ID) Barstool 4127-2

Application Kitchen Island

Manufacturer Shelby Williams

Color Way Opaque Black Wood

Quantity 2

Upholstery
Dimensions 42”H x 19”W x 21.5”D

Features • Standard Self Welt
• Brass Footrail Trim
• Quality Frame Construction

Other/Notes • Contrast Welt Available
• Various finishes available.
• https://www.shelbywilliams.com/
• products/wood-chairs/4127-2

Selection No. CH001

Type Chaise Lounge
Item Name (ID) Lorient Right Arm Chaise

Application Guest Room

Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors

Color Way N/A

Quantity 1

Upholstery
Dimensions 35”H x 83”W x 39-1/2”D
Features • Sinuous Spring

• Spring Down Cushion

Other/Notes • Available in any upholstery wood finish.
• COM Yardage 13.40
• Cerused Greige Wood Finish
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/ber

nhardt-interiors/lorient/right-arm-chaise

5 6

Selection No. CH003
Type Chair
Item Name (ID) Andre Chair
Application Guest Suite Living Room
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors
Color Way Mango Wood Finish
Quantity 2
Upholstery Maharam Manner in Magic
Dimensions 41-1/2”H x 29-1/2”W x 39”D
Features • Fiesta Webbing

• Fiber back pillow-box edge weltless with
topstitch.

• Luxe down cushion.
Other/Notes • Exposed Wood Frame

• Advice desired COM finishes and nails
upon ordering.

• COL Square Footage 126.
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/ber

nhardt-interiors/andre/chair-0

Selection No. SF001

Type Sofa

Item Name (ID) Beckett Sofa

Application Guest Suite
Manufacturer Bernhardt Interiors

Color Way N/A

Quantity 1

Upholstery UP001

Dimensions 33”H x 83”W x 36”D

Features • Luxe Down
• Sinuous Spring

Other/Notes • COM Yardage 19
• Available in multiple finishes.
• https://bernhardthospitality.com/product/

bernhardt-interiors/beckett/sofa

7 8

UPHOLSTERY

Selection No. UP001
Type Upholstery

Item Name (ID) Gridley 4148-101
Application BD-001 – Maxime Wing Bed

SF-001 – Beckett Sofa
Manufacturer Design Tex

Color Way Penguin
Content 15% Polyester, 85% Polyester (Postconsumer

Recycled)
Features • Ships carbon Neutral

• 100,000 Wyzenbeek Double Rubs
• 40 Hours Lightfastness

Other/Notes • Flammability CA TB 117-2014
• Nano Stain Resistant
• Cleaning WS
• Warranty of 5 years

Selection No. UP002

Type Upholstery

Item Name (ID) Alpaca Epingle 465902-001

Application CH001 – Lorient Right Arm Chaise

Manufacturer Maharam

Color Way Vellum

Content 100% Alpaca

Features • 110,000 cycles, Martindale
method

• Mild, water-free dry cleaning
solvent.

• Meets appropriate flammability
requirements.

Other/Notes • 40+ Lightfastness
• Greenguard and Greenguard Gold

Certified

1 2

Selection No. UP003
Type Upholstery
Item Name (ID) Huddle 466420-002
Application CH002 – Barstool 4127-2
Manufacturer Maharam
Color Way Pottery
Content 41% Wool, 31% Rayon, 27% Cotton, 1% Nylon
Features • 15,000 cycles, Martindale method

• S-Clean
• Meets appropriate flammability

requirements.
Other/Notes • Contains Bio-Based Materials

• PFC-Free
• LBC Red List Compliant
• Stain Resistant Finish

Selection No. UP004

Type Upholstery

Item Name (ID) Manner 466177-001

Application CH003 – Andre Chair

Manufacturer Maharam

Color Way Magic

Content 65% Post-Industrial Recycled Polyester,
35% Post-Consumer Recycled Polyester

Features • Finish PFOA-Free Stain Resistant
• W/S Clean
• 300,000 double rubs

Other/Notes • Offer acoustical rating.
• 40+ Lightfastness
• Greenguard/Greenguard Gold

Certified

3 4

FINISHES

Selection No. PT001
Type Wall Finish
Color SW 7069
Application Bedroom Wall Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

Selection No. PT002
Type Wall Finish

Color SW 7004
Application Living/Kitchen Wall Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

1 2

Selection No. PT003
Type Trim/Ceiling Finish
Color SW 6258
Application Trim and Ceiling Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

Selection No. PT004
Type Furniture Finish

Color SW 6993
Application TB001 and TB002
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

3 4

Selection No. WC001
Type Wallcovering
Color NBZ-10
Application Sitting Area Walls
Manufacturer D.L. Couch
Other/Notes Class A Flame Spread

5 Year Warranty
60% Wood Pulp, 40% Polyester

Selection No. PT003
Type Trim/Ceiling Finish
Color SW 6258
Application Trim and Ceiling Paint
Manufacturer Sherwin Williams
Other/Notes See Appendix 1 for more specs.

5 6

Selection No. TL001
Type Wall Mosaic

Color Blue
Application Kitchen Backsplash
Manufacturer SICIS
Other/Notes SICIS Orientale

Mosaic applied in design below.

Selection No. TL001
Type Floor Tile

Color White
Application Living Space
Manufacturer Armstrong Flooring
Other/Notes • Resembles carrara marble

• Easy care
• More comfortable underfoot
• Lasting strength with lifetime

warranty

7 8

Selection No. WD001
Type Hardwood Flooring
Color Walnut Deep Twilight
Application Community Space
Manufacturer Armstrong Flooring
Other/Notes • Engineered

• High Gloss
• Armstrong Flooring Lifetime Finish
• Lock&Fold Installation Method

9

CABINETRY

Selection No. CB001
Type Base Full Door Cabinet w/Butt Doors
Item Name (ID) BFD_BD
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer Cabinet Joint
Color Way SW 7004
Quantity 2
Dimensions 36”W x 48”H x 30”D
Features • Double Doors

• Custom Painted
• Full Butt Doors no Drawer

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/base-cabinets/

Selection No. CB002
Type Base Cabinet Three Drawer

Item Name (ID) B3D
Application Kitchen

Manufacturer Cabinet Joint

Color Way SW 7004

Quantity 1

Dimensions 28”W x 47.5”H x 18”D

Features • Custom Painted
• Three Drawers

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple Wood
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/base-cabinets/

1 2

Selection No. CB003
Type Single Door Wall Cabinet
Item Name (ID) W
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer Cabinet Joint
Color Way SW 7004
Quantity 1
Dimensions 24”W x 48”H x 27”D
Features • Single Door

• Custom Painted
• Wall Cabinet

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/wall-cabinets/

Selection No. CB004
Type Double Door Wall Cabinet w/Butt Doors

Item Name (ID) W_BD
Application Kitchen

Manufacturer Cabinet Joint

Color Way SW 7004

Quantity 1

Dimensions 36”W x 48”H x 27”D

Features • Custom Painted
• Double Door Wall Cabinet

Other/Notes • Constructed w/Maple Wood
• Square Shape
• https://www.cabinetjoint.com/rta-

cabinets/wall-cabinets/

3 4

Selection No. CB005
Type Vent Cover
Item Name (ID) Signature Arched Wall Hood
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer Omega National Products
Color Way SW 7004
Quantity 1
Dimensions 30”Width
Features • 40 lbs.

• Species: Hickory
• Custom Painted

Other/Notes • Ordered unfinished.
• Available in other wood species.
• Ventilators sold separately

5

LIGHTING

Selection No. L001
Type Pendant Light, Accent
Item Name (ID) Baskin Dome Pendant
Application Kitchen Above Bar
Manufacturer Feiss
Finish Clear Glass with Polished Nickel
Dimensions H 10.75” x D 9”
Quantity See lighting plan.
Features • Vintage bulb recommended

• Up to 60W bulb (40W recommended)
• ETL Listed
• Controls: ON/OFF

Other/Notes • Maximum hanging height of 190.75”.
• https://www.lumens.com/baskin-dome-

nickel-pendant-by-feiss-
FSSP95149.html#cgid=12&prefn1=Style&sz
=24&start=24&prefv1=Classic+&+Traditiona
l=&tileIndex=10

Selection No. L002

Type Recessed Light

Item Name (ID) 6” Standard Slope Lensed

Application Guest Suite

Manufacturer Juno

Finish Black Baffle

Dimensions H 2” x W 7 5/8”

Quantity See lighting plan.

Features • For use on sloped ceilings
• 50 Watt recommended
• UL Listed

Other/Notes • Made in USA
• 1 Year Warranty
• https://www.lumens.com/6-inch-standard-

slope-lensed-shower-trim-with-diffuser-by-
juno-uu463474.html#cgid=300&&tileIndex=3

1 2

Selection No. L003
Type Pendant Light, Accent
Item Name (ID) Monae LED Pendant
Application Guest Room
Manufacturer Kuzco Lighting
Finish Black with Opal Glass
Dimensions H 7.88”, D 7.88”
Quantity See lighting plan.
Features • Cloth covered cord

• Dimmer Range: 10% -100%
• Multiple Size Options

Other/Notes • Warranty 1 year, 5 years for LED
module

• https://www.lumens.com/monae-led-mini-
pendant-by-kuzco-lighting-
KUZP135555.html#cgid=662&sz=24&start=
0&tileIndex=14

Selection No. L004

Type Floor Lamp

Item Name (ID) Momo Floor Lamp

Application Guest Room

Manufacturer Astro Lighting

Finish Bronze

Dimensions D 11.81”, L 122.05”, W13.31”, H 51.97”

Quantity See lighting plan.

Features • Up to 60W base bulbs
• Dimmable with standard incandescent

dimmer (not included)
• Switch included

Other/Notes • 1 Year Warranty
• https://www.lumens.com/6-inch-standard-

slope-lensed-shower-trim-with-diffuser-by-
juno-uu463474.html#cgid=300&&tileIndex=3

3 4

APPLIANCES

Selection No. RF001
Type Refrigerator
Item Name (ID) French Door Refrigerator
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer KitchenAid
Finish SW 7004
Dimensions 83”H x 41”W x 27”D
Quantity 1
Features • Cabinet Finish

• Finished in SW 7004
• Flat Door Style

Other/Notes • No Dispenser
• Exterior Water Filter
• https://www.kitchenaid.com/major-

appliances/refrigeration/built-in-
refrigerators/built-in-french-door/p.24.2-cu.-
ft.-42-width-built-in-panel-ready-french-door-
refrigerator-with-platinum-interior-
design.kbfn502epa.html

Selection No. VT001

Type Vent Hood

Item Name (ID) KF2-30

Application Kitchen

Manufacturer Zline

Finish Brushed Stainless Steel

Dimensions D 20 1/2”, W 30”, H 13”

Quantity 1

Features • Vertical Duct Discharge
• LED Bulb Type
• 30”-36” Height Above Cooktop

Other/Notes • 3 Year Warranty
• https://www.build.com/zline-kf2-430-

30/s1444937?uid=3400474

1 2

Selection No. DW001
Type Dishwasher
Item Name (ID) 46 DBA Dishwasher with Third Level Rack
Application Kitchen
Manufacturer KitchenAid
Finish PrintShield Stainless
Dimensions 34”H x 23”W x 24”D
Quantity 1
Features • Flat Door Style

• 5.0 Wash Levels
• Water Filtration

Other/Notes • Adjustable Racks
• Energy Star Certified
• NSF Certified
• https://www.kitchenaid.com/major-

appliances/dishwashers/integrated-
control/p.46-dba-dishwasher-with-third-level-
rack,-bottle-wash-and-printshield-
finish.kdte304gps.html

Selection No. GD001
Type Waste Disposer
Item Name (ID) ¾ Horsepower Continuous Feed Food Disposer
Application Kitchen

Manufacturer KitchenAid

Finish N/A

Dimensions W 7 1/4”, H 12 5/8”

Quantity 1

Features • Dishwasher Connections
• Stainless Steel Shredder Ring
• Centrifugal Switch

Other/Notes • Rotates at 1725 RPM for effective
grinding

• https://www.kitchenaid.com/major-
appliances/disposals-and-
compactors/disposals/p.3-4-horsepower-
continuous-feed-food-waste-
disposer.kcdi075b.html

3 4

APPENDIX

assignment

Qualitative Thematic Analysis (Coding to Theme Creation)

The word “data” is often used in qualitative discussions. In this case, ‘data’ (instead of numbers found in quantitative research) refers to narrative, pictures, videos and observations.

