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2-4 pa ges

Regarding an aspect of a contract protest. You will need to explain what is a contract protest, who usually makes the protest and why is the protest process important to government contracting. You should research this topic.

This link is also a valuable resource to understand the protest process. Link: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40228.pdf

SBA Protests Link: https://www.sba.gov/contracting/contracting-officials/protests

APA format
double-spaced
Times New Roman, 12 point.

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Course: S_ED 0300-01 Education and Society

PTEA 1 & PTEA 2
Students are responsible for completing a PTEA per assigned readings/video every other
week.

PTEA 3
Assignment: You have the option to submit a PTEA (same template as previous weeks)
based on the above video. Or, you have the option to submit a written reflection (Microsoft
word document) based on the above video documentary. If You choose the option to do a
written reflection, be sure to address the below questions:

-Based on the above documentary video: Is there a such thing as a school to prison
pipeline? If so, in what ways do schools function like prisons (consider all aspects of
schooling via teacher/staff/institutional practices, special education programming etc).
What role do you believe the education system played in resulting in these youths ending
up in CYA? If there is something wrong that you saw in this video regarding the California
Youth Authority, be sure to convey why. Or, if you feel like the approach of “punishment” or
rehabilitation with California Youth Authority is correct, convey why.

Midterm
In this midterm, you will be presented with several different videos and images for you to
analyze. Based on the images/videos presented, you are required to determine what is
your split second (first reaction) based on what you see in the video. How do you make
meaning of what you see in each video/image? If there is something empowering, good,
wrong, inappropriate, bad, or confusing based on what you see in the image: Be sure to
NAME IT, explain so, then explain why you have concluded what you did in your analysis
of the image. Furthermore, you are then required to determine and address what is justice
to you, based on what you see in the images. Why have you determined what is deemed
as justice in these images? You must select at least 5 different videos for your analysis
https://www.ebony.com/news/picture-of-black-and-white-kids-sitting-separately-in-
south-africa-goes-viral/

Final
Building off of course content (weekly PTEA readings/videos, your construction of
education and justice from your midterm etc): Students are required to submit a manifesto
for how education should function in society.

——What is a general definition of education and how does the education system currently
function in the U.S.A? What is an existing problem in education that you want to address?
What is your own definition of education as a foundation for how you think the education
system should function in society? (Feel free to use content from your readings and
midterm to address this question if you want)? ——-

Now that you have constructed the problem in education that you want to focus on: What
does justice look like to you in solving your education problem? Who is responsible for
applying justice in education? Is it the families and people of the community, or is it the
government/education system or individual teachers/administration’s responsibility to apply
justice? Or all the above? How important is “street justice/rebellion/revolution?” Or is
revolution not “justifiable” to you? What would a revolution look like to you if you believe
this to be a necessary step to an equitable education system?

——- Conclusion

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California Youth Authority- “Punishment” and Rehabilitation

School to prison pipeline is a trend where minors are pushed to juvenile and criminal

justice systems. It is an issue of concern that mostly affects students from poor backgrounds,

those who have suffered abuse of various manners that eventually makes them withdrawn or

develop self defense mechanisms such as being rude or vulgar. Taking insights from the CYA

documentary we see that this trend is present, criminal systems have a lot of minors.

Schools have striking similarities with prisons. They are both aimed at changing one’s

character. Like in public schools, prisons have severe punishments for any disciplinary action. In

the CYA documentary, young prisoners were seriously punished for producing some lost metals.

Marcus even had to undergo an x-ray which fortunately tested negative. Some of them

underwent serious search up to the balls. Just like in schools, prisons too have staff who help

maintain order and see through smooth running of activities (Carlos Maldonado, 2019). Prisons

have teaching staff who offer training on skill based learning to prisoners. Special education

program. These programs are more on guidance, counselling aimed at determining if one is

suitable to successfully go out and continue with their normal life, from the CYA documentary, a

team of staff are interrogating one of the inmates who certainly gives reasons why he should be

released. Just like schools, prisons stress on order and silence. Inmates are at all times required to

be orderly and perform their duties with due diligence, the CYA documentary shows that a

violation of order is punishable and there is negative reinforcement, just like it is in schools.

Schools have uniforms, this goes to an extent that things are done in a uniform manner, prisons

too have uniforms. Things are done procedurally, there are set times for doing what ought to be

done. Lunch is served within a regular time frame, walking is done at the set time frame as well.

To a greater extent, the education system has contributed to pushing these learners to

juvenile prisons. Students need tolerance when dealt with. Minor mistakes should be dealt with

by counselling and provide guidance where necessary. The school system has practiced zero

tolerance to indiscipline that imposes severe punishment. Many students have been expelled

while others are suspended. Coming from poverty ridden families, these students are not able to

make a reverse entry to school. Some of the students have been expelled due very minor

mistakes such as bringing nail cutters to schools.

Inadequate resources and a failing school system has also created high dropout rates. As

pointed out earlier, most of the students come from poor backgrounds. When the school system

does not provide funding I extras like textbooks or even special educational services, which to a

greater extent would help in molding students character. At times the school system is under

pressure from test-based scores accountability regimes. This leads to pushing out low performing

students in a bid to boost the average test scores.

The engagement of courts in juvenile cases and eventually detention is another hallmark

failure of the school system resulting in a school to prison pipeline. These detention facilities as

shown in the CYA documentary do not provide educational services. Students of color are more

susceptible to detention than their white peers even for minor mistakes. It becomes very difficult

for these students to make a comeback after going down the pipeline to jail.

I am of the opinion that the CYA is doing pretty well and that in as much as there may be

a little negativity that is associated with them, the goodness outweighs them. The end result

would create better young Turks who will transcend from their criminal ways to better people

who would be of great help to the society. The “Tattooed Tears” video shows us the efforts of the

authority to bring out responsible youths. Education is offered which is paramount for shaping

up responsibility. The staffs are very mindful about the welfare of the kids, there is a close follow

up, when Ronnie wanted to commit suicide, the staffs were able to note him in time, they locked

him up in a secure isolated room which in my opinion shows that there is neglect. The young

inmates are also given an opportunity to speak out. The young kid Brian speaks about the

chances he has out there, and the staff give him an ear and attention he wanted at that time.

References

Carlos Maldonado (2019). “Tattooed Tears” 1979 CYA Documentary. [Video] YouTube.

Schiff, M. (2018). Can restorative justice disrupt the ‘school-to-prison pipeline?’. Contemporary

Justice Review , 21 (2),

121-139. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10282580.2018.1455509?

casa_token=dWdV3duVDHIAAAAA:4Vqkp6yVO9dm5ENsoWUQo4shkrk_a2z

OIqhpuVfphIFq-XID7_4sbMFGXE8hLEFwlyiBDwTaeiSN0zTl

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1

DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION IN SCHOOLS

Diversity and inclusion are two issues increasingly being discussed in schools around the

country. There is a growing movement to incorporate children with varying abilities in the

classroom. Less homogeneous schools need curricular changes to accommodate a greater range

of students. It is diver stating that diversity and inclusion have not been yet fully embraced in our

institutions and our societies and illustrated in various videos that are provided in this reading,

such as the video “Why don’t you stay in Mexico?” and in the south African class picture where

black and white kids sit separately. Children in the 21st-century classroom come from more

different backgrounds, making it natural that educational settings must educate children about

“diversity” in an effective manner and must thus use pedagogical techniques that improve

comprehension ( Cary Jr, et al., 2020) . Regardless of their cultural background, language, skills,

or impairments, all students should be welcomed and supported in the classroom and given the

greatest chance to learn.

Quality and human rights are the focus of inclusive education. Inclusion is more than just

a matter of semantics and legalese. It’s all about treating everyone with dignity and mutual

respect, which means embracing people from all walks of life. Inclusion in education is all about

removing obstacles to learning! Treating all children equally and without prejudice is the goal!

As a result, their use of verbs such as treating suggests that those are treating them with the

power to significantly impact their state and status. However, the meaning of inclusion can be

very broad depending on the content of different settings and frequently depends on the context

in which it is used. The broad concept of equal opportunity in all domains is how some writers

describe inclusion. According to some, the urge to eliminate disparities is based on the principle

of inclusion. Government actions, in particular, might be argued to undercut the objective of an

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inclusive school! With the persistent exclusion of students based on disability and poor academic

achievement and competition and selection between and within schools, Children with

impairments aren’t the only ones who benefit from inclusive practices. All sorts of diversity,

including gender, ethnicity, are covered.

Regardless of their background, ensuring that every kid is a member of the learning

community is one of the most important tasks in education; all students may reach their full

potential and have their skills and limitations acknowledged if the school is inclusive. All

students must have access to a diverse range of educational opportunities for educational

fairness. Students get many educational, social, and cognitive advantages when inclusion and

respect for diversity are prioritized in the educational system.

Children and their families will have to deal with a wide range of different experiences

throughout their lives! Educational institutions are tasked with facilitating the integration of

students from diverse backgrounds and guiding them most professionally feasible. In the

classroom, there has always been a wide range of students. However, it’s critical to accept and

make good use of this newfound freedom in today’s world.

A child’s language results from and is a part of social contact. Families, communities, and

children’s connection with each other are critical. Freud and Piaget were both convinced that

personal experiences were the source of knowledge and understanding ( Porter, 2020 ). Because

children may not get the same support at home, school environments must foster an appreciation

for difference and diversity from the perspective of others. Given Freud’s view that influences

are formed subconsciously at a young age, practitioners might benefit from encouraging young

people to think positively about difficult subjects, including disabilities, race, gender, and

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socioeconomic background. Rather than keeping these subjects a secret, it is healthier for

children’s development if they are freely and intelligently addressed.

Teachers and parents serve as role models for their students; therefore, they should have

a positive attitude and practice to show that they value compassion, justice, equality, and respect

for one another. The early stages of a child growing up and the creation of their personality are

critical times for teaching respect and tolerance to others who are different from oneself, and if

instructors and parents fail to do so, the children will pick up on this behavior. So teachers need

to take a critical look at their attitudes and values to find out what needs to be improved or

changed, better understand the school’s diversity, and better recognize possible barriers and how

to overcome them to promote inclusion in the school environment.

Educators may better serve their students by not making assumptions about their learners’

origins, interests, talents, specific needs, and positive characteristics if they refrain from doing

so. The significance of diversity and the best practices for avoiding prejudice must also be kept

front and center. Schools and instructors are responsible for ensuring that anti-discriminatory

practices (and not discrimination) are encouraged in their policies and practices.