Qualitative analysis requires an examination and organization of the data in order to make sense of that data. The analysis of a qualitative study is time consuming, and although there are software programs that can help with the beginning of this process (such as picking out repeated words or phrases), nothing can surpass the ‘hands-on’ review of the data by an experienced researcher. Although there are multiple steps to a complete analysis, beginning with the basics will help you understand the initial steps of coding the data to theme creation. For this demonstration, using a simple letter (like the following), is a good place to start – as compared to having ten pages of interview information from ten sample participants.

The Letter

Dear Julie:

Thank you for your letter last week. I’ve been tied up trying to finish inventory, so didn’t e-mail you back. You know I will help as much as I can. It seems times just roars by.

Your have mentioned in your past three letters how badly you want to go to graduate school, but are still not sure about what area to choose. I have thought a lot about this. You should know I started out thinking I wanted to be a teacher, but ended up managing a big store. Guess it’s still all about people!

But here are some ideas: I would like you to go to the university counseling center and take some career surveys that may help you pick an area of study. You can also talk to a counselor or two, asking about how they got there and what is important to know. You could also talk to someone in the local university about programs in counseling. Sis, I guess these will take a lot of time.

I don’t want to ignore your question about money. The Pell Grant will pay for half of the costs, so I guess I can provide another $300 per month – leaving you $300 a month short. We will work on this.

Lastly, I want you to know I love you and want you to succeed. I say, go for the degree you want, and I will be with you all the way! Love, Craig

Basic steps to the qualitative analysis of the letter

1. Read (or review) the data a number of times to become familiar with the ideas.

2. Take notes as a way to identify important ideas, as well as questions the researcher might have.

3. There are two important ways to identify key ideas. One is to identify the benchmarks that provide a major reference point – like a mountain on a flat prairie. The benchmarks can provide additional or special meaning to other ideas related to that benchmark. The second is to identify the junctions – where a given set of ideas intersects with a different set of ideas. For example, when the person who is explaining about a terrible car accident, all of a sudden is talking about the noise and confusion of the people around him/her. The researcher takes notes about benchmarks and junctions to help make sense of (organize) the data.

4. Coding: The primary starting point in qualitative data analysis.

Before we think about coding, we must pay attention to a critical rule. One of the researcher’s favorite assets is the research question. This critical question “fences off “or separates the researcher’s work from an unfocused position to a focused position. As researchers we must lean on the research question and the ‘purpose of the study’ to direct our design and goals.

In the letter from Craig to sister Julie, Craig’s focus is to determine how and what to do to help his sister find the most realistic career choice. This is not the research question, but for this example, it does direct the study.

a) After reading the letter five times I have identified three sets of codes. These three different sets I can call ‘categories.’ The researcher will list and label the codes:

Code F F is for family

Code F1 You know I will help

Code F2 I love you

Code F3 Want you to succeed

Code F4 Be with you all the way

(IMPORTANT): You will ask: “How much do I code? How detailed? “

Response: After multiple readings and note taking and examining the purpose, the questions can be answered.

b) Code I I is for ideas

Code I1 Three different ideas given to do personal research

c) Code M M is for money

Code M1 Preliminary budget overview

We can identify a category for the (F) codes, simply because there are four items. At this point we can engage in the process called “coding to theme creation.” The researcher’s challenge is to find creative ways to write the themes. If we gave these codes to different qualitative researchers it is possible to come up with different themes. In this case, we would do a re-examination of our codes and theme creation. For our letter example, this likely would not happen.

A theme is a brief summary-like statement about a code (where there is one item) or a number of highly related codes, like the Family category in the letter. A good example of a theme is when your father often reminds you to “pick up your room.”

This is just a very brief and beginning overview of what we mean by thematic analysis – or the process used to categorize qualitative data. In a nutshell, the researcher will be looking to identify, label and categorize the data. He/she will look for junctions and links to subsequently decipher emerging themes and meaning.

3

assignment

 

Assignment: Pick a form of collective action under the pandemic(homelessness in nyc) is the topic, and research it. This form of collective action can be modest – a neighborhood or community self-help initiative or protest against a local injustice – or be as big in scale as the Black Lives Matter movement or the waves of strikes we are observing. I will share a more comprehensive handout when we come back from the break, but for now you can think about these questions as you identify your focus and begin researching it:  *Identify the form of collective action you are focusing on.  *What was/were/are the issues that inspired the people involved in this collective action? Did those goals change through the process of mobilizing?  *If the group behind the collective action had demands, what were/are these demands and who were they aimed at? *What problems did the group face – both internally, and externally – when trying to mobilize?  *How did they try to resolve those issues so as to successfully mobilize?  *What was the response from those in power and (if applicable) the media to their efforts to organize? [Think about the concept of ideology] *To what extent have they been successful in achieving their goals?  * Reflect on how this form of collective action made the link between what C. Wright Mills calls ‘personal troubles and public issues’. 

 Collective Action Assignment: Like all crises, the period of the pandemic has proven to be very fertile for forms of collective action, from protests, to movements, to local/community self-help groups. Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their condition and achieve a common objective. ‘Collective action applies pooled resources to shared interests. In European social history, collective action has ranged from communal bread baking to electoral campaigns, from idol-smashing to revolution. Much collective action actually consists of conflict or cooperation, which imply two or more interacting parties. … Social historians and social scientists often reserve the term “collective action” for episodes engaging participants who do not routinely act together or who employ means of action other than those they adopt for day-to-day interaction. Collective action in this narrow sense resembles what other analysts call protest, rebellion, or disturbance. It differs from other collective action in being discontinuous and contentious: not built into daily routines, and having implications for interests of people outside the acting group as well as for the actors’ own shared interests. When those implications are negative we can speak of conflict, whereas when they are positive we can speak of cooperation. …Discontinuous, contentious collective action always involves third parties, often poses threats to existing distributions of power, and usually incites surveillance, intervention, and/or repression by political authorities.’ – “Collective Action .” Encyclopedia of European Social History. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Mar. 2022 . 

assignment

Spring 2020 EDD771

Task 1 ::::::::::::::::::::

Article Review & Reflection 1

Instructions:

Please read the New York Times article: ‘Access to Literacy’ Is Not a Constitutional Right, Judge in Detroit Rules and answer the questions below using the following format: numbered responses
corresponding with questions, full sentences,1-2 pages, double spaced, please label and identify your work…

“NYT_2018” is the article attached

1) What is your answer to the first question of the article? Do students at poorly performing schools have a constitutional right to a better education?

2) Is this issue addressed in your school or work? If so, how?

3) How can data play a role in strengthening this cause?

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

Task 2 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Article Review & Reflection 2

Instructions:

Read this article addressing quantitative research in literacy practice and respond to the following questions:

Article is “Honan_Small Data” attached. Need 1 page

1) Name two examples of how this article may (or may not be) relevant to your current practice).

2) Describe a scenario in your work where a measure of central tendency is/can be used. Which measure is used? How do you use it?

3) Describe a scenario in your work where a measure of variability is/can be used. Which measure is used? How do you use it?

assignment

 

Assignment: Pick a form of collective action under the pandemic(homelessness in nyc) is the topic, and research it. This form of collective action can be modest – a neighborhood or community self-help initiative or protest against a local injustice – or be as big in scale as the Black Lives Matter movement or the waves of strikes we are observing. I will share a more comprehensive handout when we come back from the break, but for now you can think about these questions as you identify your focus and begin researching it:  *Identify the form of collective action you are focusing on.  *What was/were/are the issues that inspired the people involved in this collective action? Did those goals change through the process of mobilizing?  *If the group behind the collective action had demands, what were/are these demands and who were they aimed at? *What problems did the group face – both internally, and externally – when trying to mobilize?  *How did they try to resolve those issues so as to successfully mobilize?  *What was the response from those in power and (if applicable) the media to their efforts to organize? [Think about the concept of ideology] *To what extent have they been successful in achieving their goals?  * Reflect on how this form of collective action made the link between what C. Wright Mills calls ‘personal troubles and public issues’. 

 Collective Action Assignment: Like all crises, the period of the pandemic has proven to be very fertile for forms of collective action, from protests, to movements, to local/community self-help groups. Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their condition and achieve a common objective. ‘Collective action applies pooled resources to shared interests. In European social history, collective action has ranged from communal bread baking to electoral campaigns, from idol-smashing to revolution. Much collective action actually consists of conflict or cooperation, which imply two or more interacting parties. … Social historians and social scientists often reserve the term “collective action” for episodes engaging participants who do not routinely act together or who employ means of action other than those they adopt for day-to-day interaction. Collective action in this narrow sense resembles what other analysts call protest, rebellion, or disturbance. It differs from other collective action in being discontinuous and contentious: not built into daily routines, and having implications for interests of people outside the acting group as well as for the actors’ own shared interests. When those implications are negative we can speak of conflict, whereas when they are positive we can speak of cooperation. …Discontinuous, contentious collective action always involves third parties, often poses threats to existing distributions of power, and usually incites surveillance, intervention, and/or repression by political authorities.’ – “Collective Action .” Encyclopedia of European Social History. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Mar. 2022 . 

Assignment

Assignment: Change Implementation and Management Plan

It is one of the most cliché of clichés, but it nevertheless rings true: The only constant is change. As a nursing professional, you are no doubt aware that success in the healthcare field requires the ability to adapt to change, as the pace of change in healthcare may be without rival.

As a professional, you will be called upon to share expertise, inform, educate, and advocate. Your efforts in these areas can help lead others through change. In this Assignment, you will propose a change within your organization and present a comprehensive plan to implement the change you propose.

To Prepare:

· Review the Resources and identify one change that you believe is called for in your organization/workplace.

· This may be a change necessary to effectively address one or more of the issues you addressed in the Workplace Environment Assessment you submitted in Module 4. It may also be a change in response to something not addressed in your previous efforts. It may be beneficial to discuss your ideas with your organizational leadership and/or colleagues to help identify and vet these ideas.

· Reflect on how you might implement this change and how you might communicate this change to organizational leadership.

The Assignment (5-6-minute narrated PowerPoint presentation):

Change Implementation and Management Plan

Create a 5- or 6-slide narrated PowerPoint that presents a comprehensive plan to implement changes you propose.

Your narrated presentation should be 5–6 minutes in length.

Your Change Implementation and Management Plan should include the following:

· An executive summary of the issues that are currently affecting your organization/workplace (This can include the work you completed in your Workplace Environment Assessment previously submitted, if relevant.)

· A description of the change being proposed

· Justifications for the change, including why addressing it will have a positive impact on your organization/workplace

· Details about the type and scope of the proposed change

· Identification of the stakeholders impacted by the change

· Identification of a change management team (by title/role)

· A plan for communicating the change you propose

· A description of risk mitigation plans you would recommend to address the risks anticipated by the change you propose

THIS ASSIGNMENT IS THE CONTINUATION OF THE LAST ONE YOU DID: ON SEE THE WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT

assignment

*The article for the Week Four Written Assignment*

 I am listing the study you need to use to complete the Week 4 written assignment. This study is a quasi experiment (which is conducted exactly like a true experiment, but for some reason you are not able to randomly choose and assign participants). In this case, you are given a sample chosen from 3 units of one hospital – so they are not a true random sample able to be truly randomly assigned to groups. However, review again what we mean by the experiment (especially manipulating an IV to see its effect on the DV) to help you follow along in the reading.

Calder Calisi, C. (2017). The effects of the relaxation response on nurses’ level of 

     anxiety, depression, well-being, work-related stress, and confidence to teach

     patients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 35(4), 318-327. doi: 10.1177/089801011771920

assignment

For this assignment you will find an article pertaining to food culture and some sort of change that is occurring today. You must choose a food culture outside of the U.S. You will then write a paper (2 pages minimum; double-spaced) that summarizes the article and discusses the internal and external pressures that are changing the food custom/culture and your conclusions. You may need to seek out other sources to dig deeper into the topic and answer all the rubric points. All sources must be cited in APA format in both a list at the end of the paper and in the body of the paper.

Here’s an example of internal and external pressures for a fictitious topic/article:

 

You find an article about rising saffron prices in India. External pressures (those outside of the country) might include decreased demand from other countries and global climate changes that have lowered crop yields. Internal pressures (those within the country) might include a decreasing number of saffron growers, civil war, or issues with infrastructure such as destroyed bridges or roads.

Assignment

 

Option #1: Ethical Challenges of Equifax Data Breach

Evaluate the ethical challenges of the Equifax data breach case, including how the breach occurred. Examine the legal and ethical challenges of Equifax’s data management. Discuss what policies may or may not have contributed to or helped prevent the breach.

Your assignment should be 2-3 pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and conform to APA guidelines.  Support your assignment with citations and references from at least two credible sources. 

assignment

In this assignment, you are to 1.) Make sure you have read Chapter 1 in your text and very carefully read the Sorrell vs. IMF Health case summary in Chapter 1.

2.) Read the following transcript about the decision in the case: 
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/564/552/ (Links to an external site.)

3.) Read the following scholarly article updating the issues of the Sorrell case: 
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3740346 (Links to an external site.)


 (Links to an external site.)

3.) Based on those readings, enter into the discussion forum below and discuss your take-aways from the case.  This not a formal IRAC – style case briefing, rather an informal discussion with your peers where you discuss what you understand (and maybe still don’t) about the case.  Specifically, you should discuss the following:

What is the outcome of the case? 

 Do you think the decision in this case was the right one? Why or why not?

Feel free to do your own additional research on the case if you like. 

 (Links to an external site.)

4.) After you have posted your own take-aways from the case readings then you will need to return to the “Discussions” section and COMMENT on the analysis post made by one other student.  Your comments should reflect your own knowledge of the case and the related legal concepts and respond to, and/or expand upon, the observations made by the other student.  You cannot respond to another’s posting before you post your own initial commentary.  Failure to follow this rule will result in points being deducted!

Guidelines for comment on one of your peers’ discussions:

Be timely, respectful, use proper sentence structure, grammar, etc.

Do you agree or disagree with anything in your peers’ discussion?

Suggest ways your peers can improve upon their current argument or exposition.

How has their discussion affected your opinion/take on the prompt? Has it changed at all?

If someone responds to your post, follow up if necessary.

 Remember, only AFTER you have posted your own comment, you are to REPLY to the comment of one other student.  Your reply should reflect and expand upon what the other student has posted.  All comments and replies should be relevant, thoughtful, and respectful of others’ points of view, although you should not feel that this is intended to censor your own point of view, should it differ – just be respectful of one another! 

Grading:

Discussions and Comments. Most modules have discussion prompts, which ask you to think both critically and creatively about the texts you are reading and other topics of interest in this course. You will be graded both for the quality of your thinking and for the quality of your writing, so might want to consider beginning the textual part of your discussions (and possibly even your comments) in a Word document and working on it there as a draft until you are sure it is ready to submit in the course. You will also be graded for completeness, so make sure you have addressed all parts of the discussion prompt and, as necessary, provided any illustrative visual material (i.e. such as pictures, charts, etc.). Respond to discussion prompts with at least ca. 1 typed page of text (250 words), though ideally your discussions will be between ca. 500-600 word total, which of course should be your own writing. Remember that the discussions are one of your main chances to demonstrate your knowledge of the readings and (as applicable) the other module materials. Try to not to go over 800 words, unless you are carrying through with a tight and organized discourse (i.e. don’t ramble).  All of the aforementioned applies, though to a lesser degree (because they will be briefer), to the comments that you will make on one of your peer’s Discussions. Comments have no word-limits, but make sure your comments are substantive, i.e. that you are not merely parroting something in the discussion, but that you are thinking some aspect of the discussion through and showing that you are able to understand and appreciate the implications and add a new perspective, however subtle it might be. 

assignment

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the 
Example Research Proposal


 
 Download Example Research Proposal
. Note that all instructor feedback from your previous activities should be applied in preparing your proposal.

Your Research Proposal is a six- to seven-page plan for a new study on your research topic. Incorporate at least four scholarly/peer-reviewed journal articles in addition to the course text to support your proposed study.

Include the following sections and content in your paper:

· Introduction – Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present your research question and/or hypothesis.

· Literature Review – Summarize the current state of knowledge on your topic by citing the methods and findings of at least two previous research studies. State whether your proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach using methods that have not been used before.

· Methods

· Design – Indicate whether your proposed study is qualitative or quantitative in approach. Select one of the research designs you have studied in the course, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate why this design is appropriate for your research topic. Cite the textbook and one other source on research methodology to support your choice.

· Participants – Identify the sampling strategy you would use to recruit participants for your study. Estimate the number of participants you would need and explain why your sampling method is appropriate for your research approach.

· Procedure/Measures – Apply the scientific method by describing the steps you would use in carrying out your study. Indicate whether you will use any kind of test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument. Cite the source of any instruments to be used.

· Data Analysis – Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) you plan to use to analyze the data. Cite at least one source on the chosen analysis technique.

· Ethical Issues – Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on your proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. Explain how you would address these concerns.

· Conclusion – Briefly summarize the major points of your research plan and reiterate why your proposed study is needed.

The Research Proposal

· Must be six- to seven- double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the 
Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
’s 
APA Style (Links to an external site.)
 resource.

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of proposal

· Student’s name

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Date submitted

assignment

1

Example Research Proposal

Pamela Murphy

PSY 326 Research Methods

Instructor’s Name

Date Submitted

NOTE: The details in this example research proposal are based on a published study which I co-
authored with Charles B. Hodges and my doctoral dissertation, both in 2009. Portions of the text
are excerpted from the published article (Hodges & Murphy, 2009) and the dissertation (Murphy,
2009).

2

Example Research Proposal

Introduction

The concept of self-efficacy was introduced nearly 40 years ago. “Perceived self-efficacy

refers to beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to

produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1977, p. 3). Self-efficacy has been identified as an

important construct for academic achievement in traditional learning environments for at least

two decades. Zimmerman and Schunk (2003) go so far as to say that “the predictive power of

self-efficacy beliefs on students’ academic functioning has been extensively verified” (p. 446).

Its importance has been noted consistently through all levels of the educational process, with

various student populations, and in varied domains of learning.

While learner self-efficacy has a well-established literature base in the context of

traditional learning environments, self-efficacy research related to learners in online and other

non-traditional learning environments is relatively new. Hodges (2008a) has called for

researchers to explore self-efficacy in online learning environments. Additionally, in terms of

students’ self-efficacy beliefs toward academic achievement, “there have been few efforts to

investigate the sources underlying these self-beliefs” (Usher, 2009, p. 275). The purpose of the

proposed study is to investigate the relative strength of the four traditionally proposed sources of

self-efficacy beliefs of students enrolled in a technology-intensive asynchronous college math

college.

3

Literature Review

Self-efficacy beliefs have been found to be significant contributors to motivation and

performance in academic achievement (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991), group functioning

(Gully, Incalcaterra, Joshi, & Beaubien, 2002; Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998), health (Holden,

1991), and sports performance (Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach, & Mack, 2000). Research revealing the

connection between self-efficacy and mathematics, the context of the proposed study, includes

many cultures and levels of education (Malpass, O’Neil, & Hocevar, 1999; Pietsch, Walker, &

Chapman, 2003; Randhawa, Beamer, & Lundberg, 1993; Stevens, Olivarez, Lan, & Tallent-

Runnels, 2004) and continues to the present (Usher, 2009).

Sources of Self-Efficacy

Albert Bandura’s (1977) introduction of self-efficacy theory included the proposition that

self-efficacy is derived from four principal sources: mastery experiences, vicarious experience,

social persuasion, and physiological/affective states. These four areas are generally accepted in

the literature as core elements in the development of self-efficacy beliefs, but an ordering of the

importance of each of these sources is unsettled.

Mastery Experiences. Mastery experiences refer to previous, successful experiences a

learner has had performing a task. Successes build positive self-efficacy beliefs and failures

undermine self-efficacy. If failures are experienced before a firm positive belief in one’s self-

efficacy is formed, the creation of positive self-efficacy beliefs is more difficult.

Vicarious Experience. Vicarious experience refers to one’s observation of a role model

performing a task. Knowledge of how others have performed a similar task helps one determine

whether or not a performance should be judged a success or failure. Surpassing the performances

of others increases self-efficacy and falling below others’ performances lowers self-efficacy.

4

Note the importance of the selection of individuals for comparison. Self-efficacy beliefs will

vary depending on the abilities of those chosen for comparison, thus, models for comparison

should be selected carefully (Wood, 1989).

Social Persuasion. Social persuasion is commonly used due to the ease with which it can

be dispensed. The believability of the persuader(s) is important in the use of social persuasion.

The receiver must view the persuader as competent to provide meaningful and accurate

feedback. Bandura (1997) cautions that verbal persuasion consists of more than flippant, off-

hand comments of encouragement. Unrealistic comments from the persuader may mislead the

receiver, which may decrease self-efficacy and diminish the belief in the persuader as one

competent to evaluate the performance. “Skilled efficacy builders encourage people to measure

their successes in terms of self-improvement rather than in terms of triumphs over others”

(Bandura, 1997, p. 106).

Physiological/Affective States. Stress, emotion, mood, pain, and fatigue are all

interpreted when making judgments regarding self-efficacy. For example, someone may have

prepared well for an exam, but upon learning of some unfortunate news, stress may reduce

concentration, thus impacting performance on the exam. In general, success is expected when

one is not in a state of aversive arousal (Bandura, 1997).

Usher and Pajares (2006) summarize the inconsistent findings regarding the relative

strength of each self-efficacy source well. They follow with the proposition that “exploring the

predictive value of the sources of students’ academic self-efficacy beliefs and determining

whether this prediction varies as a function of group membership such as gender, academic

ability, and race/ethnicity is a matter of import” (p. 130).

5

Methods

Design

The proposed study is quantitative in nature and will use a survey research design

(Newman, 2016). Survey research falls into the non-experimental category of research designs.

The survey questions use mostly ordinal scales and will result in numeric scores summarizing the

extent of use of each source of self-efficacy beliefs as well as a score representing the level of

self-efficacy held by each student in relation to the ability to learn math in an asynchronous

learning environment.

Participants

Approximately 300 students in an asynchronous college algebra course offered at a large,

state supported university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States will be invited to

participate in a survey. This is a convenience sample, and participation is voluntary, so the final

sample size may be considerably smaller than the number of students invited. The course is

delivered using an emporium format (Twigg, 2003) which is technology intensive. The students

enrolled in the course tend to be engaged in academic majors that are not math-intensive. They

may have a high degree of math anxiety or at least some negative feelings toward their math

abilities. In addition, the emporium model may be an unfamiliar concept for them.

Procedure/Measures

This course is offered through the Math Emporium and has no traditional class meetings.

After a brief, face-to-face, orientation meeting, students complete the course asynchronously.

There are weekly deadlines for quizzes, and proctored tests are administered periodically.

Students prepare for the quizzes and tests by taking advantage of various technology resources

available to them online. Lesson pages serve as an online textbook for the course, short

6

streaming video lectures are available on most topics, and an unlimited number of practice

quizzes are available. For students who desire it, face-to-face interactions with assistants in the

computer lab are available several hours each week. No appointment is needed for the face-to-

face assistance.

At the conclusion of the course, data will be collected using a web-based survey tool.

Students who provide informed consent to participate will be given an ID number and survey

access information. They may access the survey either in the Math Emporium or offsite through

the internet. Specific instruments to be used are the Self-Efficacy for Learning Mathematics

Asynchronously (SELMA) survey (Hodges, 2008b), a demographics survey, and the Sources of

Mathematics Self-Efficacy (SMSE) scale (Lent, Lopez, & Bieschke, 1991).

The SELMA survey is a 25-question survey constructed for use in college algebra and

trigonometry courses offered in an emporium model. A validation study showed an internal

consistency Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.87 (Hodges, 2008b) which is greater than the 0.80

minimum level recommended by Gable and Wolf (1993) for instruments in the affective domain.

The SMSE scale consists of four 10-question subscales designed to measure each of the

four sources of self-efficacy: mastery, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and

affective/physiological state. In a validation study of the SMSE, Lent et al. (1991) reported

internal consistencies of 0.86 for mastery, 0.56 for vicarious, 0.74 for persuasion, and 0.90 for

affective/physiological arousal.

Data Analysis

To investigate the relative strength of the four traditional sources of self-efficacy beliefs

of students in an asynchronous math course, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple

regression will be used. Scores from each of the four subscales of the SMSE will be used as

7

predictors of the SELMA score. Bivariate correlations will also be examined. Significant

correlations among the predictor variables may present a problem of multicollinearity. If

necessary, additional statistical tests such as ridge regression (Joe & Mendoza, 1989; Kidwell &

Brown, 1982) will be applied to solve this problem.

Ethical Issues

Participation in the survey will be strictly voluntary, and will not be tied to evaluation of

the student’s performance in the course in any way. As a non-experimental survey study, no

deception will be used. Signed informed consent will be obtained from those who wish to

participate. Those who agree to participate may withdraw from the study at any time without any

type of penalty.

Confidentiality of participants will be protected by the assignment of ID numbers to be

used on the survey documents instead of names or any other type of identifying information. A

single copy of the list matching the ID numbers with participants’ names will be kept in a secure,

locked location for a period of three years after the completion of the study. After three years, the

list will be destroyed in accordance with the instructions of the Institutional Review Board

(IRB).