Identifying and combating bigotry is an excellent way to live a more inclusive life. A

teacher’s job is to stand up for and defend the rights of all of their students. They need to be

aware of it and not excuse it when it occurs. Teachers have a responsibility to uphold the rights

of their students. When we say “rights,” we mean the right to be supported, understood, and

educated on what is required of us, how to behave ethically, and how to have a strong feeling of

self-worth and belonging amongst our peers. As parents, we should try to prevent circumstances

in which the kid feels overlooked, that their needs are being disregarded, or that they are inferior

to others.

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References

Mom Confronts Principal after she says Daughter Disciplined over MAGA Gear (full length) –

YouTube

Picture of Black and White Kids Sitting Separately in South Africa Goes Viral • EBONY

‘The only kids that disrespect me are black kids’: speaker challenges St. Louis high school

students – YouTube

Jeff Bliss, a High School student gives a lesson to his teacher at Duncanville [Original] –

YouTube

‘Why didn’t you stay in Mexico?’ Diversity and inclusion meeting turns volatile at Michigan

school – YouTube

Cary Jr, M. P., Randolph, S. D., Broome, M. E., & Carter, B. M. (2020, November). Creating a

culture that values diversity and inclusion: An action‐oriented framework for schools of

nursing. In Nursing Forum (Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 687-694).

Porter, G. L. (2020). Meeting the challenge: Inclusion and diversity in Canadian

schools. EDUCATION CANADA-TORONTO- , 44 (1), 48-51.

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Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework and Literature

Theoretical Framework: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E.

Although MOB is a program at an academic institution, MOB’s success as a

program cannot solely be understood in the traditional standard of academic achievement.

While academic achievement is an outcome and students do reach academic/traditional

success through forms of resistance: MOB’s focus centers around issues related to

identity and consciousness. Likewise, this study is not about measuring academic

success, it is about how students experience and resist racialization and the interventions

that MOB provides to these experiences. In this respect, academic success outcomes that

were found in this study must be placed in context with how students resist racialization.

It just so happen that the confidence students have built to resist racism by being

affirmed in their urban Black male identities found in this study: Was also a confidence

that reflected how these authentic hood Black males (who expressed themselves in a way

that is counter to Eurocentric norms and values) were also the kids on campus getting A’s

and Bs and serving as leaders on campus. In this case, while academic achievement is an

outcome for these students, their processes and experiences of racialization is the focus in

measuring their success in MOB. Measuring success the MOB way, the Black masses

way: Is to celebrate the Black man that uses his political racialization to “bang on the

system” while still achieving academic success within that same system as praxis to

change the system through education.

Moreover, to also celebrate the Black man that says “fuck the system and fuck

school” and choose to not want to engage within the system at all-and instead focus their

energy on creating their own Black system. The main focus in both these cases, is that

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these students are navigating their experiences of alienation in a way that is authentic to

their own meaning making systems that is grounded in the urban Black community and

culture that they stand from. Whatever produces from this above stated grounding, is

whatever produces.

Because MOB is a program that is rooted in the experiences of urban Black

males, the program aligns itself with many of the principles espoused by Tupac Shakur.

These principles are central to the work of the program itself. In order to adequately

measure how the program utilizes these principles in helping students navigate processes

of racialization, this dissertation uses a new set of concepts related to Tupac Shakur’s

development of T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. These concepts allow me to explore and make sense of

the experiences of MOB students.

The Hate U Gave Little Infants Fucks Everyone (T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E or Thug Life)

framework of Tupac Shakur within Hip Hop in particular, is a new type of Black cultural

capital that instills confidence, racial pride, and resiliency in Black people to utilize their

struggles as a source of empowerment that allows them to navigate life against all odds

(Shakur,1992). Black males identify with Thug Life as it means the hate that has been

bestowed upon Black men as young children seeds of oppression, will eventually blow up

in the faces of colonial systems (Shakur, 1993). Shakur further conveys that a thug is a

person who comes from rough conditions and who is oppressed, that still rises above to

empower themselves against oppressive power structures (Shakur, 1993). In connection

to community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005), Thug Life is embedded in forms of

communal, familial, cultural and resistant (protection of Black community members)

capital nurtured through the code of Thug Life for Black men and women.

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Thug Life as a Conceptual Framework

Thug Life as a Conceptual Framework; Stages of Consciousness
They don’t give a fuck about us Recognition of inequality/individualized

racism and dehumanization

I Guess It’s Cause We Black That We
Targets

Recognition of a community of the

oppressed

Conquer the Enemy Armed With
Education

Recognition of communal
struggle/solidarity

Never Ignorant Getting Goals
Accomplished

Political praxis rooted in racial alienation:

MOBISM

There are four key concepts that I have developed related to Thug Life. These

provide an opportunity to understand the experiences of MOB students with nuance and

depth. Below I provide a conceptualization of each of these concepts. In this study, I use

these concepts as a framework to do a discourse analysis in which I am looking for these

themes in the data.

They don’t give a fuck about us
(Recognition of inequality/individualized racism and dehumanization)

One theme that emerged from the data was student recognition of racism. Several

students expressed frustration over feelings that they were frequently subjected to racial

discrimination. These sentiments are captured in the Tupac song, “they don’t give a fuck

about us.” In this song, Tupac describes the racial oppression that Blacks are confronted

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with on a global scale. I use this concept to describe a beginning stage in the development

of consciousness when students realize the discrimination that they face based on their

Blackness. Students describe a process of understanding the reality of what they must

face as Black people. This experience with racism often follows them to campus.

Although during this stage, students often speak of individualized experiences of racism,

such as “I” and “me,” they begin to make connections between individual and collective

experiences with racism. This understanding is captured in the Tupac phrase “they don’t

give a fuck about us.”

I guess it’s cause we Black that we targets
(Recognition of a community of the oppressed)

In this stage, students make clear connections with their personal experiences with

racism to structural forms of domination. For example, students begin to realize that they

are part of a community of others that share a common experience with racism. In this

stage students often use words like “we” and “us” when speaking about racism. These

sentiments are captured in the Tupac song, “letter to the president;” in particular, the line

from the song “I guess it’s cause we Black that we targets.” In this line, Tupac describes

the racial oppression that Blacks face on a systematic level as a community that

experiences this shared struggle. I use this concept to describe a another stage in the

development of consciousness when students realize the discrimination that they face

based on their Blackness on the individual level (personal experiences with

discrimination on campus and in the real world outside of campus), are experiences that

Black men face as a collective. Students describe a process of understanding that they are

part of a community of Blacks that experience discrimination. This experience with

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racism often extends beyond the college campus. Although this is a stage where students

often speak of experiences of racism as a community, such as “we” and “us,” they also

begin to develop a sense of pride in this collective struggle and begin to gain a

consciousness,- a Black identity, that is grounded in their community struggle. This

understanding is captured in the Tupac phrase “I guess it’s cause we Black that we

targets.”

Conquer the enemy armed with education
(Recognition of communal struggle/solidarity)

Solorzano utilized methods of qualitative inquiry and counter storytelling to

examine the construct of student resistance through her Latino/Latina critical race theory

framework (Solorzano, 2001). In the “conquer the enemy armed with education” stage,

students begin to identify the need to resist collectively against the forms of racism that

they have identified. Students begin to develop a collective sense of pride in the same

cultural attributes that they are often chastised for. In other words, students see their

Blackness as both tying them to a community of the oppressed and as an archive for

resistance. During this stage, students begin to identify the need to educate themselves in

order to resist the racism that they are facing. These sentiments are captured in the Tupac

song, “words of wisdom;” in particular, the line from the song “conquer the enemy armed

with education.” In this line, Tupac defines education as knowledge of self/culture and

the historical struggle that Blacks face as a collective. Tupac uses education as a political

praxis to establish collective Black pride, grounded in collective Black struggle, to resist

oppression. I use this concept to describe a stage where students development a

consciousness to use their education to resist aspects of discrimination by constructing

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solutions to their collective Black struggles. This understanding is captured in the Tupac

phrase “conquer the enemy armed with education.”

Never Ignorant Getting Goals Accomplished
(Political praxis rooted in racial alienation: MOBISM)

In this stage of development students begin to engage in political praxis rooted in

their sense of pride in being Black. Students have recognized their shared experiences

with racism, have expressed a collective affirmation in their Blackness and have made a

commitment to resist the structures that they have identified. These sentiments are

captured in the Tupac phrase, “N.I.G.G.A: Never Ignorant Getting Goals Accomplished.”

In this phrase, Tupac has expressed a political praxis that is grounded in pride in

collective Black struggle-producing an individual and collective commitment to resist

discrimination in a way that is for the Black community and by the Black community. I

use this concept to describe a stage where students development a consciousness, an

eternal commitment to justice by the means of whatever justice looks like to the

collective Black community and themselves as individual members of that community.

Whether it be students’ commitment to engaging and building with the urban

Black youth, wanting to be part of and/or lead a revolution, or utilize their Black pride to

resist discrimination in their personal encounters in school/life: Their justice aspirations

are completely grounded in their own meaning making systems in alignment with the

collective oppressed Black masses. This understanding is captured in the Tupac phrase

“N.I.G.G.A: Never Ignorant Getting Goals Accomplished.” Dyson conveyed the term

nigga in connection with Thug Life as a praxis to judge and critique the anti-Black

society that constructed the term nigger in the first place (Dyson, 2006). The phrase

“Nigger,” is a term used to insult Blacks and push a subservient identity that is under

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White coloniality. “Nigga,” in contrast, is the Black counter term to Nigger that is

embedded in Black pride and empowerment in a collective struggle to overthrow the very

institution that created the term Nigger (Dyson, 2006).

MOB helps to facilitate these stages as it provides a space for students to reflect

critically on their shared experiences. In connection to counter storytelling to examine the

construct of student resistance (Solorzano, 2001): Resistance in this study is defined as

students resisting whiteness by privileging Blackness via how students show up as their

authentic Black selves via dress apparel (in a way that counters white norms), how they

resist racist experiences in school by continuing to persist and assert themselves in racist

encounters on campus in a way where they refuse to be shut down academically;

furthermore, resisting whiteness by creating programs that engage the larger Black

community by working with Black youth in a way that is authentic to them-without any

regard for how the institution thinks they should function. Each of these key concepts are

central to Tupac’s Thug Life framework and form the foundation of my analysis. Each of

these concepts operate within the framework of a political philosophy and praxis that is

rooted in the experiences of the oppressed Black masses.

It is important to understand that these themes operate in a context that is “strictly

for my niggaz.” In other words, solidarity with the Black masses is the defining feature of

each concept. What is key here, is that Tupac is mapping a political philosophy that

articulates a notion of justice, success, identity and solidarity that is in accordance with

one’s own worldview. In other words, success is not defined from the outside, again, this

is a key departure from Eurocentric notions of Black life. This will allow us to interpret

the experiences of students within MOB in a different light.

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Aspects of the code of Thug life convey that Carjacking in the hood is against the

code, selling drugs to children is against the code, slanging drugs to pregnant Black

women is against the code and having children of the community sell drugs is against the

code (Shakur, 1992). Other codes hold that the police do not control anything in the

Black community and instead the community does (Shakur, 1992). Furthermore, those

who live the code of the Thug Life must make the community safe and protect it at all

times (Shakur, 1992). These key elements of Thug Life are rooted in themes of

community, racial pride, solidarity and a sense of protection/militancy against oppressive

forces such as the police as a function of racial justice. Thug Life as Tupac Shakur

conveys, reflects Black experiences with racism and oppression as a means to counter

colonialism and survive (Shakur, 1992).

Literature

This work explores the experience of MOB students with racialization and

attempts to highlight the forms of resistance that these students have developed. In this

way, this study differs from most studies on college retention programs. Although some

studies acknowledge that students face racism, their primary concern is on the program

itself, not on the process of student experiences with racism. This study explicitly

explores this process. It attempts to analyze the ways students both experience racism and

develop strategies to navigate that racism. I focus on how MOB serves as a tool for

students to deal with these experiences.

The problem with much of the literature is that it focuses on academic success and

not on this process. Therefore, much of the literature is not sufficient for understanding

how students develop a critical consciousness. In other words, a student could say “fuck

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school.” Much of the literature would understand that as academic failure. However,

there is something more nuanced happening and in order to see what is happening we

need to develop a new framework. That framework is provided by Tupac Shakur.

In connecting this larger issue of racism to Black male engagement and retention,

the Thug Life framework is critical to addressing the problem of anti-Black male identity.

Thug Life, as mentioned above, is an anti-deficit narrative of culture and power that must

be tapped into to impact Black male success. Existing literature on what leads to Black

male departure in higher education and what engages Black males on campus to impact

their success surrounds themes of Black male identity focusing on the following: Racism,

racial affirmation, and cultural validation in relation to what impacts Black male sense of

belonging and engagement on campus.

Racism and Black Male Educational Experiences

There is much literature that discusses the impact that racism in the college

institution has on Black male student attitudes, experiences and retention in education

(Harper, 2006). Black males experience discrimination in the classroom and have

negative attitudes towards education and school importance especially when there is no

sense of racial centrality (educational material and practices that are centered around their

racialized experiences) in their education (Chavous, 2008). In examining the influences

of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes for

Black adolescents, Chavous examined relationships among racial identity, school-based

racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent

Black boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11. Methods included 410 African American

adolescents (n 204 boys and n 206 girls). Findings demonstrate that centrality moderated

43

the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed

across gender (Chavous, 2008).

Findings further convey that girls had significantly higher 11th-grade GPAs and

academic self-concepts than did boys. However, the Boys in this study reported more

classroom and peer discrimination (Chavous, 2008). For boys, higher racial centrality

related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades (Chavous,

2008). This data is important because it emphasizes how racism and affirmed racialized

experiences is an important factor in Black male outcomes for better or worse. Black

males facing racism and discrimination from the education institution results in low

attitudes towards education. Yet, when their educational experience centers on their racial

identity and experiences (racial centrality), lower school importance attitudes are

diminished (Chavous, 2008).

In connection, Shaun Harper looked at Black male experiences with

discrimination at the college level in addition and explored themes of racial centrality via

Black males being validated in their identities and lived experiences (and the implications

for this) in a quantitative study. In a national survey of student engagement consisting of

844,000 respondents, the survey found that more than two-thirds (67 percent) of Black

males who start college do not graduate within 6 years, -the lowest completion rates

among both sexes and all racial groups in higher education (Harper, 2006). Respondents

indicated that encounters with racism and stereotyping from majority white faculty and

staff in the classroom and other functions of the college institution contributed to students

having imposture syndrome and feeling like they do not belong on campus (Harper,

44

2006). Methods featured a report from 50 PWI’s on Black male experiences and

retention.

In continued findings, many Black male student survey responses conveyed that

Black males had to contend with feelings of alienation, isolation, racism, discrimination

and environmental incompatibility (not able to relate or have a real connection to the

campus) (Harper, 2006). Based on findings from the study, harper implied that

institutions need to maintain affirmative action and race based college admissions

policies (Harper, 2006). Furthermore, institutions must invest in more ethnic based

programs such as Gear Up and hire more Black male faculty and staff to validate the

racialized experiences of Black male students on campus (Harper 2006). This literature is

significant because it looks at the general problem of Black male retention based on the

numbers as well as a glimpse of the experiences that Black males face that impacts their

retention. Like the Chavous study, findings from Harper’s study indicates that racism and

Black males not having their lived experiences affirmed on campus results in less

engagement on campus for Black males and subsequently low graduation rates. In

combatting this victim narrative, Black male racial centrality (having their racialized

experiences affirmed via campus programming or faculty and staff) impacts their success

in a positive way (Harper 2006). These implications, again, applies and can be traced

back to Black male experiences at the K-12 level.

Through semi structured individual interviews of Black high school student

experiences in a Youth Participatory Action Research Program (YPAR), Elan Hope

examined how Black high school students understand issues of racial discrimination and

inequality in their schools. Through semi-structured individual interviews conducted

45

early in the program, eight students (including 6 Black males) recount experiences of

racial stereotyping, discrimination from teachers and staff, lack of institutional support

and lack of racial diversity in curricular offerings (Hope, 2014). Findings reveal that

student interactions with teachers play a pivotal role in the development of achievement

and social competence (Hope, 2014). This is critical as it conveys how teachers, faculty,

and administrators in K-12 and higher education serve as key agents of school-based

racial socialization. Directly related, Black youth receive messages about what it means

to be both Black and a student through their interactions with their teachers (Hope, 2014).

Students from each school district indicated at least one personal experience in which a

teacher or school staff member treated them unjustly based on race. The above literature

looks at themes of racial discrimination, alienation and negative stereotyping that has

been a problem that Black males face in K-12 and higher. However, much literature also

focuses on Black male racialized experiences in both k-12 and higher education from a

high achieving anti-deficit lens.

Hotchkins used a qualitative case study approach to explore how African

American male collegians embody and perform various forms of excellence within a

predominantly White college institution (PWI). Data was collected using three semi-

structured interviews, a brief in-person follow-up interview, and three observations of

participants on how they contextualized the resulting interview data. Hotchkins found

that participants’ experiences with anti-Black racism fostered higher ordered critical

thinking, resiliency, and a reinforced commitment to social justice via collegiate

excellence outcomes (Hotchkins, 2008). While this literature looks at student experiences

from an anti-deficit framework emphasizing a positive narrative of resiliency based on

46

encounters with racism, it is still connected to the above literatures in that it focusses on

Black males racialized experiences in higher education that impact their educational

outcomes and retention.

Harper, Hotchkins, Hope, and Chavous looks at Black male student experiences

and factors such as racial discrimination amongst educators. In alignment, William

Tierney looked at functions of the higher education institution and implications for not

validating Black male identity in connection to departure and low retention rates of

students. This study was intentional in holding that Vincent Tinto’s theory of college

student retention misses the mark for minority students, Black males in particular

(Tierney, 1999). In utilizing program observations and student narrative interviews on

Black student experiences in a college prep based program; Tierney’s study featured a 3-

year program evaluation that focused on student experiences with a college preparation

and retention program (NWI) that served high school students from inner-city South

Central neighborhoods and supported students through college.

Tierney maintained that Vincent Tinto’s theory of college student retention misses

the mark for minority students by holding that students must assimilate to the dominant

cultural mainstream and abandon their ethnic identities to succeed in predominately white

Colleges. Findings from this study demonstrate how students specified that the cultural

and community validation from the program had the strongest impact on student

confidence to persist in higher education (Tierney, 1999). Based on findings, Tierney

conveyed that instead of students of color at PWI’s undergoing initiation rites that lead to

their cultural suicide: Cultural Integrity, a cultural model of academic life that affirms

who they are, instead of rejects, would have a profound impact on students’ retention and

47

success as they are validated on campus (Tierney, 1999). There is much literature that

looks at models of academic life that affirms who Black male students are, in respect to

culture and race, to impact their engagement and retention on campus.

Race: Validating Black Males Lived Experiences

Harper looked at Black male issues of racial discrimination in higher education

and how Black males have resisted discrimination and found belonging on campus to

impact their retention. Harpers study is significant in that it focuses on Black males who

succeed in higher education in contrast to much existing literature that looks at Black

male problems in higher education that result in low graduation rates. In this research,

harper conducted interviews with Black male achievers at 30 predominantly white

colleges and universities.

Findings reveal that students were frequently confirmed with stereotypes but

overcame them by partaking in leadership roles, engagement in student organizations

(Black organizations and spaces for ethnic minorities) (Harper, 2012). Findings also

convey that Black faculty/leaders on campus serve the purpose of empowering Black

students to resist stereotypes on campus. By doing so, this affirms students to resist and

counter their negative experiences (Harper, 2012). Example, one student explained that

being able to engage with other Black male faculty/staff on campus who could resonate

with their struggles empowered students to feel confident in challenging campus peers

and professors whenever students are subjugated to racial stereotypes. In connection with

the literatures discussed thus far, this data provides an understanding that when students

do have a connection to campus, it is when their racial and cultural experiences are

validated by faculty and staff programming that empowers them to persist.

48

Brooms further explored this racialized and cultural validation that empowers

Black males in his study of Black male experiences in the college Black Male Initiative

(BMI) Program. In the multisite study, he explored the impact of the BMI program on

Black Male students college experiences across three separate campuses. As theoretical

frameworks, he used Yosso’s community cultural wealth and Strayhorn’s belonging

models to investigate how the participants made meaning from their

5

Course Syllabus

Course Description

Learners analyze organizational development (OD) processes that are designed to improve organizational effectiveness.
These OD processes are systematic, long-term efforts that focus on the human and social elements of organizational
change.

Course Textbook(s)

Rothwell, W. J., Stopper, A. L. M., & Myers, J. L. (Eds.). (2017). Assessment and diagnosis for organization development:
Powerful tools and perspectives for the OD practitioner. CRC Press.
https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781315310596

Course Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Evaluate the organizational development (OD) processes and how they are applied to bring about change.
2. Develop the use of self for leading the organizational development (OD) process.
3. Evaluate how processes used in organizational interventions are designed to effectively promote change that is

supported by organization members.
4. Demonstrate how organizational development (OD) processes are used to diagnose organizational problems, design

strategies for change, communicate the strategies, and adapt organizational resources to accomplish changes
necessary to achieve its goals.