As a token of appreciation, all participants will be entered into a drawing for an Amazon

gift card. The proposed amount of the gift card, subject to IRB approval, is $25. University

facilities, including the computer lab known as the Math Emporium, its computers and a survey

software program, will be used if this study is approved. This project will not receive any

external funding from commercial or other sources, and no conflicts of interest are reported by

the researchers.

8

Conclusion

Self-efficacy and its relationship to academic achievement in asynchronous online

learning environments are only recently beginning to be researched (Hodges, 2008a). Given the

growing prominence of asynchronous online learning, it is essential that we understand what role

constructs such as self-efficacy play in these learning environments. The proposed study will

address this need by using a survey research design. The surveys will provide data on the four

sources of self-efficacy which will serve as predictors of students’ self-efficacy for learning

mathematics in an asynchronous online setting. A multiple regression model using the four

predictors with the SELMA survey score as the dependent variable will indicate how much each

source contributes to self-efficacy.

The results of this study are expected to be important to instructional designers and

educational practitioners who either currently use or are considering using an emporium model,

as they will give indications of which elements of the asynchronous course design should be

emphasized to best promote students’ self-efficacy relating to the subject matter. An expedited

review of this proposal by the IRB is requested for approval to begin this research as soon as

possible.

9

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Associates.

assignment

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Small data: Working with
qualitative information in the
literacy classroom
Eileen Honan | The University of Queensland, Queensland

A B S T R A C T

This paper describes the current emphasis on collecting and using quantitative data that encourages
the ‘quantification of everything’ (Mayer-Schönberger & Cukier, 2013, p. 78). The author argues
that qualitative data provides more complex and nuanced understandings of how young people
engage with literacy teaching and learning opportunities in classrooms. Some useful examples of
methods that teachers can use to collect and analyse qualitative data in their literacy classrooms
are provided.

Introduction
There has been a rapid growth in interest and enthusiasm for ‘big data’ in educational contexts, both
internationally and in Australia. Use of large scale sets of data to inform the planning of literacy policies
and programs is underway in the USA and this has implications for literacy teachers in Australian
schools. As well, there is an increasing responsibility for literacy classroom teachers to collect and
interpret quantitative data, ranging from the regular administration of reading comprehension
assessment tests, to the interpretation of class and student NAPLAN (National Assessment Program –
Literacy and Numeracy) results. These two emphases have tended to push into the background the
vital importance of qualitative data that provide more in-depth and individualised understandings of
how young people engage with literacy teaching and learning opportunities in classrooms.

In this paper I provide an overview of the use of ‘big data’ in the USA to shed light on the
possible future uses in Australian contexts. I will then describe some of the current approaches to
the use of quantitative data in classroom contexts and provide a critique of the overemphasis on the
‘quantification of everything’ (Mayer-Schönberger & Cukier, 2013, p. 78). I will argue that qualitative
data provides more complex and nuanced understandings of how young people engage with literacy
teaching and learning opportunities in classrooms. I will provide some useful examples of methods
that teachers can use to collect and analyse qualitative data in their literacy classrooms.

Overview of the use of ‘big data’ in the USA
The use of ‘big data’ has been growing exponentially globally as more and more personal information
is stored in databases. The term was first used in science contexts and has many different definitions. It
has come to mean the use of large sets of data that can be analysed to produce or ‘apply math to huge
quantities of data to infer probabilities’ (Mayer-Schönberger & Cukier, 2013, p. 12).

In educational contexts, especially in the USA, there is a growth in attention to the possibilities
provided through collections of these large data sets about students. These collections are made
possible by the growth of cloud storage spaces used by education departments and systems. Data
collected at the student, classroom and school level are sent to the state or federal level department or
organisation, and these data can then be analysed to tailor online learning programs, track achievement
and attendance levels, or as one enthusiast suggests, ‘using a data-driven approach can help us teach

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more effectively. At the same time, technology that leverages data can help students with day-to-day
learning and staying in school’ (Feinleib, 2014, p. 174).

In the USA, examples of data collection methods include the use of mobile applications that
can collect information down to individual keystrokes. Teach to One is one company that uses data
collected through software to develop personalised quizzes and lessons. It claims that ‘Teach to One
students are assessed daily to determine current skill levels, and an algorithm employs these test results
to target content delivery for the following day’ (Ready, 2014). Renaissance Learning (2015) boasts
that their ‘database houses reading records for more than 10,700,000 U.S. students at more than
36,000 schools’.

These and other companies are using the term ‘learning analytics’ to explain their applications of
‘big data’ concepts to educational contexts. A research paper from the University of Bristol explains
the concept:

‘Learning analytics’ has been defined as: The measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data
about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimising learning and the
environments in which it occurs. Learning analytics interrogates learner-based data interaction (using
techniques such as predictive modelling, user profiling, adaptive learning, and social network analysis)
to inform or prompt actions or decisions based on the results. (Broadfoot, Timmis, Payton, Oldfield &
Sutherland, 2012, p. 2)

Some of the inherent problems associated with privacy legislation and data security have already
been raised in the USA where ‘education-data companies are hiring chief privacy officers, testifying
before state legislatures and reshaping their messages to emphasise their data security. States rein in
access to student data or allow parents to opt out of data collection’ (Fleisher, 2014). One of the more
controversial initiatives was inBloom Inc., a company that wanted to link education-tech companies
with school districts ‘serving as a type of middleman for student data. Its system gives schools the
option of uploading hundreds of characteristics about students, including disabilities such as autism
or vision problems’ (Fleisher, 2014).

The implications for classroom teaching if these approaches are introduced into Australian schools
are many. Increasingly, the teacher’s role in identifying and diagnosing learning problems would be
removed, and even in the case of programs such as those promoted by Teach to One, the role of
teaching students how to overcome these problems would be taken by the software delivered on either
a computer or tablet or even smartphone. The focus for responsibility for assessing and teaching would
shift outside of the classroom, away from the generalist classroom teacher. Indeed, this shift is already
apparent in the collection of quantitative data in Australian classrooms that is then used in state and
federal government reports.

Current approaches to the use of quantitative data in classroom contexts
While the use of large sets of data is not yet as common in Australian schools as it is in the USA,
there has been a rapid increase in the amount of quantitative data collected in classrooms over the
last 15 years. The introduction of NAPLAN and the development of the MySchool website by the
federal government have necessarily required a greater focus on the collection of data at the school and
classroom level. As well, each state in Australia has its own systems and methods of data collection in
education – for example in, Queensland the Queensland School Opinion Survey is:

a suite of surveys on opinions on the school, student learning and student well-being from a parent/
caregiver in all families and a sample of students from each state school. Opinions on the school as a
workplace are sought from all state school staff and principals. Additional questions are included for
teaching staff on their confidence to teach and improve student outcomes, while principals are also asked
on their confidence to lead the school, including improvements in student outcomes. (Department of
Education, Training and Employment, Queensland, 2005–2015)

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Classroom teachers are asked to distribute these surveys and participate in discussions about the
results, as well as administer and interpret the results of NAPLAN tests. Many schools have adopted
school-wide assessment tools such as:

• TORCH (Tests of Reading Comprehension; see Australian Council for Educational
Research (ACER), 2005–2010);

• CARS and STARS (Comprehensive Assessment of Reading Strategies, and Strategies To
Achieve Reading Success; see Hawker Brownlow Education, 2012);

• PAT-R (Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading; see ACER, 2012).

In many cases it is the classroom teachers’ responsibility to administer these tests, and then analyse
and interpret the data provided by the results.

Economists such as Pugh and Foster (2014) are especially interested in ‘third party’ access to
‘big data’ collected in Australia through the MySchool website. They cite the UK’s approach to their
National Pupil Database that includes ‘test and exam results, prior attainment and progression at
different key stages and data on gender, ethnicity, first language, eligibility for free school meals,
special educational needs, attendance and exclusions’ (p.  260). Pugh and Foster suggest there are
‘encouraging signals’ (p. 262) that both federal and state level departments are increasing access for
academics and other researchers to ‘student-level’ data for Australia.

Quantification of everything
The first part of this paper has described a context where there is much enthusiasm and great promises
for the use of large sets of data to help improve teaching and learning. The message from governments,
private enterprises and researchers appears to be that these sets of quantitative data are the way of
the future. They claim that we will be able to track a student’s attendance, record and correlate that
with performance on standardised tests, while at the same time factoring in language background
and the schooling history of the parents. Teachers will be able to draw up records on each student to
show, for example, that on 27 May one student completed 8/10 spelling words correctly, while on 2
June the student only completed 5/10 correctly. The student will be directed to complete a series of
exercises in an online spelling program, where every day for 15 minutes the student sits in front of
a computer screen and identifies words spelt correctly or incorrectly from a range of multiple choice
items. The student is quiet; headphones play audio directions, even pronunciation assistance; whistles
and dancing bears perform in response to a correct guess.

Both these current emphases – the importance of ‘big data’ and the value of quantitative results –
shift our thinking about the possible measurements of student performance. Consider the difference
between using numbers to describe student performance (15/20 for a spelling test) and words
(frequent use of appropriate sentence structures for this text type). While both provide the reader
with information about student learning, the number appears to carry with it an assumption about
ranking. It is so commonplace today to use numbers in this way that it could be assumed that we
can quantify anything. Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier (2013) explain that ‘to datafy a phenomenon
is to put it in a quantified format so it can be tabulated and analysed’ (p. 78). The quantification of
performance allows tabulation; tabulation allows ranking; rankings assume categories of best and
worst. Hierarchical thinking is taken for granted; students are assigned numbers to identify their level
of performance in relation to others (in their class, other classes, other states, even other nations).
For example, media releases from government ministers include statements such as: ‘Queensland now
ranks fourth in the proportion of students achieving the national standard on all strands in Years 3
and 5 – with the exception of writing’ (Langbroek, 2014).

Media reports focusing on education’s perceived failures commonly use such rankings. For
example:

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Australian teenagers’ reading and maths skills have fallen so far in a decade that nearly half lack basic
maths skills and a third are practically illiterate. The dumbing down of a generation of Australian
teenagers is exposed in the latest global report card on 15-year-olds’ academic performance. (news.com.
au, 2013)

It was many many years ago that Charles Dickens delighted his audience with a critical and satirical
view of the quantification of everything, personified in Thomas Gradgrind in Hard times (Dickens,
1961) who was a man ‘with a rule and a pair of scales, and the multiplication table always in his pocket,
sir, ready to weigh and measure any parcel of human nature, and tell you exactly what it comes to’
(p. 12). In Chapter 2 of Hard times we are introduced to ‘Girl number twenty’:

‘Girl number twenty unable to define a horse!’ said Mr. Gradgrind, for the general behoof of all the little
pitchers. ‘Girl number twenty possessed of no facts, in reference to one of the commonest of animals!’
(pp. 13–14)

It appears at times that Gradgrind would find the classrooms of the 21st century very familiar, as the
push to measure every ‘parcel of human nature’ becomes so easily accommodated into our schooling
systems.

Importantly, this rethinking about measurement and performance tends to push aside the
classroom teacher’s expertise, knowledge and understanding of qualitative data. Indeed, the impetus
for this paper was working with teachers who appeared to belittle this knowledge they had, who
brushed aside their existing understanding and skills with qualitative data in their eagerness to learn
how to interpret the graphs and tabulations provided in NAPLAN reports.

Importance of qualitative data
Qualitative data describes, but does not measure, observes what is there (often called naturalistic
observations), and can be useful to help us explain different aspects of occurrences. Here is an example
of the differences between a quantitative and qualitative analysis of data. In one project that I worked
on (van Krayenoord, Gillies, Honan, Moni, Western & Brereton, 2011), we designed and distributed
a survey to parents and the wider community surrounding participating schools. This survey was
designed to investigate community perceptions about the value of reading. Figure 1 shows a graph
that represents the responses given to one question in the survey that was related to the teaching of
reading.

There are some points about community attitudes to the teaching of reading that we can draw
from this graph.

• Nearly all items have high level of agreement;
• The message about parent involvement seems to have worked;
• Level of disagreement is strongest around the item about rich children finding it easier to

read;
• There is a strong agreement with the statement about individuals learning at different rates;
• There is a large number of ‘grey’ responses that neither agree nor disagree with the

statement about teaching using traditional methods – but then there are quite strong
opinions expressed about the teaching of grammar and the use of literature – which are the
specifics of a so called traditional approach.

Yet there are a number of unanswered questions about these responses. For example, there is
strong agreement with the statement about individuals learning at different rates. Does this reflect
understanding about the different theories about the teaching of reading, or are the respondents
sending a message to schools and teachers? (Don’t try to put everyone into the same box, or into the
same box of levelled readers).