5. Evaluate the use of action research for the organizational development (OD) process.
6. Evaluate the effectiveness of sustained organizational development (OD) interventions and what they mean for

organizational success.

Academic Integrity

Honesty and integrity are taken very seriously at Waldorf University. All students should be familiar with the Waldorf
University Academic Integrity Policy (found in the current Student Handbook) and the consequences that will result from
breaches of this policy.

Credits

Upon completion of this course, the students will earn 3.00 hours of college credit.

Course Structure

1. Study Guide: Course units contain a Study Guide that provides students with the learning outcomes, unit lesson,
required reading assignments, and supplemental resources.

2. Learning Outcomes: Each unit contains Learning Outcomes that specify the measurable skills and knowledge
students should gain upon completion of the unit.

3. Unit Lesson: Unit Lessons, which are located in the Study Guide, discuss lesson material.
4. Reading Assignments: Units contain Reading Assignments from one or more chapters from the textbook and/or

outside resources.
5. Suggested Reading: Suggested Readings are listed within the Study Guide. Students are encouraged to read the

resources listed if the opportunity arises, but they will not be tested on their knowledge of the Suggested Readings.
6. Learning Activities (Nongraded): Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of

ORG 6800, Organization
Development

ORG 6800, Organization Development 1

study.
7. Discussion Boards: Students are required to submit Discussion Board posts in Units I-VIII. Discussion Boards

provide students the opportunity for student-to-student and professor-to-student interaction based on relevant course
concepts and ideas. Specific information about accessing the Discussion Board rubric is provided below.

8. Unit Assignments: Students are required to submit for grading Unit Assignments. Specific information and
instructions regarding these assignments are provided below. Grading rubrics are included with each assignment.
Specific information about accessing these rubrics is provided below.

9. Ask the Professor: This communication forum provides students with an opportunity to ask their professor general
questions or questions related to course content.

10. Student Break Room: This communication forum allows for casual conversation with other classmates.

Unit Assignments

Unit I Assignment

Planning Organizational Assessment Based on Research

Throughout this course, you will prepare assignments on an organization with which you are very familiar. The assignments
are designed to prepare you for the Unit VII Final Project in which you will write a culminating report.

This assignment will consist of two parts.

Part I: Identify an organization that you currently work for or may like to work for in the future. Consider the issues or
problems that you believe need to be addressed in this organization. You will use this organization throughout the course, so
please choose a company that you know a lot about or can research. You are encouraged to start gathering your data and
research about the organization early in the course to ensure that you have ample time to complete the final project.

Submit a one-page overview of an organization that focuses on the following change areas discussed in the Unit I Lesson.
Below are the change areas and a brief description of each area. You may not use all of the areas depending on the
organization and the changes needed.

Organizational history: Taking the time to research where the organization has been will help the consultants to
understand where the organization should be in the present and also in the future.
Organizational mission: Any suggested changes should be proposed with the mission in mind to ensure that they
support the mission further.
Organization strategy: The entire organization should be considered since the operations of the entire organization need
to be addressed in order to keep the strategic plan in place.
Organization structure: The structure will impact how the change process takes place and who is involved.
Organization relationships: The relationship of the organization to the industry, the community, the suppliers, and other
stakeholders will be reviewed.
Organizational performance: Organizational performance will be assessed against the best practices of the industry.

Part II: For this portion of the assignment, you will begin to conduct the comprehensive organizational assessment for your
chosen organization. Using Table 1.1 (p. 7) in your textbook, prepare a similar table, and submit the organizational
assessment for your organization. After completing the table, provide a narrative summary of the results of the assessment
and what the next steps should be in resolving the issues/problems found. For this assignment, you only complete the
assessment; the discussion of data collection will be coming in later units. Part II should be two pages in length.

Your submission should be a minimum of three pages in length and include at least two scholarly sources. APA Style
should be used throughout the paper.

Unit II Assignment

Organization Intervention: Diagnostic Plan

Within Unit I, you chose a company that you either work for or with which you are familiar. For this assignment, please
continue with that organization. Start by providing a summary of the organization and the areas of ineffectiveness that you
believe exist within the structure.

Secondly, outline the organization’s diagnosis process. Create and complete a table that includes the following headings:

Assumptions and Opinions of Work Outputs,
Why These May Not Be True, and
What to Measure Instead.

Refer to Table 2.1 Differentiating Fact from Opinion on p. 17 of your textbook to see an example of a completed table.

After completing the table, provide a detailed written summary of the steps necessary to complete the diagnosis process.
Your steps should also include the action research model (ARM) tool that you will use as a part of the diagnosis intervention.
Chapter 3 provides additional information on the data collection process and what types of data should be collected. Be sure
to include all three levels of the organization within your assignment (i.e., organization, group, and individual levels).

Your submission should be a minimum of two pages in length and include at least two scholarly sources. APA Style should
be used throughout the paper.

ORG 6800, Organization Development 2

Unit III Assignment

Force Field Analysis

You will continue to use the organization chosen in Unit I. This unit’s assignment focuses on force field analysis.

Section 4.8 on p. 76 of your textbook outlines the steps in the force field analysis process. Using the steps and templates
provided within Chapter 4, you will complete the analysis process for your organization.

Your submission should include all of the steps and the templates provided in Section 4.8. This will include a complete and
thorough analysis of the six steps and the three templates to provide a summary.

After conducting the analysis, use appreciative inquiry’s 4D process (discover, dream, design, and destiny) to ensure that
the strengths of the organization are identified and used for the change process. Be sure to include the ways that these
strengths can be used to support the change.

Your submission should be a minimum of two pages in length and include at least two scholarly sources. APA Style should
be used throughout the paper.

Unit IV Assignment

Planning for Effective Communication and Feedback Analysis

You will continue to use the organization chosen in Unit I. This unit’s assignment focuses on the plan for the assessment
and the reasons for engaging the employees during the assessment.

To begin this assignment, you will describe an issue that you have identified in your chosen organization, and you will
provide a layout of the nine steps for the organizational development (OD) assessment. Provide details for each step, which
should include the employee engagement that will be necessary during each of the nine steps. The feedback from the
employees is crucial during the OD process since the employees are the stakeholders who have firsthand information on
the changes that are needed. Engagement from the employees should be planned for. You can use Table 5.2 on pp. 85–86
of the textbook to guide your thoughts on employee engagement during each of the nine steps.

Your submission should be a minimum of three pages in length and include at least two scholarly sources. APA Style
should be used throughout the paper.

Unit V PowerPoint Presentation

Restructuring Case Analysis

Marriot, Tata Motors, and Sony are three major companies that have gone through a complete restructuring in some area of
their organization. For this PowerPoint presentation, you will choose one of these companies to research.

For your research, you will discover what data collection methods were used in order to have the necessary data for the
restructuring process. In addition, you will research what types of data were collected. Finally, you will research how the
data was used in the restructuring process. Specifically, your submission should include the elements listed below:

1. Provide an overview of your chosen company and what issues they faced in the organizational development (OD)
process.

2. Discuss the data collection methods used and why these methods were chosen over other data collection methods.
3. Discuss the data that was collected and how this data was used in the OD process.
4. Include a summary of how the restructuring process has impacted the organization, and provide recommendations

for what you would have done differently in the data collection process.

Your presentation submission should be a minimum of 10 content slides and include at least two scholarly sources. Your
presentation should also include speaker notes for each slide. APA Style should be used throughout the presentation.

Unit VI Assignment

Organizational Analysis and Feedback

This assignment will be used as a precursor to the final project. You will continue to use the organization chosen in Unit I.

To begin this assignment, you will collect the necessary data in order to find out more information about the organization’s
problem, which you have identified in the previous units. Collect this data, and write a summary of your data collection
process and how the data was analyzed. Additionally, explain how this data will help move the organization toward success.

To collect your data, take notes on what you observe within your chosen organization, conduct informal interviews with your
peers (if possible), or conduct research. You may conduct research on the problem that you identified as it relates to your
industry, if needed.

For the second part of this assignment, prepare an outline of the data analysis and the conclusions/feedback that you will
present in your final project. You will prepare an outline based on the areas of the report that are listed below. For each area,
please write one to two sentences explaining how you can present your information:

1. Problem Presented,

ORG 6800, Organization Development 3

2. Assessment Process Overview,
3. Executive Summary of the Findings and Insights,
4. Details of Specific Findings and Insights,
5. Guidance to a Solution Set, and
6. Appendices of Data.

Your completed assignment should be a minimum of two pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You
must use a minimum of one outside source. All sources used, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced
according to APA Style.

Unit VII Final Project

Develop an Organizational Development Report for Management

During this unit, you will submit your final project. You will use the organization chosen in Unit I to finalize and complete the
organizational development (OD) for your management team. During Unit VI, you prepared an outline of your final report that
you will now complete for your management team.

Your final report should include the following sections:

1. Problem Presented,
2. Assessment Process Overview,
3. Executive Summary of the Findings and Insights,
4. Details of Specific Findings and Insights,
5. Guidance to a Solution Set, and
6. Appendices of Data.

The final report should be a minimum of five pages in length, not counting the title page and references page. You must
include a minimum of three outside sources, one of which must be from the Waldorf Online Library. All sources used,
including the textbook, must be cited and referenced according to the APA Style.

Unit VIII Reflection Paper

Reflect on the changes needed in the organization that you chose for your final project, and explain what you learned
through this experience. Use the organizational development (OD) process learning model to guide your discussion on the
likely success of the changes that you recommended in Unit VII.

Provide an introduction to the reflection paper, and also include the elements listed below in your reflection. Please use
headings that correspond to the elements below.

OD Experience
Describe your experience using the OD process. What makes this process beneficial to the organization?

OD Values
What value would OD bring to the organization? Give specific examples.

Recommended Changes
Analyze the value of the changes that you have recommended to the organization. What is the likely impact that these
changes will have on the organization?

Your Growth as a Leader
What did you learn about yourself as a leader throughout this process? How can you apply these lessons to your
future career?

Conclusions
Draw any final conclusions on your analysis of the OD process, and summarize your reflections.

Your reflection paper should be a minimum of two pages in length. Outside sources are not a requirement for this
assignment.

Submitting Course Papers/Projects

Once you have completed your papers/projects, submit your completed papers/projects by uploading through the
Assignment tab in each unit. Do not e-mail your paper directly to your professor. By using the Assignment tab, your record
will automatically be updated to indicate you have submitted your papers/projects, and the assignment will be provided to
your professor for grading. Instructions for submitting your assignment can be found under the Assignment tab in each unit.

APA Guidelines

Waldorf College requires that students use the APA style for papers and projects. Therefore, the APA rules for formatting,
quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and listing of sources are to be followed. Information about using APA style can be found in
APA Style Help in the Course Menu. This area provides links to Internet sites, tutorials, and guides that provide
comprehensive information on APA formatting, including examples and sample papers.

ORG 6800, Organization Development 4

Grading Rubrics

This course utilizes analytic grading rubrics as tools for your professor in assigning grades for all learning activities. Each
rubric serves as a guide that communicates the expectations of the learning activity and describes the criteria for each level
of achievement. In addition, a rubric is a reference tool that lists evaluation criteria and can help you organize your efforts to
meet the requirements of that learning activity. It is imperative for you to familiarize yourself with these rubrics because
these are the primary tools your professor uses for assessing learning activities.

Rubric categories include (1) Discussion Board, (2) Assessment (Written Response), and (3) Assignment. However, it is
possible that not all of the listed rubric types will be used in a single course (e.g., some courses may not have
Assessments).

The Discussion Board rubric can be found within Unit I’s Discussion Board submission instructions.

The Assessment (Written Response) rubric can be found embedded in a link within the directions for each Unit
Assessment. However, these rubrics will only be used when written-response questions appear within the Assessment.

Each Assignment type (e.g., article critique, case study, research paper) will have its own rubric. The Assignment rubrics
are built into Blackboard, allowing students to review them prior to beginning the Assignment and again once the
Assignment has been scored. This rubric can be accessed via the Assignment link located within the unit where it is to be
submitted. Students may also access the rubric through the course menu by selecting the “Grades” link.

Again, it is vitally important for you to become familiar with these rubrics because their application to your
Discussion Boards, Assessments, and Assignments is the method by which your instructor assigns all grades.

Communication Forums

These are non-graded discussion forums that allow you to communicate with your professor and other students.
Participation in these discussion forums is encouraged, but not required. You can access these forums with the buttons in
the Course Menu. Instructions for subscribing/unsubscribing to these forums are provided below.

Click here for instructions on how to subscribe/unsubscribe and post to the Communication Forums.

Ask the Professor

This communication forum provides you with an opportunity to ask your professor general or course content questions.
Questions may focus on Blackboard locations of online course components, textbook or course content elaboration,
additional guidance on assessment requirements, or general advice from other students.

Questions that are specific in nature, such as inquiries regarding assessment/assignment grades or personal
accommodation requests, are NOT to be posted on this forum. If you have questions, comments, or concerns of a non-
public nature, please feel free to email your professor. Responses to your post will be addressed or emailed by the
professor within 48 hours.

Before posting, please ensure that you have read all relevant course documentation, including the syllabus,
assessment/assignment instructions, faculty feedback, and other important information.

Student Break Room

This communication forum allows for casual conversation with your classmates. Communication on this forum should
always maintain a standard of appropriateness and respect for your fellow classmates. This forum should NOT be used to
share assessment answers.

Schedule/Grading

The following pages contain a printable Course Schedule to assist you through this course. By following this schedule, you
will be assured that you will complete the course within the time allotted.

Unit I Introduction to the Diagnosis and Assessment for Organizational Development [ Weight: 13% ]

Read/View: Unit I Study Guide
Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview of Diagnosis and Assessment for Organization
Development
Unit Resource (1 article): See Study Guide

Discuss: Unit I Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit I Assignment 11%

ORG 6800, Organization Development 5

Unit II Diagnosing the Organization [ Weight: 11% ]

Read/View: Unit II Study Guide
Chapter 2: Diagnosing and Assessing Organization Development Effectiveness
Chapter 3: Diagnostic Models Following Open Systems

Discuss: Unit II Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit II Assignment 9%

Unit III The Analysis of Environmental Forces and Organizational Readiness [ Weight: 11% ]

Read/View: Unit III Study Guide
Chapter 4: Diagnostic Models Addressing Environmental Forces and Organizational
Readiness
Unit Resource (1 article): See Study Guide

Discuss: Unit III Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit III Assignment 9%

Unit IV Planning for Organizational Development [ Weight: 13% ]

Read/View: Unit IV Study Guide
Chapter 5: Planning for Assessment and Feedback for Organization Development
Unit Resource (1 article): See Study Guide

Discuss: Unit IV Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit IV Assignment 11%

Unit V Collection and Analysis of Data for Organizational Development [ Weight: 13% ]

Read/View: Unit V Study Guide
Chapter 6: Collecting and Analyzing Data for Organization Development

Discuss: Unit V Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit V PowerPoint Presentation 11%

Unit VI The Action Plan for Organizational Development [ Weight: 12% ]

Read/View: Unit VI Study Guide
Chapter 7: Feeding Back Data and Action Planning for Organization Development
Unit Resources (2 articles): See Study Guide

Discuss: Unit VI Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit VI Assignment 10%

Unit VII The Challenges and Opportunities of Organizational Development [ Weight: 17% ]

Read/View: Unit VII Study Guide
Chapter 8: Challenges and Their Related Opportunities in Diagnosis and Assessment for
Organization Development

Discuss: Unit VII Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit VII Final Project 15%

ORG 6800, Organization Development 6

Unit VIII The Future Direction of Organizational Development [ Weight: 10% ]

Read/View: Unit VIII Study Guide
Chapter 9: Conclusion and Future Directions of Diagnosis and Assessment for Organization
Development

Discuss: Unit VIII Discussion Board 2%

Submit: Unit VIII Reflection Paper 8%

ORG 6800, Organization Development 7

  • ORG 6800, Organization Development
  • Course Syllabus
    • Course Description
    • Course Textbook(s)
    • Course Learning Outcomes
    • Academic Integrity
    • Credits
    • Course Structure
    • Unit Assignments
      • Unit I Assignment
        • Planning Organizational Assessment Based on Research
      • Unit II Assignment
        • Organization Intervention: Diagnostic Plan
      • Unit III Assignment
        • Force Field Analysis
      • Unit IV Assignment
        • Planning for Effective Communication and Feedback Analysis
      • Unit V PowerPoint Presentation
        • Restructuring Case Analysis
      • Unit VI Assignment
        • Organizational Analysis and Feedback
      • Unit VII Final Project
        • Develop an Organizational Development Report for Management
      • Unit VIII Reflection Paper
    • Submitting Course Papers/Projects
    • APA Guidelines
    • Grading Rubrics
    • Communication Forums
    • Schedule/Grading

5

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

P(ossibli)TEAs

Problem/Purpose/- State the
primary problems or purpose that the
authors are aiming to address in the
video or reading as it pertains to
education/schooling

Looking at the video in this case, the
main problem that the same is seeking to
address is the issue of racism that was
being experienced by the black people in
that time and they were being oppressed
by the government. In this case
therefore, the MOB specifically centers
on the issue of identity and
consciousness. This video therefore
captures specifically how people and
particularly students experience and
resists racialization and the interventions
that MOB provides to these specific
experiences. This video therefore looks
at an academic perspective and success,
it looks at how people and specifically
black students are treated by the
government and how this affects not
only their lives but also the academic
performance of the students. The main
purpose of this video therefore is to
understand how racism among black
students in college affects their
performance academically and how this
also makes the students rebel against the
system and decide to come up with their
own systems. This therefore aims to
celebrate the Black man that uses his
political racialization to “bang on the
system” while still achieving academic
success within that same system as
praxis to change the system through
education.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

Theories- Synthesize the main
theories (the main idea) used in the
reading or video. Ask yourself,
“what is the main idea behind what I
am seeing in this reading or video
that the author is trying to express.”

Looking at the video in this case, the
main idea surrounds T.H.U.G L.I.F.E,
this is more of like a movement that is
not only against the racialization that is
being seen in the system but also it is
against the whole system in the
government. The video specifically
looks at the system in terms of racial
activities against the blacks that are
being witnessed and also how this has
been affecting the academic success of
the students in colleges and how the
black people can come up with their own
systems that favors them. The artist in
the video is therefore trying to express
his opinions on racial issues in the
system and how the system is against the
black people and that the only way to
make the system favor them is by being
against it radically and in the process
coming up with systems that will favor
the black people academically and even
in life generally.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

Evidence/Examples- Summarize
the evidence used by the author/
scholar to test or prove the theories
presented in their work. (This should
include direct quotes from the text
or video)

The singer in this case used different
examples and evidence in the process of
proving the theory or rather the issues
that he was presenting in his song.
Through his songs, Tupac Shakur
specifically mentions different cases
where harassment which is based on
racial differences especially among the
black people is established and is
insisted on. It is therefore on this case
that for example Tupac says that “They
don’t give a fuck about us” and that “I
guess it’s because we are black that we
are targets” (2pac, 2010). This words do
in themselves propagate the aspect and
the goal of the T.H.U.G L.I.F.E. these
words and examples of the phrases that
are used in the song are specifically the
things that are needed in the process of
ensuring that as black people they do get
the confidence of standing on their own
and fighting for their rights.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

Analysis/Application/Action- Show
the significance of the reading or
video and how it applies to:

1. Your philosophical
beliefs about education/
schooling in society
2. Your personal
experience with
education/schooling as it
pertains to race and/or
class issues
3. Actions that can be
taken to address aspects of
education and establish
justice through a fair/
equity lens

The video in this case by Tupac Shakur
has a significant impact and it in
different ways does apply to my
philosophical beliefs about schooling in
the society in a way that the
radicalization presented and propagated
by the artist seeks to empower the
marginalized people and this specifically
helps in not only pushing for change but
also seeking attention from the relevant
authorities. The video in this case also
reflects my experience that is
specifically had when it comes to race in
school. The blacks in my own
experience have always been treated in a
way that is considered to be bad and not
equal and this specifically brings about
the issue of resistance and even poor
performance which only makes things
bad in the society at large. In order to
therefore bring about change and reduce
the issue of racial injustices and
unfairness, there are different things that
can be done in order to bring about the
changes and specifically in the schooling
system. One of the things that should be
done is to come up with policies that
would help in ensuring that harsh
consequences are given to those people
who are propagators of racial abuse.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

5

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

P(ossibli)TEAs

Problem/Purpose/- State the
primary problems or purpose that the
authors are aiming to address in the
video or reading as it pertains to
education/schooling

Looking at the video in this case, the
main problem that the same is seeking to
address is the issue of racism that was
being experienced by the black people in
that time and they were being oppressed
by the government. In this case
therefore, the MOB specifically centers
on the issue of identity and
consciousness. This video therefore
captures specifically how people and
particularly students experience and
resists racialization and the interventions
that MOB provides to these specific
experiences. This video therefore looks
at an academic perspective and success,
it looks at how people and specifically
black students are treated by the
government and how this affects not
only their lives but also the academic
performance of the students. The main
purpose of this video therefore is to
understand how racism among black
students in college affects their
performance academically and how this
also makes the students rebel against the
system and decide to come up with their
own systems. This therefore aims to
celebrate the Black man that uses his
political racialization to “bang on the
system” while still achieving academic
success within that same system as
praxis to change the system through
education.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

Theories- Synthesize the main
theories (the main idea) used in the
reading or video. Ask yourself,
“what is the main idea behind what I
am seeing in this reading or video
that the author is trying to express.”