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There appears to be some sense that the respondents have embraced the messages that continually
appear on the front pages of our newspapers that ‘much more must be done’ which appears to
contradict the responses to other statements. And what are the reasons for the level of disagreement
being strongest around the item about rich children finding it easier to read? Because the community
thinks all kids should have the same opportunities? Because the community is reflecting the egalitarian
myth of ‘all Australians are equal’?

None of these questions can be answered through an analysis of the graph or of the data that lie
behind the graph. The only way of exploring the reasons for survey responses is to ask the respondents
further questions, through interviews or focus group discussions. These techniques for collecting data
are explored in the next section of this paper.

Collecting qualitative data
Most classroom teachers will collect both quantitative and qualitative data about their students’
learning and their own teaching practices. It is important to think about the problem or issue that is
being investigated first, and then make decisions about the type of data that would provide the most
useful information about that problem. Here are some examples of questions that teachers might be
interested in investigating and that would be best explored through collection of qualitative data.
Note the framing of these questions as open-ended and requiring exploration rather than a positive
or negative response only.

• Why do the boys in Grade 3 complain about reading lessons?
• How is reading comprehension taught in this class, school, district, state?
• How are digital texts used in literacy classrooms?
• Why is there a gendered difference in NAPLAN spelling results in Year 5 classrooms?
• How does an understanding of the reading process impact on student performance on

standardised reading comprehension tests?

While standardised tests and surveys can provide useful data about student learning, examining

Figure 1. Survey responses, from Honan, 2013

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the reasons behind results and providing more nuanced accounts of the knowledge students have
about particular aspects of literacy are more likely to be completed using qualitative instruments. For
example, recording the interactions and behaviours of students with texts, as well as their knowledge
of how texts work, can be completed through observation and documentation techniques, such as
running records, anecdotal records, checklists, and portfolios. Many of these techniques are practised
by classroom teachers as part of their classroom assessment routines. However, systematic recording
and analysis of these data is sometimes ignored.

Collecting data about teachers’ pedagogical practices can be useful for a variety of purposes:

• demonstrating and modelling effective or new strategies;
• promotion or appraisal;
• demonstrating impact of professional learning on practice;
• reflecting on own pedagogy;
• identifying and answering research questions.

Tools that can be used to collect data about pedagogical practices include:

• classroom observation tools;
• interviews – pre and post observation;
• video and audio recordings;
• ethnographic observations – rich and thick, using templates;
• stimulated recall and reflection;
• reflective journals.

In some cases, classroom teachers find it useful to use an action research cycle to plan their use of
data tools. As noted in the example of an action research cycle provided below, data collection occurs
at various stages, from the first step of identifying the problem to looking at what happened and using
results to update and modify the plan.

Figure 2. Action research cycle (from Honan, Evans, Paraide, Reta & Muspratt, 2012)

Analysing qualitative data
As mentioned earlier, classroom teachers regularly collect the type of data I have referred to above.
However, they are sometimes less likely to spend time on systematic organisation or analysis of these
data. This section of the paper provides some relatively simple techniques for interpreting data results
using qualitative methods.

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The first point to be made is that the use of the terms ‘qualitative and quantitative data’ can be
misleading. Data that are often analysed using quantitative techniques such as surveys and tests can
also be analysed qualitatively. Documentary data can provide useful insights into the practices of
teachers and schools, such as timetables, lesson plans, units of work, newsletters and letters to parents,
school policy documents, and texts used in classroom literacy lessons. Lesson observations, interviews,
recorded conversations and interactions between students and teachers are also useful.

In deciding how and what to analyse, it is useful to begin again with your problem or the issue
you want to investigate. The first step in collecting data is to ask: What data are available? This can be
followed by identifying sources of other data to be collected, and then thinking and planning for new
instruments that may need to be produced.

For example, if a classroom teacher wanted to examine the question, ‘Why do the boys in Year
3 complain about reading lessons?’, then she/he could begin with collecting the available data,
including test results, anecdotal records, the teachers’ own reflective journal where there is evidence of
these complaints and/or evidence of the effect of these complaints on student performance, classroom
environment and so on. The teacher might then hold an informal focus group discussion in the
classroom where the students are encouraged to express their opinions about reading lessons, and
she/he could take notes or even record this discussion. The teacher could then decide that a parental
perspective might be useful and write a letter home with two to three questions for parents to answer.
The teacher might ask a teaching partner or colleague to observe reading lessons using a simple
observation schedule that tracked boys’ engagement and interactions.

Once all data are collected, it is important to use some organisational techniques to begin the
analysis and interpretation stages. Sorting, classifying and categorising data helps in the interpretation.
At this stage, some data are discarded, some bits ranked as more important than other bits, some
message or themes are identified and used to develop categories. Patterns begin to emerge, the
most useful often being those identified across more than one data set. Referring back to the earlier
example, it might be observed that parents mention take-home readers frequently; that in anecdotal
records disruptive behaviour is noted at the end of reading lessons when take-home readers are being
organised, and that in the focus group discussion the teacher noted some students complaining
about the take-home readers being ‘boring’. This pattern might then lead the teacher to conduct
some analysis of the take-home reader collection, considering the age, suitability, gendered appeal,
readability and so on.

In literacy classrooms, sometimes the important questions to ask about the data collected are what
could be perceived as the simplest. For example, ‘What are the stories about literacy being told in these
data?’ ‘What counts as literacy in these data?’

Importantly, it is not a search for the ‘right’ or ‘correct’ answer that drives most qualitative data
analysis. Rather, analysis and interpretation of data can provide some possible reasons. It is always
interesting to compare one person’s interpretation with others, making collaborative teacher projects
a worthwhile strategy. Rather than asking ‘What do these data mean?’, it is more useful to ask: ‘What
is a possible story that could be told from these data? What do I think the data mean? What messages
do I hear?’

For example, in one interview, a teacher told me about her first interactions with a new English
curriculum:

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Ann: I came to the first key teaching thing. They were talking about Year 2 Net, and blah
blah blah, and this is in this book, and blah blah blah, this is here, and everyone should
have one, and every teacher should have one. And I went back and said ‘Where are
our books?’ You know, I’ve just been told that every teacher should have this set of
books, and they were all wrapped in plastic in shelves in piles.
This was last year, middle of last year, and I said ‘Right I’ll take my books’ and I took
them, and I unwrapped them. And I took two sets because I was with someone else.
And I took them in and ‘We’re meant to have these’, so we unwrapped them, went,
flicked through them, stuck them on the shelf. ‘Right, we’ve got ours’.

My interpretation of this interview excerpt related to the lines that I have bolded. It appeared to
me that Ann’s initial interest in the texts grew from her knowledge that something was due to her; she
had a right to copies of the texts. The access to the texts was more important than the text itself. Once
access was gained, she had no intention of reading them from cover to cover, or of gaining a secure
working knowledge (which was the intention of the curriculum writers). This interpretation helped me
in my discussion of the relationships between teachers, policy writers, curriculum advisers and the
English curriculum (see Honan 2001).

Someone else, another researcher with a different question or another teacher, or even Ann herself,
might think something else is going on in this excerpt; that there is a different message to hear;
something that I have missed or ignored.

Another example comes from an analysis of a curriculum document (see Rowan & Honan, 2005),
the Early Years Literacy Program (EYLP) in Victoria, which provided teachers with advice about the
structure of their program. This is reproduced in Figure 3.

My interpretation of the messages to teachers embedded in this program included the following
points:

• Literacy is best taught in uninterrupted two-hour blocks of time;
• Reading and writing are two distinct and separate components of literacy that should be

taught separately;
• Speaking and listening learning occurs as part of reading and writing while at the same

time separated from the other modes;
• The organisation of the class in the block is whole class-small group-whole class with

emphasis on individual success and interactivity between groups of children and the teacher.
In workshops and presentations, others have pointed out that the positioning of the words

‘teaching speakers and listeners’ on the side of the figure with no elaboration sends a message that
speaking and listening skills are not important and can be ignored.

Finally, another example of qualitative analysis (also drawn from Rowan & Honan, 2005) is of
an amalgam classroom snapshot. In this snapshot, I drew on multiple classroom observations of
many different classrooms using the ‘Literacy Block’ approach to teaching literacy in the early years.
This snapshot was developed to provide an illustration of the perceived outcomes of the curriculum
program outlined above. In reading this snapshot, I invite you to consider what counts as reading and
writing in this classroom.

The classroom wall clock reads 9.10am. There are about 22 small children sitting cross legged on a
large square of carpet at one end of the classroom. Their posture is largely determined by their distance
from the teacher, who sits on an upright chair in front of the group. So those directly under her gaze
sit straight backed, hands neatly folded in their laps. As the distance grows, so the posture deteriorates
until you find, hidden from the teacher’s gaze by the bodies of the rest of the class, two small boys lying
on their backs. One is quietly humming to himself and rocking his lower body and legs from side to
side, almost as an adult does in a physiotherapy exercise. The other boy is wriggling his whole body in a
snakelike attempt to move closer to his neighbour.

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The teacher’s chair is located close to a blackboard that stretches the width of the classroom. On
one part of the board is a brightly coloured chart, with the heading Task Board, and a table of five
columns and four rows. The days of the week form the headings for the columns. At the beginning of
each row is a pictograph, a symbolised representation of one of the teaching strategies from the EYLP.
For example, guided reading is represented by an image of four heads and a book. There are four
small cards attached to the chart with velcro, and each card holds the image of an Australian animal,
platypus, wombat, kangaroo, echidna.

On the other side of the teacher’s chair is an easel, on which are pinned some large pieces of blank paper.
Leaning against this paper is a large ‘big book’. The teacher is reading the big book to the class. The
class all seem familiar with the text, with some children reading loudly along with her. Two children talk
loudly to each other about what is coming up, describing in some detail to each other the contents of
the following pages. As with the posture of the children, their attention to the book reading seems to
be directly related to their proximity to the teacher. The teacher’s gaze seems to be divided between the
pages of the book she is reading, and those children who sit close to her. There is an invisible circle of
literary appreciation drawn around the teacher and those eight or so children who appear to be enjoying
the reading.

The teacher finishes the reading of the big book and draws the children’s attention to the Task Board.

Figure 3. Excerpt from the Early Years Literacy Program (see Rowan & Honan, 2005, p. 204)

66

Literacy Learning:
the Middle Years

Volume 23

Number 3

October 2015

She elicits group and individual responses to her questions from the class. To the two wriggling boys
at the back, she asks: ‘What group are you in Troy and Toby?’ The boys sit up and call back, ‘Wombats
miss!!’ ‘And what will the Wombats be doing this morning?’ After a few seconds of silence, she asks,
‘Can one of the Kangaroos help the Wombats – what will the Wombats be doing this morning, Sarah?’
Sarah, one of the girls sitting directly at the teacher’s feet replies, ‘Reading with you miss.’ ‘Good girl,
Sarah. And what will the Kangaroos be doing?’ There is a choral response as many of the class shout,
‘Sheets!!!’ ‘That’s right, Kangaroos will be working on their worksheets at their desks.’ The other two
groups of children are reminded of their activities (reading from the Book Boxes, and reading with a
parent helper, who is sitting quietly at the back of the classroom, close to the door). The teacher reminds
the class of the rules for the morning: ‘What happens when I’m working with the Wombats, girls and
boys? – what do you have to remember – Echidnas?’ The Echidnas’ responses are varied: ‘Don’t talk to
you’; ‘Stay away!’, ‘Sit in our seats ’til we’ve finished.’ ‘That’s right, good girls, when I’m working with
the Wombats I don’t want to be interrupted, so you read your book quietly, and if you finish reading
your book, what do you do?’ ‘Read it again!’, the Echidnas reply in unison.

The signal to move is almost invisible to the outsider. The teacher merely says, ‘R ight, off we go,’
and many of the children stand immediately and walk purposefully around the room. One girl goes
to a

Assignment

For this assignment you will need to make a powerpoint covering 3 U.S. Supreme Court Cases from 1975 to 2018.

For each case you will need to answer the 5 questions Listed below

  • You will need to have the following on each slide for each case you choose from 1975 to 2018.
  • Facts: This section of your brief contains a statement of the relevant facts of the case, in your own words. Include the parties involved. 
  • Issues: The issue is the legal question the court is trying to answer in the case. Quite often the court will not state the issue explicitly. Phrase the issue as a question, as narrowly and accurately as possible. 
  • Judgment: This is the courts holding, i.e., what the court ultimately decided or for which party it ruled.  
  • This is your synopsis of why the court decided the case as it did. Describe in your own words 
  • Critique: Provide your opinion of the case and outcome. 

When researching about the cases you can only use http://www.oyez.org to obtain the information. 