Looking at the video in this case, the
main idea surrounds T.H.U.G L.I.F.E,
this is more of like a movement that is
not only against the racialization that is
being seen in the system but also it is
against the whole system in the
government. The video specifically
looks at the system in terms of racial
activities against the blacks that are
being witnessed and also how this has
been affecting the academic success of
the students in colleges and how the
black people can come up with their own
systems that favors them. The artist in
the video is therefore trying to express
his opinions on racial issues in the
system and how the system is against the
black people and that the only way to
make the system favor them is by being
against it radically and in the process
coming up with systems that will favor
the black people academically and even
in life generally.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

Evidence/Examples- Summarize
the evidence used by the author/
scholar to test or prove the theories
presented in their work. (This should
include direct quotes from the text
or video)

The singer in this case used different
examples and evidence in the process of
proving the theory or rather the issues
that he was presenting in his song.
Through his songs, Tupac Shakur
specifically mentions different cases
where harassment which is based on
racial differences especially among the
black people is established and is
insisted on. It is therefore on this case
that for example Tupac says that “They
don’t give a fuck about us” and that “I
guess it’s because we are black that we
are targets” (2pac, 2010). This words do
in themselves propagate the aspect and
the goal of the T.H.U.G L.I.F.E. these
words and examples of the phrases that
are used in the song are specifically the
things that are needed in the process of
ensuring that as black people they do get
the confidence of standing on their own
and fighting for their rights.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Dr: Ish Dissertation: Strictly 4 My Niggaz: Thug Life and My Other Brother (MOB) as Revolutionary
Praxis (Chapter 2 only)

Analysis/Application/Action- Show
the significance of the reading or
video and how it applies to:

1. Your philosophical
beliefs about education/
schooling in society
2. Your personal
experience with
education/schooling as it
pertains to race and/or
class issues
3. Actions that can be
taken to address aspects of
education and establish
justice through a fair/
equity lens

The video in this case by Tupac Shakur
has a significant impact and it in
different ways does apply to my
philosophical beliefs about schooling in
the society in a way that the
radicalization presented and propagated
by the artist seeks to empower the
marginalized people and this specifically
helps in not only pushing for change but
also seeking attention from the relevant
authorities. The video in this case also
reflects my experience that is
specifically had when it comes to race in
school. The blacks in my own
experience have always been treated in a
way that is considered to be bad and not
equal and this specifically brings about
the issue of resistance and even poor
performance which only makes things
bad in the society at large. In order to
therefore bring about change and reduce
the issue of racial injustices and
unfairness, there are different things that
can be done in order to bring about the
changes and specifically in the schooling
system. One of the things that should be
done is to come up with policies that
would help in ensuring that harsh
consequences are given to those people
who are propagators of racial abuse.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

5

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

P(ossibli)TEAs

Problem/Purpose/- State the
primary problems or purpose that the
authors are aiming to address in the
video or reading as it pertains to
education/schooling

In this reading, the authors talk about the
significance of MOB. According to the
authors, the main goal of MOB is
providing Black males a voice and a
feeling of belonging so that they may use
each other as support networks for one
another’s achievement. Unity, Black
culture, cultural validation of identity
development, and outreach to urban,
hood’ communities’ K-12 schools are at
the heart of MOB’s mission. MOB’s
mission is to cultivate kids into
academics and leaders by instilling in
them these fundamental ideals. For urban
Black adolescents, mentoring, culture,
and identity are essential to creating a
feeling of belonging.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

Theories- Synthesize the main
theories (the main idea) used in the
reading or video. Ask yourself,
“what is the main idea behind what I
am seeing in this reading or video
that the author is trying to express.”

One of the main theories in this reading
is the Black street culture. The authors
have illustrated how this type of culture
has emerged due to the continued
oppression that the black males continue
being subjected to. According to the
authors, there is systemic oppression of
black men in the United States regarding
their health and well-being. According to
the most trustworthy evidence, Black
guys are a group that suffers from a wide
range of challenges, disadvantages, and
vulnerabilities. Black males are
subjected to all manner of
discrimination. This is particularly
relevant to the treatment of Black male
students in schools. the author states that
“Black students make up only 5% of
California’s K-12 student population, yet
they make up 18% of all K-12
suspensions in the state”. There is still a
significant percentage of Black boys
being expelled from school because of
their poor academic performance and
high suspension rate. Education and
cultural content understanding will be
improved, and Black male student
agency will be fostered to reverse this
tendency.
There is also another theory of Thug
Life. According to the authors, most
male Africans grow in a culture of being
tough. Black men were portrayed as
having an unfair advantage over their
white counterparts throughout this
period.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

Evidence/Examples- Summarize
the evidence used by the author/
scholar to test or prove the theories
presented in their work. (This should
include direct quotes from the text
or video)

The authors give examples of the kind of
life they were subjected to and how it
was tough growing up as a male African
in West Oakland. He, for instance,
recounts how his uncle’s door was
kicked in by the cops when he was a kid
in West Oakland. He states that the entire
family was there when this incident took
place. The cops shot and killed their
dogs, trashed their homes, and
threatened to shoot them. They were
searching the home for his Uncle and
narcotics. “The police shot and killed our
dog, vandalized the entire house, and
pointed guns at all of us. They were
looking for Uncle Greg and drugs in the
house”. As a consequence of the author’s
experience with racist police
enforcement and Black on Black
violence, street Black culture signified
being tough/strong, having a feeling of
family with your people in the hood, and
sticking up for yourself.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

Analysis/Application/Action- Show
the significance of the reading or
video and how it applies to:

1. Your philosophical
beliefs about education/
schooling in society
2. Your personal
experience with
education/schooling as it
pertains to race and/or
class issues
3. Actions that can be
taken to address aspects of
education and establish
justice through a fair/
equity lens

This reading illustrates the significance
of education and how it can help
eradicate some cultures, such as the
street culture and thug life. Using the
MOB strengths the author intends to
portray MOB as an educational
intervention for Black men. To this day,
I’m still struggling with the prejudices
that come with not belonging to a
specific group of people because of my
race and heritage. Discrimination based
on race is widespread worldwide, but it
is especially prevalent in the United
States. People instinctively make
decisions depending on their racial
group. There are various ways of
addressing this issue. Unproductive
relationships may occasionally form over
diversity boundaries due to the inability
to conduct meaningful interactions.
People at all levels of a company must
be able to effectively converse to
cooperate with others whose
backgrounds and perspectives are
dramatically different or whose position
or leadership style is in conflict. Candid
discussions concerning EDI are needed
to break down silos and communication
obstacles.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

5

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

P(ossibli)TEAs

Problem/Purpose/- State the
primary problems or purpose that the
authors are aiming to address in the
video or reading as it pertains to
education/schooling

In this reading, the authors talk about the
significance of MOB. According to the
authors, the main goal of MOB is
providing Black males a voice and a
feeling of belonging so that they may use
each other as support networks for one
another’s achievement. Unity, Black
culture, cultural validation of identity
development, and outreach to urban,
hood’ communities’ K-12 schools are at
the heart of MOB’s mission. MOB’s
mission is to cultivate kids into
academics and leaders by instilling in
them these fundamental ideals. For urban
Black adolescents, mentoring, culture,
and identity are essential to creating a
feeling of belonging.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

Theories- Synthesize the main
theories (the main idea) used in the
reading or video. Ask yourself,
“what is the main idea behind what I
am seeing in this reading or video
that the author is trying to express.”

One of the main theories in this reading
is the Black street culture. The authors
have illustrated how this type of culture
has emerged due to the continued
oppression that the black males continue
being subjected to. According to the
authors, there is systemic oppression of
black men in the United States regarding
their health and well-being. According to
the most trustworthy evidence, Black
guys are a group that suffers from a wide
range of challenges, disadvantages, and
vulnerabilities. Black males are
subjected to all manner of
discrimination. This is particularly
relevant to the treatment of Black male
students in schools. the author states that
“Black students make up only 5% of
California’s K-12 student population, yet
they make up 18% of all K-12
suspensions in the state”. There is still a
significant percentage of Black boys
being expelled from school because of
their poor academic performance and
high suspension rate. Education and
cultural content understanding will be
improved, and Black male student
agency will be fostered to reverse this
tendency.
There is also another theory of Thug
Life. According to the authors, most
male Africans grow in a culture of being
tough. Black men were portrayed as
having an unfair advantage over their
white counterparts throughout this
period.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

Evidence/Examples- Summarize
the evidence used by the author/
scholar to test or prove the theories
presented in their work. (This should
include direct quotes from the text
or video)

The authors give examples of the kind of
life they were subjected to and how it
was tough growing up as a male African
in West Oakland. He, for instance,
recounts how his uncle’s door was
kicked in by the cops when he was a kid
in West Oakland. He states that the entire
family was there when this incident took
place. The cops shot and killed their
dogs, trashed their homes, and
threatened to shoot them. They were
searching the home for his Uncle and
narcotics. “The police shot and killed our
dog, vandalized the entire house, and
pointed guns at all of us. They were
looking for Uncle Greg and drugs in the
house”. As a consequence of the author’s
experience with racist police
enforcement and Black on Black
violence, street Black culture signified
being tough/strong, having a feeling of
family with your people in the hood, and
sticking up for yourself.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

INSERT TITLE OF ARTICLE OR VIDEO BEING ANALYZED

Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z: T.H.U.G. L.I.F.E. and My Other Brother (MOB) as
Revolutionary Praxis (Chapter 1 only)

Analysis/Application/Action- Show
the significance of the reading or
video and how it applies to:

1. Your philosophical
beliefs about education/
schooling in society
2. Your personal
experience with
education/schooling as it
pertains to race and/or
class issues
3. Actions that can be
taken to address aspects of
education and establish
justice through a fair/
equity lens

This reading illustrates the significance
of education and how it can help
eradicate some cultures, such as the
street culture and thug life. Using the
MOB strengths the author intends to
portray MOB as an educational
intervention for Black men. To this day,
I’m still struggling with the prejudices
that come with not belonging to a
specific group of people because of my
race and heritage. Discrimination based
on race is widespread worldwide, but it
is especially prevalent in the United
States. People instinctively make
decisions depending on their racial
group. There are various ways of
addressing this issue. Unproductive
relationships may occasionally form over
diversity boundaries due to the inability
to conduct meaningful interactions.
People at all levels of a company must
be able to effectively converse to
cooperate with others whose
backgrounds and perspectives are
dramatically different or whose position
or leadership style is in conflict. Candid
discussions concerning EDI are needed
to break down silos and communication
obstacles.

Tintiangco-Cubales 2009

5

1

Chapter 1: Purpose of Research
My Other Brother (MOB)

The purpose of MOB is to empower Black men and provide them with a counter

space and sense of community that will allow students to utilize each other as systems of

support to aid in on their success. The core values of MOB are unity, Black culture,

culturally validating identity development and K-12 outreach in urban, hood’

communities. Rooted in these core values, MOB objective is to develop students into

scholars/leaders. Furthermore, to establish a sense of belonging for urban Black youth

rooted in mentorship, culture and identity.

At the college level, California State University, East Bay (CSUEB) being the

first college partnership via student club on campus; MOB is a cohort of 12 Black men

students at CSUEB. It is a community of individuals that support, validate, challenge and

grow together. Components are regular intragroup dialogue sessions on Black identity

through forms of Hip Hop cultural expression, historical and contemporary racism

including internalized racism and contemporary issues in the community at the collegiate

level. Furthermore, components include graduate/professional school workshops,

financial literacy, leadership development, study sessions and “talk shit” sessions of

which students have the space to talk more loosely on contemporary cultural trends that

they see in the community that impact them on and off campus. These sessions on

campus have been critical in engaging Black men and women and establishing a sense of

belonging for them at the college campus, transpiring to their work and engagement with

their K-12 youth.

In accomplishing this goal, MOB partners with Castlemont High School in East

Oakland, West Oakland Middle School in West Oakland, and McClymonds High School

2

in West Oakland in developing a higher education access pipeline of which College

MOB student mentors work with K-12 student mentees. At Castlemont High School and

McClymonds High School in particular, MOB conducts college readiness programming

via weekly A-G requirement meetings, one on one and group academic check ins, after

school tutoring and personal check ins with students that focus on student core values and

identity development. In addition, MOB K-12 mentor program consists of leadership and

research work via weekly Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) and community

engagement.

As part of this, K-12 MOB youth partake in community-based research projects

where students analyze the existing issues and strengths that they see in their surrounding

Oakland community to impact practice based on how they construct knowledge. Most

critically, MOB mentors develop close connections with K-12 mentees and their families

to support students along their experiences in school, and their life experiences outside of

school to impact the holistic development of the student. These grassroots, community-

oriented approaches to our MOB work sets foundation for my passion to write this

dissertation. Furthermore, this dissertation is grounded in the experiences of myself,

student participants, and the larger Black community that we are members of.

3

Introduction

This is not your average dissertation. This dissertation is guided and grounded in

solidarity with its population of study. It is a dissertation that is not concerned with

receiving legitimization from those that may or may not confer it. It is a dissertation

that’s principal concern is interrupting processes of power that have created Black deficit

frameworks that are described, investigated and contested within pages of this

dissertation. Most critically, this is a dissertation that privileges the San Francisco State

University Educational Leadership Doctoral Program’s mission of social justice and

equity over the sole purpose of simply obtaining a doctorate degree. The work of MOB is

not just “the work.” It is my life and commitment to justice via fighting for the

humanization of hood ‘Black males and working to create and sustain life-thriving

realities for the Black community overall. MOB, the sample of 12 students featured in

this study, is a small mirror of practice that we hope can inform the larger Black masses

and society.

Eurocentrism, Knowledge Production and The Myth of Objectivity

This work is rooted in the critical Ethnic Studies tradition. As such, it questions

the underlying and foundational assumption that knowledge is produced independent of

geopolitical contexts. Critical Ethnic studies scholars call for a recognition and critique of

Eurocentrism. For these scholars, the historical processes of colonialism affirmed Europe

and its forms of knowledge as the center of the world while simultaneously

‘subalternizing’ the forms of knowledge found in its periphery (Dussel 1995, Grosfoguel

2007, Maldanodo-Torres 2008, Brown and Barganier, 2018). For these scholars, the

social sciences are founded on the Eurocentric myth that knowledge can be produced

4

objectively. Instead, Ethnic Studies scholars argue for an acknowledgement of the social,

political context of the researcher and for a critique from the perspective of the oppressed

(Tuhiwai-Smith 1999). This dissertation is guided by these principles. By acknowledging

the relationship of the production of knowledge to relations of power, I decenter

traditional methods of research and engage the research subjects as active participants in

the construction of knowledge. In other words, I have sought to utilize a method and

theoretical framing that allows students to participate in meaning making. In this sense,

this dissertation is a collaborative effort between myself and other MOB members.

Given that this work follows this tradition, my dissertation differs from traditional

works in several key ways: (1). Conceptually: I take a fundamentally different approach

to concepts such as “success.” Traditionally, success is defined in educational research as

educational performance or achievement gap aspirations such as supporting the social

and emotional development of Black boys to succeed academically (Harper, 2016).

Instead, I understand success by means of students gaining a sense of pride and

confidence to resist and interrupt forms of coloniality (which may show up differently

from student to student). We view success this way given that this definition of success is

rooted in a Black community-cultural framework of resistance that places the historical

and contemporary struggle of Black oppression against White colonialism at the forefront

of our meaning making systems for success. In connection, we understand that Black

male deficit experiences within the school system is just a function of the larger

society/system that is anti-Black. As such, on an individual level, a student saying that

they felt more encouraged to speak up/assert themselves more in their classes or in life in

general based on confidence built through their MOB experiences is an example of

5

success when centering MOB outcomes through our historical rebellion lens against

racial oppression.

(2). Methodologically: In order to meet these stated ends, we utilized a Black

Emancipatory Action Research Approach (BEAR) to allow both myself and students to

make meaning of their interviews and data in a Black cultural way experienced by people

of African descent (Akom, 2011). (3). In other words, I have attempted to construct a

methodology that privileges the knowledge production of my participants. Theoretically:

Even further, my work is concerned with highlighting the people’s knowledge which is

the consciousness of Black students in alignment with the urban Black communities that

they come from. To this end, I have sought to construct a theoretical framework that

moves beyond those which tend to pathologize many of these groups. Therefore, Tupac

Shakur serves as a theoretician that can illuminate the experiences of my subjects with

more clarity than traditional education research. (4). Analytically: My data analysis is

grounded in the experience of my research participants and how the participants and I

constructed meaning making of data together in connection to how we analyzed certain

Tupac Shakur lyrics in connection to the data.

(5). Accessibility: This work is intended to serve as a lens that is for the

community and by the community. There are existing frameworks in academia that

appeal to the consciousness of non-Black educators that are looking for “manuals” and

“guides” on how to work with urban Black youth; for example, “For White Folks That

Teach in The Hood”-Christopher Emdin, who is a brilliant scholar that you will see in my

literature review section of this dissertation. This work, in contrast, is for Blacks of the

6

community overall to tap into their very own community cultural power to liberate

themselves.

Groundings with My Brothers: A Long Tradition of Radical Resistance

Revolutionary historian Walter Rodney conveyed the meaning of Black power

through his scholarly work “The Groundings with My Brothers.” The Groundings with

My brothers is a call for unity amongst the downtrodden members of the Black diaspora

(from Black America to the Black Caribbean etc) to build unity amongst each other based

on our shared racialized experiences. In connection with The Groundings with My

Brothers, Rodney expressed that Black Power is a doctrine about Black people, for Black

people, preached by Black people (Rodney, 1969). The concept of “grounding” refers to

a collective process and space where Black people could critically engage with each

other. In these meetings, Black people determined the confines of the dialogue and came

to a political consensus on how to best address their issues. Reflecting on these meetings,

Rodney argued, Black people needed,

to ‘ground together.’ There was all this furor about whites being present in the

Black Writers Congress which most whites did not understand. They did not

understand that our historical experience has been speaking to white people,

whether it be begging white people, justifying ourselves against white people or

even vilifying white people. Our whole context has been, ‘that is the man to talk

to.’ Now the new understanding is that Black Brothers must talk to each

other. That is a very simple understanding which any reasonable person outside

of a particular ‘in-group’ would understand. That is why we talk about our family

discussions.

7

Rodney’s work here is useful in three central ways: First, Rodney acknowledges

the entanglement of knowledge production and politics and grounds his scholarship

within his larger political project-Black Power. Secondly, Rodney turns the Eurocentric

myth of objectivity on its head by privileging subaltern knowledge. That is to say,

Rodney demonstrates that while dominate forms of knowledge tend to disguise social

reality, the knowledge created by the masses illuminates the true nature of social

relations. For Rodney, “the groundings” were the worldviews of the oppressed and their

collective critiques and analyses of relations of power. Lastly, and perhaps even more

important, these analyses are rooted in the experiences of the masses. The groundings

were a collective process. This is a major departure from traditional academic research

that views the people as objects to be studied, rather than actual moral subjects.

These themes are key to the theoretical framing, methodology, and data analysis

of this work. This work specifies the importance of making meaning of data, lived

experience, and construction of knowledge grounded through a Black power lens given

that our Blackness (in a White world) has the biggest impact on our lives. In connecting

Groundings with My Brothers to this dissertation, I used Tupac Shakur as an analytical

tool given that Tupac best conveys the struggle and Black empowerment in ways that

best resonate with the low-income, hood’ Black young men featured in this study. Tupac

Shakur’s construct of Thug Life serves as a contemporary form of people’s knowledge,

along a radical tradition of Black power. Thus, in tradition of Walter Rodney, Tupac both

resonates with the ethos of MOB and stands as an exceptionally useful lens to analyze

how MOB students navigate their experiences with alienation.

8

The Significance of Tupac Shakur

Tupac Shakur had a triple consciousness of love, street survival/thugism, and a

revolutionary identity of resistance grounded in the duality of his pre-birth and post birth

experiences along the struggles of the oppressed Black masses. To unpack this a little

more, we should start with examining his pre-birth experience of being in the belly of his

pregnant Black Panther Party mother, Afeni Shakur, while she was in a New York Prison

fighting a conspiracy case against the United States government. Tupac being born one

month after Afeni Shakur was acquitted of those charges in 1971, was born into an

indigenous, revolutionary world culture of resistance grounded in the practices of the

Black Panther Party (Shakur, 2019). Like Afeni, Tupac’s Godfather Jeronimo Pratt and

Stepfather Mutulu Shakur were very important figures in the Black Liberation

Movement. Moreover, Tupac was named after “Tupac Amaru II,” an 18th century Inca

Peruvian revolutionary who lead an Indigenous uprising against European/Spanish rule.