The powerpoint will need to have 12 slides (excluding the intro slide)

For one case there will be four slides 

Each case will need to have a slide stating facts from the case and Issues (which would be the question) The judgment as well as 2 pictures representing the case. A synopsis as well as a Picture representing it and a Critique and a picture over it.

For example

Slide one: Facts of case and Issues (which is the question)

Slide two (same case): Judgment and 2 pictures over it.

Slide three (same case): Synopsis and a picture representing it.

Slide four (same case): Critique and a picture over it.

This would be for all three Cases, all three have to be different and have to be between the years 1975-2018.

assignment

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the 
Example Research Proposal


 
 Download Example Research Proposal
. Note that all instructor feedback from your previous activities should be applied in preparing your proposal.

Your Research Proposal is a six- to seven-page plan for a new study on your research topic. Incorporate at least four scholarly/peer-reviewed journal articles in addition to the course text to support your proposed study.

Include the following sections and content in your paper:

· Introduction – Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present your research question and/or hypothesis.

· Literature Review – Summarize the current state of knowledge on your topic by citing the methods and findings of at least two previous research studies. State whether your proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach using methods that have not been used before.

· Methods

· Design – Indicate whether your proposed study is qualitative or quantitative in approach. Select one of the research designs you have studied in the course, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate why this design is appropriate for your research topic. Cite the textbook and one other source on research methodology to support your choice.

· Participants – Identify the sampling strategy you would use to recruit participants for your study. Estimate the number of participants you would need and explain why your sampling method is appropriate for your research approach.

· Procedure/Measures – Apply the scientific method by describing the steps you would use in carrying out your study. Indicate whether you will use any kind of test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument. Cite the source of any instruments to be used.

· Data Analysis – Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) you plan to use to analyze the data. Cite at least one source on the chosen analysis technique.

· Ethical Issues – Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on your proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. Explain how you would address these concerns.

· Conclusion – Briefly summarize the major points of your research plan and reiterate why your proposed study is needed.

The Research Proposal

· Must be six- to seven- double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the 
Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
’s 
APA Style (Links to an external site.)
 resource.

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of proposal

· Student’s name

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Date submitted

assignment

1

Example Research Proposal

Pamela Murphy

PSY 326 Research Methods

Instructor’s Name

Date Submitted

NOTE: The details in this example research proposal are based on a published study which I co-
authored with Charles B. Hodges and my doctoral dissertation, both in 2009. Portions of the text
are excerpted from the published article (Hodges & Murphy, 2009) and the dissertation (Murphy,
2009).

2

Example Research Proposal

Introduction

The concept of self-efficacy was introduced nearly 40 years ago. “Perceived self-efficacy

refers to beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to

produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1977, p. 3). Self-efficacy has been identified as an

important construct for academic achievement in traditional learning environments for at least

two decades. Zimmerman and Schunk (2003) go so far as to say that “the predictive power of

self-efficacy beliefs on students’ academic functioning has been extensively verified” (p. 446).

Its importance has been noted consistently through all levels of the educational process, with

various student populations, and in varied domains of learning.

While learner self-efficacy has a well-established literature base in the context of

traditional learning environments, self-efficacy research related to learners in online and other

non-traditional learning environments is relatively new. Hodges (2008a) has called for

researchers to explore self-efficacy in online learning environments. Additionally, in terms of

students’ self-efficacy beliefs toward academic achievement, “there have been few efforts to

investigate the sources underlying these self-beliefs” (Usher, 2009, p. 275). The purpose of the

proposed study is to investigate the relative strength of the four traditionally proposed sources of

self-efficacy beliefs of students enrolled in a technology-intensive asynchronous college math

college.

3

Literature Review

Self-efficacy beliefs have been found to be significant contributors to motivation and

performance in academic achievement (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991), group functioning

(Gully, Incalcaterra, Joshi, & Beaubien, 2002; Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998), health (Holden,

1991), and sports performance (Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach, & Mack, 2000). Research revealing the

connection between self-efficacy and mathematics, the context of the proposed study, includes

many cultures and levels of education (Malpass, O’Neil, & Hocevar, 1999; Pietsch, Walker, &

Chapman, 2003; Randhawa, Beamer, & Lundberg, 1993; Stevens, Olivarez, Lan, & Tallent-

Runnels, 2004) and continues to the present (Usher, 2009).

Sources of Self-Efficacy

Albert Bandura’s (1977) introduction of self-efficacy theory included the proposition that

self-efficacy is derived from four principal sources: mastery experiences, vicarious experience,

social persuasion, and physiological/affective states. These four areas are generally accepted in

the literature as core elements in the development of self-efficacy beliefs, but an ordering of the

importance of each of these sources is unsettled.

Mastery Experiences. Mastery experiences refer to previous, successful experiences a

learner has had performing a task. Successes build positive self-efficacy beliefs and failures

undermine self-efficacy. If failures are experienced before a firm positive belief in one’s self-

efficacy is formed, the creation of positive self-efficacy beliefs is more difficult.

Vicarious Experience. Vicarious experience refers to one’s observation of a role model

performing a task. Knowledge of how others have performed a similar task helps one determine

whether or not a performance should be judged a success or failure. Surpassing the performances

of others increases self-efficacy and falling below others’ performances lowers self-efficacy.

4

Note the importance of the selection of individuals for comparison. Self-efficacy beliefs will

vary depending on the abilities of those chosen for comparison, thus, models for comparison

should be selected carefully (Wood, 1989).

Social Persuasion. Social persuasion is commonly used due to the ease with which it can

be dispensed. The believability of the persuader(s) is important in the use of social persuasion.

The receiver must view the persuader as competent to provide meaningful and accurate

feedback. Bandura (1997) cautions that verbal persuasion consists of more than flippant, off-

hand comments of encouragement. Unrealistic comments from the persuader may mislead the

receiver, which may decrease self-efficacy and diminish the belief in the persuader as one

competent to evaluate the performance. “Skilled efficacy builders encourage people to measure

their successes in terms of self-improvement rather than in terms of triumphs over others”

(Bandura, 1997, p. 106).

Physiological/Affective States. Stress, emotion, mood, pain, and fatigue are all

interpreted when making judgments regarding self-efficacy. For example, someone may have

prepared well for an exam, but upon learning of some unfortunate news, stress may reduce

concentration, thus impacting performance on the exam. In general, success is expected when

one is not in a state of aversive arousal (Bandura, 1997).

Usher and Pajares (2006) summarize the inconsistent findings regarding the relative

strength of each self-efficacy source well. They follow with the proposition that “exploring the

predictive value of the sources of students’ academic self-efficacy beliefs and determining

whether this prediction varies as a function of group membership such as gender, academic

ability, and race/ethnicity is a matter of import” (p. 130).

5

Methods

Design

The proposed study is quantitative in nature and will use a survey research design

(Newman, 2016). Survey research falls into the non-experimental category of research designs.

The survey questions use mostly ordinal scales and will result in numeric scores summarizing the

extent of use of each source of self-efficacy beliefs as well as a score representing the level of

self-efficacy held by each student in relation to the ability to learn math in an asynchronous

learning environment.

Participants

Approximately 300 students in an asynchronous college algebra course offered at a large,

state supported university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States will be invited to

participate in a survey. This is a convenience sample, and participation is voluntary, so the final

sample size may be considerably smaller than the number of students invited. The course is

delivered using an emporium format (Twigg, 2003) which is technology intensive. The students

enrolled in the course tend to be engaged in academic majors that are not math-intensive. They

may have a high degree of math anxiety or at least some negative feelings toward their math

abilities. In addition, the emporium model may be an unfamiliar concept for them.

Procedure/Measures

This course is offered through the Math Emporium and has no traditional class meetings.

After a brief, face-to-face, orientation meeting, students complete the course asynchronously.

There are weekly deadlines for quizzes, and proctored tests are administered periodically.

Students prepare for the quizzes and tests by taking advantage of various technology resources

available to them online. Lesson pages serve as an online textbook for the course, short

6

streaming video lectures are available on most topics, and an unlimited number of practice

quizzes are available. For students who desire it, face-to-face interactions with assistants in the

computer lab are available several hours each week. No appointment is needed for the face-to-

face assistance.

At the conclusion of the course, data will be collected using a web-based survey tool.

Students who provide informed consent to participate will be given an ID number and survey

access information. They may access the survey either in the Math Emporium or offsite through

the internet. Specific instruments to be used are the Self-Efficacy for Learning Mathematics

Asynchronously (SELMA) survey (Hodges, 2008b), a demographics survey, and the Sources of

Mathematics Self-Efficacy (SMSE) scale (Lent, Lopez, & Bieschke, 1991).

The SELMA survey is a 25-question survey constructed for use in college algebra and

trigonometry courses offered in an emporium model. A validation study showed an internal

consistency Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.87 (Hodges, 2008b) which is greater than the 0.80

minimum level recommended by Gable and Wolf (1993) for instruments in the affective domain.

The SMSE scale consists of four 10-question subscales designed to measure each of the

four sources of self-efficacy: mastery, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and

affective/physiological state. In a validation study of the SMSE, Lent et al. (1991) reported

internal consistencies of 0.86 for mastery, 0.56 for vicarious, 0.74 for persuasion, and 0.90 for

affective/physiological arousal.

Data Analysis

To investigate the relative strength of the four traditional sources of self-efficacy beliefs

of students in an asynchronous math course, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple

regression will be used. Scores from each of the four subscales of the SMSE will be used as

7

predictors of the SELMA score. Bivariate correlations will also be examined. Significant

correlations among the predictor variables may present a problem of multicollinearity. If

necessary, additional statistical tests such as ridge regression (Joe & Mendoza, 1989; Kidwell &

Brown, 1982) will be applied to solve this problem.

Ethical Issues

Participation in the survey will be strictly voluntary, and will not be tied to evaluation of

the student’s performance in the course in any way. As a non-experimental survey study, no

deception will be used. Signed informed consent will be obtained from those who wish to

participate. Those who agree to participate may withdraw from the study at any time without any

type of penalty.

Confidentiality of participants will be protected by the assignment of ID numbers to be

used on the survey documents instead of names or any other type of identifying information. A

single copy of the list matching the ID numbers with participants’ names will be kept in a secure,

locked location for a period of three years after the completion of the study. After three years, the

list will be destroyed in accordance with the instructions of the Institutional Review Board

(IRB).

As a token of appreciation, all participants will be entered into a drawing for an Amazon

gift card. The proposed amount of the gift card, subject to IRB approval, is $25. University

facilities, including the computer lab known as the Math Emporium, its computers and a survey

software program, will be used if this study is approved. This project will not receive any

external funding from commercial or other sources, and no conflicts of interest are reported by

the researchers.

8

Conclusion

Self-efficacy and its relationship to academic achievement in asynchronous online

learning environments are only recently beginning to be researched (Hodges, 2008a). Given the

growing prominence of asynchronous online learning, it is essential that we understand what role

constructs such as self-efficacy play in these learning environments. The proposed study will

address this need by using a survey research design. The surveys will provide data on the four

sources of self-efficacy which will serve as predictors of students’ self-efficacy for learning

mathematics in an asynchronous online setting. A multiple regression model using the four

predictors with the SELMA survey score as the dependent variable will indicate how much each

source contributes to self-efficacy.

The results of this study are expected to be important to instructional designers and

educational practitioners who either currently use or are considering using an emporium model,

as they will give indications of which elements of the asynchronous course design should be

emphasized to best promote students’ self-efficacy relating to the subject matter. An expedited

review of this proposal by the IRB is requested for approval to begin this research as soon as

possible.

9

References

Allison, P. D. (1999). Multiple regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.

Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and

Company.

Gable, R. K., & Wolf, M. B. (1993). Instrument development in the affective domain: Measuring

attitudes and values in corporate and school settings, 2nd ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic

Publishers.

Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-

efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators

of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 819-832.

Hodges, C. B. (2008a). Self-efficacy in the context of online learning environments: A review of

the literature and directions for research. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 20(3-4),

7-25.

Hodges, C. B. (2008b). Self-efficacy, motivational email, and achievement in an asynchronous

math course. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 27(3), 265-

285.

Hodges, C. B., & Murphy, P. F. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy beliefs of students in a

technology-intensive asynchronous college algebra course. Internet and Higher

Education, 12(2), 93-97. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.06.005.

Holden, G. (1991). The relationship of self-efficacy appraisals to subsequent health-related

outcomes: A meta-analysis. Social Work in Health Care, 16, 53-93.

10

Howell, D. C. (2002). Statistical methods for psychology, 5th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury.

Joe, G. W., & Mendoza, J. L. (1989). The internal correlation: Its applications in statistics and

psychometrics. Journal of Educational Statistics, 14(3), 211-226.