When connecting the circumstances surrounding Tupac’s name and being born into a

Black Panther Party family, one could see the shaping of Tupac Shakur as a freedom

fighter for justice.

Revolutionary practices of the Black Panther Party fueled the consciousness of

the Black masses in predominate inner-city communities of the 1960s and 70s (Shakur,

2019). As Tupac was born in, and in alignment with the inner-city Black masses, his

post-birth experiences continued to reflect the radical resistance teachings of his Black

Panther/Liberation Army family. This was also intertwined with the collective struggles

of the inner-city Black community of the 1970s-90s of which Tupac grew up in. In

connection, the urban Black community was not just a place of radical resistance, but it

9

was also a place of high poverty rates, drug dealing, drug abuse, prostitution, gangs and

violence due to systematic racism. Through Tupac’s experience growing up in East

Harlem/New York, Baltimore, and his relocation to Marin City Jungles/Oakland and then

LA; his influences were Black revolutionaries, street thugs, gangsters, pimps, drug

dealers, prostitutes, dope fiends and hustlers collectively as these people were part of his

day to day reality as a Black man in the urban ghettos that he grew up in. Also, his

mother Afeni who at one point was on drugs (crack cocaine) during aspects of Tupac’s

upbringing, remained a symbol of strength and love for Tupac that he would also

embrace within his consciousness and music.

As you can see, much of the framing that I am discussing here are experiences of

Tupac prior to him being the artist that we would come to know today as a legend. These

experiences of love, thugism/street life, and political revolution are grounded in Tupac.

Most important, these experiences help us understand the duality of Tupac’s lifestyle and

work that impacts generations of Black youth that also witness a duality of experiences in

their inner-city Black struggle. Tupac has many rap songs that focus on revolution solely,

love solely, and street life/thugism solely. He also has music that blends all these themes

together. The below Tupac lyrics are an example of the duality within Tupac’s work.

“Born thuggin and lovin the way I came up

Big money clutchin’, bustin” while evadin’ cocaine busts

My pulse rushin, send my pulse into insanity

they shot at my cousin now we bustin’ at they whole’ family

The coppers want to see me buried, I ain’t worried

I got a line on the D.A. ’cause I’m fuckin his secretary

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I black out and start cussin, bust ’em and touch ’em all

They panic and bitches duckin, I rush ’em and fuck ’em all

I’ll probably be an old man before I understand

Why I had to live my life with pistols close at hand

they kidnapped my homey’s sister, cut her face up bad

They even raped her, so we blazed they pad

Automatic shots rang out, on every block

They puttin hits out on politicians, even cops” (Shakur, 2001).

In these lyrics, you can see Tupac’s expression of love and concern for the cousin

and sister that was brutalized, a sense of street life/violence via “bustin while evading

cocaine busts,” and revolution in the form of “putting hits out on politicians, even cops.”

This duality found in his lyrics is the reason Tupac is so relatable to the Black masses as

these experiences represent a duality found in the oppressed Black Mass communities. In

this case, Tupac is not important despite of his contradictions and duality. Rather, Tupac

is important because of his contradictions and duality.

Tupac was the center of much controversy throughout his legacy and his

messages of Black unity, solidarity, love, street life/thugism and revolution were

prevalent through the many brush ins with the law that he encountered. Furthermore, the

context surrounding Tupac’s death. Tupac’s many issues were connected to his fight for

liberation. Understanding the meaning of Blackness in a White world, is to understand

oppressive forces targeting anything that is Black and powerful. To speak to this: The

White controlled media in the U.S. painted Tupac’s image in a light that is different than

that of the people. Centering Tupac’s legacy and impact through the people’s knowledge,

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is to pay closer attention to how the Black masses in the community are impacted by

Tupac Shakur opposed to how the media portrays him. WTupac Shakur continues to have

an impact on a young generation of Black youth along their racialized experiences as a

source of empowerment.

Positionality as Founding Director of MOB

To have a deep and correct understanding of what Thug Life means, it is

important to understand how Tupac Shakur (the person that diagnosed the Thug Life

Framework) made meaning of his very own concept which is connected to Tupac’s life

experiences. This collective understanding is important to building empathy amongst the

larger community that strives to be empowered by the said frameworks which insures

successful implementation of the practice. If a generation misunderstands and

misappropriates a culture of practice, the next generation can always get it right by going

back to the direct source to examine what the original goals and intentions of the culture

of practice was set for.

For example, there are some inner-city Black youth that steal from, and kill other

Blacks for the purpose of personal and street disputes between each other. Some of these

individuals think they are real thugs and claim to “live a thug life.” Yet, this is an

example of when a generation has the idea and cultural practice of Thug Life all wrong.

In understanding the true meaning of Thug Life via the framework and practice that was

documented by Tupac Shakur: One would understand that Thug Life would be the

process of those inner-city Black youth organizing systematically to spark revolution

against colonial powers, instead of harming one another.

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In connection to MOB, I want to be sure to lay a narrative for the audience to

understand my lived experiences that set foundation for my construction and creation of

the My Other Brother (MOB) program. This is for the goal of future generations to come,

to at least understand what I was/am trying to accomplish with this work. This study is

the first attempt to see if MOB study participants make meaning of their experiences in

the program in the way that the author had hoped to impact. Through a letter that I wrote

to Tupac Shakur to center the Statement of Problem, I take you on a narrative of

experiences of oppression that I have encountered and witnessed within my community

and higher education experiences that sparked the creation of the MOB program. Most

important, this experience reflects how I was able to overcome through a narrative of

Thug Life that set the foundation for my MOB work.

Statement of Problem: Letter Narrative to Tupac Shakur

Black males in America are being systematically oppressed with respect to health,

education, employment, income, and overall well-being. The most reliable data

consistently indicate that Black males constitute a segment of the population that is

distinguished by hardships, disadvantages, and vulnerability (Noguera, 2008). This

especially connects to how Black males are treated in schools. Black people represent

five percent of California’s K-12 student population, yet account for 18% of all the

state’s K-12 suspensions (Harris III & Wood, 2013). Moreover, Black males still have the

highest suspension rate, are at the bottom of academic achievement, and are

disproportionately to this day, still pushed out of school at alarming rates (Duncan, 2002;

Duncan-Andrade & Morrell, 2008; Noguera, 2003, 2012). To be clear, the problem is

anti-Black racism and structural racialization and how it impacts young Black males in

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and outside of educational experiences. MOB aims to reverse this trend by improving

educational and cultural content knowledge while fostering Black male student agency to

resist oppression. In alignment with community strengths, Tupac’s life work highlights

resistance, agency, and political contestation against structural racialization.

Dear Tupac Amaru Shakur,

I have always been inspired by your bravery that you have displayed in your life.

It has been your legacy, spirit, and strength that keep me pushing forward throughout my

struggles and accomplishments as a hood Black man in this “White man’s World.” In this

world, I have shifting moments of happiness in my life, similar to a roller coaster ride

riddled with highs and lows. I am happy when I am building with my Brothas in the

MOB, engaging students in my role as a College Instructor, and interacting with peers at

work, school or in the hood in West Oakland. These experiences are typically when I

smile. Outside of these experiences, I carry a burden of stress, yet pride and good energy

along this game of life that I am living. I try my best to keep good energy, although I

must admit that sometimes my economic and racialized experiences keep a stern look on

my face even though I yearn to smile. Below are some of my personal experiences

growing up in my community that provides a foundation for the strengths that are part of

my community that have helped me be successful. These experiences provided me with

validation of who I am as a Black man and a source of capital that helped me navigate

through the k-12 system that was set up for me to fail in the first place. I want to thank

you Pac because Thug Life came to be something that I understand and resonated with as

a youth. I never knew who Paulo Freire and “Pedagogy of the oppressed” was. But I, the

Black masses overall from the hood, knew who Tupac and Thug life was/is.

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In terms of my background in connection to Thug Life, I grew up in the Real

West Oakland (not the gentrified West Oakland) with a culture of being tough, real, and

unified with a sense of community. Sometimes we took that toughness out on each other

(which is not a good thing), but the overarching, unconscious understanding was that

being a Black man meant that you had to be family oriented and tough-at least within the

inner-city hood Black struggle. During this time, the message was that you are a Black

man in this world and the system is against you. “You don’t need to be fighting one

another, you are brothers”—this was the first unifying message that I understood for what

being a Black man represented in 1999 when I got into a fight with one of my best friends

in elementary school. This was after myself and my patna (the other man behind me in

the elementary school picture below) got into a fist fight in the streets. When we came

home and Uncle Greg, my patnas father, found out; he explained that we should not be

fighting with one another because we are family and should have each other’s back.

Uncle Greg said that “yall are brothers.” I now understand that these implications of

Blackness in my childhood were embedded in your Thug Life framework from the streets

Tupac. I did not understand the Black Panther party connection to thug Life just yet

during this time. However, the foundation of “family,” “toughness,” and “community”

via Thug Life was understood by me as a young West Oakland kid in the hood.

I remember the police kicking Uncle Greg’s door in, in West Oakland. Myself,

my best friend that I got into a fight with and the rest of the family were in the house

when this happened. The police shot and killed our dog and vandalized the entire house

and pointed guns at all of us. They were looking for Uncle Greg and looking for drugs in

the house. Uncle Greg was not there during this time though. We were all about 9 and 10

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years old when we saw this. I knew from this experience and many other encounters with

the police, including witnessing my mom deal with the police and the police putting my

mom in hand cuffs (taking her from our home and to jail right before my own eyes), that

the police were not in my community to help us. I felt that they were the “bad guys”

against us. In contrast, I always felt affirmed when I was running around in the streets of

West Oakland with my friends, my “family” from the hood/community. I unconsciously

grew to look to my own community as a sense of “protecting and serving ourselves,” as

the police appeared to be in my hood community to bring pain and terror against us. This

is critical Pac because your Thug Life framework was also birthed out of the inner-city

hood Black struggle, with police brutality and rebellion against this type of oppression

being a critical focus of Thug Life.

As a result of Black oppression from racist law enforcement as well as Black on

Black crime, being tough/strong and also having a sense of family with your people in the

hood and standing up for yourself is what street Black culture represented during this