Kidwell, J. S., & Brown, L. H. (1982). Ridge regression as a technique for analyzing models

with multicollinearity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44(2), 287-299.

Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., & Bieschke, K. J. (1991). Mathematics self-efficacy: Sources and

relation to science-based career choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(4), 424-

430.

Malpass, J. R., O’Neil, H. F., & Hocevar, D. (1999). Self-regulation, goal orientation, self-

efficacy, worry, and high-stakes math achievement for mathematically gifted high school

students. Roeper Review, 21, 281-295.

Moritz, S. E., Feltz, D. L., Fahrbach, K. R., & Mack, D. E. (2000). The relation of self-efficacy

measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review. Research Quarterly for Exercise

and Sport, 71, 280-294.

Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic

outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30-

38.

Murphy, P. F. (2009). Relationships of parenting practices, independent learning, achievement,

and family structure (Doctoral dissertation). Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. Retrieved

from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04022009-174950/

Newman, M. (2016). Research methods in psychology, 2nd edition. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint

Education.

11

Pietsch, J., Walker, R., & Chapman, E. (2003). The relationship among self-concept, self-

efficacy, and performance in mathematics during secondary school. Journal of

Educational Psychology, 95, 589-603.

Randhawa, B. S., Beamer, J. E., & Lundberg, I. (1993). Role of mathematics self-efficacy in the

structural model of mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(1),

41-48.

Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-

analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240-261.

Stevens, T., Olivarez, A. J., Lan, W. Y., & Tallent-Runnels, M. K. (2004). Role of mathematics

self-efficacy and motivation in mathematics performance across ethnicity. Journal of

Educational Research, 97(4), 208-221.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning.

EDUCAUSE Review (September/October), 28-38.

Usher, E. L. (2009). Sources of middle school students’ self-efficacy in mathematics: A

qualitative investigation. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 275-314.

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2006). Sources of academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of

entering middle school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(2), 125-141.

Wood, J. V. (1989). Theory and research concerning social comparison of personal attributes.

Psychological Bulletin, 106(2), 231-248.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2003). Albert Bandura: The scholar and his contributions to

educational psychology. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Educational

psychology: A century of contributions (pp. 431-457). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum

Associates.

Assignment

 

Option #1: Well-Aligned Ethical Architecture

Evaluate a real case of a company that you would argue has a well-aligned ethical architecture. Use at least one line and one row of the Zachman framework to support your answer. 

2-3 pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and conform to APA guidelines.

At least 2 sources, please include proper DOI. 

Assignment

Training Title 50

Name: Harold Griffin

Gender: male

Age:58 years old

T- 98.8 P- 86 R 18 134/88 Ht 5’11 Wt 180lbs

Background: Has bachelor’s degree in engineering. He is homosexual and dates casually, never married, no children. Has one younger sister. Sleeps 4-6 hours, appetite good. Denied legal issues; MOCA 27/30 difficulty with attention and delayed recall; ASRS-5 20/24; denied hx of drug use; enjoys one scotch drink on the weekends with a cigar. Allergies Morphine; history HTN blood pressure controlled with losartan 100mg daily, angina prescribed ASA 81mg po daily, metoprolol 25mg twice daily. Hypertriglyceridemia prescribed fenofibrate 160mg daily, has BPH prescribed tamsulosin 0.4mg po bedtime.

Pls use this Video content to supplement with the above information to complete comprehensive evaluation for the patient using the template

Patient told his supervisor he was having difficulty concentrating at his Job due to recent overwhelming deadlines and did few silly mistakes that could have cost the company he was working for so much money if not discovered. So the supervisor setup the appointment for him to see psychiatrist. Pt stated he Had similar issues while he was in school

Reported no problem when everything is relax and call

Reported lack of focus, restlessness poor concentration in school and are beginning to experience the same at his job.

Reported been disorganize recently and forgetful at home and in his working place sometime forgets where he put his shoes, sucks, jacket watch even with paying his bills

Cofee, soda was a problem when he was younger and his mom wont let him drink it any way.

He stated that someone got him calendar to motivate him but always forgot to look it.

Never been treated with medication or therapy for ADHD

Stated that coffee help him to stay focus

assignment

Thailand’s Increased Export of Rice During COVID19 Pandemic

During this COVID 19 Pandemic, one of the impacts this virus has had on food systems

globally is an increase in the price of rice which hasn’t reached such high numbers for seven years (Tanakasempipat, 2020). Although the top three global exporters of rice are India, then Thailand, then Vietnam, Thailand has had to carry the burden of being the largest exporter of rice due to a decrease in export both in India and Vietnam due to the virus (Tan, 2020). However, these spikes in rice prices is not only due to the effects of the virus but has been slowly climbing due to internal challenges that the countries agriculture system is facing (Tan, 2020). Overall, Thai rice is in high demand due to external global pressure but is somewhat challenged by obstacles within Thailand.

External Pressure

Due to the coronavirus pandemic, there is increased pressure on the top three exporters of

rice to meet the increased demand while following safety and regulations. However, the increased price in rice globally is directly impacted by India and Vietnam decreasing their exports (Tan, 2020). According to Tan, India is in need of migrant workers to maintain its fields, but many have left the fields due to the COVID19 outbreak (2020). Also, the country is not taking new export deals (Tan, 2020). Furthermore, India is currently in a nationwide lockdown, restricting certain operations essential to the production and transport of rice in India (Nguyen, 2020). On the other hand, Vietnam is stocking up to feed its own people and is somewhat highly regulating its exports; the results of Vietnam’s actions may perhaps be a 10-15 percent decrease in rice available for the global rice market (Nguyen, 2020). Regarding the importing of rice, Hong Kong is dependent on Thai rice that is still being exported for its people (Nguyen, 2020). Also, the Philippines is the greatest importer of rice globally; thus, it is highly dependent on rice exports from other countries to feed its people (Tanakasempipat, 2020).

Internal Pressure

Although there are global impacts on Thailand’s increase in rice prices, there are also

local impacts that are causing this rise in prices. For instance, due to recent drought last year in Thailand, the price of rise made prices already slightly higher since last year (Tan, 2020). However, the COVID 19 outbreak is pressuring people in Thailand to buy more rice so that there is a higher demand; The result is that rice prices are up domestically in Thailand not just globally (Nguyen, 2020). According to Tanakasempipat, price rise due to Thai exporters expecting more sales globally since again, its competitors have significantly decreased their export of rice (2020). Though there is enough supply of rice in the country of Thailand to feed its people, the field labor has decreased significantly because Cambodian migrant workers have left (Tan, 2020). This has caused a strain on the agriculture of Thailand’s rice.

Conclusion

Although the impact of India and Vietnam reducing its exports have resulted in increased

global rice prices and increased demand for rice from Thailand, there are other consequences to this closed-door policy that Thailand must also consider before enacting the same policies. As Samarendu Mohanty, an expert in food security matters and the Asia regional director for the Peru-based International Potato Center, says, “One cannot blame countries for ensuring their domestic food security during this trying time, but countries need to be extra careful in taking unnecessary policy measures that could create panic in the market. Countries should be aware that enough grains exist in warehouses to feed the world for more than four months. But these grains are of no use if countries resort to trade restrictions” (Mohanty qtd. in Tan, 2020). In other words, Thailand, must be cautious that it not be too hasty to shut its doors to global export of rice because countries like the Philippines will face food security issues. Also, Thailand, seems to currently have enough rice to feeds its own people and should continue exporting its rice to other parts of the world. However, there should be policies and actions taken to keep workers safe in the rice fields and across the whole system of rice exporting so that people in other countries can get the rice that they need without expensing the health of the laborers in Thailand and other rice exporting countries.

References

Nguyen, S. (2020). Coronavirus: Vietnam stockpiles rice as outbreak spreads and food security

concerns grow. This Week in Asia. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/economics/article/3077272/coronavirus-vietnam-stockpiles-rice-outbreak-spreads-and-food

Tanakasempipat, P. (2020). Thai rice prices hit 7-year high on anticipated sales as coronavirus

troubles rivals-exporters. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/thailand-rice/thai-rice-prices-hit-7-year-high-on-anticipated-sales-as-coronavirus-troubles-rivals-exporters-idUSL4N2BQ2F8?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=newsletter_axiosmarkets&stream=business

Tan, H. (2020). Rice prices surge to 7-year high as coronavirus sparks stockpiling. CNBC.com.

https://www.cnbc.com/2020/04/08/rice-prices-surge-to-7-year-high-as-coronavirus-sparks-stockpiling.html

Assignment

  • The Blum Model points to four key determinants of health. Select at least one of these determinants and discuss the implications for the Christian health administrator.
  • Requirements: Do not use the question in the response. Papers must include a substantive elaboration on the topic as well as support from scripture. 750 words apa format

assignment

Thailand’s Increased Export of Rice During COVID19 Pandemic

During this COVID 19 Pandemic, one of the impacts this virus has had on food systems

globally is an increase in the price of rice which hasn’t reached such high numbers for seven years (Tanakasempipat, 2020). Although the top three global exporters of rice are India, then Thailand, then Vietnam, Thailand has had to carry the burden of being the largest exporter of rice due to a decrease in export both in India and Vietnam due to the virus (Tan, 2020). However, these spikes in rice prices is not only due to the effects of the virus but has been slowly climbing due to internal challenges that the countries agriculture system is facing (Tan, 2020). Overall, Thai rice is in high demand due to external global pressure but is somewhat challenged by obstacles within Thailand.

External Pressure

Due to the coronavirus pandemic, there is increased pressure on the top three exporters of

rice to meet the increased demand while following safety and regulations. However, the increased price in rice globally is directly impacted by India and Vietnam decreasing their exports (Tan, 2020). According to Tan, India is in need of migrant workers to maintain its fields, but many have left the fields due to the COVID19 outbreak (2020). Also, the country is not taking new export deals (Tan, 2020). Furthermore, India is currently in a nationwide lockdown, restricting certain operations essential to the production and transport of rice in India (Nguyen, 2020). On the other hand, Vietnam is stocking up to feed its own people and is somewhat highly regulating its exports; the results of Vietnam’s actions may perhaps be a 10-15 percent decrease in rice available for the global rice market (Nguyen, 2020). Regarding the importing of rice, Hong Kong is dependent on Thai rice that is still being exported for its people (Nguyen, 2020). Also, the Philippines is the greatest importer of rice globally; thus, it is highly dependent on rice exports from other countries to feed its people (Tanakasempipat, 2020).

Internal Pressure

Although there are global impacts on Thailand’s increase in rice prices, there are also

local impacts that are causing this rise in prices. For instance, due to recent drought last year in Thailand, the price of rise made prices already slightly higher since last year (Tan, 2020). However, the COVID 19 outbreak is pressuring people in Thailand to buy more rice so that there is a higher demand; The result is that rice prices are up domestically in Thailand not just globally (Nguyen, 2020). According to Tanakasempipat, price rise due to Thai exporters expecting more sales globally since again, its competitors have significantly decreased their export of rice (2020). Though there is enough supply of rice in the country of Thailand to feed its people, the field labor has decreased significantly because Cambodian migrant workers have left (Tan, 2020). This has caused a strain on the agriculture of Thailand’s rice.

Conclusion

Although the impact of India and Vietnam reducing its exports have resulted in increased

global rice prices and increased demand for rice from Thailand, there are other consequences to this closed-door policy that Thailand must also consider before enacting the same policies. As Samarendu Mohanty, an expert in food security matters and the Asia regional director for the Peru-based International Potato Center, says, “One cannot blame countries for ensuring their domestic food security during this trying time, but countries need to be extra careful in taking unnecessary policy measures that could create panic in the market. Countries should be aware that enough grains exist in warehouses to feed the world for more than four months. But these grains are of no use if countries resort to trade restrictions” (Mohanty qtd. in Tan, 2020). In other words, Thailand, must be cautious that it not be too hasty to shut its doors to global export of rice because countries like the Philippines will face food security issues. Also, Thailand, seems to currently have enough rice to feeds its own people and should continue exporting its rice to other parts of the world. However, there should be policies and actions taken to keep workers safe in the rice fields and across the whole system of rice exporting so that people in other countries can get the rice that they need without expensing the health of the laborers in Thailand and other rice exporting countries.

References

Nguyen, S. (2020). Coronavirus: Vietnam stockpiles rice as outbreak spreads and food security

concerns grow. This Week in Asia. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/economics/article/3077272/coronavirus-vietnam-stockpiles-rice-outbreak-spreads-and-food

Tanakasempipat, P. (2020). Thai rice prices hit 7-year high on anticipated sales as coronavirus

troubles rivals-exporters. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/thailand-rice/thai-rice-prices-hit-7-year-high-on-anticipated-sales-as-coronavirus-troubles-rivals-exporters-idUSL4N2BQ2F8?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=newsletter_axiosmarkets&stream=business

Tan, H. (2020). Rice prices surge to 7-year high as coronavirus sparks stockpiling. CNBC.com.

https://www.cnbc.com/2020/04/08/rice-prices-surge-to-7-year-high-as-coronavirus-sparks-stockpiling.html

Assignment

  • The Blum Model points to four key determinants of health. Select at least one of these determinants and discuss the implications for the Christian health administrator.
  • Requirements: Do not use the question in the response. Papers must include a substantive elaboration on the topic as well as support from scripture. 750 words apa format

Assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Diagnosing Patients With Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Photo Credit: Getty Images

Neurodevelopmental disorders begin in the developmental period of childhood and may continue through adulthood. They may range from the very specific to a general or global impairment, and often co-occur (APA, 2013). They include specific learning and language disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disabilities. Neurocognitive disorders, on the other hand, represent a decline in one or more areas of prior mental function that is significant enough to impact independent functioning. They may occur at any time in life and be caused by factors such brain injury; diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, or Huntington’s; infection; or stroke, among others.

For this Assignment, you will assess a patient in a case study who presents with a neurocognitive or neurodevelopmental disorder.

To Prepare:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider the insights they provide. Consider how neurocognitive impairments may have similar presentations to other psychological disorders.

· Review the Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation template, which you will use to complete this Assignment.

· By Day 1 of this week, select a specific video case study to use for this Assignment from the Video Case Selections choices in the Learning Resources. View your assigned video case and review the additional data for the case in the “Case History Reports” document, keeping the requirements of the evaluation template in mind.

· Consider what history would be necessary to collect from this patient.

· Consider what interview questions you would need to ask this patient.

· Identify at least three possible differential diagnoses for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 10

Complete and submit your Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation, including your differential diagnosis and critical-thinking process to formulate primary diagnosis.
Incorporate the following into your responses in the template:

· Subjective: What details did the patient provide regarding their chief complaint and symptomology to derive your differential diagnosis? What is the duration and severity of their symptoms? How are their symptoms impacting their functioning in life? 

· Objective: What observations did you make during the psychiatric assessment?  

· Assessment: Discuss the patient’s mental status examination results. What were your differential diagnoses? Provide a minimum of three possible diagnoses with supporting evidence, listed in order from highest priority to lowest priority. Compare the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for each differential diagnosis and explain what DSM-5 criteria rules out the differential diagnosis to find an accurate diagnosis. Explain the critical-thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

· Reflection notes: What would you do differently with this client if you could conduct the session over? Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

Create documentation in the Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template about the patient you selected.

In the Subjective section, provide:
• Chief complaint
• History of present illness (HPI)
• Past psychiatric history
• Medication trials and current medications
• Psychotherapy or previous psychiatric diagnosis
• Pertinent substance use, family psychiatric/substance use, social, and medical history
• Allergies
• ROS

In the Objective section, provide:
• Physical exam documentation of systems pertinent to the chief complaint, HPI, and history
• Diagnostic results, including any labs, imaging, or other assessments needed to develop the differential diagnoses.

In the Assessment section, provide:
• Results of the mental status examination, presented in paragraph form.
• At least three differentials with supporting evidence. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for each differential diagnosis and explain what DSM-5 criteria rules out the differential diagnosis to find an accurate diagnosis. Explain the critical-thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

Reflect on this case. Discuss what you learned and what you might do differently. Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.)

Provide at least three evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines that relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differential diagnoses. Be sure they are current (no more than 5 years old).

Written Expression and Formatting—Paragraph development and organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.

Written Expression and Formatting—English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and punctuation

Assignment

  1. Discuss gun violence and gun regulations.
  2. What are the biggest challenges in the opioid epidemic? Analyze the security, public health, and regulation debates.
  3. Analyze bioterrorism and its threat to national security.
  4. Explain the major security challenges related to drug trafficking, gangs, and organized crime.
  5. Discuss nuclear and chemical weapons and their threat to national security.
  6. Highlight the major fire safety threats to the US.

assignment

 Intro: Prepare a marketing plan for H&M clothing as they enter the new foreign emerging market of Cambodia. You are expected to justify your decision to use academic and research-based information and references to support your arguments and write a report with an academic tone of voice and writing style. (Roughly 15 cited academic sources)

The plan should cover the three-year period to May 2025 and the list of elements included in the plan is illustrated below:

· A brief overview of the brand

· Analyse the current market and the industry environment

Content of the plan

· The selection of the market to entry

· Customer segmentation, targeting, and positioning in the chosen market

· International marketing mix

· Branding strategies

tructure:

1). Introduction: Brief Summary

2). Selection for Market Entry: Describe market and reasoning / strategy for choosing to enter this market

3). Market Analysis: Analyze the market covering the socio cultural environment and other important elements of the sector

4). STP (Segmentation, Targeting Positioning): Discuss strategies for STP

5). Marketing Mix (Product, price, place, promotion): Pick and discuss the most important elements of marketing mix to talk about. (Only 2-3 necessary), cover brand strategy here

6). Conclusion: Conclude with recommended plan of action for the company plus potential drawbacks/ barriers of entry you have found.

Criteria for grading:

Strong organisation and coherence clearly enhance the work.

Well-developed writing style, appropriate to assignment, which enhances the argument. Grammar and spelling are accurate.

Demonstrates a comprehensive, detailed and in-depth knowledge base, the capacity to integrate theoretical and substantive knowledge.

Demonstrates broad and/or in-depth independent reading from appropriate sources. Choice of sources enhances the fulfilment of the assignment objectives. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material with developed and/or integrated critical appraisal.

Conclusions are well developed and show some originality. The recommendations reflect a strong understanding based on evidence and appropriate forms of applications 

Assignment

NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Exemplar

 (The comprehensive evaluation is typically the initial new patient evaluation. You will practice writing this type of note in this course. You will be ruling out other mental illnesses so often you will write up what symptoms are present and what symptoms are not present from illnesses to demonstrate you have indeed assessed for all illnesses which could be impacting your patient. For example, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, bipolar symptoms, psychosis symptoms, substance use, etc.)

CC (chief complaint): A brief statement identifying why the patient is here. This statement is verbatim of the patient’s own words about why presenting for assessment. For a patient with dementia or other cognitive deficits, this statement can be obtained from a family member.

HPI: Begin this section with patient’s initials, age, race, gender, purpose of evaluation, current medication and referral reason. For example:

N.M. is a 34-year-old Asian male presents for psychiatric evaluation for anxiety. He is currently prescribed sertraline which he finds ineffective. His PCP referred him for evaluation and treatment.

Or

P.H., a 16-year-old Hispanic female, presents for psychiatric evaluation for concentration difficulty. She is not currently prescribed psychotropic medications. She is referred by her therapist for medication evaluation and treatment.

Then, this section continues with the symptom analysis for your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis.

Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. This section contains the symptoms that is bringing the patient into your office. The symptoms onset, duration, frequency, severity, and impact. Your description here will guide your differential diagnoses. You are seeking symptoms that may align with many DSM-5 diagnoses, narrowing to what aligns with diagnostic criteria for mental health and substance use disorders.

Past Psychiatric History: This section documents the patient’s past treatments. Use the mnemonic Go Cha MP.

General Statement: Typically, this is a statement of the patients first treatment experience. For example: The patient entered treatment at the age of 10 with counseling for depression during her parents’ divorce. OR The patient entered treatment for detox at age 26 after abusing alcohol since age 13.

Caregivers are listed if applicable.

Hospitalizations: How many hospitalizations? When and where was last hospitalization? How many detox? How many residential treatments? When and where was last detox/residential treatment? Any history of suicidal or homicidal behaviors? Any history of self-harm behaviors?

Medication trials: What are the previous psychotropic medications the patient has tried and what was their reaction? Effective, Not Effective, Adverse Reaction? Some examples: Haloperidol (dystonic reaction), risperidone (hyperprolactinemia), olanzapine (effective, insurance wouldn’t pay for it)

Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis: This section can be completed one of two ways depending on what you want to capture to support the evaluation. First, does the patient know what type? Did they find psychotherapy helpful or not? Why? Second, what are the previous diagnosis for the client noted from previous treatments and other providers. Thirdly, you could document both.

Substance Use History: This section contains any history or current use of caffeine, nicotine, illicit substance (including marijuana), and alcohol. Include the daily amount of use and last known use. Include type of use such as inhales, snorts, IV, etc. Include any histories of withdrawal complications from tremors, Delirium Tremens, or seizures.

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History: This section contains any family history of psychiatric illness, substance use illnesses, and family suicides. You may choose to use a genogram to depict this information. Be sure to include a reader’s key to your genogram or write up in narrative form.

Social History: This section may be lengthy if completing an evaluation for psychotherapy or shorter if completing an evaluation for psychopharmacology. However, at a minimum, please include:

Where patient was born, who raised the patient

Number of brothers/sisters (what order is the patient within siblings)

Who the patient currently lives with in a home? Are they single, married, divorced, widowed? How many children?

Educational Level

Hobbies:

Work History: currently working/profession, disabled, unemployed, retired?

Legal history: past hx, any current issues?

Trauma history: Any childhood or adult history of trauma?

Violence Hx: Concern or issues about safety (personal, home, community, sexual (current & historical)

Medical History: This section contains any illnesses, surgeries, include any hx of seizures, head injuries.

Current Medications: Include dosage, frequency, length of time used, and reason for use. Also include OTC or homeopathic products.

Allergies: Include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately. Provide a description of what the allergy is (e.g., angioedema, anaphylaxis). This will help determine a true reaction vs. intolerance.

Reproductive Hx: Menstrual history (date of LMP), Pregnant (yes or no), Nursing/lactating (yes or no), contraceptive use (method used), types of intercourse: oral, anal, vaginal, other, any sexual concerns

ROS: Cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis. Please note: THIS IS DIFFERENT from a physical examination!

You should list each system as follows: General: Head: EENT: etc. You should list these in bullet format and document the systems in order from head to toe.

Example of Complete ROS:

GENERAL: No weight loss, fever, chills, weakness, or fatigue.

HEENT: Eyes: No visual loss, blurred vision, double vision, or yellow sclerae. Ears, Nose, Throat: No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose, or sore throat.

SKIN: No rash or itching.

CARDIOVASCULAR: No chest pain, chest pressure, or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.

RESPIRATORY: No shortness of breath, cough, or sputum.

GASTROINTESTINAL: No anorexia, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood.

GENITOURINARY: Burning on urination, urgency, hesitancy, odor, odd color

NEUROLOGICAL: No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness, or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control.

MUSCULOSKELETAL: No muscle, back pain, joint pain, or stiffness.

HEMATOLOGIC: No anemia, bleeding, or bruising.

LYMPHATICS: No enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC: No reports of sweating, cold, or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.

Physical exam (If applicable and if you have opportunity to perform—document if exam is completed by PCP): From head to toe, include what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History. Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head-to-toe format i.e., General: Head: EENT: etc.

Diagnostic results: Include any labs, X-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines).


A

ssessment

Mental Status Examination: For the purposes of your courses, this section must be presented in paragraph form and not use of a checklist! This section you will describe the patient’s appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought processes, thought content, perceptions (hallucinations, pseudohallucinations, illusions, etc.)., cognition, insight, judgment, and SI/HI. See an example below. You will modify to include the specifics for your patient on the above elements—DO NOT just copy the example. You may use a preceptor’s way of organizing the information if the MSE is in paragraph form.

He is an 8-year-old African American male who looks his stated age. He is cooperative with examiner. He is neatly groomed and clean, dressed appropriately. There is no evidence of any abnormal motor activity. His speech is clear, coherent, normal in volume and tone. His thought process is goal directed and logical. There is no evidence of looseness of association or flight of ideas. His mood is euthymic, and his affect appropriate to his mood. He was smiling at times in an appropriate manner. He denies any auditory or visual hallucinations. There is no evidence of any delusional thinking.   He denies any current suicidal or homicidal ideation. Cognitively, he is alert and oriented. His recent and remote memory is intact. His concentration is good. His insight is good. 

Differential Diagnoses: You must have at least three differentials with supporting evidence. Explain what rules each differential in or out and justify your primary diagnosis selection. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

Also included in this section is the reflection. Reflect on this case and discuss whether or not you agree with your preceptor’s assessment and diagnostic impression of the patient and why or why not. What did you learn from this case? What would you do differently?

Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrating critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

References

You are required to include at least three evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 7th edition formatting.

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